FACTOID # 17: Though Rhode Island is the smallest state in total area, it has the longest official name: The State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Zimmerman telegram

The Zimmermann Telegram was a Telegraphy (from the Greek words tele = far away and grapho = write) is the long distance transmission of written messages without physical transport of letters, originally over wire. Radiotelegraphy or wireless telegraphy transmits messages using radio. This definition includes recent forms of data transmission such as fax, email, and computer networks... telegram dispatched by the Foreign Secretary of the History of Germany Timeline Franks Holy Roman Empire German Confederation German Empire Weimar Republic Nazi Germany World War II Since 1945 The term German Empire (Deutsches Reich) commonly refers to Germany, from its consolidation as a unified nation-state on January 18, 1871, until the abdication of Kaiser ( Emperor) Wilhelm... German Empire, Arthur Zimmermann (October 5, 1864 _ June 6, 1940) was Germanys Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs from November 22, 1916, until his resignation on August 6, 1917. His name is associated with the Zimmermann Telegram during World War I. However, he was also closely involved in plans to... Arthur Zimmermann, on January 16 is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. There are 349 days remaining (350 in leap years). January Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19... January 16, 1917 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). Contents // 1 Events 1.1 January-February 1.2 March-April 1.3 May-October 1.4 November 1.5 December 1.6 Unknown dates 1.7 Ongoing events 2 Births 2.1 January-March 2.2 April... 1917, to the The Federal Republic of Germany ( German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is one of the worlds leading industrialised countries, located in the heart of Europe. Due to its central location, Germany has more neighbours than any other European country: these are Denmark in the north, Poland and the Czech Republic in the... German For other uses, see Ambassador (disambiguation). An ambassador, rarely embassador, is a diplomatic official accredited to a foreign sovereign or government, or to an international organization, to serve as the official representative of his or her own. In everyday usage it applies to the ranking plenipotentiary minister stationed in a... ambassador in The United Mexican States or Mexico (Spanish: Estados Unidos Mexicanos or México; regarding the use of the variant spelling Méjico, see section The name below) is a country located in North America, bordered to the north by the United States, to the south-east by Guatemala and Belize... Mexico, Heinrich von Eckardt, at the height of Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. Battle aftermath. Remains of the Chateau Wood World War I, also known as the First World War, the Great War, the War of the Nations, and the War to End All Wars, was a world conflict occurring from 1914 to... World War I. It instructed the ambassador to approach the The United Mexican States or Mexico (Spanish: Estados Unidos Mexicanos or México; regarding the use of the variant spelling Méjico, see section The name below) is a country located in North America, bordered to the north by the United States, to the south-east by Guatemala and Belize... Mexican government with a proposal to form an An alliance can be: an agreement between two parties, particularly: a military alliance formed between states a business alliance formed between organisations a New Zealand political party, the Alliance a Canadian political party, the Canadian Alliance a Northern_Ireland political party, Alliance the former name of the Malaysian political coalition currently... alliance against the The United States of America — also referred to as the United States, the U.S.A., the U.S., America¹, the States, or (archaically) Columbia — is a federal republic of 50 states located primarily in central North America (with the exception of two states: Alaska and Hawaii... United States. It was intercepted by the The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and a member of the British Commonwealth and European Union. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, UK or, inaccurately, as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent parts. Three of these parts... British and its contents hastened the entry of the United States into the For other uses of War, see War (disambiguation). War is conflict, between relatively large groups of people, which involves physical force inflicted by the use of weapons. Other terms for war include armed conflict, hostilities, and police action. (See Limitations on war below.) War is contrasted with peace, which is... war.

Contents

The telegram

Zimmermann Telegram decrypted and translated This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. See Copyright. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. Click on date to download the file or...
Zimmermann Telegram decrypted and translated This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. See Copyright. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. Click on date to download the file or... Enlarge
The telegram, completely decrypted and translated.

Zimmermann's message included proposals for a German alliance with Mexico, while Germany would still try to maintain a state of neutrality with the United States. If this policy were to fail, the note suggested, the Mexican government should make common cause with Germany, try to persuade the Japan (disambiguation). 日本国 (Nihon/Nippon-koku)  listen? ( Flag of Japan) ( Imperial Seal) Official language Japanese Capital Tokyo Largest City Tokyo Emperor Akihito Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 60th 377,835 km² 0.8% Population  - Total (2004 est.)  - Density Ranked... Japanese government to join the new alliance, and attack the US. Germany on its part would promise financial assistance and the restoration of its former territories of State of Texas (Flag of Texas) (Seal of Texas) State nickname: Lone Star State Other U.S. States Capital Austin Largest city Houston Governor Rick Perry Official languages None Area 696,241 km² (2nd)  - Land 678,907 km²  - Water 17,333 km² (2.5%) Population (2000... Texas, This article needs cleanup. Please edit this article to conform to a higher standard of article quality. State of New Mexico Estado de Nuevo México (Flag of New Mexico) (Seal of New Mexico) State nickname: Land of Enchantment Other U.S. States Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque... New Mexico and State of Arizona (Flag of Arizona) (Seal of Arizona) State nickname: The Grand Canyon State, The Copper State Other U.S. States Capital Phoenix Largest city Phoenix Governor Janet Napolitano Official languages English Only State Area 295,254 km² (6th)  - Land 294,312 km²  - Water 942... Arizona to Mexico (lost in the Military history of Mexico Military history of the United States Conflict Mexican-American War Date 1846–1848 Place Southern US and Northern and Eastern Mexico Result Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, Mexican Cession Battles of the Mexican-American War Combatants United States of America Mexico Strength 60,000 40,000... US-Mexico war of 1846-1848).


The Mexican answer

Later, a General is a military rank, in most nations the highest rank, although some nations have the higher rank of Field Marshal. The title is used by land and sometimes air forces. In the navies of the world, the equivalent rank is Admiral. Its equivalent rank in the Royal Air Force... general assigned by Mexico's president, Venustiano Carranza President of Mexico Order:  45th President Term of office:  1 May 1915 to 21 May 1920 – Preceded by:  Francisco S. Carvajal – Succeeded by:  Adolfo de la Huerta Date of birth: 29 December 1859 Place of birth: Cuatro Ciénegas, Coahuila Date of... Venustiano Carranza, assessed the realities of a Mexican takeover of their former provinces and came to the conclusion that it would not work. Taking over the three states would almost certainly cause future problems and possibly war with the US; Mexico would also be unable to accommodate a large Anglo population within its borders; and Germany would not be able to supply the arms needed in the hostilities that would surely arise. Carranza declined Zimmermann's proposals on April 14 is the 104th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (105th in leap years). There are 261 days remaining. April Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19... April 14, by which time the US had declared war on Germany.


British interception

Download high resolution version (295x619, 44 KB)Zimmermann telegram as cracked by Room 40 This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. See Copyright. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old...
Download high resolution version (295x619, 44 KB)Zimmermann telegram as cracked by Room 40 This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. See Copyright. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old... Enlarge
The telegram as decrypted by the British Naval Intelligence codebreakers. The word Arizona was not in the German codebook and was therefore split into smaller parts.

The telegram was intercepted and decrypted enough to get the gist of it by codebreakers Nigel de Grey and William Montgomery worked in the British, Room 40 as a code breaker during World War I. Along with the efforts of others, he helped decipher the Zimmermann Telegram. Categories: Stub ... William Montgomery of the British Naval Intelligence unit, In the history of cryptography, Room 40 (formally I.D. 25) was the room in the Admiralty which was the first location of the British cryptography effort during World War I. It was formed shortly after the start of the war in October 1914, as a result of codebooks and... Room 40, under Admiral William R. Hall. This was made possible because the For other senses of the word code, see code (disambiguation). In communications, a code is a rule for converting a piece of information (for example, a letter, word, or phrase) into another form or representation, not necessarily of the same sort. In communications and information processing, encoding is the process... code the Foreign Office used (0075) had been partially cryptanalyzed using, among other techniques, captured plaintext messages and a Categories: Cryptography stubs | Cryptography ... codebook for an earlier version of the cypher captured from Wilhelm Wassmus, a German agent working in the A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. The Middle East is a... Middle East.


The This article is part of the series Politics of the United Kingdom Parliament Crown House of Lords    Lord Chancellor House of Commons    Speaker Prime Minister Cabinet Government Departments Scottish Parliament    Scottish Executive National Assembly for Wales    Welsh Assembly... British government, which wanted to expose the incriminating telegram, faced a dilemma: if it baldly produced the actual telegram, the Germans would suspect that their For other senses of the word code, see code (disambiguation). In communications, a code is a rule for converting a piece of information (for example, a letter, word, or phrase) into another form or representation, not necessarily of the same sort. In communications and information processing, encoding is the process... code was broken; and if it did not, it would lose a promising opportunity to draw the United States into World War I – the message was sent during a period when anti-German feeling in the United States was running particularly high, following the loss of some two hundred US lives to German USS Los Angeles A submarine is a specialized watercraft that can operate underwater. Nuclear powered submarines and other large submarines are classed as ships, but are customarily referred to by their crews as boats. Most major navies of the world employ submarines. Submarines are also used for marine and freshwater... submarine attacks.


There was a further problem too — they could not simply confidentially show it to the The government of the United States, established by the United States Constitution, is a federal republic of 50 states, a few territories and some protectorates. The national government consists of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches. The head of the executive branch is the President of the United States. The... United States government either. Because of its importance, the message had been sent from For other uses, see Berlin (disambiguation). State of Berlin State and Service Flags State and Service Flags of Berlin Coat of arms Map of Germany showing Berlin Basic Information Area: 891.69 km² Population: 3,388,477 (December 2003) Population density: 3800 residents/km² Elevation: 34 m above... Berlin to the German ambassador in This article deals with the U.S. state. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation) State of Washington (Flag of Washington) (Seal of Washington) State nickname: The Evergreen State Other U.S. States Capital Olympia Largest city Seattle Governor Christine Gregoire Official languages None Area 184,824 km² (18th... Washington, Categories: People stubs ... Johann von Bernstorff, for onward transmission to their ambassador in Mexico, von Eckardt, by three separate routes. The British had obtained it from just one of these — the Americans had given Germany access to their private diplomatic telegraph in an effort to encourage President Wilson's peace initiative. The Germans were not afraid of using it because the messages were encrypted and because as a matter of principle the United States did not at that time read other countries' diplomatic correspondence nor did they have any code-breaking capability. The telegraph cable went from the US Embassy in Berlin to This article needs cleanup. Please edit this article to conform to a higher standard of article quality. Copenhagen, Denmark Need image Need image City flag City seal City nickname: none Location in Denmark Area  - Total  - Water 526 km² xxx km² xx% Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  ... Copenhagen and then via A submarine communications cable is a cable laid beneath the sea to carry telecommunications between countries. The first submarine communications cables carried telegraphy traffic. Subsequent generations of cables carried first telephony traffic, then data communications traffic. All modern cables use fiber optic technology to carry digital payloads, which are then... submarine cable to the United States via Britain (where it was monitored). For the British to reveal the source of the telegram to the United States would have meant also admitting to the American government that they had tapped US diplomatic communications.


The British solution

Zimmermann telegram in encrypted form This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. See Copyright. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. Click on date to download the file or...
Zimmermann telegram in encrypted form This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. See Copyright. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. Click on date to download the file or... Enlarge
The Zimmermann telegram as it was sent from the German ambassador in Washington to Mexico. Every word was encrypted into a four or five digit number, using a Categories: Cryptography stubs | Cryptography ... codebook.

The British government guessed that the German Embassy in ... Washington would send the message on to the embassy in Mexico via the commercial telegraph system, and therefore a copy would exist in the public telegraph office in Mexico City, Distrito Federal, Mexico Nickname La Ciudad de los Palacios (The City of Palaces) Latitude 19° 24 - 19° 03 N Longitude 98° 57 - 99° 22 W Chief of Government Andrés Manuel López Obrador Surface (km²) 1 547 km² (D.F.) Surface (km²) 4 986 km² (Greater Mexico... Mexico City. If they could get a copy, they could pass it on to the United States government stating that they had discovered it through espionage in Mexico. Therefore, they contacted a British agent in Mexico, known only as Mr. H., who managed to get one. To the delight of the British code breakers, the message had been sent from the German embassy in Washington to Mexico using the older cypher in the Wassmus codebook and could therefore be completely decrypted — presumably because the German embassy in Mexico did not have the latest codebook.


The telegram was delivered by Admiral Hall to the British Foreign Minister, The Rt Hon. Arthur Balfour Period in Office: 11 July 1902 - 5 December 1905 PM Predecessor: The Marquess of Salisbury PM Successor: Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman Date of Birth: 25 July 1848 Place of Birth: Whittingehame, Haddingtonshire Political Party: Conservative Retirement honour: Earldom of Balfour Arthur James Balfour, 1st Earl... Arthur James Balfour, who in turn contacted the US For other uses, see Ambassador (disambiguation). An ambassador, rarely embassador, is a diplomatic official accredited to a foreign sovereign or government, or to an international organization, to serve as the official representative of his or her own. In everyday usage it applies to the ranking plenipotentiary minister stationed in a... ambassador in Britain, Walter Page, and delivered the telegram to him on February 23 is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. There are 311 days remaining, 312 in leap years. February Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19... February 23. Two days later he relayed it to President Dr. Thomas Woodrow Wilson ( December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924) was the 45th state Governor of New Jersey ( 1911- 1913) and later the 28th President of the United States ( 1913- 1921). He was the second Democrat to serve two consecutive terms in the White House ( Andrew Jackson was the... Woodrow Wilson.


The effect in the United States

The popular sentiment in the United States at that time was generally as anti-Mexican as it was anti-German. General Photo portrait from May 1917 New York Times John Joseph Black Jack Pershing (September 13, 1860 – July 15, 1948) was a soldier in the United States Army. Pershing eventually rose to the highest rank ever held in the United States military, equivalent only to the posthumous rank of George... John J. Pershing had long been chasing bandit-cum-revolutionary For information about the boxer, see Pancho Villa (boxer). General Pancho Villa José Doroteo Arango Arámbula (June 5, 1878 – July 20, 1923) — better known by his nom de guerre Francisco Villa or, in its diminutive form, Pancho Villa — was one of the foremost generals of the... Pancho Villa, who had carried out several cross-border raids. This was a great expense to the US government, and Wilson was leaning towards discontinuing the search until new elections were held in Mexico, a new government installed, and a new constitution promulgated (a constitutional convention, which would adopt the The 1917 Constitution of Mexico is the present constitution of Mexico. Mexico has had 3 fully-fledged, operational constitutions: those enacted in 1824, 1857, and 1917. The 1917 Constitution was drafted in Santiago de Querétaro during the Mexican Revolution. The Constitution was approved by the Constitutional Congress on February... 1917 Constitution of Mexico, was underway at the time). News of the telegram exacerbated tensions between the USA and Mexico, since such a treaty, if in place, would have hindered the election of a new Mexican government more friendly to US interests.


On March 1 is the 60th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (61st in leap years). There are 305 days remaining. March Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19... March 1, the US government gave the In cryptography, plaintext is information used as input to an encryption algorithm; the output is termed ciphertext. The plaintext could be, for example, a diplomatic message, a bank transaction, an email, a diary and so forth — any information that someone might want to prevent others from reading. Plaintext is... plaintext of the telegram to the press. Initially the American public believed the telegram to be a fraud designed to bring them into the war on the Allied side. This opinion was bolstered by German, Mexican and Japanese diplomats, and by the American pacifist and pro-German lobbies, who all denounced the telegram as a forgery.


Arthur Zimmermann's speech

However, in an unexpected move, Zimmermann confirmed its authenticity on March 3 is the 62nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (63rd in leap years). There are 303 days remaining. March Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19... March 3 and again in a speech on March 29 is the 88th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (89th in Leap years). There are 277 days remaining. March Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19... March 29, 1917. The speech was intended to explain his side of the situation. He began that he had not written a letter to Carranza but had given instructions to the German ambassador via a "route that had appeared to him to be a safe one".


He also said that despite the submarine offensive, he had hoped that the USA would remain neutral. His proposal to the Mexican government were only to be carried out if the US declared war, and he believed his instructions to be "absolutely loyal as regards the US". In fact, he blamed President Wilson for breaking off relations with Germany "with extraordinary roughness" after the telegram was intercepted, and that therefore the German ambassador "no longer had the opportunity to explain the German attitude, and that the US government had declined to negotiate".


There was an honesty in his speech since he would have had occasion to reflect on the impact of the telegram and its after effects in the meantime, yet still he was prepared to present its original ideas. However, it also revealed he was seriously misinformed about the real strength of the United States vis-à-vis its southern neighbour, but that was the fault of the German intelligence services.


War declared

Although the telegram began by stating that Germany was most interested in maintaining American neutrality while attacking its shipping, this confirmation of its basic enmity evoked an outpouring of anti-German sentiment. Wilson responded to this manifestation of German hostility towards the US by asking A congress is a gathering of people, especially a gathering for a political purpose. Congress is the name of the main legislative body in a state that operates under a congressional system of government. A congress is different from a parliament in that legislative initiative is vested into it. In... Congress to arm American ships so that they could fend off potential German submarine attacks. A few days later, on April 2 is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 273 days remaining. April Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20... April 2, 1917 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). Contents // 1 Events 1.1 January-February 1.2 March-April 1.3 May-October 1.4 November 1.5 December 1.6 Unknown dates 1.7 Ongoing events 2 Births 2.1 January-March 2.2 April... 1917, Wilson asked Congress to declare war on Germany. On April 6 is the 96th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (97th in leap years). There are 269 days remaining. April Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19... April 6, 1917 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). Contents // 1 Events 1.1 January-February 1.2 March-April 1.3 May-October 1.4 November 1.5 December 1.6 Unknown dates 1.7 Ongoing events 2 Births 2.1 January-March 2.2 April... 1917, Congress complied, bringing the United States into World War I.


German USS Los Angeles A submarine is a specialized watercraft that can operate underwater. Nuclear powered submarines and other large submarines are classed as ships, but are customarily referred to by their crews as boats. Most major navies of the world employ submarines. Submarines are also used for marine and freshwater... submarines had previously attacked US ships near the British Isles is also an old name for the Great Britain, Great Britain Ireland The Isle of Man The Isle of Wight The Northern Isles, including Orkney, Shetland and Fair Isle The Hebrides, including the Inner Hebrides, Outer Hebrides and Small Isles Rockall The islands of the lower Firth of... British Isles, so the telegram was not the only cause of the war; it did, however, play a critical role in swaying US For the book by Walter Lippmann, see Public Opinion. Public opinion is the aggregate of individual attitudes or beliefs held by the adult population. Jürgen Habermas, a German, contributed the idea of Public Sphere to the discussion of public opinion. Public Sphere, as he argued, is where “something... public opinion. It was perceived as especially perfidious that the telegram was first transferred from the US embassy in Berlin to the German embassy in Washington before being passed on to Mexico. Once the American public believed the telegram to be real, it became all but inevitable that the USA would join the Great War.


See also

  • Arthur Zimmermann (October 5, 1864 _ June 6, 1940) was Germanys Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs from November 22, 1916, until his resignation on August 6, 1917. His name is associated with the Zimmermann Telegram during World War I. However, he was also closely involved in plans to... Arthur Zimmermann

References

  • Room 40: British Naval Intelligence, 1914-1918, by Patrick Beesly. New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1982 ISBN 0-15-178634-8
  • On Secret Service East of Constantinople, by Peter Hopkirk. Oxford University Press, 1994 ISBN 0-19-280230-5
  • The Zimmermann Telegram, by Barbara Wertheim Tuchman (January 30, 1912 _ February 6, 1989) was an American historian and author. Tuchman was an author of popular history, selling millions of copies. Her clear, dramatic storytelling covered topics as diverse as the 14th century, and World War I. Tuchman was the author of books which... Barbara W. Tuchman, Ballantine Books, 1958 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). Contents // 1 Events 1.1 January 1.2 February 1.3 March-April 1.4 May-June 1.5 July-August 1.6 September-October 1.7 November-December 1.8 unknown date 2 Year in... 1958 ISBN 0-345-32425-0
  • The Zimmermann Telegram of January 16, 1917 and its Cryptographic Background by William F. Friedman and Charles J. Mendelsohn: . War Department, Office of the Chief Signal Officer, Washington, GPO, 1938

  Results from FactBites:
 
Zimmermann Telegram - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1519 words)
The Zimmermann Telegram (The Zimmermann Note) was a coded telegram dispatched by the Foreign Secretary of the German Empire, Arthur Zimmermann, on January 19, 1917, to the German ambassador in Mexico, Heinrich von Eckardt, at the height of World War I.
The telegram was delivered by Admiral Hall to the British Foreign Minister, Arthur James Balfour, who in turn contacted the U.S. ambassador in Britain, Walter Page, and delivered the telegram to him on February 23.
In an unexpected move, Zimmermann confirmed the authenticity of the telegram on March 3, and again in a speech on March 29, 1917.
Zimmerman Telegram — A historical gem - JAMAICAOBSERVER.COM (1341 words)
This is the context of the Zimmerman Telegram and the main actors in the struggle.
Was he to release the telegram and risk the code breaking system which had been painfully developed over two-and-a half years of precious work or withhold the telegram which meant throwing away the greatest triumphal possession of the code that the Zimmerman message could bring.
It was probably the disclosure of the Zimmerman telegram which finally pushed Wilson, according to England's outspoken Lord Chancellor Lord Birkenhead who said, "The United Sates were in fact kicked into the war against the strong almost frenzied efforts of President Wilson".
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m