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Encyclopedia > Zoanthid
Wikipedia:How to read a taxobox
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Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Cnidaria
Class: Anthozoa
Subclass: Zoantharia
Order: Zoanthidea

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1424x1112, 979 KB) Macro photograph of a single zoanthid polyp taken in the aquarium of aquarist Mike Giangrasso. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... Animalia redirects here. ... Classes Anthozoa - Corals and sea anemones Scyphozoa - Jellyfish Staurozoa - Stalked jellyfish Cubozoa - Sea wasps or box jellyfish Polypodiozoa Hydrozoa - Hydroids, hydra-like animals Cnidaria (silent c - pronounced // from New Latin cnida, fr. ... Subclasses Alcyonaria Zoantharia See text for orders. ...

Zoanthids (order Zoanthidea) are a type of soft coral commonly found in coral reefs all around the world. These animals come in a variety of different colonizing formations and in numerous colors. They can be found as individual polyps, attached by a fleshy stolon or a mat that can be created from pieces of sediment, sand and rock. There is a large number of different morphs of the same or similar species depending on the location on the reef each colony occupies. Different species are even able to cohabitate the same area and even join stolons, creating a unique and colourful colony. Like most corals, they are hermatypic and obtain much of their nutrient requirement from symbiotic unicellular algae called zooxanthellae, and so are dependent upon a light source for nourishment. As a result, these corals are usually found not far beneath the surface. The lighting requirements of Zoanthids vary from species to species, but as a whole they are less demanding than other corals available to the aquarium trade. Scientific classification or biological classification refers to how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... Subclasses Alcyonaria Zoantharia See text for orders. ... Part of a coral reef. ... Animalia redirects here. ... This article is about the cnidarian polyps. ... A stolon is an aerial shoot from a plant with the ability to produce adventitious roots and new offshoots of the same plant. ... Sediment is any particulate matter that can be transported by fluid flow and which eventually is deposited as a layer of solid particles on the bed or bottom of a body of water or other liquid. ... In biology, polymorphism can be defined as the occurrence in the same habitat of two or more forms of a trait in such frequencies that the rarer cannot be maintained by recurrent mutation alone. ... A stolon is an aerial shoot from a plant with the ability to produce adventitious roots and new offshoots of the same plant. ... Common Clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) in their Magnificent Sea Anemone (Heteractis magnifica) home. ... A seaweed (Laurencia) up close: the branches are multicellular and only about 1 mm thick. ... Zooxanthellae are golden-brown intracellular endosymbionts of various marine animals and protozoa, especially anthozoans. ... Subclasses Alcyonaria Zoantharia See text for orders. ...

Zoanthids (eg Montlivaltia) are known in the fossil record from the Triassic period onwards. Many familiar forms such as the Madrepores have survived essentially unchanged for many millions of years. An ammonite fossil Eocene fossil fish of the genus Knightia Petrified wood fossil formed through permineralization. ... The Triassic is a geologic period that extends from about 251 to 200 Ma (million years ago). ... Madrepore is a coral of the genus Madrepora; formerly, often applied to any stony coral. ...


Zoanthids contain the highly toxic substance palytoxin. Palytoxin is one of the most toxic organic substances in the world, but there is an ongoing debate over the concentration of this toxin in these animals. However, even in small quantities, the toxin can be fatal should it be ingested or enter the blood stream. If delivered immediately, vasodilators injected into the ventricle of the heart can act as an antidote.[1] Palytoxin is an incredibly complex marine natural product containing 71 stereochemical elements. ... The venom of the black widow spider is a potent latrotoxin. ... Vasodilation is where blood vessels in the body become wider following the relaxation of the smooth muscle in the vessel wall. ... In the heart, a ventricle is a heart chamber which collects blood from an atrium (another heart chamber that is smaller than ventricle) and pumps it out of the heart. ... An antidote is a substance which can counteract a form of poisoning. ...

In order for this toxin to be dangerous to humans, the average aquarist would need to ingest the zoanthid in sufficient quantities. Average handling, propogation and aquarium maintenance is unlikely to pose any danger beyond a localized skin reaction.

External links

  • Discussion About The Toxicity of Zoanthids
  • Gallery of Zoanthind Pictures

  Results from FactBites:
Zoanthids (2980 words)
Only the zoanthids are truly colonial, sharing nutrient and nervous impulses directly through their membranous mats (hence some of their common names, sea mats) or stolonic basal connections.
Zoanthids are generally small (less than an inch in any dimension), button-like with two small rows of weak tentacles at their polyp margins.
To repeat; the exception to the rule of zoanthid hardiness is the ones that come attached to commensal sponges and algae.
Blane Perun's Zoanthids Mania. Zooanthids information. Special Care Section on Blue Zoanthids, & Rare Zooanthids. All ... (391 words)
For whatever reason when it comes to live coral Zoanthids really impress me. When aquascaping a reef, there is nothing better than the Zoanthids to add color, texture, and control size in almost any nook and cranny.
I have found the Zoanthids to be great addition for providing that perfect supplement of color when creating your reef scene.
Once I stumbled upon Zoanthids the barriers of balance were tamed and the possibilities were endless.
  More results at FactBites »



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