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Encyclopedia > Zionism
See also: History of Zionism, Timeline of Zionism, and World Zionist Organization
Emblem of Israel State of Israel  Flag of Israel
Geography

Land of Israel · Districts · Cities
Transport · Mediterranean · Red Sea
Sea of Galilee · Jerusalem · Tel Aviv · Haifa This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... // Zion (Hebrew: ‎, Tziyyon) is a mountain near Jerusalem. ... Timeline of Zionism in the modern era: 1861 - The Zion Society is formed in Frankfurt, Germany. ... The World Zionist Organization, or WZO, was founded as the Zionist Organization, or ZO, on September 3, 1897, at the First Zionist Congress held in Basel, Switzerland. ... Anthem: Hatikvah (The Hope) Capital  Jerusalem Largest city Jerusalem Official languages Hebrew, Arabic Government Parliamentary democracy  - President Moshe Katsav1  - Prime Minister Ehud Olmert  - Knesset Speaker Dalia Itzik Independence from the League of Nations mandate administered by the United Kingdom   - Declaration 14 May 1948 (05 Iyar 5708)  Area  - Total 20,770... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... Satellite image of the Land of Israel in January 2003. ... Map of the districts of Israel Population density by geographic region, sub-district and district (thicker border indicates higher tier). ... Jerusalem Tel Aviv-Jaffa Haifa Rishon LeZion Ashdod Beersheba Petah Tikva Netanya Holon Bnei Brak Bat Yam Ramat Gan Ashkelon Rehovot The following list of cities in Israel is based on the current index of the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS). ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... The Sea of Galilee or Lake Kinneret (Hebrew ים כנרת), is Israels largest freshwater lake. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Tel-Aviv was founded on empty dunes north of the existing city of Jaffa. ... Hebrew Arabic حَيْفَا Government City District Haifa Population 266,300 (city) 1,039,000 (metropolitan area) Jurisdiction 63,666 dunams (63. ...

History

Jewish history · Timeline · History of Zionism · Aliyah
Herzl · Balfour · British Mandate
1947 UN Plan · Independence · Austerity This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Jewish history is the history of the Jewish people, faith, and culture. ... This is a timeline of the development of Judaism and the Jewish people. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Theodor Herzl, in his middle age. ... Arthur James Balfour. ... Flag The approximate borders of the British Mandate circa 1922. ... On 29 November 1947 the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine or United Nations General Assembly Resolution 181, a plan to resolve the Arab-Israeli conflict in the British Mandate of Palestine, was approved by the United Nations General Assembly. ... Main article: History of Israel Austerity in Israel: From 1949 to 1959, the state of Israel was, to a varying extent, under a regime of austerity (צנע tsena), during which rationing and similar measures were enforced. ...

Arab-Israeli conflict · History

1948 War · 1949 Armistice
Jewish exodus · Suez War · Six-Day War
Attrition War · Yom Kippur War
1982 Lebanon War · 2006 Lebanon War
Peace proposals · Treaties with Egypt, Jordan Combatants Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel, Palestine and the... The Arab-Israeli conflict is a modern phenomenon, which dates back to the end of the 19th century. ... Combatants  Israel Haganah Irgun Lehi Palmach Foreign Volunteers Egypt, Syria, Transjordan,  Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen[2], Holy War Army, Arab Liberation Army Commanders Yaakov Dori, Yigael Yadin John Bagot Glubb, Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, Hasan Salama, Fawzi Al-Qawuqji, Ahmed Ali al-Mwawi Strength  Israel: 29,677 initially... The 1949 Armistice Agreements are a set of agreements signed during 1949 between Israel and its neighbors Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria. ... For other uses, see Exodus (disambiguation). ... Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Hakim Amer Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA[1... Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ... For other uses, see War of Attrition (disambiguation). ... Combatants  Israel  Egypt,  Syria,  Iraq Commanders Moshe Dayan, David Elazar, Ariel Sharon, Shmuel Gonen, Benjamin Peled, Israel Tal, Rehavam Zeevi, Aharon Yariv, Yitzhak Hofi, Rafael Eitan, Abraham Adan, Yanush Ben Gal Saad El Shazly, Ahmad Ismail Ali, Hosni Mubarak, Mohammed Aly Fahmy, Anwar Sadat, Abdel Ghani el-Gammasy, Abdul Munim... Combatants Israel South Lebanon Army LF (nominally neutral) PLO Syria Amal (switched sides) LCP Commanders Menachem Begin (Prime Minister) Ariel Sharon, (Ministry of Defence) Rafael Eitan, (CoS) Yasser Arafat Strength Israel: 76,000 troops 800 tanks 1,500 APCs 634 aircraft Syria: 22,000 troops 352 tanks 300 APCs 450... Belligerents Hezbollah Amal[1] LCP[2] PFLP-GC[3] Israel Commanders Hassan Nasrallah Imad Mughniyeh Dan Halutz Moshe Kaplinsky[4] Udi Adam Strength 600-1,000 active fighters 3,000-10,000 reservists[5] Up to 10,000 ground troops. ... Geneva Accord October 20, 2003 Road Map for Peace April 30, 2003 The Peoples Voice July 27, 2002 Elon Peace Plan 2002 ... The Israel-Egypt peace treaty (Arabic: معاهدة السلام المصرية الإسرائيلية; transliterated: Muahadat as-Salam al-Masriyah al-Israyliyah) (Hebrew: הסכם שלום ישראל-מצרים; transliterated: Heskem Shalom Yisrael-Mizraim) was signed in Washington, DC, United States, on March 26, 1979, following the Camp David Accords (1978). ...

Israeli-Palestinian conflict  · History

Timeline · 1948 Palestinian exodus
Occupation · Peace process
Peace camp · First Intifada · Oslo
Second Intifada · Barrier
Disengagement
Israel, with the West Bank, Gaza Strip and Golan Heights The Israeli-Palestinian conflict is an ongoing dispute between the State of Israel and Arab Palestinians. ... // The article discusses the history of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict from the end of the nineteenth century to the present day. ... This is an incomplete timeline of notable events in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. ... For the Palestinian annual commemorative day, see Nakba Day. ... The Golan Heights plateau overlooking the site of the ancient city of Hippos The Israeli-occupied territories is one of a number of terms used to describe areas captured by Israel from Egypt, Jordan, and Syria during the Six-Day War of 1967. ... The UN Partition Plan Map of the State of Israel today The Peace process in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict has taken shape over the years, despite the ongoing violence in the Middle East. ... The Israeli peace camp is a self-described collection of movements which claim to strive for peace with the Arab neighbours of Israel (including the Palestinians, Syria and Lebanon) and encourage co-existence with the Arab citizens of Israel. ... Combatants  Israel Unified National Leadership ot the Uprising Commanders Yitzhak Shamir Yasser Arafat Casualties 160 (5 children) 1,162 (241 children) The First Intifada (1987 - 1993) (also intifada and war of the stones) was a mass Palestinian uprising against Israeli rule[1] that began in Jabalia refugee camp and quickly... Yitzhak Rabin, Bill Clinton, and Yasser Arafat during the Oslo Accords on September 13, 1993. ... For other uses, see al-Aqsa (disambiguation). ... The barrier route as of July 2006. ... Israels unilateral disengagement plan (Hebrew: תוכנית ההתנתקות Tokhnit HaHitnatkut or תכנית ההינתקות Tokhnit HaHinatkut in the Disengagement Plan Implementation Law), also known as the Disengagement plan, Gaza Pull-Out plan, and Hitnatkut) was a proposal by Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon, adopted by the government and enacted in August 2005, to remove all...

Economy

Science and technology · Companies
Tourism · Wine · Diamonds · Agriculture
Military industry · Aerospace industry This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... Tourism in Israel includes a rich variety of historical and religious sites in the Holy Land, as well as modern beach resorts, archaeological tourism, heritage tourism and ecotourism. ... The Israeli wine industry has wineries numbering in the hundreds and ranging in size from small boutique enterprises making a few thousand bottles per year to the largest producing over ten million bottles per year. ... The Israeli Diamond industry is a world leader in producing cut diamonds for wholesale. ... IMI logo Israel Military Industries Ltd. ... IAI new logo The Avocet ProJet with IAI Logo Israel Aerospace Industries (Hebrew: התעשייה האווירית לישראל) or IAI (תעא) is Israels prime aerospace and aviation manufacturer, producing aerial systems for both military and civilian usage. ...

Demographics · Culture

Religion · Israeli Arabs · Kibbutz
Music · Archaeology · Universities
Hebrew · Literature · Sport · Israelis This article discusses the demographics of Israel. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Arab citizens of Israel, Arabs of Israel or Arab population of Israel are terms used by Israeli authorities and Israeli Hebrew-speaking media to refer to non-Jewish Arabs who are citizens of the State of Israel. ... Kibbutz Merom Golan as seen from Bental mountain A Kibbutz (Hebrew: Translit. ... Modern Israeli music is heavily influenced by its constituents, which include Jewish immigrants (see Jewish music) from more than 120 countries around the world, which have brought their own musical traditions, making Israel a global melting pot. ... The archaeology of Israel is researched intensively in the universities of the region and also attracts considerable international interest on account of the regions Biblical links. ... There are eight official universities in Israel. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Israeli literature is the literature of the people or State of Israel. ...

Laws · Politics

Law of Return · Jerusalem Law
Parties · Elections · PM · President
Knesset · Supreme Court · Courts The Basic Laws of Israel are a key component of Israels uncodified constitution. The State of Israel has no formal constitution. ... Politics of Israel takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Israel is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... The Law of Return (Hebrew: חוק השבות, hok ha-shvut) is Israeli legislation that allows Jews and those with Jewish parents or grandparents, and spouses of the aforementioned, to settle in Israel and gain citizenship. ... The Jerusalem Law is a common name of Basic Law: Jerusalem, Capital of Israel passed by the Israeli Knesset on July 30, 1980 (17th Av, 5740). ... Political parties in Israel: Israels political system is based on proportional representation which allows for a multi-party system with numerous parties. ... Elections in Israel gives information on election and election results in Israel. ... The Prime Minister of Israel (Hebrew: ראש הממשלה, Rosh HaMemshala, lit. ... The President of the State of Israel (‎, Nesi HaMedina, lit. ... Type Unicameral Speaker of the Knesset Dalia Itzik, Kadima since May 4, 2006 Deputy Speaker Majalli Wahabi, Kadima since May 4, 2006 Members 120 Political groups Kadima Labour-Meimad Shas Likud Last elections March 28, 2006 Meeting place Knesset, Jerusalem, Israel Web site www. ... The Supreme Court (Hebrew: בית המשפט העליון, Beit Hamishpat Haelyon ) is at the head of the court system in the State of Israel. ... It has been suggested that Law of Israel be merged into this article or section. ...

Foreign affairs

International law · UN · US · Arab League The State of Israel joined the United Nations on May 11, 1949. ... Arguments about the applicability of various elements of international law underlie the debate around the Arab-Israeli conflict. ... Issues relating to the state of Israel, the Palestinian people, the proposed State of Palestine and the region of the Levant (called the Middle East at the UN) occupy a large amount of debate, resolutions and resources at the United Nations. ... Israel-United States relations have evolved from an initial United States policy of sympathy and support for the creation of a Jewish homeland in 1947 to an unusual partnership that links a small but militarily powerful Israel with the United States, with the U.S. superpower trying to balance competing... From the time it was established in March 1945, the Arab League took an active role in the Arab-Israeli conflict. ...

Security

Israel Defense Forces
Intelligence Community · Security Council
Police · Border Police · Prison Service The Israeli Security Forces are several organizations collectively responsible for Israels security. ... Emblem of the IDF The Israel Defense Forces are part of the Israeli Security Forces. ... The Israeli Intelligence Community (Hebrew: קהילת המודיעין הישראלית) is the designation given to the complex of organizations responsible for intelligence collection, dissemination, and research for the State of Israel. ... The Israeli National Security Council (Hebrew: המועצה לביטחון לאומי) is a council established by the Prime Ministers Office in 1999 during the prime ministership of Binyamin Netanyahu in the framework of drawing lessons from the Yom Kipur War. ... The Israel Border Police (Hebrew: משמר הגבול, Mishmar HaGvul) is the combat branch of the Israeli Police. ... The Israel Prison Service (Hebrew: שירות בתי הסוהר, Sherut Batei HaSohar), commonly known by its acronym, Shabas, is the Israeli prison service. ...

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Zionism is an international political movement that originally supported the reestablishment of a homeland for the Jewish People in Palestine (Hebrew: Eretz Yisra'el, “the Land of Israel”), and continues primarily as support for the modern state of Israel.[1] Jewish political movements refer to the organized efforts of Jews to build their own political parties or otherwise represent their interest in politics outside of the Jewish community. ... For the book by Theodor Herzl, see Der Judenstaat. ... A 2003 satellite image of the region. ... The word Hebrew most likely means to cross over, referring to the Semitic people crossing over the Euphrates River. ... Satellite image of the Land of Israel in January 2003. ...


Although its origins are earlier, the movement was formally established by the Austro-Hungarian journalist Theodor Herzl in the late 19th century. The movement was eventually successful in establishing Israel in 1948, as the world's first and only modern Jewish State. Described as a "diaspora nationalism,"[2] its proponents regard it as a national liberation movement whose aim is the self-determination of the Jewish people.[3] Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Theodor Herzl, in his middle age. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The book Der Judenstaat (The Jewish State, 1896) by Theodor Herzl. ... For other uses, see Diaspora (disambiguation). ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolizing French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Wars of national liberation were conflicts fought by indigenous military groups against an imperial power in an attempt to remove that powers influence. ... Self-determination is a principle in international law that a people ought to be able to determine their own governmental forms and structure free from outside influence. ...


While Zionism is based in part upon religious tradition linking the Jewish people to the Land of Israel, where the concept of Jewish nationhood is thought to have first evolved somewhere between 1200 BCE and the late Second Temple era (i.e. up to 70 CE),[4][5] the modern movement was mainly secular, beginning largely as a response by European Jewry to antisemitism across Europe.[6] It constituted a branch of the broader phenomenon of modern nationalism.[7] At first one of several Jewish political movements offering alternative responses to the position of Jews in Europe, Zionism gradually gained more support, and after the Holocaust became the dominant Jewish political movement. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Satellite image of the Land of Israel in January 2003. ... One of the most influential doctrines in history is that all humans are divided into groups called nations. ... A stone (2. ... This article is about secularism. ... Language(s) Yiddish, Hebrew, Russian, English Religion(s) Judaism Related ethnic groups Sephardi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, and other Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (Standard Hebrew: sing. ... Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism, also known as judeophobia) is prejudice and hostility toward Jews as a religious, racial, or ethnic group. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Jewish political movements refer to the organized efforts of Jews to build their own political parties or otherwise represent their interest in politics outside of the Jewish community. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... “Shoah” redirects here. ...

Contents

Terminology

The word "Zionism" itself is derived from the word "Zion" (Hebrew: ציון, Tzi-yon), one of the names of Jerusalem and the Land of Israel, as mentioned in the Bible: Hebrew redirects here. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Satellite image of the Land of Israel in January 2003. ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ...

and the ransomed of the LORD shall return, and come to Zion with songs and everlasting joy upon their heads: they shall obtain joy and gladness, and sorrow and sighing shall flee away.(Isaiah 35:10)

It was coined as a term for Jewish nationalism by Austrian Jewish publisher Nathan Birnbaum, founder of the first nationalist Jewish students' movement Kadimah, in his journal Selbstemanzipation (Self Emancipation) in 1890. (Birnbaum eventually turned against political Zionism and became the first secretary-general of the anti-Zionist Haredi movement Agudat Israel.)[8] Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolizing French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... Nathan Birnbaum. ... Haredi or chareidi Judaism is the most theologically conservative form of Orthodox Judaism. ... Categories: Organization stubs | Israel-related stubs | Israeli political parties | Orthodox Judaism ...


Certain individuals and groups have used the term "Zionism" as a pejorative to justify attacks on Jews. According to historians Walter Laqueur, Howard Sachar and Jack Fischel among others, the label "Zionist" is in some cases also used as a euphemism for Jews in general by apologists for antisemitism.[9] Walter Laqueur (born 1921) is an American historian and political commentator. ... Howard Morley Sachar (born in 1928) is a historian and an author. ... Jack R. Fischel is professor emeritus of history at Millersville University of Pennsylvania. ... A euphemism is the substitution of an agreeable or less offensive expression in place of one that may offend or suggest something unpleasant to the listener; or in the case of doublespeak, to make it less troublesome for the speaker. ... Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism, also known as judeophobia) is prejudice and hostility toward Jews as a religious, racial, or ethnic group. ...


Zionism can be distinguished from Territorialism, a Jewish nationalist movement calling for a Jewish homeland not necessarily in Palestine. During the early history of Zionism, a number of proposals were made for settling Jews outside of Europe, but ultimately all of these were rejected or failed. The debate over these proposals helped to define the nature and focus of the Zionist movement. Territorialism was a Jewish political movement calling for creation of a sufficiently large and compact Jewish territory (or territories), not necessarily in the Land of Israel and not necessarily fully autonomous. ... A 2003 satellite image of the region. ...


A short history of Zionism

Main article: History of Zionism

Since the first century CE most Jews have lived in exile, although there has been a constant presence of Jews in the Land of Israel (Eretz Israel). According to Judaism, Eretz Israel, or Zion, is a land promised to the Jews by God according to the Bible. Following the 2nd century Bar Kokhba revolt, Jews were expelled from Palestine to form the Jewish diaspora. In the nineteenth century a current in Judaism supporting a return grew in popularity. Even before 1897, which is generally seen as the year in which practical Zionism started, Jews immigrated to Palestine, the pre-Zionist Aliyah.[10] Satellite image of the Land of Israel in January 2003. ... Zion (Hebrew: צִיּוֹן, tziyyon; Tiberian vocalization: tsiyyôn; transliterated Zion or Sion) is a term that most often designates the Land of Israel and its capital Jerusalem. ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... Bar Kokhba’s revolt (132-135 CE) against the Roman Empire, also known as The Second Jewish-Roman War or The Second Jewish Revolt, was a second major rebellion by the Jews of Iudaea. ... A 2003 satellite image of the region. ... The Jewish diaspora (Hebrew: Tefutzah, scattered, or Galut גלות, exile, Yiddish: tfutses), the Jewish presence outside of the Land of Israel is a result of the expulsion of the Jewish people out of their land, during the destruction of the First Temple, Second Temple and after the Bar Kokhba revolt. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Demographics in Palestine[11]
year Jews Arabs
1800 6,700 268,000
1880 24,000 525,000
1915 87,500 590,000
1931 174,000 837,000
1947 630,000 1,310,000

Jewish immigration to Palestine started in earnest in 1882. The so-called First Aliyah saw the arrival of about 30,000 Jews over twenty years. Most immigrants came from Russia, where anti-semitism was rampant. They founded a number of agricultural settlements with financial support from Jewish philanthropists in Western Europe. The Second Aliyah started in 1904. Further Aliyahs followed between the two World Wars, fueled in the 1930s by Nazi persecution. Members of the Bilu movement in Palestine The First Aliyah (also The Farmers Aliyah) was the first modern widespread wave of Zionist aliyah. ... In the course of history, Jewish populations have been expelled or ostracised by various local authorities and have sought asylum from Anti-Semitism numerous times. ... The Second Aliyah was arguably the most important and influential aliyah. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... National Socialism redirects here. ...


In the 1890s Theodor Herzl infused Zionism with a new and practical urgency. He brought the World Zionist Organization into being and, together with Nathan Birnbaum, planned its First Congress at Basel in 1897.[12] This current in Zionism is known as political Zionism because it aimed at reaching a political agreement with the Power ruling Palestine. Up to 1917 this was the Ottoman Empire, and then until 1948 it was Britain on behalf of the League of Nations. The WZO also supported small scale settlement in Palestine. Theodor Herzl, in his middle age. ... The World Zionist Organization, or WZO, was founded as the Zionist Organization, or ZO, on September 3, 1897, at the First Zionist Congress held in Basel, Switzerland. ... Nathan Birnbaum. ... For other uses, see Basel (disambiguation). ...


Lobbying by Chaim Weizmann (cultural Zionists) and others culminated in the Balfour Declaration of 1917 by the British government. This declaration endorsed the creation of a Jewish Homeland in Palestine. In 1922, the League of nations endorsed the declaration in the Mandate it gave to Britain: Chaim Azriel Weizmann (Hebrew: חיים עזריאל ויצמן) November 27, 1874 – November 9, 1952) was a chemist, statesman, President of the World Zionist Organization, first President of Israel (elected February 1, 1949, served 1949 - 1952) and founder of a research institute in Israel that eventually became the Weizmann Institute of Science. ... Arthur James Balfour. ... 1939–1941 semi-official emblem Anachronous world map in 1920–1945, showing the League of Nations and the world Capital Not applicable¹ Language(s) English, French and Spanish Political structure International organization Secretary-general  - 1920–1933 Sir James Eric Drummond  - 1933–1940 Joseph Avenol  - 1940–1946 Seán Lester Historical... Flag The approximate borders of the British Mandate circa 1922. ...

The Mandatory (…) will secure the establishment of the Jewish national home, as laid down in the preamble, and the development of self-governing institutions, and also for safeguarding the civil and religious rights of all the inhabitants of Palestine, irrespective of race and religion.[13]

Palestinian Arabs resisted Zionist migration. There were riots in 1920, 1921 and 1929, sometimes accompanied by massacres of Jews. Britain supported Jewish immigration in principle, but in reaction to Arab violence imposed restrictions on Jewish immigration.


The1936-1939 Arab revolt in Palestine led the British to establish the Peel Commission to investigate the situation. The commission called for a two-state solution and compulsory transfer of populations. This solution was rejected by the British and instead the White Paper of 1939 proposed an end to Jewish immigration by 1944, with a further 75,000 to be admitted by then. In principle, the British stuck to this policy until the end of the Mandate. The 1936-1939 Arab revolt in Palestine was an uprising during the British mandate by Palestinian Arabs in Palestine which lasted from 1936 to 1939. ... The Peel Commission of 1936, formally known as the Palestine Royal Commission, was a British Royal Commission of Inquiry set out to propose changes to the British Mandate of Palestine following the outbreak of the Great Uprising. ... The White Paper of 1939, also known as the MacDonald White Paper after Malcolm MacDonald, the British Colonial Secretary who presided over it, was a policy paper issued by the British government under Neville Chamberlain in which the idea of partitioning the British Mandate of Palestine was abandoned in favour...


After WWII and the Holocaust, support for Zionism among Jews and Gentiles increased. The British, were attacked in Palestine by Zionist groups because of restrictions on Jewish immigration, the best known attack being the 1946 King David Hotel bombing. Unable to resolve the conflict, the British referred the issue to the newly created United Nations. The hotel after the bombing The King David Hotel bombing (July 22, 1946) was a bombing attack against the British government of Palestine by members of Irgun — a militant Zionist organization. ... UN redirects here. ...


In 1947, the UNSCOP recommended the partition of western Palestine into a Jewish state, an Arab state and a UN-controlled territory (Corpus separatum) around Jerusalem.[14] This partition plan was adopted on November 29th, 1947 with UN GA Resolution 181, 33 votes in favor, 13 against, and 10 abstentions. The vote itself, which required a two-third majority, was a very dramatic affair and led to celebrations in the streets of Jewish cities.[15] The United Nations Special Committee on Palestine (UNSCOP) was a United Nations special committee that was formed in the May of 1947, in response to the handover of the British Mandate of Palestine to the United Nations to vote upon which solution to use for partitioning the land. ... Corpus separatum means a divided body in Latin, it is used to describe cities that are split in two such as Jerusalem. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Map showing the UN Partition Plan. ...


The Arab states rejected the UN decision, demanding a single state with an Arab majority. violence immediately exploded in Palestine between Jews and Arabs. On 14 May 1948, at the end of the British mandate, the Jewish Agency, led by Ben-Gurion declared the creation of the State of Israel and the same day, the armies of four[16] Arab countries invaded Palestine. Combatants Palestine Jews Palestine Arabs United Kingdom The 1947-1948 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine lasted from 30 November 1947 to 14 May 1948. ... Flag The approximate borders of the British Mandate circa 1922. ... David Ben-Gurion was the first prime minister of Israel. ... Combatants  Israel Haganah Irgun Lehi Palmach Foreign Volunteers Egypt, Syria, Transjordan,  Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen[2], Holy War Army, Arab Liberation Army Commanders Yaakov Dori, Yigael Yadin John Bagot Glubb, Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, Hasan Salama, Fawzi Al-Qawuqji, Ahmed Ali al-Mwawi Strength  Israel: 29,677 initially...


During the following eight months, Israel forces defended the Jewish partition and conquered portions of the Arab partition, enlarging its portion to 78 percent of mandatory Palestine. The conflict led to an exodus of about 711,000 Arab Palestinians [17], of whom about 46.000 were internally displaced persons in Israel. The war ended with the 1949 Armistice Agreements, which included new cease-fire lines, the so-called Green line. Emblem of the IDF The Israel Defense Forces are part of the Israeli Security Forces. ... Internally displaced Palestinians is a term used to refer to Palestinians and their descendants, who as a result of the 1948 Arab-Israeli war or al-Nakba, became internally displaced refugees within what became the state of Israel. ... The 1949 Armistice Agreements are a set of agreements signed during 1949 between Israel and its neighbors Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria. ... Israels 1949 Green Line (dark green) and demilitarized zones (light green). ...


After the war the Arabs continued to reject Israel's right to exist and demanded that it retreat to the 1947 partition lines. They sustained this demand until 1967 when the rest of western Palestine was conquered by Israel during the Six-Day War, after which Arab states demanded that Israel retreat to the 1949 green line, the only "borders" currently recognized by the international community. These borders are commonly referred as the "pre-1967 borders". The border with Egypt was legalized in the 1979 Egyptian-Israeli Peace Treaty, and the border with Jordan in the 1994 Israel-Jordan Treaty of Peace. Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ... Sixteen months after Egyptian President Anwar Sadats visit to Israel in 1978, following intense negotiations, the Israel-Egypt peace treaty was signed in Washington. ... The Israel-Jordan Treaty of Peace (full name: Treaty of Peace Between the State of Israel and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan) (Hebrew:הסכם השלום בין ישראל לירדן; transliterated: HaSekhem Ha-Shalom beyn Yisrael Le-Yarden) (Arabic: معاهدة السلام الأردنية الإسرائيلية; transliterated: Muahadat as-Salam al-Orduniyah al-Israyliyah, and commonly referred to as Araba Valley...


After the creation of the State of Israel the WZO continued to exist as an organisation dedicated to assisting and encouraging Jews to migrate to Israel, as well as providing political support for Israel.


Types of Zionism

Over the years a variety of schools of thought have evolved with different schools dominating at different times. In addition Zionists come from a wide variety of backgrounds and at times different national groups, such as Russian Jews, German, Polish, British or American Jews have exercised strong influence. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...


Labor Zionism

Main article: Labor Zionism
See also: Kibbutz Movement and Kibbutz

Around 1900 the chief rival to Zionism among young Jews in Eastern Europe was the socialist movement. Many Jews were abandoning Judaism in favour of Communism or supported the Bund, a Jewish socialist movement which called for Jewish autonomy in Eastern Europe and promoted Yiddish as the Jewish language. Labor Zionism (or Socialist Zionism, Labour Zionism) is the traditional left wing of the Zionist ideology and was historically oriented towards the Jewish workers movement. ... The Kibbutz Movement (‎, HaTenoaa HaKibbutzit) is the largest movement of kibbutzim in Israel. ... Kibbutz Merom Golan as seen from Bental mountain A Kibbutz (Hebrew: Translit. ... For information on mainstream political parties using the term Socialist, see Social democracy and Democratic socialism,For the governments of the USSR, the PRC, and others, see: Communist state, Other variants of Socialism include Marxism, Communism, and Libertarian Socialism. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... Look up Bund in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Jewish Autonomism was a non-Zionist political movement that shaped up in Eastern Europe in the early 20th century. ... Yiddish (ייִדיש, Jiddisch) is a Germanic language spoken by about four million Jews throughout the world. ...


Many socialist Zionists originated in Russia. They believed that centuries of being oppressed in anti-Semitic societies had reduced Jews to a meek, vulnerable, despairing existence which invited further anti-Semitism. They argued that Jews could escape their situation by becoming farmers, workers, and soldiers in a country of their own. Most socialist Zionists rejected religion as perpetuating a "Diaspora mentality" among the Jewish people and established rural communes in Israel called "Kibbutzim". Major theoreticians of Socialist Zionism included Moses Hess, Nahum Syrkin, Ber Borochov and Aaron David Gordon, and leading figures in the movement included David Ben-Gurion and Berl Katznelson. Most Socialist Zionists rejected Yiddish as a language of exile, embracing Hebrew as the common Jewish tongue. Socialist and Labor Zionism was ardently secularist with many Labor Zionists being committed atheists or opposed to religion. Consequently, the movement often had an antagonistic relationship with Orthodox Judaism. For other uses, see Diaspora (disambiguation). ... A kibbutz קיבוץ (Hebrew, pl. ... Moses Hess Moses Hess (June 21, 1812– April 6, 1875), adopted the name Moritz. but later reverted to his original name Moses, thus re-claiming his Jewish identity. ... Nahum Syrkin or Nahman Syrkin (1868-1924) was a political theorist and founder of Labour Zionism. ... Ber Borochov, c. ... Aaron David Gordon (1856 in Troianov, Russia-1922 on Kibbutz Deganiah) was a Zionist ideologue and the spiritual force behind practical Zionism. ... Ben Gurion redirects here. ... Berl Katznelson (1887 - 1944) was a Labor Zionism philosopher. ... Yiddish (ייִדיש, Jiddisch) is a Germanic language spoken by about four million Jews throughout the world. ... Orthodox Judaism is the formulation of Judaism that adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonised in the Talmudic texts (Oral Torah) and as subsequently developed and applied by the later authorities known as the Gaonim, Rishonim, and Acharonim. ...


Labor Zionism became the dominant force in the political and economic life of the Yishuv during the British Mandate of Palestine - partly as a consequence of its role in organizing Jewish economic life through the Histadrut - and was the dominant ideology of the political establishment in Israel until the 1977 election when the Labor Party was defeated. Yishuv is a Hebrew word meaning settlement. ... Flag The approximate borders of the British Mandate circa 1922. ... The Histadrut (Federation [of labor]) or HaHistadrut HaKlalit shel HaOvdim BEretz Yisrael (ההסתדרות הכללית של העובדים בארץ ישראל) (Hebrew: General Federation of Laborers in the Land of Israel) is the Israeli trade union congress. ... The Elections for the ninth Knesset were held on 17 May, 1977. ... The Israeli Labor Party (‎, Mifleget HaAvoda HaYisraelit), generally known in Israel as Avoda (‎) is a center-left political party in Israel. ...


Liberal Zionism

Main article: General Zionists

General Zionism (or Liberal Zionism) was initially the dominant trend within the Zionist movement from the First Zionist Congress in 1897 until after the First World War. Many of the General Zionists were German or Russian Liberals but following the Bolshevik and Nazi revolutions, Labour Zionists came to dominate the movement. General Zionists identified with the liberal European Jewish middle class (or bourgeois) from which many Zionist leaders such as Herzl and Chaim Weizmann came and believed that a Jewish state could be accomplished through lobbying the Great Powers of Europe and influential circles in European society. General Zionism declined in the face of growing extremism and antisemitism in Central Europe, and because of the superiour ability of Labour Zionism to generate migration to Palestine. General Zionists were centrists within the Zionist movement. ... The World Zionist Organization [WZO] was founded as the Zionist Organization [ZO] on September 3, 1897, at the First Zionist Congress held in Basel, Switzerland. ... Bourgeois at the end of the thirteenth century. ... Chaim Azriel Weizmann (Hebrew: חיים עזריאל ויצמן) November 27, 1874 – November 9, 1952) was a chemist, statesman, President of the World Zionist Organization, first President of Israel (elected February 1, 1949, served 1949 - 1952) and founder of a research institute in Israel that eventually became the Weizmann Institute of Science. ...


Revisionist Zionism

Main article: Revisionist Zionism

The Revisionist Zionists were a group led by Jabotinsky who advocated pressing Britain to allow mass Jewish emigration and the formation of a Jewish Army in Palestine. The army would force the Arab population to accept mass Jewish migration and promote British interests in the region. Palestine (comprising todays Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza strip) and Transjordan (todays Kingdom of Jordan) were all part of the British Mandate of Palestine. ... Zeev Jabotinsky in military uniform Zeev Vladimir (Evgenevich) Jabotinsky (or Zhabotinski) (October 18, 1880 - August 4, 1940) was a Zionist leader, author, orator, and founder of the Jewish Legion in World War I. During World War II a similar and larger unit known as the Jewish Brigade would follow. ...


Revisionist Zionism was detested by the Socialist Zionist movement which saw them as being influenced by Fascism and the movement caused a great deal of concern among Arab Palestinians. After the 1929 Arab riots, the British banned Jabotinsky from entering Palestine. Fascist redirects here. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Revisionism was popular in Poland but lacked large support in Palestine. In 1935 the Revisionists left the Zionist Organization and formed an alternative, the New Zionist Organization. They rejoined the ZO in 1946. The World Zionist Organization [WZO] was founded as the Zionist Organization [ZO] on September 3, 1897, at the First Zionist Congress held in Basel, Switzerland. ... The New Zionist Organization was an attempt by the Revisionist Zionist movement to establish a rival to the Zionist Organization. ...


Religious Zionism

Main article: Religious Zionism

In the 1920s and 1930s, a small but vocal group of religious Jews began to develop the concept of Religious Zionism under such leaders as Rabbi Abraham Isaac Kook (the first Chief Rabbi of Palestine) and his son Rabbi Zevi Judah Kook. They saw great religious and traditional value in many of Zionism's ideals, while rejecting its anti-religious undertones. They were also motivated by a concern that growing secularization of Zionism and antagonism towards it from Orthodox Jews would lead to a schism in the Jewish people. As such, they sought to forge a branch of Orthodox Judaism which would properly embrace Zionism's positive ideals while also serving as a bridge between Orthodox and secular Jews. After the Six Day War the movement came to play a significant role in Israeli Political life. Religious Zionism, or the Religious Zionist Movement, a branch of which is also called Mizrachi, is an ideology that claims to combine Zionism and Judaism, to base Zionism on the principles of Jewish religion and heritage. ... Religious Zionism, or the Religious Zionist Movement, a branch of which is also called Mizrachi, is an ideology that claims to combine Zionism and Judaism, to base Zionism on the principles of Jewish religion and heritage. ... Abraham Isaac Kook (1865–1935) was the first Ashkenazi chief rabbi of the British Mandate for Palestine, the founder of the Religious Zionist Yeshiva Merkaz HaRav, Jewish thinker, statesman, diplomat, mediator and a renowned Torah scholar. ... The Kotel is under the supervision of the Chief Rabbinate of Israel The Chief Rabbinate of Israel is the supreme Jewish religious governing body in the state of Israel. ... The 1967 Arab-Israeli War, also known as the Six-Day War or June War, was fought between Israel and its Arab neighbors Egypt, Jordan, and Syria. ...


Particularities of Zionism

The negation of the Diaspora

Main article: The "Negation of the Diaspora" in Zionism

According to Eliezer Schweid the rejection of life in the Diaspora is a central assumption in all currents of Zionism.[18] Underlying this attitude was the feeling that the Diaspora restricted the full growth of Jewish national life.


Adoption of Hebrew

Main article: Revival of the Hebrew language

Zionists preferred to speak Hebrew, an organic semitic language that developed under conditions of freedom in ancient Judah, modernizing and adapting it for everyday use. Zionists sometimes refused to speak Yiddish, a language they considered affected by Christian persecution. Once they moved to Israel, many Zionists refused to speak their (diasporic) mother tongues and gave themselves new, Hebrew names. The revival of the Hebrew language is the name of the process, taking place in Europe and Israel at the end of the 19th century and in the 20th century, through which the Hebrew language changed from an exclusively liturgical, written language to a spoken language of official status in... The word Hebrew most likely means to cross over, referring to the Semitic people crossing over the Euphrates River. ... The Semitic languages are the northeastern subfamily of the Afro-Asiatic languages, and the only family of this group spoken in Asia. ... Look up Judah in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Yiddish (ייִדיש, Jiddisch) is a Germanic language spoken by about four million Jews throughout the world. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Competition...


Reaction to antisemitism

In this matter Sternhell distinguishes two schools of thought in Zionism. One was the liberal or utilitarian school of Herzl and Nordau. Especially after the Dreyfus Affair they held that antisemitism would never disappear, and saw Zionism as a rational solution for Jewish individuals. The other was the organic nationalist school. It was prevalent among the Zionists in Palestine, and saw Zionism as a project to rescue the Jewish nation and not as a project to rescue Jewish individuals. Zionism was a matter of the "Rebirth of the Nation".[19] The Dreyfus Affair was a political scandal with anti-Semitic overtones which divided France from the 1890s to the early 1900s. ...


Opposition, critics and evolution of Zionism

Main articles: Anti-Zionism, Non-Zionism, Post-Zionism, and Neo-Zionism

There have been a number of critics of Zionism, including Jewish anti-Zionists, pro-Palestinian activists, academics, and politicians. The Arab League and Arab Higher Committee rejected the UN Partition Plan (United Nations General Assembly Resolution 181) approving the creation of a Jewish and Arab state in Palestine,[20] and some of the most vocal critics of Zionism have been Arabs, many of whom view Israel as occupying what they view as Arab land.[21][22] Such critics generally opposed Israel's creation in 1948, and continue to criticize the Zionist movement which underlies it. These critics view the changes in demographic balance which accompanied the creation of Israel, including the displacement of some 700,000 Arab refugees,[23] and the accompanying violence, as negative but inevitable consequences of Zionism and the concept of a Jewish State. Anti-Zionism is opposition to Zionism, an international political movement that supports a homeland for the Jewish people in Palestine[1][2] Anti-Zionism takes many forms, ranging from political or religious opposition to the idea of a Jewish state, to rejecting Israels right to exist and the legitimacy... Post-Zionism refers to the views of some Israeli and diaspora Jews, particularly in academia, that Zionism fulfilled its ideological mission with the creation of modern State of Israel in 1948 and that the ideology should therefore be considered to be at an end. ... Headquarters Cairo, Egypt1 Official languages Arabic Membership 22 Arab states 2 observer states Leaders  -  Secretary General Amr Moussa (since 2001)  -  Council of the Arab League Sudan  -  Speaker of the Arab Parliament Nabih Berri Establishment  -  Alexandria Protocol March 22, 1945  Area  -  Total 13,953,041 (Western Sahara Included) = 13,687,041... The Arab Higher Committee was the central political organ of the Arab community of Palestine, established in 1936. ... Map showing the UN Partition Plan. ... A 2003 satellite image of the region. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... The book Der Judenstaat (The Jewish State, 1896) by Theodor Herzl. ...


While most Jewish groups are pro-Zionist, some haredi Jewish communities (most vocally the Satmar Hasidim and the small Neturei Karta group), oppose Zionism on religious grounds.[24] The primary haredi anti-Zionist work is Vayoel Moshe by Satmar Rebbe Joel Teitelbaum. This lengthy dissertation asserts that Zionism is forbidden in Judaism, based on an aggadic passage in the Talmud, tractate Ketubot 111a. Most Haredi Jews, if not opposed to Zionism, would at the very least be indifferent towards it. There are also individuals of Jewish origin, such as Noam Chomsky, who have taken strong public stands criticizing various aspects of Israeli policy, but who resist the claim that they oppose Zionism itself.[25] Haredi or chareidi Judaism is the most theologically conservative form of Orthodox Judaism. ... Satmar is the largest Hasidic group in existence today. ... Neturei Karta synagogue and study hall in Jerusalem Neturei Karta (Aramaic: , Guardians of the City) is a Haredi Jewish group formally created in 1935, that opposes Zionism and call for a peaceful dismantling of the State of Israel, in the belief that Jews are forbidden to have their own state... For the tanna, see Judah HaNasi. ... Grand Rabbi Joel Teitelbaum of Satmar Grand Rabbi Joel (Yoel) Teitelbaum, (1887-1979), known variously as Reb Yoelish and the Satmar Rav (or Rebbe) (יואל טייטלבוים), was a prominent Hungarian Hasidic rebbe and Talmudic scholar. ... Aggadah (Aramaic אגדה: tales, lore; pl. ... The Talmud (Hebrew: ) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs, and history. ... Nashim (Women or Wives) is the third order of the Mishnah (also of the Tosefta and Talmud), containing the laws related to women and family life. ... Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, political activist, author, and lecturer. ...


Other non-Zionist Israeli movements, such as the Canaanite movement led by poet Yonatan Ratosh in the 1930s and 1940s, have argued that "Israeli" should be a new pan-ethnic nationality. A related modern movement is known as post-Zionism, which asserts that Israel should abandon the concept of a "state of the Jewish people" and instead strive to be a state of all its citizens.[26] Another opinion favors a binational state in which Arabs and Jews live together while enjoying some type of autonomy. The Canaanites is a political and aesthetic movement, which reached its peak in the 1940s among the Jewish residents in Palestine, and has significantly impacted the course of Israeli art, literature, and spiritual and political thought. ... Yonatan Ratosh, Israeli poet, was born in 1908 in Russia, but his dedicated Zionist parents educated his siblings and him to speak, read and write only in Hebrew. ... In English usage, nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a country. ... Post-Zionism refers to the views of some Israeli and diaspora Jews, particularly in academia, that Zionism fulfilled its ideological mission with the creation of modern State of Israel in 1948 and that the ideology should therefore be considered to be at an end. ... The binational solution, also known as the One-State Solution, is a proposed resolution of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. ...


Some critics of Zionism have accused it of racism, an accusation endorsed by the 1975 United Nations General Assembly Resolution 3379, which was revoked in 1991.[27] Zionists reject the charges that Zionism is racist, insisting it is no different than any other national liberation movement of oppressed peoples, and argue that since criticism of both the state of Israel and Zionism is often disproportionate in degree and unique in kind, much of it can be attributed to antisemitism.[28][29] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... United Nations General Assembly Resolution 3379, adopted on November 10, 1975 by a vote of 72 to 35 (with 32 abstentions), equated Zionism with racism. ... Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism, also known as judeophobia) is prejudice and hostility toward Jews as a religious, racial, or ethnic group. ...


During the last quarter of 20th century, the decline of classic nationalism in Israel lead to the rise of two antagonistic movement : neo-Zionism and post-Zionism. Both mark the Israeli version of a worldwide phenomenon: the ascendancy of globalization and with it the emergence of a market society and liberal culture, on one hand, and a local backlash on the other.[30] The traits of both neo-Zionism and post-Zionism are not entirely foreign to "classical" Zionism but they differ by accentuing antagonist and diametrally opposed poles already present in Zionism. "Neo Zionism accentuates the messianic and particularistic dimensions of Zionist nationalism, while post-Zionism accentuates its normalising and universalistic dimensions".[31] Post-Zionism refers to the views of some Israeli and diaspora Jews, particularly in academia, that Zionism fulfilled its ideological mission with the creation of modern State of Israel in 1948 and that the ideology should therefore be considered to be at an end. ...


Non-Jewish Zionism

Marcus Garvey and "Black Zionism"

Zionist success in winning British support for formation of a "Jewish National Home" in Palestine helped inspire the African-American Nationalist Marcus Garvey to form a movement dedicated to returning Americans of African origin to Africa. During a speech in Harlem in 1920 Garvey stated that Marcus Mosiah Garvey, Jr. ... For other uses, see Harlem (disambiguation). ...

other races were engaged in seeing their cause through—the Jews through their Zionist movement and the Irish through their Irish movement—and I decided that, cost what it might, I would make this a favorable time to see the Negro's interest through.[32]

Garvey established a shipping company, the Black Star Line, to ship Black Americans to Africa, but for various reasons failed in his endeavour. His ideas helped inspire the Rastafarian movement in Jamaica, the Black Jews[33] and The African Hebrew Israelites of Jerusalem who initially moved to Liberia before settling in Israel. The Black Star Line was a shipping line incorporated by Marcus Garvey, who organized the UNIA (United Negro Improvement Association). ... Rasta hairstyle Rastafarianism is a religious movement that believes in the divinity of ex Ethiopian emperor Haile Selassie. ... Black Jew generally refers to people who are both Black and Jewish. ... A group of African Hebrew Israelites in Dimona. ...


W. E. B. Du Bois was an ardent supporter of Zionism, and the NAACP endorsed the creation of Israel in 1948. Paul Robeson, Bayard Rustin, and Martin Luther King, Jr. also supported zionism.[34] William Edward Burghardt Du Bois (pronounced [1]) (February 23, 1868 – August 27, 1963) was an African American civil rights activist, leader, Pan-Africanist, sociologist, educator, historian, writer, editor, poet, and scholar. ... The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), is one of the oldest and most influential hate organizations in the United States. ... Paul LeRoy Bustill Robeson (April 9, 1898 – January 23, 1976) was a multi-lingual American actor, athlete, bass-baritone concert singer, writer, civil rights activist, fellow traveler, Spingarn Medal winner, and Stalin Peace Prize laureate. ... Bayard Rustin at news briefing on the Civil Rights March on Washington, August 27, 1963 Bayard Rustin (March 17, 1912 – August 24, 1987) was an African-American civil rights activist, important largely behind the scenes in the civil rights movement of the 1960s and earlier and principal organizer of the... Martin Luther King redirects here. ...


Christian Zionism

Main article: Christian Zionism

In addition to Jewish Zionism, there was always a small number of Christian Zionists that existed from the early days of the Zionist movement. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      for Christians... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      for Christians...


Throughout the entire 19th century and early 20th century, the return of the Jews to the Holy Land was widely supported by such eminent figures as Queen Victoria, King Edward VII, John Adams, the second President of the United States, General Smuts of South Africa, President Masaryk of Czechoslovakia, Benedetto Croce, Italian philosopher and historian, Henry Dunant, founder of the Red Cross and author of the Geneva Conventions, Fridtjof Nansen, Norwegian scientist and humanitarian. Victoria Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria) (24 May 1819–22 January 1901) was a Queen of the United Kingdom, reigning from 20 June 1837 until her death. ... Edward VII King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Emperor of India His Majesty King Edward VII (9 November 1841–6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, King of the Commonwealth realms, and the Emperor of India. ... For other persons named John Adams, see John Adams (disambiguation). ... Field Marshal Jan Christiaan Smuts, OM, CH, PC, ED, KC, FRS (May 24, 1870 – September 11, 1950) was a prominent South African and British Commonwealth statesman, military leader, and philosopher. ... Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, portrait by Josef JindÅ™ich Å echtl, 1918 Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk (IPA: ), sometimes called Thomas Masaryk in English, (March 7, 1850 - September 14, 1937) was an advocate of Czechoslovak independence during WW I and became the first President of Czechoslovakia. ... Benedetto Croce (February 25, 1866 - November 20, 1952) was an Italian critic, idealist philosopher, and politician. ... Dunant as an elderly man. ... The Anarchist Black Cross was originally called the Anarchist Red Cross. The band Redd Kross was originally called Red Cross. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Original document. ... Fridtjof Nansen Fridtjof Wedel-Jarlsberg Nansen (born October 10, 1861 in Store Frøen, near Christiania - died May 13, 1930 in Lysaker, outside Oslo) was a Norwegian explorer, scientist and diplomat. ...


The French government through Minister M. Cambon formally committed itself to “the renaissance of the Jewish nationality in that Land from which the people of Israel were exiled so many centuries ago".


In China, Wang, Minister of Foreign Affairs, declared that "the Nationalist government is in full sympathy with the Jewish people in their desire to establish a country for themselves."[35]


Evangelical Christians have a long history of supporting Zionism. Famous evangelical supporters of Israel include British Prime Ministers Lloyd George and Arthur Balfour, President Woodrow Wilson and Orde Wingate whose activities in support of Zionism, led the British Army to ban him from ever serving in Palestine. According to Charles Merkley of Carleton University, Christian Zionism strengthened significantly after the 1967 Six-Day War, and many dispensationalist Christians, especially in the United States, now strongly support Zionism. David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd George of Dwyfor, OM (January 17, 1863–March 26, 1945) was a British statesman and the last Liberal to be Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... For the steel manufacturer, see Arthur Balfour, 1st Baron Riverdale. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856—February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ... Major General Orde Charles Wingate, DSO (February 26, 1903 – March 24, 1944), was a British major general and creator of two special military units during World War II. // Orde Wingate was born 26 February 1903 in Naini Tal, India to a military family. ... Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      A current...


Muslims & Christian Arabs supporting Zionism

Sheikh Abdul Hadi Palazzi, the leader of Italian Muslim Assembly and a co-founder of the Islam-Israel Fellowship and Canadian Imam Khaleel Mohammed, find support for Zionism in the Qur'an.[36][37] Other Muslims who have supported Zionism include Bengali journalist Salah Choudhury and Pakistani journalist Tashbih Sayyed.[38] Abdul Hadi Palazzi (Arabic: ) is the leader of Italian Muslim Assembly and a co-founder and a co-chairman of the Islam-Israel Fellowship, based on what Shaykh Palazzi believes are the authentic teachings of Muhammad as expressed in the Quran and the Hadith. ... This page discusses the many projects that work to create a peaceful and productive co-existence between Israelis and Arabs including the Palestinians. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Khaleel Mohammed is a professor of Religion at San Diego State University, and a core faculty member of the universitys Center for Islamic and Arabic Studies. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Salah Uddin Shoaib Choudhury Salah Uddin Shoaib Choudhury is editor of the controversial Bangladeshi tabloid The Weekly Blitz. ... Tashbih Sayyed is Pakistani scholar, journalist, and author and is the Editor in Chief of Our Times, Pakistan Today, and In Review. ...


Christian Arabs publicly supporting Israel include US author Nonie Darwish, creator of the Arabs for Israel web site, and former Muslim Magdi Allam, author of Viva Israele.[39], both born in Egypt. Brigitte Gabriel, a Lebanese-born Christian US journalist and founder of the American Congress For Truth, urges Americans to fearlessly speak out in defense of America, Israel and Western civilization [40]. Nonie Darwish (Arabic: نوني درويش) (born 1948[1]) is an Arab-American writer and public speaker. ... Magdi Allam (April 22, 1952) is an Egyptian-born Italian journalist and writer, noted for his articles and books on the relations between Western culture and values, and the Islamic world. ... Brigitte Gabriel Brigitte Gabriel is a Lebanese American journalist, author and activist. ... American Congress for Truth (ACT) is a non-profit organization. ...


Footnotes

  1. ^ "An international movement originally for the establishment of a Jewish national or religious community in Palestine and later for the support of modern Israel." ("Zionism," Webster's 11th Collegiate Dictionary). See also "Zionism", Encyclopedia Britannica, which describes it as a "Jewish nationalist movement that has had as its goal the creation and support of a Jewish national state in Palestine, the ancient homeland of the Jews (Hebrew: Eretz Yisra'el, “the Land of Israel”)," and The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition, which defines it as "A Jewish movement that arose in the late 19th century in response to growing anti-Semitism and sought to reestablish a Jewish homeland in Palestine. Modern Zionism is concerned with the support and development of the state of Israel."
  2. ^ Ernest Gellner, 1983. Nations and Nationalism (First edition), p 107-108.
  3. ^ A national liberation movement:
    • "Zionism is a modern national liberation movement whose roots go far back to Biblical times." (Rockaway, Robert. Zionism: The National Liberation Movement of The Jewish People, World Zionist Organization, January 21, 1975, accessed August 17, 2006).
    • "The aim of Zionism was principally the liberation and self-determination of the Jewish people...", Shlomo Avineri. (Zionism as a Movement of National Liberation, Hagshama department of the World Zionist Organization, December 12, 2003, accessed August 17, 2006).
    • "Political Zionism, the national liberation movement of the Jewish people, emerged in the 19th century within the context of the liberal nationalism then sweeping through Europe." (Neuberger, Binyamin. Zionism - an Introduction, Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs, August 20, 2001, accessed August 17, 2006).
    • "The vicious diatribes on Zionism voiced here by Arab delegates may give this Assembly the wrong impression that while the rest of the world supported the Jewish national liberation movement the Arab world was always hostile to Zionism." (Chaim Herzog, Statement in the General Assembly by Ambassador Herzog on the item "Elimination of all forms of racial discrimination", 10 November 1975., Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs, November 11, 1975, accessed August 17, 2006).
    • Zionism: one of the earliest examples of a national liberation movement, written submission by the World Union for Progressive Judaism to the U.N. Commission on Human Rights, Sixtieth session, Item 5 and 9 of the provisional agenda, January 27, 2004, accessed August 17, 2006.
    • "Zionism is the national liberation movement of the Jewish people and the state of Israel is its political expression." (Avi Shlaim, A debate : Is Zionism today the real enemy of the Jews?, International Herald Tribune, February 4, 2005, accessed August 17, 2006.
    • "But Zionism is the national liberation movement of the Jewish people." (Philips, Melanie. Zionism today is the real enemy of the Jews’: opposed by Melanie Phillips, www.melaniephilips.com, accessed August 17, 2006.
    • "Zionism, the national liberation movement of the Jewish people, brought about the establishment of the State of Israel, and views a Jewish, Zionist, democratic and secure State of Israel to be the expression of the common responsibility of the Jewish people for its continuity and future." (What is Zionism (The Jerusalem Program), Hadassah, accessed August 17, 2006.
    • "Zionism is the national liberation movement of the Jewish people." (Harris, Rob. Ireland's Zionist slurs like Iran, says Israel, Jewish Telegraph, December 16, 2005, accessed August 17, 2006.
  4. ^ "...from Zion, where King David fashioned the first Jewish nation" (Friedland, Roger and Hecht, Richard To Rule Jerusalem, p. 27).
  5. ^ "By the late Second Temple times, when widely held Messianic beliefs were so politically powerful in their implications and repercussions, and when the significance of political authority, territorial sovereignty, and religious belief for the fate of the Jews as a people was so widely and vehemently contested, it seems clear that Jewish nationhood was a social and cultural reality". (Roshwald, Aviel. "Jewish Identity and the Paradox of Nationalism", in Berkowitz, Michael (ed.). Nationalism, Zionism and Ethnic Mobilization of the Jews in 1900 and Beyond, p. 15).
  6. ^ Largely a response to anti-Semitism:
    • "A Jewish movement that arose in the late 19th century in response to growing anti-Semitism and sought to re-establish a Jewish homeland in Palestine." ("Zionism", The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition).
    • "The Political Zionists conceived of Zionism as the Jewish response to anti-Semitism. They believed that Jews must have an independent state as soon as possible, in order to have a place of refuge for endangered Jewish communities." (Wylen, Stephen M. Settings of Silver: An Introduction to Judaism, Second Edition, Paulist Press, 2000, p. 392).
    • "Zionism, the national movement to return Jews to their homeland in Israel, was founded as a response to anti-Semitism in Western Europe and to violent persecution of Jews in Eastern Europe." (Calaprice, Alice. The Einstein Almanac, Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004, p. xvi).
    • "The major response to anti-semitism was the emergence of Zionism under the leadership of Theodor Herzl in the late nineteenth century." (Matustik, Martin J. and Westphal, Merold. Kierkegaard in Post/Modernity, Indiana University Press, 1995, p. 178).
    • "Zionism was founded as a response to anti-Semitism, principally in Russia, but took off when the worst nightmare of the Jews transpired in Western Europe under Nazism." (Hollis, Rosemary. The Israeli-Palestinian road block: can Europeans make a difference?PDF (57.9 KiB), International Affairs 80, 2 (2004), p. 198)
  7. ^ A.R. Taylor, 'Vision and intent in Zionist Thought', in 'The transformation of Palestine', ed. by I. Abu-Lughod, 1971, ISBN 0-8101-0345-1, p. 10
  8. ^ De Lange, Nicholas, An Introduction to Judaism, Cambridge University Press (2000), p. 30. ISBN 0-521-46624-5.
  9. ^ Misuse of the term "Zionism":
    • "... behind the cover of "anti-Zionism" lurks a variety of motives that ought to be called by their true name. When, in the 1950s under Stalin, the Jews of the Soviet Union came under severe attack and scores were executed, it was under the banner of anti-Zionism rather than anti-Semitism, which had been given a bad name by Adolf Hitler. When in later years the policy of Israeli governments was attacked as racist or colonialist in various parts of the world, the basis of the criticism was quite often the belief that Israel had no right to exist in the first place, not opposition to specific policies of the Israeli government. Traditional anti-Semitism has gone out of fashion in the West except on the extreme right. But something we might call post-anti-Semitism has taken its place. It is less violent in its aims, but still very real. By and large it has not been too difficult to differentiate between genuine and bogus anti-Zionism. The test is twofold. It is almost always clear whether the attacks are directed against a specific policy carried out by an Israeli government (for instance, as an occupying power) or against the existence of Israel. Secondly, there is the test of selectivity. If from all the evils besetting the world, the misdeeds, real or imaginary, of Zionism are singled out and given constant and relentless publicity, it can be taken for granted that the true motive is not anti-Zionism but something different and more sweeping." (Laqueur, Walter: Dying for Jerusalem: The Past, Present and Future of the Holiest City (Sourcebooks, Inc., 2006) ISBN 1-4022-0632-1. p. 55)
    • "In late July 1967, Moscow launched an unprecedented propaganda campaign against Zionism as a "world threat." Defeat was attributed not to tiny Israel alone, but to an "all-powerful international force." ... In its flagrant vulgarity, the new propaganda assault soon achieved Nazi-era characteristics. The Soviet public was saturated with racist canards. Extracts from Trofim Kichko's notorious 1963 volume, Judaism Without Embellishment, were extensively republished in the Soviet media. Yuri Ivanov's Beware: Zionism, a book essentially replicated The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, was given nationwide coverage." (Howard Sachar: A History of the Jews in the Modern World (Knopf, NY. 2005) p.722
    • See also Rootless cosmopolitan, Doctors' Plot, Zionology, Polish 1968 political crisis
  10. ^ C.D. Smith, 2001, 'Palestine and the Arab-Israeli conflict', 4th ed., ISBN 0-312-20828-6, p. 1-12, 33-38
  11. ^ Y. Gorny, 1987, 'Zionism and the Arabs, 1882-1948', p. 5 (italics from original)
  12. ^ Zionism & The British In Palestine, by Sethi,Arjun (University of Maryland) January 2007, accessed May 20, 2007.
  13. ^ League of Nations Palestine Mandate, July 24, 1922, sateofisrael.com/mandate
  14. ^ UNITED NATIONS SPECIAL COMMITTEE ON PALESTINE; REPORT TO THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY, A/364, 3 September 1947
  15. ^ Three minutes, 2000 years, Video from the Jewish Agency for Israel, via YouTube
  16. ^ Traditional historiography considered 7 countries attacked Israel : Egypt, Transjordan, Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Yemen and Saudi Arabia. Historians have since pointed out that Yemen and Saudi Arabia only sent small contingents of soldiers and Lebanon forces didn't enter the country.
  17. ^ GENERAL PROGRESS REPORT AND SUPPLEMENTARY REPORT OF THE UNITED NATIONS CONCILIATION COMMISSION FOR PALESTINE, Covering the period from 11 December 1949 to 23 October 1950, GA A/1367/Rev.1 23 October 1950
  18. ^ E. Schweid, ‘Rejection of the Diaspora in Zionist Thought’, in ‘’Essential Papers onZionsm, ed. By Reinharz & Shapira, 1996, ISBN 0-8147-7449-0, p.133
  19. ^ Z. Sternhell, 'The founding myths of Israel', 1998, p. 3-36, ISBN 0-691-01694-1, p. 49-51
  20. ^ Bregman, Ahron (2002), A History of Israel, Palgrave Macmillan, ISBN 0333676319, pp. 40-41.
  21. ^ El-Nawawy, Mohammed (2002). The Israeli-Egyptian Peace Process in the reporting of western Journalists. Ablex/Greenwood, pg. 19 ISBN 1567505449 "It is a barrier that has been created by years and years of antagonism with Israelis; a barrier that was strengthened by the Egyptian and Arab news media at large which have enforced the Arabs' stereotypes about the Israelis as invaders of Arab land."
  22. ^ Khalidi, Rashid (2006). The Iron Cage: The Story of the Palestinian Struggle for Statehood. Beacon Press, pg. 19.
  23. ^ The U.N.'s final estimate of the total number of Palestinian Refugees was 711,000 according to the General Progress Report and Supplementary Report of the United Nations Conciliation Commission for Palestine, Covering the Period from 11 December 1949 to 23 October 1950, published by the United Nations Conciliation Commission, October 23, 1950. (U.N. General Assembly Official Records, 5th Session, Supplement No. 18, Document A/1367/Rev.1)
  24. ^ Again Zionists Not Jews, Anti-Zionist Resource Center, Zionism On The Web.
  25. '^ Pirates and Emperors: International Terrorism in the Real World, Noam Chomsky, Black Rose Books, 1991. "My own views, for example, are regularly condemned as 'militant anti-Zionism' by people who are well aware of those views, clearly and repeatedly expressed: that Israel within its internationally recognised borders should be accorded the rights of any state in the international system, no more, no less, and that discriminatory institutional structures that in law and practice assign a special status to one category of citizens (Jews, Whites, Christians, etc.), granting them rights denied others, should be dismantled. I will not enter here into the question of what should properly be called 'Zionism' -- but merely note what follows from designation of these views as "militant anti-Zionism:" Zionism is the doctrine that Israel must be accorded rights beyond those of any other state; it must maintain control of occupied territories, thus barring any meaningful form of self-determination for Palestinians; and it must remain a state based on the principle of discrimination against non-Jewish citizens." (Page 33)
  26. ^ Can Israel Survive Post-Zionism? by Meyrav Wurmser. Middle East Quarterly, March 1999
  27. ^ van Boven, Theodor. United Nations strategies to combat racism and racial discrimination: past experiences and present perspectives. UN Economic and Social Council, 26 February 1999. (E/CN.4/1999/WG.1/BP.7.)
  28. ^ Taguieff, Pierre-André. Rising From the Muck: The New Anti-Semitism in Europe. Ivan R. Dee, 2004.
  29. ^ Rosenbaum, Ron. Those who forget the past. Random House, 2004.
  30. ^ Uri Ram, The Future of the Past in Israel - A Sociology of Knowledge Approach, in Benny Morris, Making Israel, p.224.
  31. ^ Steve Chan, Anita Shapira, Derek Jonathan, Israeli Historical Revisionism: from left to right, Routledge, 2002, p.58.
  32. ^ Negro World 6 March 1920, cited in http://www.international.ucla.edu/africa/mgpp/lifeintr.asp (accessed 29/11/2007).
  33. ^ BlackJews.org - A Project of the International Board of Rabbis
  34. ^ Why Don’t Jews Like the Christians Who Like Them by James Q. Wilson, City Journal Winter 2008
  35. ^ Palestine: The Original Sin , Meir Abelson [1]
  36. ^ Glazov, Jamie. "The Anti-Terror, Pro-Israel Sheikh" FrontPage Magazine, September 12, 2005. "I find in the Qur'an that God granted the Land of Israel to the Children of Israel and ordered them to settle therein (Qur'an 5:21) and that before the Last Day He will bring the Children of Israel to retake possession of their Land, gathering them from different countries and nations (Qur'an 17:104). Consequently, as a Muslim who abides by the Qur'an, I believe that opposing the existence of the State of Israel means opposing a Divine decree."
  37. ^ Cobb, Chris. "The scathing scholar", The Ottawa Citizen, February 6, 2007. Retrieved on 2008-03-26. "despite what Muslims are taught, Islam's holy book, the Koran, supports the right of Israel to exist and for Jews to live there." 
  38. ^ Neuwirth, Rachel. "Tashbih Sayyed ― A Fearless Muslim Zionist", The American Thinker, June 24, 2007.
  39. ^ ISBN 9788804567776
  40. ^ anonymous (unknown). Mission/Vision. American Congress for Truth. Retrieved on 2008-04-17.

I do not think I could have written the book on nationalism which I did write, were I not capable of crying, with the help of a little alcohol, over folk songs . ... The World Zionist Organization, or WZO, was founded as the Zionist Organization, or ZO, on September 3, 1897, at the First Zionist Congress held in Basel, Switzerland. ... Shlomo Avineri (born Bielsko-BiaÅ‚a, Poland 1933) is an Israeli political scientist. ... The World Zionist Organization, or WZO, was founded as the Zionist Organization, or ZO, on September 3, 1897, at the First Zionist Congress held in Basel, Switzerland. ... Chaim Herzog (חיים הרצוג)‎ (September 17, 1918 - April 17, 1997) served as the sixth President of Israel (1983 - 1993), following a distinguished career in both the British Army and the Israel Defense Forces (IDF). ... The International Herald Tribune is a widely read English language international newspaper. ... Melanie Phillips (born June 4, 1951) is a British journalist and author, best known for her column about political and social issues which currently appears in the Daily Mail. ... For other uses, see Hadassah (disambiguation). ... This article needs cleanup. ... Theodor Herzl, in his middle age. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... For more information on international affairs, see one of the following links: Diplomacy Foreign affairs International relations This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Walter Laqueur (born 1921) is an American historian and political commentator. ... For the 2005 documentary film by Marc Levin, see Protocols of Zion (film). ... Howard Morley Sachar (born in 1928) is a historian and an author. ... Rootless cosmopolitan (Russian language: безродный космополит, bezrodniy kosmopolit) was a Soviet euphemism during Joseph Stalins campaign of 1949–1953, which culminated in the exposure of the alleged Doctors plot. ... The Doctors plot (Russian language: дело врачей (doctors affair), врачи-вредители (doctors-saboteurs) or врачи-убийцы (doctors-killers)) was an alleged conspiracy to eliminate the leadership of the Soviet Union by means of Jewish doctors poisoning top leadership. ... Zionology (Russian language: сионология sionologiya), also called Soviet Anti-Zionism, was a doctrine promulgated in the Soviet Union during the course of the Cold War, and intensified after the 1967 Six Day War. ... Banners from March 1968. ... Arjun Charan Sethi (born 18 September 1941) is a member of the 14th Lok Sabha of India. ... YouTube is a popular video sharing website where users can upload, view and share video clips. ... Ahron Bregman is a writer and journalist, specialising on the Arab-Israeli conflict. ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The UN Conciliation Commission was set up by UN General Assembly Resolution 194, in order to conclude the 1948 Arab-Israeli War in the region of Palestine. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Anita Shapira is founder of the Yitzhak Rabin Center for Israel Studies, Ruben Merenfeld Professor of the Study of Zionism and head of the Weizmann Institute for the Study of Zionism at Tel Aviv University. ... Weekly newspaper published by Marcus Mosiah Garvey during the 1920s and 30s. ... FrontPage Magazine is a conservative internet publication edited by David Horowitz Link [1] Categories: Computer stubs | Magazines stubs ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Yawm al-QÄ«yāmah (Arabic: literally: Day of the Resurrection) is the Last Judgement in Islam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Ottawa Citizen (established 1845) is an English-language daily newspaper owned by CanWest Global in Ottawa, Canada. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The American Thinker, is a daily internet publication with articles on the topics of national security, economics, diplomacy, and military strategy[1]. The articles published are often mentioned on The Rush Limbaugh Show. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Taylor, A.R., 1971, 'Vision and intent in Zionist Thought', in 'The transformation of Palestine', ed. by I. Abu-Lughod, ISBN 0-8101-0345-1, Northwestern university press, Evanston, USA
  • David Hazony, Yoram Hazony, and Michael B. Oren, eds., "New Essays on Zionism," Shalem Press, 2007.

David Hazony is a fellow at the Shalem Center in Jerusalem and editor in chief of Azure, its quarterly. ...

See also

Types of Zionism

Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      for Christians... Cultural Zionism is a strain of the concept of Zionism that values Jewish culture and history, including language and historical roots, rather than other Zionist ideas such as Political Zionism. ... General Zionists were centrists within the Zionist movement. ... Labor Zionism (or Socialist Zionism, Labour Zionism) is the traditional left wing of the Zionist ideology and was historically oriented towards the Jewish workers movement. ... Reform Zionism, also known as Progressive Zionism is the Zionist arm of the Reform or Progressive branch of Judaism. ... Religious Zionism, or the Religious Zionist Movement, a branch of which is also called Mizrachi, is an ideology that claims to combine Zionism and Judaism, to base Zionism on the principles of Jewish religion and heritage. ... Palestine (comprising todays Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza strip) and Transjordan (todays Kingdom of Jordan) were all part of the British Mandate of Palestine. ...

Zionist institutions and organizations

The Histadrut (Federation [of labor]) or HaHistadrut HaKlalit shel HaOvdim BEretz Yisrael (ההסתדרות הכללית של העובדים בארץ ישראל) (Hebrew: General Federation of Laborers in the Land of Israel) is the Israeli trade union congress. ... Jewish Agency for Israel - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The JNF logo found on all JNF charity boxes. ... Vaad Leumi (Hebrew language: ועד לאומי), also known as Jewish National Council of Palestine (JNC) was the main national institution of the yishuv (Jewish community) within the British Mandate of Palestine. ... The World Zionist Organization, or WZO, was founded as the Zionist Organization, or ZO, on September 3, 1897, at the First Zionist Congress held in Basel, Switzerland. ...

History of Zionism and Israel

  • History of Zionism
  • History of Israel
  • History of Palestine
  • Israeli-Palestinian conflict
  • List of Zionist figures
  • Timeline of Zionism

This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The History of Palestine is the account of events in the greater geographic area called Palestine, which includes the modern state of Israel, as well as the West Bank, Gaza, and the newly-established state of Jordan, along with parts of Syria. ... Israel, with the West Bank, Gaza Strip and Golan Heights The Israeli-Palestinian conflict is an ongoing dispute between the State of Israel and Arab Palestinians. ... Timeline of Zionism in the modern era: 1861 - The Zion Society is formed in Frankfurt, Germany. ...

Other

Anti-Zionism is opposition to Zionism, an international political movement that supports a homeland for the Jewish people in Palestine[1][2] Anti-Zionism takes many forms, ranging from political or religious opposition to the idea of a Jewish state, to rejecting Israels right to exist and the legitimacy... Jewish Autonomism was a non-Zionist political movement that shaped up in Eastern Europe in the early 20th century. ... Dates of Jewish emancipation. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

External links

  • Jewish State.com Zionism, News, Links
  • "Zion story": an article in the TLS by Geoffrey Wheatcroft, February 20, 2008

This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Several groups, sometimes called denominations, branches, or movements, have developed among Jews of the modern era, especially Ashkenazi Jews living in anglophone countries. ... Schisms among the Jews are cultural as well as religious. ... This article discusses the relationship between the various denominations of Judaism. ... Orthodox Judaism is the formulation of Judaism that adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonised in the Talmudic texts (Oral Torah) and as subsequently developed and applied by the later authorities known as the Gaonim, Rishonim, and Acharonim. ... Haredi or chareidi Judaism is the most theologically conservative form of Orthodox Judaism. ... This article is about the Hasidic movement originating in Poland and Russia. ... Modern Orthodox Judaism (or Modern Orthodox or Modern Orthodoxy) is a movement within Orthodox Judaism that attempts to synthesize traditional observance and values with the secular, modern world. ... This article is about Conservative (Masorti) Judaism in the United States. ... Reform Judaism can refer to (1) the largest denomination of American Jews and its sibling movements in other countries, (2) a branch of Judaism in the United Kingdom, and (3) the historical predecessor of the American movement that originated in 19th-century Germany. ... Reconstructionist Judaism is a modern American-based Jewish movement, based on the ideas of the late Mordecai Kaplan, that views Judaism as a progressively evolving civilization. ... Jewish Renewal is a new religious movement in Judaism which endeavors to reinvigorate modern Judaism with mystical, Hasidic, musical and meditative practices. ... Rabbinic Judaism (or in Hebrew Yahadut Rabanit - יהדות רבנית) is a Jewish denomination characterized by reliance on the written Torah as well as the Oral Law (the Mishnah, Talmuds and subsequent rabbinic decisions) as halakha (Legally Binding, i. ... Karaite Judaism or Karaism is a Jewish movement characterized by the sole reliance on the Tanakh as scripture, and the rejection of the Oral Law (the Mishnah and the Talmud) as halakha (Legally Binding, i. ... For other uses, see Samaritan (disambiguation). ... Humanistic Judaism is a movement within Judaism that emphasizes Jewish culture and history - rather than belief in God - as the sources of Jewish identity. ... The Baruch Hashem Messianic Synagogue in Dallas, Texas Theology and Practice Messiah · Yeshua · Dance · Seal Religious Texts Messianic Bible translations Movement leaders & Orgs. ... Jewish philosophy refers to the conjunction between serious study of philosophy and Jewish theology. ... There are a number of basic Jewish principles of faith that were formulated by medieval rabbinic authorities. ... In Judaism, chosenness is the belief that the Jews are a chosen people: chosen to be in a covenant with God. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... // Jewish ethics stands at the intersection of Judaism and the Western philosophical tradition of ethics. ... Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה ; alternate transliterations include Halocho and Halacha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law, as well as customs and traditions. ... Holocaust theology refers to a body of theological and philosophical debate, soul-searching, and analysis, with the subsequent related literature, that attempts to come to grips with various conflicting views about the role of God in this human world and the dark events of the European Holocaust that occurred during... This article is about traditional Jewish Kabbalah. ... The circled U indicates that this product is certified as kosher by the Orthodox Union (OU). ... In Jewish messianism and eschatology, the Messiah (Hebrew: משיח; Mashiah, Mashiach, or Moshiach, anointed [one]) is a term traditionally referring to a future Jewish king from the Davidic line who will be anointed (the meaning of the Hebrew word משיח) with holy anointing oil and inducted to rule the Jewish people during... A minyan (Hebrew: plural minyanim) is traditionally a quorum of ten or more adult (over the age of Bar Mitzvah) male Jews for the purpose of communal prayer; a minyan is often held within a synagogue, but may be (and often is) held elsewhere. ... Mussar movement refers to an Jewish ethics educational and cultural movement (a Jewish Moralist Movement) that developed in 19th century Orthodox Eastern Europe, particularly among the Lithuanian Jews. ... At the bottom of the hands, the two letters on each hand combine to form יהוה (YHVH), the name of God. ... The Rainbow is the modern symbol of the Noahide Movement reminiscing the rainbow that appeared after the Great Flood of the Bible. ... Tzedakah (Hebrew: צדקה) in Judaism, is the Hebrew term most commonly translated as charity, though it is based on a root meaning justice .(צדק). Judaism is very tied to the concept of tzedakah, or charity, and the nature of Jewish giving has created a North American Jewish community that is very philanthropic. ... Tzniut or Tznius (also Tzeniut) (Hebrew: צניעות modesty) is a term used within Judaism and has its greatest influence as a notion within Orthodox Judaism. ... For the musical collective, see Tanakh (band). ... Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ... Neviim [נביאים] (Heb: Prophets) is the second of the three major sections in the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), following the Torah and preceding Ketuvim (writings). ... Ketuvim is the third and final section of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible). ... Arbaah Turim (ארבעה טורים), often called simply the Tur, is an important Halakhic code, composed by Yaakov ben Asher (Spain, 1270 -c. ... The Chumash Chumash (IPA: ) (Hebrew: חומש; sometimes written Humash) is one name given to the Pentateuch in Judaism. ... The Kuzari is the most famous work by the medieval Spanish Jewish writer Yehuda Halevi. ... Midrash (Hebrew: מדרש; plural midrashim) is a Hebrew word referring to a method of exegesis of a Biblical text. ... 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The Talmud (Hebrew: ) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs, and history. ... The Tosefta is a secondary compilation of the Jewish oral law from the period of the Mishnah. ... The Zohar (Hebrew: זהר Splendor, radiance) is widely considered the most important work of Kabbalah, Jewish mysticism. ... Jewish leadership: Since 70 AD and the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem there has been no single body that has a leadership position over the entire Jewish community. ... For other uses, see Abraham (name) and Abram (disambiguation). ... Sacrifice of Isaac, a detail from the sarcophagus of the Roman consul Junius Bassus, ca. ... This article is about Jacob in the Hebrew Bible. ... Engraving of Sarah by Hans Collaert from c. ... Rebecca by Johannes Takanen, 1877. ... This article is about the Biblical character. ... Look up Leah, לֵאָה in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... For information on the name Deborah, see Debbie For information on the nurse of Rebeccah, mentioned in Genesis, see Deborah (Genesis) Deborah or Dvora (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; Bee) was a prophetess and the fourth Judge and only female Judge of pre-monarchic Israel in the Old Testament (Tanakh). ... Naomi entreating Ruth and Orpah to return to the land of Moab by William Blake, 1795 Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld: Ruth in Boazs Field, 1828 The Book of Ruth (Hebrew: מגילת רות, Megilat Rut, the Scroll of Ruth) is one of the books of the Ketuvim (Writings) of the Tanakh (the... This article is about the Biblical jhhhhnn . ... Elijah, 1638, by José de Ribera This article is about the prophet in the Hebrew Bible. ... Hillel (הלל) (born Babylon 1st Century BCE - died ?Jerusalem, 1st Century CE) was a famous Jewish religious leader, one of the most important figures in Jewish history. ... Shammai (50 BCE–30 CE) was a Jewish scholar of the 1st century, and an important figure in Judaisms core work of rabbinic literature, the Mishnah. ... Judah haNasi, or more accurately in Hebrew, Yehudah HaNasi, was a key leader of the Jewish community of Judea under the Roman empire, toward the end of the 2nd century CE. He was reputedly from the Davidic line of the royal line from King David, hence his title Prince (Nasi... Saadia Ben Joseph Gaon (892-942), the Hebrew name of Said al-Fayyumi, was a rabbi who was also a prominent Jewish exilarch, philosopher, and exegete. ... A 16th-century depiction of Rashi Note: For the astrological concept, see Rashi - the signs. ... Rabbi Isaac ben Jacob Alfasi (1013 - 1103) - also Isaac Hakohen, Alfasi or the Rif (ריף) - was a Talmudist and posek (decisor in matters of halakha - Jewish law). ... Rabbi Abraham Ben Meir Ibn Ezra (also known as Ibn Ezra, or Abenezra) (1092 or 1093-1167), was one of the most distinguished Jewish men of letters and writers of the Middle Ages. ... Tosafists were medieval rabbis who created critical and explanatory glosses on the Talmud. ... Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon (Hebrew: רבי משה בן מיימון; Arabic: Mussa bin Maimun ibn Abdallah al-Kurtubi al-Israili; March 30, 1135—December 13, 1204), commonly known by his Greek name Maimonides, was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher. ... Nahmanides (1194 - c. ... Levi ben Gershon (Levi son of Gerson), better known as Gersonides or the Ralbag (1288-1344), was a famous rabbi, philosopher, mathematician and Talmudic commentator. ... Joseph Albo was a Spanish rabbi, and theologian of the fifteenth century, known chiefly as the author of the work on the Jewish principles of faith, Ikkarim. ... Yosef Caro (sometimes Joseph Caro) (1488 - March 24, 1575) was one of the most significant leaders in Rabbinic Judaism and the author of the Shulchan Arukh, an authoritative work on Halakhah (Jewish law). ... Asher ben Jehiel (or Rabeinu Osher ben Yechiel) (1250? 1259?-1328), an eminent rabbi and Talmudist often known by his Hebrew acronym the ROSH (literally Head), was born in western Germany and died in Toledo, Spain. ... This article incorporates text from the public domain 1901-1906 Jewish Encyclopedia Israel ben Eliezer Rabbi Israel (Yisroel) ben Eliezer (about 1700 Okopy Świętej Tr jcy - May 22, 1760 Międzyborz) was a Jewish Orthodox mystical rabbi who is better known to most religious Jews as the Baal Shem Tov, or... Shneur Zalman of Liadi (‎) (September 4, 1745 – December 15, 1812 O.S.), was an Orthodox Rabbi, and the founder and first Rebbe of Chabad, a branch of Hasidic Judaism, then based in Liadi, Imperial Russia. ... Elijah Ben Solomon, the Vilna Gaon The Vilna Gaon (April 23, 1720 – October 9, 1797) was a prominent Jewish rabbi, Talmud scholar, and Kabbalist. ... Leopold Zunz (1794-1886), Jewish scholar, was born at Detmold in 1794, and died in Berlin in 1886. ... Israel Jacobson (October 17, 1768, Halberstadt - September 14, 1828, Berlin) was a German philanthropist and reformer. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Rabbi Ovadia Yosef (Hebrew: עובדיה יוסף) (b. ... Rabbi Moshe Feinstein (1895-1986) Moshe Feinstein (1895 - 1986) was a Lithuanian Orthodox rabbi and scholar, who was world renowned for his expertise in halakha and was the de facto supreme rabbinic authority for Orthodox Jewry of North America. ... Elazar Menachem Man Shach (אלעזר מנחם מן שך) (or Rav Leizer Shach, at times his name is written as Eliezer Schach in English publications) (January 22, 1898 - November 2, 2001), was a leading Eastern European-born and educated Haredi rabbi who settled and lived in modern Israel. ... Rabbi M.M. Schneerson The third Rebbe of the Chabad Lubavitch dynasty was also named Menachem Mendel Schneersohn (with a h) Menachem Mendel Schneerson (April 18, 1902-June 12, 1994), referred to by Lubavitchers as The Rebbe, was a prominent Orthodox Jewish rabbi who was the seventh and last Rebbe... Who is a Jew? (‎) is a commonly considered question about Jewish identity. ... In Judaism, Bar Mitzvah (Hebrew: בר מצוה, one (m. ... Bereavement in Judaism (אבלות aveilut; mourning) is a combination of minhag (traditional custom) and mitzvot (commandments) derived from Judaisms classical Torah and rabbinic texts. ... Brit milah (Hebrew: [bÉ™rÄ«t mÄ«lā] literally: covenant of circumcision), also berit milah (Sephardi), bris milah (Ashkenazi pronunciation) or bris (Yiddish) is a religious ceremony within Judaism to welcome infant Jewish boys into a covenant between God and the Children of Israel through ritual circumcision performed by a... Look up Jew in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Judaism considers marriage to be the ideal state of existence; a man without a wife, or a woman without a husband, are considered incomplete. ... Niddah (or nidah, nidda, nida; Hebrew:נִדָּה) is a Hebrew term which literally means separation, generally considered to refer to separation from ritual impurity[1]; Ibn Ezra argues that it is related to the term menaddekem, meaning cast you out[2]. The term niddah appears in the biblical description of the... Pidyon HaBen (Hebrew: פדיון הבן) is the redemption of the first-born, a ritual in Judaism. ... Secular Jewish culture embraces several related phenomena; above all, it is the culture of secular communities of Jewish people, but it can also include the cultural contributions of individuals who identify as secular Jews, or even those of religious Jews working in cultural areas not generally considered to be connected... The Shidduch (Hebrew: שידוך, pl. ... Zeved habat (also written Zebed habat) (Hebrew זֶבֶד הַבָּת) is the mainly Sephardic naming ceremony for girls, corresponding in part to the non-circumcision part of the Brit milah ceremony for boys. ... Nineteenth century plaque, with Jerusalem occupying the upper right quadrant, Hebron beneath it, the Jordan River running top to bottom, Safed in the top left quadrant, and Tiberias beneath it. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Safed (Hebrew: צְפַת, Tiberian: , Israeli: Tsfat, Ashkenazi: Tzfas; Arabic: صفد ; KJV English: Zephath) is a city in the North District in Israel. ... Arabic الخليل Government City (from 1997) Also Spelled Al-Khalil (officially) Al-Halil (unofficially) Governorate Hebron Population 167,000 (2006) Jurisdiction  dunams Head of Municipality Mustafa Abdel Nabi , Hebron (Arabic:   al-ḪalÄ«l or al KhalÄ«l; Hebrew:  , Standard Hebrew: Ḥevron, Tiberian Hebrew: Ḥeḇrôn) is a city at the... Hebrew טבריה (Standard) Teverya Arabic طبرية Government City District North Population 39 900 (a) Jurisdiction 10 000 dunams (10 km²) Tiberias (British English: ; American English: ; Hebrew: , Tverya; Arabic: , abariyyah) is a town on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee, Lower Galilee, Israel. ... A beth din (בית דין, Hebrew: house of judgment, plural battei din) is a rabbinical court of Judaism. ... A Gabbai (Hebrew: גבאי) is a person who assists in the running of a synagogue and ensures that the needs are met, for example the Jewish prayer services run smoothly, or an assistant to a rabbi (particularly the secretary or personal assistant to a Hassidic Rebbe). ... A hazzan or chazzan (Hebrew for cantor) is a Jewish musician trained in the vocal arts who helps lead the synagogue in songful prayer. ... Cohen (disambiguation) Position of the kohens hands and fingers during the Priestly Blessing A kohen (or cohen, Hebrew כּהן, priest, pl. ... Dovber of Mezeritch (died 1772) was the primary disciple of Israel ben Eliezer, the Baal Shem Tov, the founder of Hasidic Judaism (now a form of Orthodox Judaism. ... A Rosh yeshiva (Hebrew: ראש ישיבה) (plural in Hebrew: Roshei yeshiva, but also referred to in the English form as Rosh yeshivas) is a rabbi who is the academic head, or rosh (ראש), of a yeshiva (ישיבה), a college of higher Talmudic study. ... Mikvah (or mikveh) (Hebrew: מִקְוָה, Standard Tiberian  ; plural: mikvaot or mikvot) is a specially constructed pool of water used for total immersion in a purification ceremony within Judaism. ... A mohel (מוהל also moel) is a Jewish ritual circumciser who performs a brit milah ritual circumcision on the penis of a male who is to enter the Jewish covenant. ... For the town in Italy, see Rabbi, Italy. ... For the tanna, see Judah HaNasi. ... Rosh yeshiva (Hebrew: ראש ישיבה) (pl. ... The synagogue Scolanova Trani in Italy. ... The Temple in Jerusalem or Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash and meaning literally The Holy House) was located on the Temple Mount (Har HaBayit) in the old city of Jerusalem. ... The Tabernacle is known in Hebrew as the Mishkan ( משכן Place of [Divine] dwelling). It was to be a portable central place of worship for the Hebrews from the time they left ancient Egypt following the Exodus, through the time of the Book of Judges when they were engaged in conquering... The Western Wall by night. ... Aleinu (Hebrew: ‎, our duty) is a Jewish prayer found in the siddur, the classical Jewish prayerbook. ... For other uses, see Amidah (disambiguation). ... The Four Species (note: in a kosher lulav, the aravah is placed on the left, the lulav in the center, and the hadassim on the right) The Four Species (Hebrew: ארבעה מינים) are three types of plants and one type of fruit which are held together and waved in a special ceremony... The Hasidic Gartel The Gartel is a belt used by Hasidic Jews during prayer. ... Hallel (Hebrew: הלל Praise [God]) is part of Judaisms prayers, a verbatim recitation from Psalms 113-118, which is used for praise and thanksgiving that is recited by observant Jews on Jewish holidays. ... Havdalah (הבדלה) is a Jewish religious ceremony that marks the symbolic end of Shabbat and holidays, and ushers in beginning of the new week. ... This article is about the Jewish prayer. ... A kittel (Yiddish: קיתל, robe) is a white robe worn on special occasions by religious Jews. ... () Kol Nidre (ashk. ... Ma Tovu (Hebrew for O How Good or How Goodly) is a prayer in Judaism, expressing reverence and awe for synagogues and other places of worship. ... A nine branched Chanukkiyah lit during Hanukkah The Chanukkiyah or Hanukiah, (Hebrew: ) is a nine branched candelabrum lit during the eight-day holiday of hanukkah. ... Mezuzah (IPA: ) (Heb. ... Listed below are some Hebrew prayers and blessings that are part of Judaism that are recited by many Jews. ... Sefer Torah being read during weekday service. ... Jewish services (Hebrew: תפלה, tefillah ; plural תפלות, tefillot ; Yinglish: davening) are the prayer recitations which form part of the observance of Judaism. ... Shema Yisrael (or Shma Yisroel or just Shema) (Hebrew: שמע ישראל; Hear, [O] Israel) are the first two words of a section of the Torah (Hebrew Bible) that is used as a centerpiece of all morning and evening Jewish prayer services and closely echoes the monotheistic message of Judaism. ... A shofar made from the horn of a kudu, in the Yemenite Jewish style. ... The tallit (Modern Hebrew: ) or tallet(h) (Sephardi Hebrew: ), also called talles (Yiddish), is a prayer shawl cloak that is worn during the morning Jewish services (the Shacharit prayers) in Judaism, during the Torah service, and on Yom Kippur. ... Tefillin (Hebrew: תפלין), also called phylacteries, are two boxes containing Biblical verses and the leather straps attached to them which are used in traditional Jewish prayer. ... Tzitzit or tzitzis (Ashkenazi) (Hebrew: Biblical ×¦×™×¦×ª Modern ×¦×™×¦×™×ª) are fringes or tassels worn by observant Jews on the corners of four-cornered garments, including the tallit (prayer shawl). ... The word yad may also refer to the Yad ha-Chazaka, another name for Maimonides Mishneh Torah. ... A yarmulke (also yarmulka, yarmelke) (Yiddish יאַרמלקע yarmlke) or Kippah (Hebrew כִּפָּה kippāh, plural kippot) is a thin, usually slightly rounded cloth cap worn by Jews. ... This article deals with Jewish views of religious pluralism. ... map showing the prevalence of Abrahamic (purple) and Dharmic (yellow) religions in each country. ... This article discusses the traditional views of the two religions and may not be applicable all adherents of each. ... This article on relations between Catholicism and Judaism deals with the current relationship between the Roman Catholic Church and Judaism, focusing on changes over the last fifty years, and especially during the pontificate of Pope John Paul II. // The Second Vatican Council Throughout history accusations of anti-Semitism have resounded... In recent years there has been much to note in the way of reconciliation between some Christian groups and the Jewish people. ... Jacob wrestling an angel, by Gustave Doré (1832-1883), a shared Judeo-Christian story. ... This article is about the historical interaction between Islam and Judaism. ... A Jewish Buddhist is a person with a Jewish ethnic and/or religious background who practices forms of Buddhist meditation and spirituality. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... Latter-day Saints believe themselves to be either direct descendants of the House of Israel, or adopted into it. ... Alternative Judaism refers to several varieties of modern Judaism which fall outside the common Orthodox/Non-Orthodox (Reform/Conservative/Reconstructionist) classification of the four major streams of todays Judaism. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... The Judeo-Arabic languages are a collection of Arabic dialects spoken by Jews living or formerly living in Arabic-speaking countries; the term also refers to more or less classical Arabic written in the Hebrew script, particularly in the Middle Ages. ... Judæo-Aramaic is a collective term used to describe several Hebrew-influenced Aramaic and Neo-Aramaic languages. ... The Judæo-Persian languages include a number of related languages spoken throughout the formerly extensive realm of the Persian Empire, sometimes including all the Jewish Indo-Iranian languages: Dzhidi (Judæo-Persian) Bukhori (Judæo-Bukharic) Judæo-Golpaygani Judæo-Yazdi Judæo-Kermani Judæo-Shirazi Jud... Not to be confused with Ladin. ... Yiddish ( yidish or idish, literally: Jewish) is a non-territorial Germanic language, spoken throughout the world and written with the Hebrew alphabet. ... Jewish history is the history of the Jewish people, faith, and culture. ... For the pre-history of the region, see Pre-history of the Southern Levant. ... The Temple in Jerusalem or Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash and meaning literally The Holy House) was located on the Temple Mount (Har HaBayit) in the old city of Jerusalem. ... For other uses, see Babylonian captivity (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Main article: Religious significance of Jerusalem Jerusalem has been the holiest city in Judaism and the spiritual homeland of the Jewish people since the 10th century BCE.[1] Jerusalem has long been embedded into Jewish religious consciousness. ... 1800 BCE - The Jebusites build the wall Jebus (Jerusalem). ... The Hasmoneans (Hebrew: , Hashmonaiym, Audio) were the ruling dynasty of the Hasmonean Kingdom (140 BCE–37 BCE),[1] an autonomous Jewish state in ancient Israel. ... Herod the Great. ... For the tractate in the Mishnah, see Sanhedrin (tractate). ... For the followers of the Vilna Gaon, see Perushim. ... The sect of the Sadducees (or Zadokites and other variants) - which may have originated as a Political Party - was founded in the 2nd century BC and ceased to exist sometime after the 1st century AD. Their rivals, the Pharisees, are said to have originated in the same time period, but... The Essenes were a Jewish religious group that flourished from the 2nd century BC to the 1st century AD. Many separate, but related religious groups of that era shared similar mystic, eschatological, messianic, and ascetic beliefs. ... Combatants Roman Empire Jews of Iudaea Province Commanders Vespasian, Titus Simon Bar-Giora, Yohanan mi-Gush Halav (John of Gischala), Eleazar ben Simon Strength 70,000? 1,100,000? Casualties Unknown 1,100,000? (majority Jewish civilian casualties) Jewish-Roman wars First War – Kitos War – Bar Kokhba revolt The first... Bar Kokhba’s revolt (132-135 CE) against the Roman Empire, also known as The Second Jewish-Roman War or The Second Jewish Revolt, was a second major rebellion by the Jews of Iudaea. ... The Jewish diaspora (Hebrew: Tefutzah, scattered, or Galut גלות, exile, Yiddish: tfutses), the Jewish presence outside of the Land of Israel is a result of the expulsion of the Jewish people out of their land, during the destruction of the First Temple, Second Temple and after the Bar Kokhba revolt. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Excluding the region of Palestine, and omitting the accounts of Joseph and Moses as unverifiable, Jews have lived in what are now Arab and non-Arab Muslim (i. ... Not to be confused with Sabaeans, who were ancient people living in what is now Yemen. ... Haskalah (Hebrew: השכלה; enlightenment, education from sekhel intellect, mind ), the Jewish Enlightenment, was a movement among European Jews in the late 18th century that advocated adopting enlightenment values, pressing for better integration into European society, and increasing education in secular studies, Hebrew, and Jewish history. ... Dates of Jewish emancipation. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel, Palestine and the... Israel, with the West Bank, Gaza Strip and Golan Heights The Israeli-Palestinian conflict is an ongoing dispute between the State of Israel and Arab Palestinians. ... Satellite image of the Land of Israel in January 2003. ... Baal teshuva movement (return [to Judaism] movement) refers to a worldwide phenomenon among the Jewish people. ... Jewish political movements refer to the organized efforts of Jews to build their own political parties or otherwise represent their interest in politics outside of the Jewish community. ... General Zionists were centrists within the Zionist movement. ... Religious Zionism, or the Religious Zionist Movement, a branch of which is also called Mizrachi, is an ideology that claims to combine Zionism and Judaism, to base Zionism on the principles of Jewish religion and heritage. ... Palestine (comprising todays Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza strip) and Transjordan (todays Kingdom of Jordan) were all part of the British Mandate of Palestine. ... A Bundist demonstration, 1917 The General Jewish Labour Union of Lithuania, Poland and Russia, in Yiddish the Algemeyner Yidisher Arbeter Bund in Lite, Poyln un Rusland (אַלגמײַנער ײדישער אַרבײטערסבונד אין ליטאַ, פוילין און רוסלאַנד), generally called The Bund (בונד) or the Jewish Labor Bund, was a Jewish political party operating in several European countries between the 1890s and the... World Agudath Israel (The World Israeli Union) was established in the early twentieth century as the political arm of Ashkenazi Torah Judaism. ... Jewish feminism is a movement that seeks to improve the religious, legal, and social status of women within Judaism and to open up new opportunities for religious experience and leadership for Jewish women. ... Politics of Israel takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Israel is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism, also known as judeophobia) is prejudice and hostility toward Jews as a religious, racial, or ethnic group. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... New antisemitism is the concept of a new 21st-century form of antisemitism emanating simultaneously from the left, the far right, and radical Islam, and tending to manifest itself as opposition to Zionism and the State of Israel. ... Racial antisemitism is hatred of Jews as a racial group, rather than hatred of Judaism as a religion. ... An example of state-sponsored atheist anti-Judaism. ... Secondary antisemitism is a distinct kind of antisemitism which is said to have appeared after the end of World War II. It is often explained as being caused by —as opposed to despite of— Auschwitz, pars pro toto for the Holocaust. ...


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Zionism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (9031 words)
While Zionism is based in part upon religious tradition linking the Jewish people to the Land of Israel, the modern movement was mainly secular, beginning largely as a response to rampant antisemitism in Europe during the 19th century.
The term Zionism is also sometimes used retroactively to describe the millennia-old Biblical connection between the Jewish people and the Land of Israel, which existed long before the birth of the modern Zionist movement.
Zionism was also supported by the political left at various times both before and after Israel's formation, in part due to sympathy for the Jews as an oppressed people and in part due to the strong socialist roots of Labor Zionism.
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