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Encyclopedia > Zinc
30 copperzincgallium
-

Zn

Cd
General
Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30
Chemical series transition metals
Group, period, block 124, d
Appearance bluish pale gray
Standard atomic weight 65.409(4) g·mol−1
Electron configuration [Ar] 3d10 4s2
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 2
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 7.14 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 6.57 g·cm−3
Melting point 692.68 K
(419.53 °C, 787.15 °F)
Boiling point 1180 K
(907 °C, 1665 °F)
Heat of fusion 7.32 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 123.6 kJ·mol−1
Specific heat capacity (25 °C) 0.39 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P/Pa 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T/K 610 670 750 852 990 (1185)
Atomic properties
Crystal structure hexagonal
Oxidation states +1(rare) +2
(amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity 1.65 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
(more)
1st: 906.4 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1733.3 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 3833 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 135 pm
Atomic radius (calc.) 142 pm
Covalent radius 131 pm
Van der Waals radius 139 pm
Miscellaneous
Magnetic ordering diamagnetic
Electrical resistivity (20 °C) 59.0 nΩ·m
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 116 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 30.2 µm·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (thin rod) (r.t.) (rolled) 3850 m·s−1
Young's modulus 108 GPa
Shear modulus 43 GPa
Bulk modulus 70 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.25
Mohs hardness 2.5
Brinell hardness 412 MPa
CAS registry number 7440-66-6
Selected isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of zinc
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
64Zn 48.6% 64Zn is stable with 34 neutrons
65Zn syn 244.26 d ε - 65Cu
γ 1.1155 -
66Zn 27.9% 66Zn is stable with 36 neutrons
67Zn 4.1% 67Zn is stable with 37 neutrons
68Zn 18.8% 68Zn is stable with 38 neutrons
69Zn syn 56.4 min β 0.906 69Ga
70Zn 0.6% 70Zn is stable with 40 neutrons
References
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Zinc (pronounced /ˈzɪŋk/, from German: Zink) is a metallic chemical element with the symbol Zn and atomic number 30. In nonscientific context it is sometimes called spelter.[1] Commercially pure zinc is known as Special High Grade, often abbreviated SHG, and is 99.995% pure.[2] For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Galium. ... General Name, Symbol, Number cadmium, Cd, 48 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 5, d Appearance silvery gray metallic Standard atomic weight 112. ... Zinc table image created for Wikipedia by Schnee on June 25, 2003, 10:42 UTC. Licensed under the terms of the GNU FDL. File links The following pages link to this file: Zinc User:Femto/elements e4 Categories: GFDL images ... This is a standard display of the periodic table of the elements. ... An extended periodic table was suggested by Glenn T. Seaborg in 1969. ... This is a list of chemical elements, sorted by name and color coded according to type of element. ... Categories: Chemical elements ... sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex... In chemistry, the term transition metal (sometimes also called a transition element) has two possible meanings: It commonly refers to any element in the d-block of the periodic table, including zinc, cadmium and mercury. ... A group, also known as a family, is a vertical column in the periodic table of the chemical elements. ... In the periodic table of the elements, a period is a horizontal row of the table. ... A block of the periodic table of elements is a set of adjacent groups. ... The Group 12 elements are: Zinc (30) Cadmium (48) Mercury (80) Ununbium (112) Color coding for these atomic numbers: At room temperature, all are solid but mercury is liquid; red indicates item is synthetic and does not occur naturally. ... A period 4 element is one of the chemical elements in the fourth row (or period) of the periodic table of the elements. ... D Block is a rap group based in Yonkers, New York. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 799 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1749 × 1312 pixel, file size: 1. ... Stylized lithium-7 atom: 3 protons, 4 neutrons & 3 electrons (~1800 times smaller than protons/neutrons). ... To help compare different orders of magnitude, the following list describes various mass levels between 10−36 kg and 1053 kg. ... Hydrogen = 1 List of Elements in Atomic Number Order. ... Molar mass is the mass of one mole of a chemical element or chemical compound. ... Electron atomic and molecular orbitals In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the arrangement of electrons in an atom, molecule, or other physical structure (, a crystal). ... General Name, symbol, number argon, Ar, 18 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 3, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 39. ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... Example of a sodium electron shell model An electron shell, also known as a main energy level, is a group of atomic orbitals with the same value of the principal quantum number n. ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... This box:      For other uses, see Solid (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Room temperature (disambiguation). ... Kilogram per cubic metre is the SI measure of density and is represented as kg/m³, where kg stands for kilogram and m³ stands for cubic metre. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... The melting point of a solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... The melting point of a solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... Standard enthalpy change of fusion of period three. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... The heat of vaporization is a physical property of substances. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... Specific heat capacity, also known simply as specific heat, is the measure of the heat energy required to increase the temperature of a unit quantity of a substance by a certain temperature interval. ... Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its non-vapor phases. ... Enargite crystals In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... Not to be confused with oxidation state. ... In chemistry, an amphoteric substance is one that can react as either an acid or base (more generally, the word describes something made of, or acting like, two components). ... Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom or molecule to attract electrons in the context of a chemical bond. ... The ionization energy (IE) of an atom or of a molecule is the energy required to strip it of an electron. ... These tables list the ionization energy in kJ/mol necessary to remove an electron from a neutral atom (first energy), respectively from a singly, doubly, etc. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... Atomic radius: Ionic radius Covalent radius Metallic radius Van der Waals radius edit Atomic radius, and more generally the size of an atom, is not a precisely defined physical quantity, nor is it constant in all circumstances. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... One picometre is defined as 1x10-12 metres, in standard units. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... Atomic radius: Ionic radius Covalent radius Metallic radius van der Waals radius edit The covalent radius, rcov, is a measure of the size of atom which forms part of a covalent bond. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... The van der Waals radius of an atom is the radius of an imaginary hard sphere which can be used to model the atom for many purposes. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... For other senses of this word, see magnetism (disambiguation). ... Levitating pyrolytic carbon Diamagnetism is a form of magnetism that is only exhibited by a substance in the presence of an externally applied magnetic field. ... // Headline text POOP!! Danny Hornsby (also known as Gnome) is a measure indicating how strongly a Gnome can opposes the flow of electric current. ... K value redirects here. ... During heat transfer, the energy that is stored in the intermolecular bonds between atoms changes. ... For other uses, see Speed of sound (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Room temperature (disambiguation). ... Metre per second (U.S. spelling: meter per second) is an SI derived unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector), defined by distance in metres divided by time in seconds. ... In solid mechanics, Youngs modulus (E) is a measure of the stiffness of a given material. ... Shear strain In materials science, shear modulus or modulus of rigidity, denoted by G, or sometimes S or μ, is defined as the ratio of shear stress to the shear strain:[1] where = shear stress; is the force which acts is the area on which the force acts = shear strain; is... The bulk modulus (K) of a substance essentially measures the substances resistance to uniform compression. ... Figure 1: Rectangular specimen subject to compression, with Poissons ratio circa 0. ... The Mohs scale of mineral hardness characterizes the scratch resistance of various minerals through the ability of a harder material to scratch a softer material. ... The Brinell scale characterises the indentation hardness of materials through the scale of penetration of an indenter, loaded on a material test-piece. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... Zinc (Zn) Standard atomic mass: 65. ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... Natural abundance refers to the prevalence of different isotopes of an element as found in nature. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... In physics, the decay mode describes a particular way a particle decays. ... The decay energy is the energy released by a nuclear decay. ... The electronvolt (symbol eV) is a unit of energy. ... In nuclear physics, a decay product, also known as a daughter product, is a nuclide resulting from the radioactive decay of a parent or precursor nuclide. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different times this page lists times between 116 days and 1157 days or 3. ... Look up day in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Electron capture is a decay mode for isotopes that will occur when there are too many protons in the nucleus of an atom, and there isnt enough energy to emit a positron; however, it continues to be a viable decay mode for radioactive isotopes that can decay by positron... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... This article is about electromagnetic radiation. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... Not to be confused with Galium. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Recommended values for many properties of the elements, together with various references, are collected on these data pages. ... This article is about metallic materials. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element, is a type of atom that is distinguished by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ... See also: List of elements by atomic number In chemistry and physics, the atomic number (also known as the proton number) is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom. ...

Contents

Notable characteristics

Zinc is a moderately reactive bluish grey metal that tarnishes in moist air and burns in air with a bright bluish-green flame, giving off fumes of zinc oxide. It reacts with acids, alkalis and other non-metals. If not completely pure, zinc reacts with dilute acids to release hydrogen. The one common oxidation state of zinc is +2. From 100 °C to 210 °C (212 °F to 410 °F) zinc metal is malleable and can easily be beaten into various shapes. Above 210 °C (410 °F), the metal becomes brittle and will be pulverized by beating. Zinc is nonmagnetic. This article is about metallic materials. ... Zinc oxide is a chemical compound with formula ZnO. It is nearly insoluble in water but soluble in acids or alkalis. ... For other uses, see acid (disambiguation). ... Alkaline redirects here. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... In chemistry, the oxidation state is an indicator of the degree of oxidation of an atom in a chemical compound. ...


Applications

Zinc is the fourth most common metal in use, trailing only iron, aluminium, and copper in annual production Fe redirects here. ... Aluminum redirects here. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ...

  • Zinc is used to Parkerize steel to prevent rust and corrosion
  • Zinc is the primary metal used in making American cents since 1982
  • Zinc is used as the anode or fuel of the zinc-air battery/fuel cell providing the basis of the theorised zinc economy
  • Zinc is used in contemporary pipe organ building as a substitute for the classic lead/tin alloy in pipes sounding the lowest (pedal) tones, as it is tonally almost indistinguishable from lead/tin at those pitches, and has the added advantages of being much more economical and lighter in weight. Even the best organ builders use zinc in this capacity.[citation needed]
  • Zinc oxide is used as a white pigment in watercolours or paints, and as an activator in the rubber industry. As an over-the-counter ointment, it is applied as a thin coating on the exposed skin of the face or nose to prevent dehydration of the area of skin. It can protect against sunburn in the summer and windburn in the winter. Applied thinly to a baby's diaper area (perineum) with each diaper change, it can protect against rash. As determined in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study, it is part of an effective treatment for age-related macular degeneration in some cases
  • Zinc methyl (Zn(CH3)2) is used in a number of organic syntheses.
  • Zinc stearate is a lubricative plastic additive.
  • Lotions made of calamine, a mix of Zn-(hydroxy-)carbonates and silicates, are used to treat skin rash.
  • Zinc metal is included in most single tablet over-the-counter daily vitamin and mineral supplements. It is believed to possess anti-oxidant properties, which protect against premature aging of the skin and muscles of the body. In larger amounts, taken as zinc alone in other proprietaries, it is believed by some to speed up the healing process after an injury. Preparations include zinc acetate and zinc gluconate.
  • Zinc lactate is being used in toothpaste to prevent malodour.
  • Zinc pyrithione is widely applied in shampoo's because of its anti-dandruff function.

Galvanization or galvanisation refers to any of several electrochemical processes named after the Italian scientist Luigi Galvani. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... Parkerizing (sometimes called phosphating) is a method of protecting steel surfaces from corrosion and thus increasing their durability. ... Brazen redirects here. ... A solder is a fusible metal alloy, with a melting point or melting range of 180-190°C (360-370 °F), which is melted to join metallic surfaces, especially in the fields of electronics and plumbing, in a process called soldering. ... German silver is an alloy of 45–70% copper, 5–30% nickel, and 8–45% zinc — sometimes small amounts of tin or lead are added. ... The United States one-cent coin, commonly called a penny, is a unit of currency equaling 1/100 of a United States dollar. ... This article is about the manufacturing process. ... Automakers are companies that produce automobiles. ... For other uses, see Battery. ... Diagram of a zinc anode in a galvanic cell. ... Alkaline batteries A Duracell AA alkaline battery 2 Duracell-Brand AAA Alkaline batteries Alkaline batteries are a type of power cell dependent upon the reaction between zinc and manganese dioxide (Zn/MnO2). ... Zinc-air batteries, also called “zinc-air fuel cells,“ are non-rechargeable electro-chemical batteries powered by the oxidation of zinc with oxygen from the air. ... The zinc economy is a concept analogous to the hydrogen economy, methanol economy, ethanol economy, lithium economy or liquid nitrogen economy. ... A sacrificial anode, or sacrificial rod, is a metallic anode used in an electrochemical process where it is intended to be dissolved to protect other metallic components. ... Aluminium anodes mounted on a steel jacket structure Cathodic protection (CP) is a technique to control the corrosion of a metal surface by making that surface the cathode of an electrochemical cell. ... The baroque organ in Roskilde Cathedral, Denmark The pipe organ is a musical instrument that produces sound by forcing pressurized air (referred to as wind) through a series of pipes. ... Zinc oxide is a chemical compound with formula ZnO. It is nearly insoluble in water but soluble in acids or alkalis. ... For other uses, see Paint (disambiguation). ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Windburn is a skin burn condition where wind removes the top layer of oil from the skin. ... A rash is a change in skin which affects its color, appearance, or texture. ... The Age-Related Eye Disease Study was a clinical trial sponsored by the National Eye Institute, one of the National Institutes of Health in the United States. ... This article or section should be merged with macular degeneration Treatment Those with AMD can sometimes benefit from the treatment tested in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study. ... Zinc chloride (ZnCl2) is a colorless or white compound of zinc and chlorine that is extremely hygroscopic. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Zinc sulfide is a chemical compound with the formula ZnS. Zinc sulfide is a white to yellow colored powder or crystal. ... Luminescence is light not generated by high temperatures alone. ... Zinc methyl is a colorless mobile liquid Zn(CH3)2, formed by the action of methyl iodide on a zinc sodium alloy. ... In chemistry, chemical synthesis is purposeful execution of chemical reactions in order to get a product, or several products. ... Calamine is a mixture of zinc oxide (ZnO) with about 0. ... Zinc acetate is a preparation of zinc used as a dietary supplement and in lozenges used to treat the common cold. ... Zinc gluconate is the salt of gluconate and zinc II. It is an ionic compound consisting of two moles of gluconate for each mole of zinc. ... Zinc gluconate glycine is a chemical derivative formed by adding the amino acid glycine to a compound of zinc gluconate. ... Zinc acetate is a preparation of zinc used as a dietary supplement and in lozenges used to treat the common cold. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Zinc pyrithione is chemical compound used as an antifungal and antibacterial agent. ...

Popular misconceptions

The highly characteristic metal counters of traditional French bars are often referred to as zinc bars or vaguely zinc, but actually zinc has never been used for this purpose and the counters are actually made of an alloy of lead and tin.[citation needed] A bar at the coach terminal, Udine, Italy A bar is the counter where drinks are mixed by a bartender, mainly in hotels, taverns and pubs. ... Singles bar redirects here. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ...


History

Zinc
Zinc

The name of the metal zinc is unusual and, while vague in origin, was probably first used by Paracelsus, a Swiss-born German chemist, who referred to the metal as "Zincum", in the 16th century.[4] These words in German apparently mean "tooth-like, pointed or jagged part" and, as zinc metallic crystals are needle-like, the derivation appears plausible. Download high resolution version (1151x865, 221 KB)Zinc. ... Download high resolution version (1151x865, 221 KB)Zinc. ... Presumed portrait of Paracelsus, attributed to the school of Quentin Matsys. ...


In ancient India the production of zinc metal was very common. Many mine sites of Zawar Mines, near Udaipur, Rajasthan, were active even during 1300–1000 BC. There are references of medicinal uses of zinc in the Charaka Samhita (300 BC). The Rasaratna Samuccaya (800 AD) explains the existence of two types of ores for zinc metal, one of which is ideal for metal extraction while the other is used for medicinal purpose.[citation needed] Zinc alloys have been used for centuries, as brass goods dating to 1400–1000 BC have been found in Israel and zinc objects with 87% zinc have been found in prehistoric Transylvania. Because of the low boiling point and high chemical reactivity of this metal (isolated zinc would tend to go up the chimney rather than be captured), the true nature of this metal was not understood in ancient times. The Charaka Samhita is an ancient Indian manuscript, originating partly from early as 1000 BCE, on Ayurvedic internal medicine. ... Rasaratna Samuccaya, also known as Rasaratna Samuchaya was the famous Scientific text written about 90 CE in India which gives elaborate description on various complex metallurgical processes[1]. ^ Indian Metallurgy Indian Institute of Science &Heritage Categories: | | | ... This article is about the region in Romania. ...


The manufacture of brass was known to the Ebi by about 30 BC, using a technique where calamine and copper were heated together in a crucible. The zinc oxides in calamine were reduced, and the free zinc metal was trapped by the copper, forming an alloy. The resulting calamine brass was either cast or hammered into shape. Brazen redirects here. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Calamine is a historic name for an ore of zinc. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... Zinc oxide is a chemical compound with formula ZnO. It is nearly insoluble in water but soluble in acids or alkalis. ... Steel is a metal alloy whose major component is iron, with carbon content between 0. ... Calamine brass is brass produced by a particular alloying technique using calamine, a zinc ore, rather than metallic zinc. ...


Smelting and extraction of impure forms of zinc was accomplished around 1200 AD in India.[4] China did not learn of the technique until 17th Century AD.[4] In the West, impure zinc as a remnant in melting ovens was known since antiquity, but usually discarded as worthless. Strabo mentions it as pseudo-arguros — "mock silver". The Berne zinc tablet is a votive plaque dating to Roman Gaul, probably made from such zinc remnants. The Berne zinc tablet (also Gobannus tablet) was found in the 1980s in Berne. ... Gaul in the Roman Empire Roman Gaul consisted of an area of provincial rule in what would become modern day France, Belgium, Luxembourg, and western Germany. ...


Pure zinc in the West

The metallurgist Andreas Libavius received in 1597 a quantity of zinc metal in its pure form, which was unknown in the West before then. Libavius called it Indian/Malabar lead. It was regularly imported to Europe from the orient in the 17th and first half of the 18th century,[4] but was at times very expensive.[citation needed] Andreas Libavius (1550 - July 25, 1616) was a German doctor and chemist. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


The isolation of metallic zinc in the West may have been achieved independently by several people:

  • Traders from the Orient were bringing zinc to England in the early 1700s. It is suggested that they also brought the secret of its smelting,[5] but evidence of this is lacking.
  • Dr. John Lane is said to have carried out experiments, probably at Landore, prior to his bankruptcy in 1726.[6] Postlewayt's Universal Dictionary, a contemporary source giving technological information in Europe, did not mention zinc before 1751.[citation needed]
  • In 1738, William Champion patented in Great Britain a process to extract zinc from calamine in a vertical retort style smelter, using a technology somewhat similar to that used at Zawar zinc mines in Rajasthan. However, there is no evidence that he visited the orient.[7] Champion's process was used through 1851.[4]
  • In 1742, the Swedish chemist Anton von Swab distilled zinc from calamine.[4]
  • The discovery of pure metallic zinc is often credited to the German Andreas Marggraf in 1746.[4]

In 1758, William's brother, John, developed a new process for calcining zinc sulfide into an oxide for use in the retort process. Prior to this only calamine could be used to produce zinc. This process was then used into the 20th century. In 1798, Johann Ruberg built the first horizontal retort smelter in Upper Silesia. This was much more fuel efficient and less labor intensive than the vertical retort process. Jean-Jacques Daniel Dony built a different kind of horizontal zinc smelter in Belgium, which processes more.[4] Events and trends The Bonneville Slide blocks the Columbia River near the site of present-day Cascade Locks, Oregon with a land bridge 200 feet (60 m) high. ... The electoral ward of Landore, City and County of Swansea, South Wales, consists of some or all of the following areas, Bon-y-maen, Cwm, Landore, Pentre-chwyth, Swansea, Cadle, Cockett, Felindre, Fforest-fach, Llangyfelach, Tirdeunaw, Waunarlwydd, Clydach, Craigcefnparc, Morriston, Pant-lasau, Plasmarl, Vardre, Ynystawe. ... Malachy Postlewayt was a british commercial expert famous for his publication of the commercial dictionary titled The Universal Dictionary of Trade and Commerce in 1757. ... William Champion (born 1709 died 1789) is credited with patenting a process in Britain to distill zinc from calamine using charcoal in a smelter. ... , Rājasthān (DevanāgarÄ«: राजस्थान, IPA: )   is the largest state of the Republic of India in terms of area. ... This German man was credited (in the West) with discovering a pure form of Zinc ... Calcination is the process of heating a substance to a high temperature, but below its melting or fusing point, to bring about thermal decomposition or a phase transition in its physical or chemical constitution. ... Zinc sulfide (or zinc sulphide) is a chemical compound with the formula ZnS. Zinc sulfide is a white to yellow colored powder or crystal. ...


Biological role

Foods and spices that contain the essential mineral zinc
Foods and spices that contain the essential mineral zinc

Zinc is an essential element, necessary for sustaining all life. It is estimated that 3,000 of the hundreds of thousands of proteins in the human body contain zinc prosthetic groups, one type of which is the so-called zinc finger. In addition, there are over a dozen types of cells in the human body that secrete zinc ions, and the roles of these secreted zinc signals in medicine and health are now being actively studied. Zinc ions are now considered to be neurotransmitters. Cells in the salivary gland, prostate, immune system and intestine use zinc signalling.[8] Download high resolution version (640x969, 355 KB) US Dep. ... Download high resolution version (640x969, 355 KB) US Dep. ... A coenzyme is an organic non-protein molecule that is a functional part of an enzyme. ... Cartoon representation of the protein Zif268 (blue) containing three zinc fingers in complex with DNA (orange). ... This article is about the electrically charged particle. ... Chemical structure of D-aspartic acid, a common amino acid neurotransmitter. ... The salivary glands produce saliva, which keeps the mouth and other parts of the digestive system moist. ... The prostate is a compound tubuloalveolar exocrine gland of the male mammalian reproductive system. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... In anatomy, the intestine is the segment of the alimentary canal extending from the stomach to the anus and, in humans and other mammals, consists of two segments, the small intestine and the large intestine. ...


Zinc is also involved in olfaction: the olfactory receptors contain zinc binding sites and a deficiency in zinc causes anosmia. Olfaction (also known as olfactics) refers to the sense of smell. ... Olfactory receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor in olfactory receptor neurons. ... Anosmia is the lack of olfaction, or a loss of the ability to smell. ...


Zinc is an activator of certain enzymes, such as carbonic anhydrase. Carbonic anhydrase is important in the transport of carbon dioxide in vertebrate blood. It is also required in plants for leaf formation, the synthesis of indole acetic acid (auxin) and anaerobic respiration (alcoholic fermentation).[9] Carbonic anhydrase (carbonate dehydratase) is a family of metalloenzymes (enzymes that contain one or more metal atoms as a functional component of the enzyme) that catalyze the rapid interconversion of carbon dioxide and water into carbonic acid, protons, and bicarbonate ions. ...


Food sources

Zinc is found in oysters, and to a far lesser degree in most animal proteins, beans, nuts, almonds, whole grains, pumpkin seeds and sunflower seeds.[10] A turkey's neck and beef's chuck or shank also contain good amounts of zinc. Phytates, which are found in whole grain breads, cereals, legumes and other products, have been known to decrease zinc absorption. Clinical studies have found that zinc, combined with antioxidants, may delay progression of age-related macular degeneration.[11] Significant dietary intake of zinc has also recently been shown to impede the onset of flu.[12] Soil conservation analyzes the vegetative uptake of naturally occurring zinc in many soil types. For other uses, see Beef (disambiguation). ... Phytic acid (known as inositol hexaphosphate, or phytate when its salt form) is the principal storage form of phosphorus in many plant tissues, especially seeds. ... An antioxidant is a chemical that prevents the oxidation of other chemicals. ... Listen to this article ( info/dl) This audio file was created from an article revision dated 2005-07-19, and may not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... Sheep pasture with macroscale erosion, Australia Soil Conservation is a set of management strategies for prevention of soil being eroded from the earth’s surface or becoming chemically altered by overuse, salinization, acidification, or other chemical soil contamination. ...


The (US) recommended dietary allowance of zinc from puberty on is 11mg for males and 8mg for females, with higher amounts recommended during pregnancy and lactation. Reference Daily Intake (RDI) is the daily dietary intake level of a nutrient considered sufficient to meet the requirements of nearly all (97–98%) healthy individuals in each life-stage and gender group. ...


Zinc deficiency

Main article: Zinc deficiency

Zinc deficiency is typically the result of inadequate dietary intake of zinc, disease states that promote zinc losses, or physiological states that require increased zinc. Populations that consume primarily plant based diets that are low in bioavailable zinc often have zinc deficiencies [13] [14] Diseases or conditions that involve intestinal malabsorption promote zinc losses. Fecal losses of zinc caused by diarrhea are one contributing factor [15], often common in developing countries. Changes in intestinal tract absorbability and permeability due, in part, to viral, protozoal, and bacteria pathogens may also encourage fecal losses of zinc [16]. Physiological states that require increased zinc include periods of growth in infants and children as well as in mothers during pregnancy [17]. Image File history File links Merge-arrow. ... Zinc deficiency is a condition where insufficient Zinc is available for metabolic needs. ... Zinc deficiency is a condition where insufficient Zinc is available for metabolic needs. ... A developing country is a country with low average income compared to the world average. ...


Signs of zinc deficiency include hair loss, skin lesions, diarrhea, and wasting of body tissues. Eyesight, taste,[18][19][20][21][22] smell and memory are also connected with zinc. A deficiency in zinc can cause malfunctions of these organs and functions. Congenital abnormalities causing zinc deficiency may lead to a disease called Acrodermatitis enteropathica. Conservative estimates suggest that 25% of the world's population is at risk of zinc deficiency.[23] This article is about the organ. ... In medicine, diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea (see spelling differences), refers to frequent loose or liquid bowel movements. ... Acrodermatitis enteropathica is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by periorificial (around the natural orifices) and acral (in the limbs) dermatitis, alopecia (loss of hair), and diarrhea. ...


Zinc supplementation has been shown to reduce diarrhea prevalence and mortality in children <5 years of age.[24]


Zinc deficiency during pregnancy can negatively affect both the mother and fetus. Animal studies indicate that maternal zinc deficiency can upset both the sequencing and efficiency of the birth process. An increased incidence of difficult and prolonged labor, hemorrhage, uterine dystocia and placental abruption has been documented in zinc deficient animals [25]. These effects may be mediated by the defective functioning of estrogen via the estrogen receptor, which contains a zinc finger protein [25]. A review of pregnancy outcomes in women with acrodermatitis enteropathica, reported that out of every seven pregnancies, there was one abortion and two malfunctions, suggesting the human fetus is also susceptible to the teratogenic effects of severe zinc deficiency. However, a review on zinc supplementation trials during pregnancy did not report a significant effect of zinc supplementation on neonatal survival [25]. Dystocia (antonym eutocia) is an abnormal or difficult childbirth or labour. ...


Cognitive and motor function may also be impaired in zinc deficient children. Zinc deficiency can interfere with many organ systems especially when it occurs during a time of rapid growth and development when nutritional needs are high, such as during infancy [26]. In animal studies, rats who were deprived of zinc during early fetal development exhibited increased emotionality, poor memory, and abnormal response to stress which interfered with performance in learning situations [27]. Zinc deprivation in monkeys showed that zinc deficient animals were emotionally less mature, and also had cognitive deficits indicated by their difficulty in retaining previously learned problems and in learning new problems [27]. Human observational studies show weaker results. Low maternal zinc status has been associated with less attention during the neonatal period and worse motor functioning.[28] In some studies, supplementation has been associated with motor development in very low birth weight infants and more vigorous and functional activity in infants and toddlers.[28] Filmed by PETA, Covance primate-testing lab, Vienna, Virginia, 2004-5. ... Baby weighed as AGA Birth weight is the weight of a baby at its birth. ...


It is rarely recognised that lack of zinc can contribute to acne. Leukonychia, white spots on the fingernails, are often seen as an indication of zinc deficiency. Grant Salzl has a huge nose full of acne. ... Leukonychia (or Leuconychia) is a medical term for white discoloration appearing on nails. ...


High dose of zinc, 30 mg 1-3 times a day, prevents dysmenorrhea.[29] Dysmenorrhea (or dysmenorrhoea) is a medical condition characterized by severe uterine pain during menstruation. ...


Plasma zinc levels have been found to be dependent upon vitamins A and D. This suggests that a Vitamin A or D deficiency could cause a secondary zinc deficiency. And that for treatment of zinc deficiency one should ensure adequate vitamin A and D intake.[30]


Zinc deficiency as a cause of anorexia nervosa

Main article: Anorexia nervosa

Zinc deficiency causes a decrease in appetite -- which could degenerate in anorexia nervosa (AN). Appetite disorders, in turn, cause malnutrition and, notably, inadequate zinc intake. Anorexia itself is a cause of zinc deficiency, thus leading to a vicious cycle: the worsening of anorexia worsens the zinc deficiency. The use of zinc in the treatment of anorexia nervosa has been advocated since 1979 by Bakan. At least 15 trials showed that zinc improved weight gain in anorexia. A 1994 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial showed that zinc (14 mg per day) doubled the rate of body mass increase in the treatment of anorexia nervosa (AN). Deficiency of other nutrients such as tyrosine and tryptophan (precursors of the monoamine neurotransmitters norepinephrine and serotonin, respectively), as well as vitamin B1 (thiamine) could contribute to this phenomenon of malnutrition-induced malnutrition.[31] For other uses, see Anorexia. ... The appetite is the desire to eat food, felt as hunger. ... Percentage of population affected by malnutrition by country, according to United Nations statistics. ... Nutrients and the body A nutrient is any element or compound necessary for or contributing to an organisms metabolism, growth, or other functioning. ... Tyrosine (from the Greek tyros, meaning cheese, as it was first discovered in 1846 by German chemist Justus von Liebig in the protein casein from cheese[1][2]), 4-hydroxyphenylalanine, or 2-amino-3(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propanoic acid, is one of the 20 amino acids that are used by cells... Tryptophan (abbreviated as Trp or W)[1] is one of the 20 standard amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins, and an essential amino acid in the human diet. ... In biochemistry, monoamines are a group of organic compounds containing only one amino group. ... Chemical structure of D-aspartic acid, a common amino acid neurotransmitter. ... Norepinephrine (INN)(abbr. ... For the professional wrestling stable, see Ravens Nest#Serotonin. ... For the similarly spelled nucleic acid, see Thymine Thiamine or thiamin, also known as vitamin B1, is one of the B vitamins. ...


Zinc toxicity

Even though zinc is an essential requirement for a healthy body, too much zinc can be harmful. Excessive absorption of zinc can also suppress copper and iron absorption. The free zinc ion in solution is highly toxic to plants, invertebrates, and even vertebrate fish. The Free Ion Activity Model (FIAM) is well-established in the literature, and shows that just micromolar amounts of the free ion kills some organisms. A recent example showed 6 micromolar killing 93% of all Daphnia in water.[32] The mole (symbol: mol) is the SI base unit that measures an amount of substance. ... Species Subgenus Daphnia Subgenus Hyalodaphnia D. galeata Subgenus Ctenodaphnia Daphnia are small, mostly planktonic, crustaceans, between 0. ...


The free zinc ion is also a powerful Lewis acid up to the point of being corrosive. Stomach acid contains hydrochloric acid, in which metallic zinc dissolves readily to give corrosive zinc chloride. Swallowing a post 1982 American one cent piece (97.5% zinc) can cause damage to the stomach lining due to the high solubility of the zinc ion in the acidic stomach.[33] Zinc toxicity, mostly in the form of the ingestion of US pennies minted after 1982, is commonly fatal in dogs where it causes a severe hemolytic anemia.[34] In pet parrots zinc is highly toxic and poisoning can often be fatal[35]. In chemistry, a Lewis acid can accept a pair of electrons and form a coordinate covalent bond, after the American chemist Gilbert Lewis. ... Corrosion is the destructive reaction of a metal with another material, e. ... Hydrochloric acid is the aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). ... Zinc chloride (ZnCl2) is a colorless or white compound of zinc and chlorine that is extremely hygroscopic. ... The United States one-cent coin is a unit of currency equaling one-hundredth of a United States dollar. ... Hemolytic anemia is anemia due to hemolysis, the abnormal breakdown of red blood cells either in the blood vessels (intravascular hemolysis) or elsewhere in the body (extravascular). ...


There is evidence of induced copper deficiency at low intakes of 100–300 mg Zn/d. The USDA RDA is 15 mg Zn/d. Even lower levels, closer to the RDA, may interfere with the utilization of copper and iron or to adversely affect cholesterol.[36].


Immune system

See also: Zinc gluconate

Zinc salts are effective against pathogens in direct application. Gastroenteritis is strongly attenuated by ingestion of zinc, and this effect could be due to direct antimicrobial action of the zinc ions in the GI tract, or to absorption of the zinc and re-release from immune cells (all granulocytes secrete zinc), or both.[37][38] Zinc gluconate is the salt of gluconate and zinc II. It is an ionic compound consisting of two moles of gluconate for each mole of zinc. ... A pathogen (from Greek pathos, suffering/emotion, and gene, to give birth to), infectious agent, or more commonly germ, is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. ... See also Bacterial gastroenteritis and Diarrhea Gastroenteritis is a general term referring to inflammation or infection of the gastrointestinal tract, primarily the stomach and intestines. ... Eosinophil granulocyte Basophil granulocyte Granulocytes are a category of white blood cells characterised by the presence of granules in their cytoplasm. ...


In clinical trials, both zinc gluconate and zinc gluconate glycine (the formulation used in lozenges) have been shown to shorten the duration of symptoms of the common cold.[39] The amount of glycine can vary from two to twenty moles per mole of zinc gluconate. This box:      In health care, a clinical trial is a comparison test of a medication or other medical treatment (such as a medical device), versus a placebo (inactive look-a-like), other medications or devices, or the standard medical treatment for a patients condition. ...


It should be known that there have been clinical trials that both support the use of zinc for the common cold, and are inconclusive of its effectiveness. All clinical trials have their critics, including the dosage amount used, and the highly subjective format of patient self-reporting the results of their trials.[40]


Abundance

See also: Zinc minerals

Zinc is the 23rd most abundant element in the Earth's crust. The most heavily mined ores (sphalerite) tend to contain roughly 10% iron as well as 40–50% zinc. Minerals from which zinc is extracted include sphalerite (zinc sulfide), smithsonite (zinc carbonate), hemimorphite (zinc silicate), and franklinite (a zinc spinel). Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ... For other uses, see Ore (disambiguation). ... Fe redirects here. ... Sphalerite sample Another sphalerite sample The unit cell of sphalerite Sphalerite (ZnS) is a gay mineral that is the chief ore of zinc. ... Smithsonite (Zinc Carbonate) Smithsonite, or zinc spar, is zinc carbonate ZnCO3, a mineral ore of zinc. ... Hemimorphite, is a sorosilicate mineral which has been mined from days of old from the upper parts of zinc and lead ores, chiefly associated with smithsonite. ... Spinel is one of a group of minerals which crystallize in the isometric system with an octahedral habit, and whose chemical compositions are analogous. ...


The earth has been estimated to have 46 years supply of zinc.[41] A chemist estimated in 2007 that at the current rate of usage, the world's supply of zinc would be exhausted by about the year 2037.[42]


Zinc mining and processing

Zinc output in 2005
Zinc output in 2005
Main article: Zinc smelting

There are zinc mines throughout the world, with the largest producers being China, Australia and Peru. In 2005, China produced almost one-fourth of the global zinc output, reports the British Geological Survey. Mines and refineries in Europe include Umicore in Belgium, Tara, Galmoy and Lisheen in Ireland and Zinkgruvan in Sweden. Zinc metal is produced using extractive metallurgy. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 60 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of mined output of zinc in 2005 as a percentage of the the top producer (China - 2,525,000... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 60 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of mined output of zinc in 2005 as a percentage of the the top producer (China - 2,525,000... The British Geological Survey is a publicly-funded body which aims to advance geoscientific knowledge of the United Kingdom landmass and its continental shelf by means of systematic surveying, monitoring and research. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Union Minière du Haut Katanga (UMHK) is a Belgian mining company, once operating in Katanga, in what is now the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly, Congo Free State, from 1908, Belgian Congo, from 1972, Zaire). ... The Hill of Tara (Irish Teamhair na Rí, Hill of the Kings), located near the River Boyne, is a long, low limestone ridge that runs between Navan and Dunshaughlin in County Meath, Leinster, Ireland. ... Zinkgruvan is a small village located in mid Sweden close to Swedens second biggest lake, Vättern. ... Extractive metallurgy is the practice of extracting metal from ore, purifying it, and recycling it. ...


Alloys

The most widely used alloy of zinc is brass, in which copper is alloyed with anywhere from 9% to 45% zinc, depending upon the type of brass, along with much smaller amounts of lead and tin. Alloys of 85–88% zinc, 4–10% copper, and 2–8% aluminium find limited use in certain types of machine bearings. Alloys of primarily zinc with small amounts of copper, aluminium, and magnesium are useful in die casting as well as spin casting. An example of this is zinc aluminium. Similar alloys with the addition of a small amount of lead can be cold-rolled into sheets. An alloy of 96% zinc and 4% aluminium is used to make stamping dies for low production run applications where ferrous metal dies would be too expensive.[43] Brazen redirects here. ... This article is about the manufacturing process. ... Spin casting or Centrifugal Rubber Mold Casting (CRMC) is a method of utilizing centrifugal force to produce castings from a rubber mold. ...


Compounds

See also: Zinc compounds

Zinc oxide is perhaps the best known and most widely used zinc compound, as it makes a good base for white pigments in paint. It also finds industrial use in the rubber industry, and is sold as opaque sunscreen. A variety of other zinc compounds find use industrially, such as zinc chloride (in deodorants), zinc pyrithione (anti-dandruff shampoos), zinc sulfide (in luminescent paints), and zinc methyl or zinc diethyl in the organic laboratory. Roughly one quarter of all zinc output is consumed in the form of zinc compounds. Zinc oxide is a chemical compound with formula ZnO. It is nearly insoluble in water but soluble in acids or alkalis. ... Sunscreen (also known as sunblock, suntan lotion) is a lotion, spray or other topical product that is intended to protect the skin from the suns ultraviolet (UV) radiation. ... Zinc chloride (ZnCl2) is a colorless or white compound of zinc and chlorine that is extremely hygroscopic. ... Zinc pyrithione is chemical compound used as an antifungal and antibacterial agent. ... For the album by Ivor Cutler, see Dandruff (album). ... Shampoo is a common hair care product used for the removal of oils, dirt, skin particles, dandruff, environmental pollutants and other contaminant particles that gradually build up in hair. ... Zinc sulfide (or zinc sulphide) is a chemical compound with the formula ZnS. Zinc sulfide is a white to yellow colored powder or crystal. ...


Isotopes

Main article: Isotopes of zinc

Naturally occurring zinc is composed of the 5 stable isotopes 64Zn, 66Zn, 67Zn, 68Zn, and 70Zn with 64Zn being the most abundant (48.6% natural abundance). Twenty-one radioisotopes have been characterised with the most abundant and stable being 65Zn with a half-life of 244.26 days, and 72Zn with a half-life of 46.5 hours. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives that are less than 14 hours and the majority of these have half lives that are less than 1 second. This element also has 4 meta states. Zinc (Zn) Standard atomic mass: 65. ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... Natural abundance refers to the prevalence of different isotopes of an element as found in nature. ... A radionuclide is an atom with an unstable nucleus. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... Radioactive decay is the set of various processes by which unstable atomic nuclei (nuclides) emit subatomic particles. ... A nuclear isomer is a metastable state of an atom caused by the excitation of a proton or neutron in its nucleus so that it requires a change in spin before it can release its extra energy. ...


Zinc has been proposed as a "salting" material for nuclear weapons (cobalt is another, better-known salting material). A jacket of isotopically enriched 64Zn, irradiated by the intense high-energy neutron flux from an exploding thermonuclear weapon, would transmute into the radioactive isotope Zn-65 with a half-life of 244 days and produce approximately 2.27 MeV of gamma radiation, significantly increasing the radioactivity of the weapon's fallout for several days. Such a weapon is not known to have ever been built, tested, or used. It has been suggested that Cobalt bomb be merged into this article or section. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... For other uses, see Cobalt (disambiguation). ... Isotope separation is the process of concentrating specific isotopes of a chemical element by removing other isotopes, for example separating natural uranium into enriched uranium and depleted uranium. ... An electronvolt (symbol: eV) is the amount of energy gained by a single unbound electron when it falls through an electrostatic potential difference of one volt. ... This article is about electromagnetic radiation. ... Fallout is the residual radiation hazard from a nuclear explosion, so named because it falls out of the atmosphere into which it is spread during the explosion. ...


Precautions

Metallic zinc is not considered to be toxic, but free zinc ions in solution (like copper or iron ions) are highly toxic. There is also a condition called zinc shakes or zinc chills (see metal fume fever) that can be induced by the inhalation of freshly formed zinc oxide formed during the welding of galvanized materials. Excessive intake of zinc can promote deficiency in other dietary minerals. Metal fume fever is illness caused primarily by exposure to fumes from zinc oxide (ZnO) or magnesium oxide (MgO), often through breathing fumes created by heating or welding certain metals, such as galvanized steel. ... Zinc oxide is a chemical compound with formula ZnO. It is nearly insoluble in water but soluble in acids or alkalis. ... Welding is a fabrication process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing coalescence. ... Galvanization, named after the Italian scientist Luigi Galvani, was originally the administration of electric shocks (in the 19th century also termed Faradism, after Michael Faraday). ... Dietary minerals are chemical elements required by living organisms. ...


References

  1. ^ spelter. The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. 2000
  2. ^ Special High Grade Zinc (SHG) 99.995%, <http://nyrstar.com/nyrstar/en/products/zinccongalvanising/techdownloads/shg_budel.pdf>. Retrieved on 04-23-2008 .
  3. ^ Ananda S. Prasad, MD, PhD; James T. Fitzgerald, PhD; Bin Bao, MD, PhD; Frances W.J. Beck, PhD; and Pranatharthi H. Chandrasekar, MD. "Duration of Symptoms and Plasma Cytokine Levels in Patients with the Common Cold Treated with Zinc Acetate: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial." Annals of Internal Medicine [1]
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  5. ^ Metals Reference and Encyclopedia (Atlas Publishing Co, 1968).
  6. ^ R. O. Roberts, 'Dr John Lane and the foundation of the non-ferrous metal industry in the Swansea valley' Gower 4 (1951), 19-24; F. V. Emery, 'Further light on Dr John Lane' Gower 20 (1969), 8-13; R. O. Roberts, 'Further note on Dr John Lane' Gower 22 (1972), 23-5.
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  11. ^ Age-Related Eye Disease Study Research Group. www.pubmed.gov. Retrieved on 2007-11-13.
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  35. ^ See, for example, this list of common parrot illnesses and their causes.
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  43. ^ Samans, Carl H.: Engineering Metals and their Alloys MacMillan 1949

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Distinguished from fluorene and fluorone. ... For other uses, see Neon (disambiguation). ... For sodium in the diet, see Salt. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... Aluminum redirects here. ... Not to be confused with Silicone. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... General Name, symbol, number argon, Ar, 18 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 3, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 39. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number scandium, Sc, 21 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 3, 4, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 44. ... General Name, symbol, number titanium, Ti, 22 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 4, 4, d Appearance silvery grey-white metallic Standard atomic weight 47. ... General Name, symbol, number vanadium, V, 23 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 5, 4, d Appearance silver-grey metal Standard atomic weight 50. ... REDIRECT [[ Insert text]]EWWWWWWWWWWWWW YO General Name, symbol, number chromium, Cr, 24 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 6, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 51. ... General Name, symbol, number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ... Fe redirects here. ... For other uses, see Cobalt (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Galium. ... General Name, Symbol, Number germanium, Ge, 32 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 14, 4, p Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 72. ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Standard atomic weight 74. ... For other uses, see Selenium (disambiguation). ... Bromo redirects here. ... For other uses, see Krypton (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number rubidium, Rb, 37 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 5, s Appearance grey white Standard atomic weight 85. ... General Name, Symbol, Number strontium, Sr, 38 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 5, s Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 87. ... General Name, Symbol, Number yttrium, Y, 39 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 3, 5, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 88. ... General Name, Symbol, Number zirconium, Zr, 40 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 5, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 91. ... General Name, Symbol, Number niobium, Nb, 41 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 5, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Standard atomic weight 92. ... General Name, Symbol, Number molybdenum, Mo, 42 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Standard atomic weight 95. ... General Name, Symbol, Number technetium, Tc, 43 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 5, d Appearance silvery gray metal Standard atomic weight [98](0) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Kr] 4d5 5s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 13, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Ruthenium, Ru, 44 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 5, d Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 101. ... General Name, Symbol, Number rhodium, Rh, 45 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 9, 5, d Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 102. ... For other uses, see Palladium (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number cadmium, Cd, 48 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 5, d Appearance silvery gray metallic Standard atomic weight 112. ... General Name, Symbol, Number indium, In, 49 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Standard atomic weight 114. ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ... This article is about the element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tellurium, Te, 52 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 16, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Standard atomic weight 127. ... For other uses, see Iodine (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number xenon, Xe, 54 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 5, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 131. ... General Name, Symbol, Number caesium, Cs, 55 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 6, s Appearance silvery gold Standard atomic weight 132. ... For other uses, see Barium (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number lanthanum, La, 57 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block 3, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 138. ... General Name, Symbol, Number cerium, Ce, 58 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 140. ... General Name, Symbol, Number praseodymium, Pr, 59 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 140. ... General Name, Symbol, Number neodymium, Nd, 60 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white, yellowish tinge Standard atomic weight 144. ... General Name, Symbol, Number promethium, Pm, 61 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance metallic Atomic mass [145](0) g/mol Electron configuration [Xe] 4f5 6s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 23, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number samarium, Sm, 62 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 150. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gadolinium, Gd, 64 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 157. ... General Name, Symbol, Number terbium, Tb, 65 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 158. ... General Name, Symbol, Number dysprosium, Dy, 66 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 162. ... General Name, Symbol, Number holmium, Ho, 67 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 164. ... General Name, Symbol, Number erbium, Er, 68 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 167. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thulium, Tm, 69 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block ?, 6, f Appearance silvery gray Atomic mass 168. ... Yb redirects here; for the unit of information see Yottabit General Name, Symbol, Number ytterbium, Yb, 70 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 173. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lutetium, Lu, 71 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 174. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hafnium, Hf, 72 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 6, d Appearance grey steel Standard atomic weight 178. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tantalum, Ta, 73 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 5, 6, d Appearance gray blue Standard atomic weight 180. ... For other uses, see Tungsten (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number rhenium, Re, 75 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 186. ... General Name, Symbol, Number osmium, Os, 76 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 6, d Appearance silvery, blue cast Standard atomic weight 190. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number platinum, Pt, 78 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 195. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... This article is about the element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thallium, Tl, 81 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 6, p Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 204. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... General Name, Symbol, Number bismuth, Bi, 83 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 15, 6, p Appearance lustrous pink Standard atomic weight 208. ... General Name, Symbol, Number polonium, Po, 84 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 16, 6, p Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight (209) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Xe] 6s2 4f14 5d10 6p4 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 6 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number astatine, At, 85 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 6, p Appearance metallic (presumed) Standard atomic weight (210) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p5 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 7 Physical properties Phase solid Melting point 575 K... For other uses, see Radon (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number francium, Fr, 87 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 7, s Appearance metallic Standard atomic weight (223) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 7s1 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8, 1 Physical properties Phase  ? solid Density (near r. ... For other uses, see Radium (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number actinium, Ac, 89 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block 3, 7, f Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight (227) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 9, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thorium, Th, 90 Chemical series Actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 232. ... General Name, Symbol, Number protactinium, Pa, 91 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance bright, silvery metallic luster Standard atomic weight 231. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number neptunium, Np, 93 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight (237) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f4 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 22, 9, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... This article is about the radioactive element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number americium, Am, 95 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white sometimes yellow Standard atomic weight (243) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f7 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 25, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near... General Name, Symbol, Number curium, Cm, 96 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block ?, 7, f Appearance silvery Atomic mass (247) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f7 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 25, 9, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number berkelium, Bk, 97 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (247) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f9 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 27, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid... General Name, Symbol, Number californium, Cf, 98 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight (251) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f10 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 28, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number einsteinium, Es, 99 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Standard atomic weight (252) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f11 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 29, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase... General Name, Symbol, Number fermium, Fm, 100 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (257) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f12 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 30, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid... General Name, Symbol, Number mendelevium, Md, 101 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (258) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f13 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 31, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid... General Name, Symbol, Number nobelium, No, 102 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (259) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f14 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Melting... General Name, Symbol, Number lawrencium, Lr, 103 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Standard atomic weight [262] g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f14 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 9, 2 Physical... General Name, Symbol, Number rutherfordium, Rf, 104 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 7, d Standard atomic weight (265) g·mol−1 Electron configuration probably [Rn] 5f14 6d2 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 10, 2 Physical properties Phase presumably a solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number dubnium, Db, 105 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 5, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (262) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d3 7s2 (guess based on tantalum) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 11... General Name, Symbol, Number seaborgium, Sg, 106 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (266) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d4 7s2 (guess based on tungsten) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 12... General Name, Symbol, Number bohrium, Bh, 107 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (264) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d5 7s2 (guess based on rhenium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 13... General Name, Symbol, Number hassium, Hs, 108 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (269) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d6 7s2 (guess based on osmium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 14... General Name, Symbol, Number meitnerium, Mt, 109 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 9, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (268) g·mol−1 Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d7 7s2 (guess based on iridium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number darmstadtium, Ds, 110 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (281) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d9 7s1 (guess based on platinum) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 17... General Name, Symbol, Number roentgenium, Rg, 111 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably yellow or orange metallic Atomic mass (284) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s1 (guess based on gold) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 1... General Name, Symbol, Number ununbium, Uub, 112 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray liquid Atomic mass (285) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 (guess based on mercury) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number ununtrium, Uut, 113 Chemical series presumably poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (284) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p1 (guess based on thallium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number ununquadium, Uuq, 114 Chemical series presumably poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Standard atomic weight [289] g·mol−1 Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p2 (guess based on lead) Electrons per shell 2, 8... General Name, Symbol, Number ununpentium, Uup, 115 Group, Period, Block 15, 7, p Atomic mass (299) g·mol−1 Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p3 (guess based on bismuth) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 5 CAS registry number 54085-64-2 Selected isotopes References... General Name, Symbol, Number ununhexium, Uuh, 116 Chemical series presumably poor metals Group, Period, Block 16, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (302) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p4 (guess based on polonium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number ununseptium, Uus, 117 Chemical series presumably halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably dark metallic Standard atomic weight predicted, (310) g·mol−1 Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p5 (guess based on astatine) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number ununoctium, Uuo, 118 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably colorless Atomic mass predicted, (314) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p6 (guess based on radon) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 8 Phase... The alkali metals are a series of elements comprising Group 1 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table: lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr). ... The alkaline earth metals are a series of elements comprising Group 2 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table: beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba) and radium (Ra). ... The lanthanide (or lanthanoid) series comprises the 15 elements with atomic numbers 57 through 71, from lanthanum to lutetium[1]. All lanthanides are f-block elements, corresponding to the filling of the 4f electron shell, except for lutetium which is a d-block lanthanide. ... The actinide series encompasses the 14 chemical elements that lie between actinium and nobelium on the periodic table with atomic numbers 89 - 102 inclusive. ... This article is in need of attention. ... This article is about metallic materials. ... Metalloid is a term used in chemistry when classifying the chemical elements. ... Together with the metals and metalloids, a nonmetal is one of three categories of chemical elements as distinguished by ionization and bonding properties. ... This article is about the chemical series. ... This article is about the chemical series. ...

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Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University (3926 words)
Zinc deficiency is associated with decreased release of vitamin A from the liver, which may contribute to symptoms of night blindness that are seen with zinc deficiency (14, 15).
Since a sensitive indicator of zinc nutritional status is not readily available, the RDA for zinc is based on a number of different indicators of zinc nutritional status and represents the daily intake likely to prevent deficiency in nearly all individuals in a specific age and gender group (4).
Zinc bioavailability (the fraction of zinc retained and used by the body) is relatively high in meat, eggs, and seafood because of the relative absence of compounds that inhibit zinc absorption and the presence of certain amino acids (cysteine and methionine) that improve zinc absorption.
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