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Encyclopedia > Zip drive
Iomega ZIP-100 Drive Logo
Iomega ZIP-100 Drive Logo
An internal Zip drive.
An internal Zip drive.

The Zip drive is a medium-capacity removable disk storage system, introduced by Iomega in late 1994. Originally it had a capacity of 100 MB, but later versions increased this to first 250 MB and then 750 MB. Image File history File links Iomega_zip_drive_logo. ... Image File history File links Iomega_zip_drive_logo. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Disk storage is a group of data storage mechanisms for computers; data are transferred to planar surfaces or disks for temporary or permanent storage. ... The Iomega Corporation NYSE: IOM is a supplier of portable computer storage devices and media. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ...


The format became the most popular of the super-floppy type products but never reached the status of a quasi-standard to replace the 3.5-inch floppy disk. It has been superseded by flash drive systems as well as rewritable CDs and DVDs, and is fading in popularity. The Zip brand was also used for internal and external CD writers known as Zip-650 or Zip-CD. A USB flash drive, shown with a 24 mm U.S. quarter coin for scale. ...

Contents

Overview

The Zip system is based loosely on Iomega's earlier Bernoulli Box system; in both systems, a set of read/write heads mounted on a linear actuator flies over a rapidly spinning floppy disk mounted in a sturdy cartridge. The Zip disk uses smaller media (about the size of a 9 cm (3½") microfloppy, rather than the Compact Disc-sized Bernoulli media), and a simplified drive design that reduced its overall cost. 230 MB Bernoulli disk The Bernoulli Box (or simply Bernoulli) is a high-capacity removable disk storage system that was Iomegas first popular product. ... A three-dimensional actuator modelled using elastica theory. ... A floppy disk is a data storage device that is composed of a disk of thin, flexible (floppy) magnetic storage medium encased in a square or rectangular plastic shell. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


This resulted in a disk that has all of the 9 cm (3½") floppy's convenience, but holds much more data, with performance that is much quicker than a standard floppy drive (though not directly competitive with hard drives). The original Zip drive had a data transfer rate of about 1 megabyte/second and a seek time of 28 milliseconds on average, compared to a standard 1.44 MB floppy's 500 kbit/s (62.5 kB/s) transfer rate and several-hundred millisecond average seek time. (Today's average 7200 RPM desktop hard drives have average seek times of around 8.5–9 ms.) Typical hard drives of the mid-1990s. ... In telecommunications, data transfer rate or just transfer rate is the average number of bits, characters, or blocks per unit time passing between equipment in a data transmission system. ... A megabyte is a unit of information or computer storage equal to exactly one million bytes. ... Seek time is one of the several delays associated with reading or writing data on a computers disk drive. ... One millisecond is one-thousandth of a second. ... In telecommunications and computing, bit rate (sometimes written bitrate) is the frequency at which bits are passing a given (physical or metaphorical) point. It is quantified using the bit per second (bit/s) unit. ...


Interfaces

Later (USB, left) and earlier (parallel, right) Zip drives (media in foreground).
Later (USB, left) and earlier (parallel, right) Zip drives (media in foreground).

Zip drives have been made with a variety of interfaces to the computer. Internal drives have been made with ATA, and SCSI interfaces. External drives have been made with parallel port and SCSI and (some years later) USB interfaces. For a while, there was a drive called the Zip Plus which was supposed to be able to autodetect between parallel and SCSI, but there were lots of compatibility problems reported and the drive was later dropped. The Zip Plus drive included additional software and a smaller power adapter than the original Zip drives. Zip drives. ... Zip drives. ... AT Attachment (ATA) is a standard interface for connecting storage devices such as hard disks and CD-ROM drives inside personal computers, maintained by X3/INCITS committee T13. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Parallel communications. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Note: USB may also mean upper sideband in radio. ...


Capacity

The initial Zip system was introduced with a capacity of 100 megabytes. Plans were considered for a lower cost 25 MB version that would work in the same 100 MB drive — the idea being to bring the price of a Zip disk closer to that of an ordinary floppy — but these disks seem not to have been released. The introduction of the 100 megabyte disk quickly made Zip a success and people used them to store files larger than the 1.44 MB capacity of regular floppy disks. As time went on, Iomega eventually increased the capacity to 250 and later 750 megabytes, while improving the data transfer rate and seek times.


Media

A standard ZIP100 Disk's back side, showing the retroreflective spot on the upper left corner.
A standard ZIP100 Disk's back side, showing the retroreflective spot on the upper left corner.

Zip media are thicker, but otherwise similar in size to 3.5" (9 cm) floppy disks, which means the drive slot is large enough to accept such a floppy. The underside of Zip media cases include a retroreflective spot in one corner. The drive mechanism will not engage if the reflective spot is not detected. This was a measure to reduce counterfeit low cost media from undercutting Iomega's profits (as the reflective inserts were used under license). Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1404x1035, 137 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Zip drive Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1404x1035, 137 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Zip drive Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Retroreflectors are clearly visible in a pair of bicycle shoes. ...


Zip disks are traditionally packed in clear plastic, two-piece jewel cases similar to those used by MiniDisc media. They are somewhat thinner than standard (three-piece) CD jewel cases, but still thicker than slimline CD cases. Contents // Categories: Stub ... See also IBMs VM operating system family, where minidisk refers to a logical unit of storage. ...


Compatibility

Higher capacity Zip disks must be used in a drive with at least the same capacity ability. Generally, higher capacity drives also handle lower capacity media. However, the 250 MB drive writes much more slowly to 100 MB disks than does the 100 MB drive, and it's unable to perform a long (i.e., thorough) format on a 100 MB disk. The 750 MB drive cannot write to 100 MB disks at all, though they are the cheapest and most common of the three formats.


The retroreflective spot differs on the three media sizes such that if a larger disk is inserted in a smaller capacity drive, the disk is immediately ejected again without any attempt being made to access the disk.


Features and implementation

Write protection

Unlike other diskette formats, the Zip's write protection is implemented both in software and in hardware instead of just in the disk controller itself. The metadata on the disk indicates the write protection status, which the drive then enforces to the host computer. To change protection settings, the computer issues commands to the drive to change the metadata on the Zip disk. This means that the disk must be loaded in a drive and accessed on a computer with the appropriate software to turn write protection on or off. It also means that, in theory, a rogue driver or a modified Zip drive could be created which ignores the write protection flag. Write protection, (also known as record protection) is a mechanism that prevents erasure of valuable data by the accidental recording or storing of new data. ... Metadata (Greek meta after and Latin data information) are data that describe other data. ...


Media access protection

The Zip system also introduced media access protection via a password. Like write protection, this is also implemented on the software level. When a disk is inserted, the Zip drive reads the metadata; if the data indicates the disk should be read-locked, the drive awaits a password from the computer. Until it receives such a password, the drive pretends to still be empty (to basic disk I/O commands). Once the password has been sent and verified, the drive "activates" the disk in the drive and allows access. One side effect of this implementation is that, on some drive models, it is possible to trick the software into allowing access to a different disk than it believes to be in the drive, thereby bypassing the password protection. The protection does not use any encryption; it simply is a combination of metadata on the disk and cooperation from the Zip drive's firmware.


Error protection

The Zip disk media had extra blocks called spare sectors, which the drive used for proactive data loss prevention. When the drive detected a potential media defect (such as having to retry a read a few times before it succeeded, or excessive use of the error correction bits), it would relocate the data to a spare sector on the disk. This was done before the sector became completely unusable (a bad sector). The disks had a mapping of address sectors to physical sectors, so that this would be nearly transparent to the operating system. Bad Sector is ambient/noise project formed in 1992 in Tuscany, Italy by Massimo Magrini. ...


Sales, problems, and licensing

Zip drives initially sold well after their introduction in 1994, owing to their low price point and high (for the time) capacity. The drive was initially sold for just under $200 USD with one cartridge included, and additional 100 MB cartridges for $20. The price of additional cartridges swiftly dropped over the next few years, as more companies began supplying them. Eventually, the suppliers included Fujifilm, Verbatim, and Maxell. Epson also produced a licensed 100 MB drive model with its brand name. Fujifilm TYO: 4901 , NASDAQ: FUJIY is a Japanese company known for its photographic film and cameras. ... Verbatim has several meanings. ... Maxell is a Japanese company, which manufactures consumer electronics. ... A four colour Epson Stylus C45 inkjet printer Epson is one of the worlds largest manufacturers of inkjet, dot-matrix and laser printers, scanners, desktop computers, business, multimedia and home theatre projectors, point of sale docket printers and cash registers, laptops, integrated circuits, LCD components and other associated electronic...

Zip Disk and Drive sales, 1998 to 2003
Zip Disk and Drive sales, 1998 to 2003

Sales of Zip drives and disks declined steadily from 1999 to 2003.[1] In September 1998, a class action suit was brought against Iomega over a type of Zip disk failure dubbed the click of death. Zip disks also had a relatively high cost per megabyte compared to the falling costs of CD-R and DVD±RW. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean [1]. // Coated in ice, power and telephone lines sag and often break, resulting in power outages. ... The click of death is a failure mode typical of various kinds of disk storage systems. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... DVD (commonly known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) is an optical disc storage media format that can be used for data storage, including movies with high video and sound quality. ...


With the advent of inexpensive recordable CD and DVD drives for computers, as well as USB flash drives, Zip drives are no longer as popular. However, their physical durability in transit plus their reliability and speed in writing to the disk still affords them a niche in the data storage arena. A USB flash drive, shown with a 24 mm U.S. quarter coin for scale. ...


In 2006, PC World rated the Zip drive as the 15th worst technology product of all time.[2] PC World may refer to one of two topics: The American computer magazine The British computer store chain This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


The ZipCD Drive

Iomega also produced a line of internal and external recordable CD drives under the Zip brand in the late 1990s, called the ZipCD 650. It used regular CD-R media and had no format relation to the magnetic Zip drive. The external models were installed in a Zip drive-style case, and utilised standard USB 1.1 connections. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article is very long Some browsers may have difficulty rendering this article. ... In physics, magnetism is a phenomenon by which materials exert an attractive or repulsive force on other materials. ...


Iomega used the DirectCD software from Adaptec to allow UDF drive-letter access to CD-R or CD-RW media. DirectCD is packet writing software, originally from Adaptec and now supported by Roxio. ... Adaptec, Inc. ... The Universal Disk Format (UDF) is a format specification of a file system for storing files on optical media. ...


The company also released their own CD-R and CD-RW media under the same ZipCD name. However, the ZipCD drives would burn to any blank CD-R or CD-RW media.


Early models of ZipCD drives were rebadged Philips drives, which were unfortunately also so unreliable that a class action lawsuit succeeded.[3] Philips HQ in Amsterdam Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. (Royal Philips Electronics N.V.), usually known as Philips, (Euronext: PHIA, NYSE: PHG) is one of the largest electronics companies in the world. ...


See also

The Jaz drive was a removable disk storage system, introduced by the Iomega company. ... REV is a removable hard drive-based disk storage system from Iomega. ... 230 MB Bernoulli disk The Bernoulli Box (or simply Bernoulli) is a high-capacity removable disk storage system that was Iomegas first popular product. ... The Ditto Drive series was a proprietary tape-based storage medium released by Iomega during the 1990s. ... Also known as the LS-120 and the later variant LS-240, the SuperDisk was introduced by 3Ms storage products group (later known as Imation) circa 1997 as a high-speed, high-capacity alternative to the 9cm (3. ... SyQuest EZ 135 Drive - External SCSI SyQuest EZ 135 Drive - External SCSI - Back The EZ 135 Drive is a 3. ... Orb Drive - External SCSI The Orb Drive is a 3. ... SyQuest 44 MB removable disk cartridge. ...

References

  1. ^ Anuual reports from corporate website:
  2. ^ PC World: The 25 Worst Tech Products of All Time
  3. ^ Philips and Hewlett-Packard CD Recorder Class Action

Portable Document Format (PDF), sometimes mistaken for Printable Document Format, is an open file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 and is now being prepared for submission as an ISO standard[1]. It is used for representing two-dimensional documents in a device independent and resolution independent fixed-layout... A mebibyte (a contraction of mega binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, abbreviated MiB. 1 MiB = 220 bytes = 1,048,576 bytes = 1,024 kibibytes The mebibyte is closely related to the megabyte (MB), which can either be a synonym for mebibyte, or refer to 106... Portable Document Format (PDF), sometimes mistaken for Printable Document Format, is an open file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 and is now being prepared for submission as an ISO standard[1]. It is used for representing two-dimensional documents in a device independent and resolution independent fixed-layout... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... Portable Document Format (PDF), sometimes mistaken for Printable Document Format, is an open file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 and is now being prepared for submission as an ISO standard[1]. It is used for representing two-dimensional documents in a device independent and resolution independent fixed-layout... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... Portable Document Format (PDF), sometimes mistaken for Printable Document Format, is an open file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 and is now being prepared for submission as an ISO standard[1]. It is used for representing two-dimensional documents in a device independent and resolution independent fixed-layout... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Zip drive - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1249 words)
The Zip system is based loosely on Iomega's earlier Bernoulli Box system; in both systems, a set of read/write heads mounted on a linear actuator flies over a rapidly spinning floppy disk mounted in a sturdy cartridge.
The original Zip drive had a data transfer rate of about 1 megabyte/second and a seek time of 28 milliseconds on average, compared to a standard 1.44 MB floppy's 500 kbit/s (62.5 kB/s) transfer rate and several-hundred millisecond average seek time (today's average 7200 RPM desktop hard drives have average seek times of around 8.5-9 ms).
Zip drives initially sold well after their introduction in 1994, owing to their low price point and high (for the time) capacity.
Zip drive (933 words)
The zip brand was also used for an external CD writer known as the Zip-CD but despite the name this had nothing technically in common with the zip disks.
Zip media is similar in vertical size (but thicker) than 9 cm (3.5") floppy disks, which means the drive slot is large enough to accept such a floppy.
Generally, higher capacity drives also handle all lower capacity media, although the 250 MB drive is much slower than the 100 MB one to write data on a 100 MB disk.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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