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Encyclopedia > Zivania

Zivania (also Zivana) (Greek: Ζιβανία) is a traditional Greek-Cypriot distillate produced in the island of Cyprus from pomace (or marcs), the residue of grapes that were pressed during the winemaking process (including the stems and seeds) mixed with high-quality dry wines produced from the local grape varieties of Cyprus. The pomace/wine mixture is then distilled in special traditional distillation apparatus, producing zivania. Zivania is characterized by its typical taste and aroma. It is colorless and it has a pleasant alcoholic with light aroma of raisins. The typical alcohol content is 45% by volume. It contains no sugars and has no acidity. Distillation is a means of separating liquids through differences in their boiling points. ... Pomace is a substance prepared by pressing or grinding various fruits, for example in the manufacture of olive oil (from olives), wine (from grapes), or cider (from apples). ... In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which a hydroxyl group (-OH) is bound to a carbon atom of an alkyl or substituted alkyl group. ...

Contents

History

Zivania has been produced in Cyprus since the time the Republic of Venice ruled the island, around the end of the 14th century. Map of the Venetian Republic, circa 1000 CE. The republic is in dark red, borders in light red. ...


Production

In order to produce zivania of the highest quality, mature healthy grapes of the best quality are used. The grape must to be used for the fermentation should be of less than 13° Baumé, in order to get perfect fermentation. As soon as the fermentation process is complete (i.e. less or equal to 0° Baumé reading) the wine and pomace are transferred to the main container of the distillation apparatus, kazani (Greek: καζάνι), and the distillation process begins. The last zivania coming out of the apparatus is called porakos (Greek: πόρακος) and it has a low alcohol content. There are mainly three types of distillation processes: Must is the juice of freshly pressed grapes, prior to fermentation into wine. ... Fermentation typically refers to the conversion of sugar to alcohol using yeast. ... A hydrometer scale developed by French pharmacist Antoine Baumé to measure density of various liquids. ...

  • Only wine is used for the distillation
  • Wine and pomace are used for the distillation
  • Pomace with water and weak zivania (porakos) are used

Depending on the distillation process, different qualities of zivania can be produced.


Storage and Transportation

Zivania is usually stored in clean wooden or galvanised metal containers that can be sealed in order to contain evaporation. During transportation good care is taken not damage the containers or allowing leakage or evaporation of zivania. Galvanization refers to any of several electrochemical processes named after the Italian scientist Luigi Galvani. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Usage

Other than enjoying zivania as an alcoholic drink, it is used in Cyprus for several other purposes. It is used to treat wounds, for massaging sore body parts, as a remedy for colds, toothaches or as a warming-up drink during the cold months of winter, especially at villages on the Troodos mountains. In the old times, the main alcoholic drinks Cypriots consumed were wine and zivania. In some villages of Cyprus, cinnamon was added to zivania giving it a nice red color and a fine aroma and flavor. As zivania ages it becomes better and more aromatic. Aged zivania was valued very high and was kept for consumption during special occasions or as a treat for visitors. Even nowadays at some villages in Cyprus, visitors will be welcomed to a home with zivania served together with almonds, walnuts, loukoumi, soutzoukos or small appetizers like loukaniko (traditional Cypriot sausage), or lountza (traditional Cypriot smoked pork loin). ... Binomial name Cinnamomum verum J.Presl Cassia (Indonesian cinnamon) is also commonly called (and sometimes sold as) cinnamon. ... The original Turkish Lokum or the Greekicized version Loukoumia are a type of sweet in Turkish, Bulgarian, Cypriot, Greek, Romanian and Albanian cuisines. ... Soutzoukos (Greek: σουτζούκος) is a popular traditional sweet of Cyprus. ...


Authenticity

To establish the authenticity of zivania chemical studies were contacted to investigate which of the metals analyzed constitute diagnostic parameters that establish authenticity. The results of the studies establish that zivania is related to the unique geological and climatic conditions existing on the island of Cyprus.


Consumption

Zivania is served ice-cold with the local meze, soutzoukos or dried fruit and nuts. Spirits similar to zivania are tsipouro, Cretan raki or tsikoudia, grape rakia, pisco and grappa. Goes well with ouzo/raki A Mezze (Turkish Meze Arabic: مزة; Greek Mezes, pl. ... Soutzoukos (Greek: σουτζούκος) is a popular traditional sweet of Cyprus. ... Tsipouro (Τσίπουρο) is an alcoholic drink found in Greece and in particular in Thessaly, Epirus, Macedonia and on the island of Crete. ... Crete (Greek: Κρήτη Kríti; Turkish: Girit) is the largest of the Greek islands and the fifth largest in the Mediterranean Sea. ... In Greece, in particular on the island of Crete, Tsikoudia or Raki is a grape-based spirit made from the distillation of pomace, i. ... The drink rakia or rakija (Bulgarian: ракия; Macedonian and Serbian: ракија; Croatian and Bosnian: rakija) is hard liquor similar to brandy and vodka, made by distillation of fermented fruits, popular throughout the Balkans. ... Some bottles of Peruvian Pisco Some bottles of Chilean Pisco Pisco (from Quechua: pisqu, little bird) is a liquor distilled from grapes (a brandy) made in wine-producing regions of Peru and Chile. ... Three bottles of varietal grappa Grappa is a grape-based spirit of between 40% and 60% alcohol by volume (80 to 120 proof), of Italian origin. ...

Alcohol
Ethanol | History of alcohol | Brewery | Health | Alcohol advertising | Drugs | Drinking culture | Drunkenness | Breathalyzer | Hangover | Homebrewing | Winemaking
Fermented beverages
Wine | Beer | Ale | Rye beer | Corn beer | Wheat beer | Sake | Sonti | Makkoli | Tuak | Cider | Apfelwein | Perry | Basi | Pulque | Plum wine | Pomace wine | Mead | Kumis | Huangjiu
Distilled beverages
Scotch whisky | Irish whiskey | Canadian whisky | Bourbon whiskey | Wheat whisky | Rice: shochu (Japan) | soju (Korea) | Huangjiu | Baijiu (China) | Fruits: brandy | Cognac | gin | pisco | rakia | Apples: cider | apfelwein | applejack | Calvados | Sugarcane / Molasses: rum | cachaça | aguardiente | guaro | Agave: tequila | mezcal | Plums: slivovitz | ţuică | palinka | Pomace: grappa (Italy) | Trester (Germany) | marc (France) | zivania (Cyprus) | tsipouro (Greece) | rakia (Balkans) | Potato: vodka | aquavit | brennivín | Milk: Araka
Other beverages
Cocktails | Alcopop

Bottles of cachaça, a Brazilian alcoholic beverage. ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... The history of alcohol in the ancient world extends back before recorded time. ... The entrance of a brewery. ... Alcohol advertising is the promotion of alcoholic beverages by alcohol producers through a variety of media. ... Many drugs are provided in tablet form. ... The Jolly Drinker, by Johannes Vermeer Drinking culture is the notable customs shared by groups of people around the world involved in drinking alcoholic beverages. ... Infirmary of a rock festival Drunkenness, in its most common usage, is the state of being intoxicated with ethyl alcohol to a sufficient degree to impair mental and motor functioning. ... A breathalyzer (or breathalyser) is a device for estimating blood alcohol content (BAC) from a breath sample. ... A hangover (veisalgia) is the sum of unpleasant physical effects following heavy consumption of alcohol. ... Charlie Papazians classic book about homebrewing For other meanings, see Homebrew Homebrewing typically refers to the brewing of beer on a very small scale, as a hobby for personal consumption or free distribution at social gatherings. ... Winemakers often use carboys like these for ferment smaller quantities of wine Winemaking, or vinification, is the process of wine production, from the selection of grapes to the bottling of finished wine. ... Bottles of cachaça, a Brazilian alcoholic beverage. ... Wine is an alcoholic beverage produced by the fermentation of the juice of fruits, usually grapes. ... A selection of bottled beers A selection of cask beers Beer is one of the worlds oldest alcoholic beverages, possibly brewed for the first time over 10,000 years ago, according to renowned beer writer Michael Jackson. ... Ale is an ancient word for a fermented alcoholic beverage obtained chiefly from malted barley. ... 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Cider in a pint glass Cider, known in the U.S. as hard cider, is an alcoholic drink made from crushed and then fermented apples. ... Apfelwein Apfelwein (German, apple wine) is the German form of cider, produced from apples. ... Traditional perry (poiré in French) is bottled champagne-style in Normandy Perry or pear cider is an alcoholic beverage made of fermented pear juice. ... Pulque, or octili, is an alcoholic beverage made from the fermented juice of the maguey, and is a traditional native beverage of Mesoamerica. ... Umeshu on the Rocks (Umeshu Rokku) Umeshu (梅酒, sometimes translated as plum wine) is a Japanese liqueur made from ume fruits (still green ones), sugar and shochu (alcohol). ... Pomace wine is a kind of wine made from grape pomace. ... Mead Mead is a fermented alcoholic beverage made of honey, water, and yeast. ... In the West, Kumis has been touted for its health benefits, as in this 1877 book also naming it Milk Champagne. Kumis (also spelled kumiss, koumiss, kymys; called airag in Mongolian cuisine) is a fermented milk drink traditionally made from the milk of horses. ... Shaoxing jiu, a famous huangjiu Huangjiu (黄酒; pinyin: huáng jiÇ”, lit. ... Various distilled beverages in a Spanish bar A distilled beverage is a liquid preparation meant for consumption containing ethyl alcohol (ethanol) purified by distillation from a fermented substance such as fruit, vegetables, or grain. ... A bottle of an independent bottling of Royal Brackla Single Malt Scotch whisky is whisky made in Scotland. ... Irish whiskey is barley malt whiskey made in Ireland. ... Canadian whisky is whisky made in Canada; by law it must be aged there at least three years in a barrel. ... Bourbon bottle, 19th century Bourbon is an American form of whiskey made from (pursuant to U.S. trade law) at least 51% corn, or maize, (typically about 70%) with the remainder being wheat and/or rye, and malted barley. ... Whisky (or whiskey) is the name for a broad category of alcoholic beverages distilled from grains, that are subsequently aged in oak casks. ... ShōchÅ« (焼酎; lit. ... Soju is an alcoholic beverage with origins in Korea. ... Shaoxing jiu, a famous huangjiu Huangjiu (黄酒; pinyin: huáng jiÇ”, lit. ... Baijiu (Chinese: 白酒; pinyin: ) or Shaojiu is potent Chinese alcohol. ... Brandy pot stills at the Van Ryn Brandy Cellar near Stellenbosch, South Africa Brandy (short for brandywine, from Dutch brandewijn—burning wine) is a general term for distilled wine, usually 40–60% ethyl alcohol by volume. ... A brandy snifter A cognac pot still Cognac, named after the town of Cognac in France, is a brandy, which is produced in the region surrounding the town. ... Gin and tonic. ... Some bottles of Peruvian Pisco Some bottles of Chilean Pisco Pisco (from Quechua: pisqu, little bird) is a liquor distilled from grapes (a brandy) made in wine-producing regions of Peru and Chile. ... 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Cachaça Java, from Salinas-MG, Brazil Cachaça (pronounced ka SHA sa, IPA: ) (also called pinga, branquinha, maldita, caninha, caxaca, caxa, aguardente, cana or chacha) is the most popular distilled alcoholic beverage in Brazil, made from sugarcane juice (also called garapa). ... Aguardiente is the Spanish generic name for alcoholic drinks between 40 and 45 percent alcohol, meaning fiery water, or, literally burning water[1] (as it burns the throat of the drinker). ... Guaro is the popular name for the Larenses, inhabitants of Lara State, in central west Venezuela. ... Various brands of tequila Tequila is a strong distilled alcoholic beverage made primarily in the area surrounding Tequila, a town in the western Mexican state of Jalisco, 50 km from Guadalajara. ... A bottle of Mexican Mezcal bought in Cancun. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Å¢uică (in Romanian , sometimes spelled Tzvika), is a traditional Romanian alcoholic beverage, usually made from plums. ... Palinka (Hungarian pálinka; Romanian palincă; Russian палинка; Slovak pálenka) is a traditional type of brandy that is produced in Hungary, Slovakia, Carpathian Ruthenia and in the Transylvania region of Romania. ... Three bottles of varietal grappa Grappa is a grape-based spirit of between 40% and 60% alcohol by volume (80 to 120 proof), of Italian origin. ... Pomace brandy is a liquor distilled from pomace wine. ... Tsipouro (Τσίπουρο) is an alcoholic drink found in Greece and in particular in Thessaly, Epirus, Macedonia and on the island of Crete. ... The drink rakia or rakija (Bulgarian: ракия; Macedonian and Serbian: ракија; Croatian and Bosnian: rakija) is hard liquor similar to brandy and vodka, made by distillation of fermented fruits, popular throughout the Balkans. ... Vodka bottling machine, Shatskaya Vodka Shatsk, Russia Vodka is typically a colorless liquor, usually distilled from fermented grain or potatoes but also from other raw materials (see Production below). ... A bottle and glass of Linie brand akvavit. ... Brennivín is an Icelandic schnapps, considered the countrys signature alcoholic beverage. ... Wikibooks has a book on the topic of Bartending This is a partial list of cocktails. ... Alcopop is a term coined by the popular media to describe bottled alcoholic beverages that resemble drinks such as soft drinks and lemonade. ...

See also

Tsipouro (Τσίπουρο) is an alcoholic drink found in Greece and in particular in Thessaly, Epirus, Macedonia and on the island of Crete. ... Some bottles of Peruvian Pisco Some bottles of Chilean Pisco Pisco (from Quechua: pisqu, little bird) is a liquor distilled from grapes (a brandy) made in wine-producing regions of Peru and Chile. ... Three bottles of varietal grappa Grappa is a grape-based spirit of between 40% and 60% alcohol by volume (80 to 120 proof), of Italian origin. ...

External links

  • Authenticity of the traditional Cypriot spirit "zivania"
  • Authenticity of the Traditional Cypriot Spirit "Zivania" on the Basis of H NMR Spectroscopy Diagnostic Parameters and Statistical Analysis, paper in pdf form

 
 

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