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Encyclopedia > Zilog Z80
One of the first Z80 microprocessors manufactured; the date stamp is from June 1976.
One of the first Z80 microprocessors manufactured; the date stamp is from June 1976.
A CMOS Z80 in a QFP package.
A CMOS Z80 in a QFP package.

The Zilog Z80 is an 8-bit microprocessor designed and sold by Zilog from July 1976 onwards. It was widely used both in desktop and embedded computer designs as well as for military purposes. The Z80 and its derivatives and clones make up one of the most commonly used CPU families of all time, and, along with the MOS Technology 6502 family, dominated the 8-bit microcomputer market from the late 1970s to the mid-1980s. This work is copyrighted. ... This work is copyrighted. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Static CMOS Inverter Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) (see-moss, IPA: ), is a major class of integrated circuits. ... A QFP or Quad Flat Package is an integrated circuit device with component leads extending from each of the four sides. ... 8-bit refers to the number of bits used in the data bus of a computer. ... A microprocessor is a programmable digital electronic component that incorporates the functions of a central processing unit (CPU) on a single semiconducting integrated circuit (IC). ... Zilog, often seen as ZiLOG, is a manufacturer of 8-bit, 16-bit, 24-bit, and 32-bit CPUs, and is most famous for its Intel 8080-compatible Z80 series. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... An embedded system is a special-purpose computer system, which is completely encapsulated by the device it controls. ... “CPU” redirects here. ... MOS Technology, Inc. ... The MOS Technology 6502 is an 8-bit microprocessor that was designed by Chuck Peddle for MOS Technology in 1975. ...


Although Zilog made early attempts with advanced mini-computer like versions of the Z80-architecture (Z800 and Z280), these chips never caught on. The company was also trying hard in the workstation market with its Z8000 and 32-bit Z80000 (both unrelated to Z80). In recent decades Zilog has refocused on the ever-growing market for embedded systems (for which the original Z80 and the Z180 were designed) and the most recent Z80-compatible microcontroller family, the fully pipelined 24-bit eZ80 with a linear 16 MB address range, has been successfully introduced alongside the simpler Z180 and Z80 products. Introduction We all probably heard of supercomputers. ... The Zilog Z800 was a 16-bit microprocessor designed by Zilog to be released in 1985. ... The Z280 is a Zilog 16 bit, Z80 compatible processor from 1987. ... Sun SPARCstation 1+, 25 MHz RISC processor from early 1990s A workstation, such as a Unix workstation, RISC workstation or engineering workstation, is a high-end desktop or deskside microcomputer designed for technical applications. ... The Z8000 was a 16-bit microprocessor introduced by ZiLOG in 1979. ... 32-bit is a term applied to processors, and computer architectures which manipulate the address and data in 32-bit chunks. ... The Z80000 was Zilogs 32 bit processor from 1986. ... What is an Embedded System? Electronic devices that incorporate a computer(usually a microprocessor) within their implementation. ... The Zilog Z180 processor is the successor of the Z80. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with embedded microprocessor. ... In computer architecture, 24-bit is an adjective used to describe integers, memory addresses or other data units that are at most 24 bits (3 octets) wide, or to describe CPU and ALU architectures based on registers, address buses, or data buses of that size. ... The ZiLOG eZ80 is an 8-bit microprocessor which is essentially an updated version of the companys earlier Z80 8-bit microprocessor. ... The word linear comes from the Latin word linearis, which means created by lines. ... MB, Mb, mB or mb may mean: Mb (digraph) Megabit (1,000,000 bits) or mebibit (220 = 1,048,576 bits); the preferred symbols are Mb and Mibit, respectively¹ Megabyte (1,000,000 bytes) or mebibyte (220 = 1,048,576 bytes); the preferred symbols are MB and MiB, respectively¹ MB... The Zilog Z180 processor is the successor of the Z80. ...


Zilog released the Z80 core to any company wishing to make the device royalty free. This enabled a small company's product to gain acceptance in the world market since second sources from far larger companies such as Toshiba started to manufacture the device. It could be argued that it was the first "open source" microprocessor [citation needed] and, as such, Zilog has made less than 50% of the Z80s since its conception. In electronic design a semiconductor intellectual property core, IP block, or IP core is a reusable unit of logic, cell, or chip layout design and is also the property of one party. ... Royalty free pictures It’s said that a picture is worth a thousand words. ... In the electronics industry, a second source is a company that is licensed to manufacture and sell components originally designed by another company (the first source). ... Toshiba Corporations headquarters (Center) in Hamamatsucho, Tokyo Toshiba Corporation sales by division for year ending March 31, 2005 Toshiba Corporation ) (TYO: 6502 ) is a Japanese multinational conglomerate manufacturing company, headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with open design. ...

Contents

Brief history and overview

The Z80 came about when Federico Faggin, after working on the 8080, left Intel at the end of 1974 to found Zilog with Ralph Ungermann, and by July 1976 they had the Z80 on the market. It was designed to be binary compatible with the Intel 8080 so that most 8080 code could run unmodified on it, notably the CP/M operating system. Federico Faggin (born 1 December 1941) is a physicist and electrical engineer considered to be one of the inventors of the microprocessor. ... AMD clone NEC 8080AF (2nd-source). ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... AMD clone NEC 8080AF (2nd-source). ... CP/M (Command Processor for Microcomputers) was an operating system for Intel 8080/85 and Zilog Z80 based microcomputers. ...

The Z80's original DIL40 chip package pinout.
The Z80's original DIL40 chip package pinout.

The Z80 offered many real improvements over the 8080: Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... ICs in DIP14-Package Several PDIPs and CERDIPS. The large CERDIP in the foreground is an 8080 processor. ...

  • An enhanced instruction set including bit manipulation, block move, block I/O, and byte search instructions
  • New IX and IY index registers and instructions for them
  • A vectorized interrupt mode (mode 2), as well as a useful "no hardware"-mode (mode 1)
  • Two separate register files, which could be quickly switched, to speed up response to interrupts
  • A built-in DRAM refresh address mechanism that would otherwise have to be provided by external circuitry
  • Single 5 Volt power supply
  • Fewer support chips required for clock generation and interface to memory and I/O
  • A much lower price

The Z80 quickly took over from the 8080 in the market, and became one of the most popular 8-bit CPUs. Perhaps a key to the success of the Z80 was the built-in DRAM refresh, which allowed systems to be built with fewer support chips. It has been suggested that some sections of this article be split into a new article entitled instruction set architecture. ... An index register in a computer CPU is a processor register used for modifying operand addresses during the run of a program, typically for doing vector/array operations. ... Interrupt vector Computing term. ... A register file is an array of processor registers in a central processing unit (CPU). ... In computing, an interrupt is an asynchronous signal from hardware or software indicating the need for attention. ... Dram can mean several things: Dram (unit), an imperial unit of volume Dram, an imperial unit of weight or mass, see avoirdupois and apothecaries system Ottoman dram, a unit of weight, see dirhem Armenian dram, a monetary unit DRAM, a type of RAM Category: ... Dynamic random access memory (DRAM) is a type of random access memory that stores each bit of data in a separate capacitor within an integrated circuit. ... Memory refresh is the process of periodically reading information from an area of computer memory, and immediately rewriting the read information to the same area with no modifications. ...


A CMOS version was also developed and the specified maximum clock frequency[1] increased successively from 2.5 MHz up to 8 MHz for the original NMOS design, and up to 20 MHz for the CMOS version sold today, while immediate derivatives such as the Z180 and eZ80 today are specified for 33 and 50 MHz respectively. Static CMOS Inverter Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) (see-moss, IPA: ), is a major class of integrated circuits. ... MegaHertz (MHz) is the name given to one million (106) Hertz, a measure of frequency. ... NMOS logic uses n-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) to implement logic gates and other digital circuits. ... Static CMOS Inverter Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) (see-moss, IPA: ), is a major class of integrated circuits. ... The Zilog Z180 processor is the successor of the Z80. ... The ZiLOG eZ80 is an 8-bit microprocessor which is essentially an updated version of the companys earlier Z80 8-bit microprocessor. ...


Technical description

Programming model and register set

The programming model and register set are conventional and similar to many other processors, such as the related x86 family. The 8080 compatible registers AF,BC,DE,HL are duplicated as two separate banks in the Z80, where the processor can quickly switch from one bank to the other; a feature useful for speeding up responses to single level, high priority interrupts. This makes sense as the Z80 (like most microprocessors at the time) was really intended for embedded use, not for personal computers, or the yet-to-be invented home computers.[2] It also turned out to be quite useful for hard-optimized assembly coding. Some software, especially games for the ZX Spectrum took Z80 assembly optimization to rather extreme levels, employing the duplicated registers among other things. x86 or 80x86 is the generic name of a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel. ... The Intel 8080 was an early microprocessor designed and manufactured by Intel. ... In mathematics, see embedding. ... The home computer is a consumer-friendly word for the second generation of microcomputers (the technical term that was previously used), entering the market in 1977 and becoming common during the 1980s. ... The ZX Spectrum is a home computer released in the United Kingdom in 1982 by Sinclair Research Ltd. ...


The 8080 compatible registers:

  • AF - 8-bit accumulator (A) and flag bits (F) carry, zero, minus, parity/overflow, half-carry (used for BCD), and an Add/Subtract flag (usually called N) also for BCD
  • BC - 16-bit data/address register or two 8-bit registers
  • DE - 16-bit data/address register or two 8-bit registers
  • HL - 16-bit accumulator/address register or two 8-bit registers
  • SP - stack pointer, 16 bits
  • PC - program counter, 16 bits

Registers introduced with the Z80: In a computer CPU, an accumulator is a register in which intermediate arithmetic and logic results are stored. ... In computing and electronic systems, Binary-coded decimal (BCD) is an encoding for decimal numbers in which each digit is represented by its own binary sequence. ...

  • IX - 16-bit index or base register for 8-bit immediate offsets
  • IY - 16-bit index or base register for 8-bit immediate offsets
  • I - interrupt vector base register, 8 bits
  • R - DRAM refresh counter, 8 bits (MSB does not count)
  • AF' - alternate (or shadow) accumulator and flags (toggled in and out with EX AF,AF' )
  • BC',DE', and HL' - alternate (or shadow) registers (toggled in and out with EXX)
  • Four bits of interrupt status and interrupt mode status

There is no direct access to the alternate registers, instead two special instructions, EX AF,AF' and EXX, each toggles one of two multiplexer flipflops; this enables fast context switches for interrupt service routines: EX AF,AF' may be used alone (for really simple and fast interrupt routines) or together with EXX to swap the whole AF,BC,DE,HL set; still much faster than pushing the same registers on the stack (slower, lower priority, or multi level interrupts normally use the stack to store registers).


The refresh register, R, increments[3] each time the CPU fetches an opcode (or opcode prefix) and has therefore no simple relationship with program execution. This has sometimes been used to generate pseudorandom numbers in games, and also in software protection schemes. It has also been employed as a "hardware" counter in some designs; a famous example of this is the ZX81, which lets it keep track of character positions on the TV screen by triggering an interrupt at wrap around (by connecting INT to A6). A pseudo-random number is a number belonging to a sequence which appears to be random, but can in fact be generated by a finite computation. ... The Sinclair ZX81 home computer, released by Sinclair Research in 1981, was the followup to the companys ZX80. ...


The interrupt vector register, I, is used for the Z80 specific mode 2 interrupts (selected by the im 2 instruction). It supplies the base address for a 128-entry table of service routine addresses which are selected via a pointer sent to the CPU during an interrupt acknowledge cycle. The pointer identify a particular peripheral chip and/or peripheral function or event, where the chips are normally connected in a so called daisy-chain for priority resolution. Like the refresh register, this register has also sometimes been used creatively. An Interrupt Handler is the modern progression of an interrupt service routine, a routine whose execution is triggered by an interrupt. ... In computing, an interrupt is an asynchronous signal from hardware or software indicating the need for attention. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Daisy chain Daisy chain A daisy chain, in the most elementary sense, is a garland created from the daisy flower, generally as a childrens game. ...


The Z80 assembly language

Background - the Datapoint 2200 and Intel 8008

The first Intel 8008 assembly language was based on a very simple (but systematic) syntax inherited from the Datapoint 2200 design. This original syntax was later transformed into a new, somewhat more traditional, assembly language form for this same original 8008 chip. At about the same time, the new assembly language was also extended to accommodate the added addressing possibilities in the more advanced Intel 8080 chip (the 8008 and 8080 shared a language subset without being binary compatible; the 8008 actually was binary compatible with the Datapoint 2200 however). Intel 8008 The Intel 8008 was an early microprocessor designed and manufactured by Intel and introduced in April, 1972. ... The Datapoint 2200 was a programmable terminal released by Computer Terminal Corporation (CTC) in June 1970. ... AMD clone NEC 8080AF (2nd-source). ...


In this process, the mnemonic L, for LOAD, was replaced by various abbreviations of the words LOAD, STORE and MOVE, intermixed with other symbolic letters. The mnemonic letter M, for memory (referenced by HL), was lifted out from within the instruction mnemonic to become a syntactically freestanding operand, while registers and combinations of registers became very inconsistently denoted; either by abbreviated operands (MVI D, LXI H etc), within the instruction mnemonic itself (LDA, LHLD etc), or both at the same time (LDAX B, STAX D etc).

 Datapoint 2200 & i8008 i8080 Z80 i8086 (ca -1973) (ca 1974) (1976) (1978) LBC MOV B,C LD B,C MOV BL,CL -- LDAX B LD A,(BC) MOV AL,[BX] LAM MOV A,M LD A,(HL) MOV AL,[BP] LBM MOV B,M LD B,(HL) MOV BL,[BP] -- STAX D LD (DE),A MOV [DX],AL LMA MOV M,A LD (HL),A MOV [BP],AL LMC MOV M,C LD (HL),C MOV [BP],CL LDI 56 MVI D,56 LD D,56 MOV DL,56 LMI 56 MVI M,56 LD (HL),56 MOV byte ptr [BP],56 -- LDA 1234 LD A,(1234) MOV AL,[1234] -- STA 1234 LD (1234),A MOV [1234],AL -- -- LD B,(IX+56) MOV BL,[SI+56] -- -- LD (IX+56),C MOV [SI+56],CL -- -- LD (IY+56),78 MOV byte ptr [DI+56],78 -- LXI B,1234 LD BC,1234 MOV BX,1234 -- LXI H,1234 LD HL,1234 MOV BP,1234 -- SHLD 1234 LD (1234),HL MOV [1234],BP -- LHLD 1234 LD HL,(1234) MOV BP,[1234] -- -- LD BC,(1234) MOV BX,[1234] -- -- LD IX,(1234) MOV SI,[1234] 

Illustration of four syntaxes, using samples of equivalent, or (for 8086) very similar, load and store instructions.


The new syntax

According to Masatoshi Shima, certain people within Zilog wanted a "computer oriented" image for the company, and also felt they needed to "differentiate" their first product from the 8080. Intel had also claimed copyright on their assembly mnemonics. Yet another assembly syntax was therefore developed, but this time with a more systematic approach: Masatoshi Shima (嶋正利 Shima Masatoshi, born on August 22, 1943 in Shizuoka, Japan) was at least partly responsible for the design of the worlds first microprocessor, the Intel 4004. ...

  • All registers and register pairs are explicitly denoted by their full names
  • Round brackets are consistently used to state "contents of" (or indirection, or pointer dereferencing)
  • All load and store instructions uses the same mnemonic name, LD, for LOAD (a return to the simplistic Datapoint 2200 vocabulary); other common instructions, such as ADD, INC etc, uses the same mnemonic regardless of addressing mode or operand size. This is possible because the operands themselves carry enough information.

These principles made it straightforward to find names and forms for all new Z80 instructions, as well as orthogonalizations of old ones, such as LD BC,(1234) above.


It is interesting to see the resemblance between Z80 and 8086 syntax, as illustrated by the table. Apart from naming differences, and despite a certain discrepancy in basic register structure, the two are virtually isomorphous for a large portion of instructions. Whether this is due to some common influence on both design teams (above 8080, such as PDP-11), the competitive nature of the relation between the two designs, or maybe just a matter of taste, is, so far, uncertain.[4] The 8086 is a 16-bit microprocessor chip designed by Intel in 1978, which gave rise to the x86 architecture. ... The Intel 8080 was an early microprocessor designed and manufactured by Intel. ... The PDP-11 was a 16-bit minicomputer sold by Digital Equipment Corp. ...


Instruction set and encoding

The Z80 uses 252 out of the available 256 codes as single byte opcodes; the four remaining codes are used extensively as opcode prefixes: CB and ED enable extra instructions and DD or FD selects IX+d or IY+d respectively (in some cases without displacement d) in place of HL. This scheme gives the Z80 a large number of permutations of instructions and registers; ZiLOG categorizes these into 158 different "instruction types", 78 of which are the same as those of the Intel 8080 (allowing operation of 8080 programs on a Z80). The ZiLOG documentation further groups instructions into the following categories:

  • 8-bit load
  • 16-bit load
  • Exchange, block transfer, and search
  • 8-bit arithmetic and logic operations
  • General purpose arithmetic and CPU control
  • 16-bit arithmetic
  • Rotate and shift
  • Bit set, reset, and test
  • Jump
  • Call, return, and restart
  • Input and output

The bit set, reset, and test instructions are well adapted to I/O control. No multiply instruction is available in the original Z80. Different sizes and variants of additions, shifts, and rotates have somewhat differing effects on flags because the flag-influencing properties of the 8080 had to be copied for compatibility. Load instructions do not affect the flags (except for the special purpose I and R register loads). The index register instructions are useful for reducing code size, and, while some of them are not much faster than "equivalent" sequences of simpler operations, they also save execution time indirectly by reducing the need to save and restore registers.[5] Similarly, instructions for 16-bit additions are not particularly fast (11 clocks) in the original Z80; nonetheless, they are about twice as fast as performing the same calculations using 8-bit operations, and equally important, they reduce register usage.[6]


Undocumented instructions

The index registers, IX and IY, were intended as flexible 16 bit pointers, enhancing the ability to manipulate memory, stack frames and data structures. Officially, they were treated as 16 bit only. In reality, they were implemented as a sort of copy of the HL register which is accessible as 16 bits or as a pair of 8 bit pair registers (H and L). Even the binary opcodes (machine language) were identical, but preceded by a new opcode prefix, as mentioned above. ZiLOG published the opcodes and related mnemonics for the intended functions, but did not document the fact that every opcode that allowed manipulation of the H and L registers was equally valid for the 8 bit portions of the IX and IY registers. As an example, the opcode 26h followed by an immediate byte value (LD H,n) will load that value into the H register. Preceding this two-byte instruction with the IX register's opcode prefix DD, would instead result in the most significant 8 bits of the IX register being loaded with that same value.


There are several other undocumented instructions as well.


Instruction execution

As in all microprocessors, each instruction is divided into several steps which are usually termed machine cycles (M-cycles). Z80 needs between one and six M-cycles to execute a particular instruction as each M-cycle corresponds roughly to one memory access and/or internal operation. Many instructions actually end during the M1 of the next instruction which is known as a fetch/execute overlap.


Examples of typical instructions (R=read, W=write)

 Total M-cycles instruction M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 1 INC BC opcode 2 ADD A,100 opcode 100 3 ADD HL,DE opcode internal internal 4 SET 5,(HL) prefix opcode R(HL), set W(HL) 5 LD (IX+102),103 prefix opcode 102 103,add W(IX+102) 6 INC (IY+104) prefix opcode 104 add R(IY+104),inc W(IY+104) 

The Z80 machine cycles are sequenced by an internal state machine which builds each M-cycle out of 3,4,5 or 6 discrete steps (i.e. clock cycles) depending on context. This avoids cumbersome asynchronous logic and makes the control signals behave consistently at a wide range of clock frequencies. Naturally, it also means that a higher frequency crystal must be used than without this subdivision of machine cycles (approximately 2-3 times higher). It does not imply tighter requirements on memory access times however, as a high resolution clock allows more precise control of memory timings and memory therefore can be active in parallel with the CPU to a greater extent (i.e. sitting less idle), allowing more efficient use of available memory performance. For instruction execution, the Z80 combines two full clock cycles into a long memory access period (the M1-signal) which would typically last only a fraction of a (longer) clock cycle in a more asynchronous design (such as the 6800, or similar). In the theory of computation, a finite state machine (FSM) or finite state automaton (FSA) is an abstract machine that has only a finite, constant amount of memory. ... The 6800 is a microprocessor produced by Motorola and released shortly after the Intel 8080 in 1975. ...


Memory, especially EPROM, but also Flash, have since long been generally slow compared to the state machine sub-cycles (clock cycles) used in contemporary microprocessors. The shortest machine cycle that could safely be used in embedded designs has therefore often been limited by memory access times, not by the maximum CPU frequency (especially so during the home computer era). This relation has slowly changed during the recent decades, particularly regarding SRAM; cacheless single cycle designs such as the eZ80 have therefore become much more meaningful recently. EPROM. The small quartz window admits UV light during erasure. ... A USB flash drive. ... Static random access memory (SRAM) is a type of semiconductor memory. ... The ZiLOG eZ80 is an 8-bit microprocessor which is essentially an updated version of the companys earlier Z80 8-bit microprocessor. ...


Compatible peripherals

Zilog introduced a number of peripheral parts for the Z80, which all supported the Z80's interrupt handling system and I/O address space. These included the CTC (Counter-Timer-Circuit), the SIO (Serial Input Output), the DMA (Direct Memory Access), the PIO (Parallel Input-Output) and the DART (Dual Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter). As the product line developed, low-power, high-speed and CMOS versions of these chips were produced. Static CMOS Inverter Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) (see-moss, IPA: ), is a major class of integrated circuits. ...


In the same manner as the x86 family, but unlike contemporary 8-bit processors, like the Motorola 6800 and Mos Technology 6502, the Z80 and 8080 had a separate control line and address space for I/O instructions. While some Z80-based computers used "Motorola-style" memory mapped input/output devices, usually the I/O space was used to address one of the many Zilog peripheral chips compatible with the Z80. Zilog I/O chips supported the Z80's new mode 2 interrupts (see description above) which simplified interrupt handling for large numbers of peripherals. An opened Osborne 1 computer, ready for use. ...


Undocumented 16 bit I/O-addressing

The Z80 was officially described as supporting 16 bit (64 KB) memory addressing, and 8 bit (256 ports) I/O-addressing. Looking carefully at the hardware reference manual, it can be seen that several I/O instructions, OUT (C),A for example, assert the contents of the entire 16 bit BC register to the address bus. An orthodox design would maybe decode the entire 16 bit address bus on I/O operations in order to take advantage of this feature, but it has also been used to minimize hardware requirements, see ZX81. The Sinclair ZX81 home computer, released by Sinclair Research in 1981, was the followup to the companys ZX80. ...


Second sources, derivatives etc.

Second sources

NEC's μPD780C Z80 clone on a ZX Spectrum board.
NEC's μPD780C Z80 clone on a ZX Spectrum board.
Sharp's LH0080A Z80 clone
Sharp's LH0080A Z80 clone
The T34BM1, a Soviet Z80 clone.
The Toshiba TMPZ84C015 - a plain Z80 with many peripheral- and other functions on chip.
The Toshiba TMPZ84C015 - a plain Z80 with many peripheral- and other functions on chip.
Hitachi HD64180
Hitachi HD64180

Mostek MK3880 and SGS-Thomson Z8400 (now ST Microelectronics) were both second-sources for the Z80. Sharp and NEC developed clones in NMOS, the LH-0080 and µPD780C respectively. Toshiba made a CMOS-version, the TMPZ84C00, which is believed (but not verified) to be the same design also used by Zilog for its own CMOS Z84C00. There were also Z80-chips marked GoldStar and LG. Image File history File links NEC_D780C.jpg The Z80 processor clone NEC D780C on the ZX spectrum computer board. ... Image File history File links NEC_D780C.jpg The Z80 processor clone NEC D780C on the ZX spectrum computer board. ... NEC Corporation (Jp. ... NECs μPD780C Z80 clone on a ZX Spectrum board. ... The ZX Spectrum is a home computer released in the United Kingdom in 1982 by Sinclair Research Ltd. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Sharp Corporation ) (TYO: 6753 ) is a Japanese electronics manufacturer, founded in 1912. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Mostek was an integrated circuit manufacturer, founded in 1969 by ex-employees of Texas Instruments. ... STMicroelectronics is an international leading supplier of semiconductors. ... Formerly SGS-Thomson, STMicroelectronics (abbreviated to ST in microchip designations) is a manufacturer of a wide variety of integrated circuits (ICs) and chipsets designed for GPS receivers, DBS receivers and DVD players, and biometric identification systems, among others. ... Sharp Corporation ) (TYO: 6753 ) is a Japanese electronics manufacturer, founded in 1912. ... NEC Corporation (Jp. ... NMOS logic uses n-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) to implement logic gates and other digital circuits. ... Sharps LH0080A Z80 clone The SHARP LH-0080 was a fully compatible version of the original NMOS version of the ZiLOG Z80 processor. ... NECs μPD780C Z80 clone on a ZX Spectrum board. ... Toshiba Corporations headquarters (Center) in Hamamatsucho, Tokyo Toshiba Corporation sales by division for year ending March 31, 2005 Toshiba Corporation ) (TYO: 6502 ) is a Japanese multinational conglomerate manufacturing company, headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. ... Static CMOS Inverter Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) (see-moss, IPA: ), is a major class of integrated circuits. ... Goldstar may refer to one of the following: GoldStar, an electronics brand name used by the LG Group until the late 1990s Goldstar beer (Israel) Goldstar (DC Comics), a character in Lobo comics This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... GoldStar logo, prominently used before the introduction of the LG logo LG Group is a large South Korean chaebol (conglomerate), which produces electronics (including domotics), mobile phones, and petrochemical products and operates subsidiaries like LG Electronics. ...


In East Germany, an unlicensed clone of the Z80, known as the U880, was manufactured. It was very popular and was used in Robotron's and VEB Mikroelektronik Mühlhausen's computer systems (e.g. the KC85-series) and also in many self-made computer systems (ex. COMP JU+TER). In Romania another unlicensed clone could be found, named MMN80CPU and produced by Microelectronica, used in home computers like TIM-S, HC, COBRA. Anthem Auferstanden aus Ruinen Capital East Berlin Language(s) German Government Socialist republic Head of State  - 1949 – 1960 Wilhelm Pieck  - 1960 – 1973 Walter Ulbricht  - 1973 – 1976 Willi Stoph  - 1976 – 1989 Erich Honecker  - 1989 Egon Krenz  - 1989 - 1990 Manfred Gerlach Head of Government  - 1949 – 1964 Otto Grotewohl  - 1964 – 1973 Willi Stoph... UA880 (Z80A) in PDIP package The U880 was an 8-bit microprocessor manufactured in the German Democratic Republic. ... Robotron logo Robotron was the biggest East German electronics manufacturer. ... The KC85 (KC standing for Kleincomputer, or small computer) was a model of microcomputer built in East Germany , firstly in 1984 by Robotron (the KC85/1) and later by VEB Mikroelektronik Wilhelm Pieck Mühlhausen (KC85/2, KC85/3 and KC85/4) Contents // Categories: Stub | Home computers ...


Also, several fully compatible clones of Z80 were created in the Soviet Union, notable ones being the КP1858ВМ1 (there was an unproven rumor that it contains the East-German U880 chip inside) and T34BM1 (this one contains a real Soviet chip inside). Another Soviet CPU, the КP580ИK80 (later marked as КP580ВМ80), was a clone of the Z80's predecessor, the Intel 8080. UA880 (Z80A) in PDIP package The U880 was an 8-bit microprocessor manufactured in the German Democratic Republic. ... KR580VM80A (Russian: КР580Ð’Ðœ80А) was a Soviet microprocessor, clone of Intel 8080 CPU. Different versions of this CPU were manufactured since the late 1970s, the earliest known use is in SM1800 computer in 1979. ...


Derivatives

Currently produced:

  • Hitachi developed the HD64180, a microcoded and partially dynamic CMOS Z80 with on chip peripherals and a simple MMU giving a one MB address space. It was later second sourced by Zilog, both as Z64180 and as the slightly modified Z180, which has bus protocol/timings better adapted to Z80 peripheral chips, and, since long, is maintained and further developed under Zilog's name. The newest Z180s are based on the fully static S180/L180 core with very low power draw and EMI (noise).
  • Toshiba developed the 84 pin Z84013 / Z84C13 and the 100 pin Z84015 / Z84C15 series of "intelligent peripheral controllers", basically ordinary NMOS/CMOS Z80 cores with large numbers of Z80 peripherals, watch dog timer, power on reset, and wait state generator on chip; today second sourced by Zilog.
  • The 32-bit Z80 compatible Zilog Z380, introduced 1994, has survived but never gained real momentum; it is used mainly in telecom equipment.
  • Zilog's fully pipelined 8/16/24-bit Z80 compatible eZ80 with a linear 16 MB address space was introduced in 2001 and has been much better received than the Z380; it exists in versions with on chip SRAM and/or flash memory, as well as with integrated peripherals; one variant has on chip MAC (media access controller) and available software include a TCP/IP stack. Contrasting to Z800/Z280, there are only a few added instructions (LEAs and variable-address 16/24-bit loads, basically), the old ones execute much faster instead.
  • The Toshiba TLCS-870, TLCS-90 and TLCS-900 series of high volume (mostly OTP) microcontrollers are based on the Z80; they share the same basic BC,DE,HL,IX,IY register structure, and largely the same instructions, but are not binary compatible.
  • The Chinese Actions Semiconductor's ATJ2085 audio processor chip contains a Z80-compatible MCU together with a 24-bit dedicated DSP processor. The chip is used in a large number of MP3 players and other products.

No longer produced: It has been suggested that Hitachi Works be merged into this article or section. ... Hitachi Z80 based embedded processor with built-in MMU. See Z180 Categories: Stub ... MB, Mb, mB or mb may mean: Mb (digraph) Megabit (1,000,000 bits) or mebibit (220 = 1,048,576 bits); the preferred symbols are Mb and Mibit, respectively¹ Megabyte (1,000,000 bytes) or mebibyte (220 = 1,048,576 bytes); the preferred symbols are MB and MiB, respectively¹ MB... Hitachi Z80 based embedded processor with built-in MMU. See Z180 Categories: Stub ... The Zilog Z180 processor is the successor of the Z80. ... Toshiba Corporations headquarters (Center) in Hamamatsucho, Tokyo Toshiba Corporation sales by division for year ending March 31, 2005 Toshiba Corporation ) (TYO: 6502 ) is a Japanese multinational conglomerate manufacturing company, headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. ... Zilogs 32 bit processor from 1994. ... In computer architecture, 24-bit is an adjective used to describe integers, memory addresses or other data units that are at most 24 bits (3 octets) wide, or to describe CPU and ALU architectures based on registers, address buses, or data buses of that size. ... The ZiLOG eZ80 is an 8-bit microprocessor which is essentially an updated version of the companys earlier Z80 8-bit microprocessor. ... Static random access memory (SRAM) is a type of semiconductor memory. ... A USB flash drive. ... // Look up Mac, mac in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Media Access Control (MAC) data communication protocol sub-layer, also known as the Medium Access Control, is a part of the data link layer specified in the seven-layer OSI model (layer 2). ... The Internet protocol suite is the set of communications protocols that implement the protocol stack on which the Internet runs. ... Toshiba Corporations headquarters (Center) in Hamamatsucho, Tokyo Toshiba Corporation sales by division for year ending March 31, 2005 Toshiba Corporation ) (TYO: 6502 ) is a Japanese multinational conglomerate manufacturing company, headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. ... OTP may mean: Outdoor Therapeutic Program: see articles on wilderness therapy and adventure therapy One-time programmable, a type of programmable read-only memory (PROM) in electronics One-time pad in cryptography One-time password One True Pairing -- usually used to denote a fanatical devotion to one pairing in a... Rabbit Semiconductor is the company which designs and sells the  Rabbit family of  microcontrollers and microcontroller modules. ... The Rabbit 2000 is a high-performance 8-bit microcontroller designed by Rabbit Semiconductor expressly to power embedded system application. ... Hitachi Z80 based embedded processor with built-in MMU. See Z180 Categories: Stub ... The Zilog Z180 processor is the successor of the Z80. ...

  • The ASCII Corporation R800 was a fast 16-bit processor used in certain MSX computers; it was software, but not hardware compatible with the Z80.
  • Zilog's ill-fated NMOS Z800 and CMOS Z280 were quite fast Z80-implementations (before the HD64180 / Z180) with a 16 MB paged MMU address space; they added many orthogonalizations and addressing modes to the Z80 instruction set, but were too complex and mini-computer inspired to be a natural choice for most embedded applications.[7] In contrast, the plain CMOS Z80 has remained popular, alongside the compatible Z180 and eZ80 families.

ASCII is a publishing company based in Tokyo and was one of the key players in the creation of the MSX standard, home computer in Japan. ... The R800 is the CPU used in the MSX turboR. It was designed by ASCII, and the goals were to have the fastest CPU possible, while mantaining compatibilty with old MSX hardware and software. ... Sony MSX 1, Model HitBit-10-P MSX was the name of a standardized home computer architecture in the 1980s. ... The Zilog Z800 was a 16-bit microprocessor designed by Zilog to be released in 1985. ... The Z280 is a Zilog 16 bit, Z80 compatible processor from 1987. ... Hitachi Z80 based embedded processor with built-in MMU. See Z180 Categories: Stub ... The Zilog Z180 processor is the successor of the Z80. ... The Zilog Z180 processor is the successor of the Z80. ... The ZiLOG eZ80 is an 8-bit microprocessor which is essentially an updated version of the companys earlier Z80 8-bit microprocessor. ...

FPGA and ASIC versions

A commercial, functionally equivalent, CPU core is the Evatronix CZ80CPU, available as synthesizable VHDL or Verilog source code, for high volume ASICs, or as post-synthesis EDIF netlists, for low volume FPGAs from Actel, Altera, Lattice or Xilinx. VHDL, or VHSIC Hardware Description Language, is commonly used as a design-entry language for field-programmable gate arrays and application-specific integrated circuits in electronic design automation of digital circuits. ... Verilog is a hardware description language (HDL) used to model electronic systems. ... The acronym ASIC, depending on context, may stand for: Application-specific integrated circuit ASIC programming language Australian Securities and Investments Commission This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... EDIF stands for Electronic Design Interchange Format, and has been predominantly used as a neutral format in which to store Electronic netlists and schematics. ... The word netlist can be used in several different domains, but perhaps the most popular is in the electronic design domain. ... A field-programmable gate array or FPGA is a gate array that can be reprogrammed after it is manufactured, rather than having its programming fixed during the manufacturing — a programmable logic device. ... Actel Corporation (NASDAQ: ACTL) is a leader in single-chip FPGA solutions. ... Altera headquarters in San Jose Altera Corporation (NASDAQ: ALTR) is a leading manufacturer of programmable logic devices. ... Lattice Semiconductor Corporation NASDAQ: [LSCC] is a leading manufacturer of high-performance programmable logic devices (PLDs), field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), programmable mixed-signal and interconnect products, related software and intellectual property (IP). ... Xilinx, Inc. ...


Free versions are the T80 and TV80, available as VHDL and Verilog sources under a BSD style license. The VHDL version, once synthesized, can be clocked up to 35 MHz on a Xilinx Spartan II FPGA. For large production series, it's much cheaper to use a traditional solution (or ASIC) than an FPGA, however. VHDL, or VHSIC Hardware Description Language, is commonly used as a design-entry language for field-programmable gate arrays and application-specific integrated circuits in electronic design automation of digital circuits. ... Verilog is a hardware description language (HDL) used to model electronic systems. ... Xilinx, Inc. ... A field-programmable gate array or FPGA is a gate array that can be reprogrammed after it is manufactured, rather than having its programming fixed during the manufacturing — a programmable logic device. ...


Software emulation

Software emulation of the Z80 instruction set on modern PCs runs faster than the original Z80 CPU ran and is used for home computer simulators (such as ZX Spectrum and Amstrad CPC) and also for video game emulators such as MAME, which executes 1980s vintage video games. SIMH emulates MITS Altair 8800 computer, both Intel 8080 and Zilog Z80 versions. DosBox emulates the familiar command line interface of DOS. An emulator duplicates (provide an emulation of) the functions of one system with a different system, so that the second system behaves like (and appears to be) the first system. ... Children playing on a Amstrad CPC 464 in the 1980s. ... A simulation is an imitation of some real device or state of affairs. ... The ZX Spectrum is a home computer released in the United Kingdom in 1982 by Sinclair Research Ltd. ... The Amstrad CPC was a series of 8-bit home computers produced by Amstrad during the 1980s and early 1990s. ... MAME is an emulator application designed to recreate the hardware of arcade game systems in software, with the intent of preserving gaming history and preventing vintage games from being lost or forgotten. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... The current version of the article or section is written like a magazine article instead of the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia. ... AMD clone NEC 8080AF (2nd-source). ...


Notable uses

In desktop computers

During the late 1970s and early 1980s, the Z80 was used in a great number of fairly anonymous business-oriented machines with the CP/M operating system; a CPU/OS combination that dominated the market in much the same way that Windows based Intel-machines do today. Two well-known examples of Z80+CP/M business computers are the portable Osborne 1 and the Kaypro series. Research Machines manufactured the 380Z and 480Z microcomputers which were networked with a thin Ethernet type LAN and CP/NET in 1981. Other manufacturers of such systems included Televideo, Xerox and a number of more obscure firms. Some systems used multi-tasking operating system software to share the one processor between several concurrent users. CP/M was an operating system originally created for Intel 8080/85 based microcomputers by Gary Kildall of Digital Research, Inc. ... Windows redirects here. ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... An opened Osborne 1 computer, ready for use. ... The Kaypro Corporation Logo, circa 1982. ... Research Machines is the former name of the group of companies now known as RM. RM specialises in providing products and services to schools, colleges, universities and government education departments & agencies. ... Research Machines produced the 380Z computer from 1979 to 1985. ... A company that achieved its peak of success in the early 80s producing dumb terminals. ... Xerox Corporation (NYSE: XRX) (name pronounced ) is a global document management company, which manufactures and sells a range of color and black-and-white printers, multifunction systems, photo copiers, digital production printing presses, and related consulting services and supplies. ...


Home computers using the Z80 (or equivalent) include the following: Children playing on a Amstrad CPC 464 in the 1980s. ...

For a comprehensive overview, see the List of home computers using the Z80. RadioShack Corporation (formerly Radio Shack) (NYSE: RSH) runs a chain of electronics retail stores in the United States, as well as parts of Europe. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Sinclair ZX80 was a home computer brought to market in 1980 by Sinclair Research of Cambridge, England. ... ZX81 logo The Sinclair ZX81 home computer, released by Sinclair Research in 1981, was the follow up to the companys ZX80. ... The ZX Spectrum is a home computer released in the United Kingdom in 1982 by Sinclair Research Ltd. ... The Amstrad CPC was a series of 8-bit home computers produced by Amstrad during the 1980s and early 1990s. ... Amstrad PCW8512 Schneider Joyce The Amstrad PCW series (Personal Computer Word processor) was British company Amstrads versatile line of home/personal microcomputers pitched as a complete, integrated home/office solution. ... MicroBee (Micro Bee) was a series of home computers by Applied Technology, later known as MicroBee Systems. ... Sony MSX 1, Model HitBit-10-P MSX was the name of a standardized home computer architecture in the 1980s. ... SVI-728 MSX SVI-318 home computer Spectravideo, or SVI, was a U.S. computer company founded in 1981 as SpectraVision by Harry Fox. ... The SV-318 was the basic model of the range. ... The SV-328 was the business-targeted model of the Spectravideo range, sporting a rather crowded full-travel keyboard with numeric keypad, and no built-in joystick (though the arrow keys mimicked this function). ... The Jupiter ACE was a British home computer of the 1980s, marketed by a company named Jupiter Cantab. ... The Sharp MZ is a series of personal computers sold in Japan and Europe (particularly Germany and Great Britain) by Sharp beginning in 1978. ... Galaksija on the cover of Računari u vaÅ¡oj kući The Galaksija (Galaxy) was originally a kit-built computer designed by Voja Antonić. It was featured in the special edition Računari u vaÅ¡oj kući (Computers in your home) of a popular science magazine of the... Miles Gordon Technology, known as MGT was a small British company, initially specialising in high-quality add-ons for the Sinclair ZX Spectrum home computer. ... The SAM Coupé was an 8-bit British home computer that was first released in late 1989. ... This is a list of home and office computers by category where the main category is the home computers CPU wordlength (8/16/32/64 bits) and the subcategory is the specific CPU used in each machine. ...

  • The Z80 was also used in the Norwegian Tiki 100 computers, which were the computers of choice in Norwegian primary schools during the late 1980s.
  • The Multitech Microprofessor I, introduced in 1981, was designed as a simple and inexpensive training system for the Z80 microprocessor. As of 2005, it was still on market.
  • A Z80A Polish clone was also used in the ZX Spectrum clones produced by Polish company Elwro.
  • In Romania, several Z80 based computers were manufactured: HC85, HC90, HC91, HC2000 (by the Felix Computers Factory, based in Bucharest), CIP-02 and CIP-03 (by the Electronica Factory, located in Bucharest) and TimS (by the Timişoara Technical University).

The Commodore 128 (C128, CBM 128, C=128) home/personal computer was Commodore Business Machiness (CBM) last commercially released 8-bit machine. ... The MOS Technology 8502 was MOSs microprocessor used as one of the two¹ CPUs in the Commodore 128 home/personal computer. ... The MOS Technology 6502 is an 8-bit microprocessor that was designed by Chuck Peddle for MOS Technology in 1975. ... The BBC Microcomputer System was a series of microcomputers and associated peripherals designed and built by Acorn Computers Ltd for the BBC Computer Literacy Project operated by the British Broadcasting Corporation. ... The Apple II was one of the most popular personal computers of the 1980s. ... Image of the innards of a Commodore 64 showing the 6510 CPU (40-pin DIP, lower left). ... The Commodore 64 is the best-selling single personal computer model of all time. ... In various types of electronic equipment, a cartridge can refer one method of adding different functionality or content (e. ... Tiki 100 was a desktop home/personal computer manufactured by Tiki Data of Oslo, Norway. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... Microprofessor I (MPF 1), introduced in 1981, was Acers first branded computer product and probably one of the worlds longest selling computers. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... The ZX Spectrum is a home computer released in the United Kingdom in 1982 by Sinclair Research Ltd. ... Elwro was a polish company that produced two ZX Spectrum clones. ... Nickname: Motto: Patria si Dreptul Meu (My Country and My Right) Location of Bucharest within Romania (in red) Coordinates: , Country County Founded 1459 (first official mentioned) Government  - Mayor Adriean Videanu Area  - City 228 km²  (88 sq mi)  - Metro 238 km² (91. ... Nickname: Motto: Patria si Dreptul Meu (My Country and My Right) Location of Bucharest within Romania (in red) Coordinates: , Country County Founded 1459 (first official mentioned) Government  - Mayor Adriean Videanu Area  - City 228 km²  (88 sq mi)  - Metro 238 km² (91. ... County Status County Capital Mayor Gheorghe Ciuhandu, Christian-Democratic Peoples Party, since 1996 Area 129. ...

In embedded systems and consumer electronics

The Zilog Z80 has long been a popular microprocessor in embedded systems and microcontroller cores, where it remains in widespread use today. The following list provides examples of such applications of the Z80, including uses in consumer electronics products. A router, an example of an embedded system. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with embedded microprocessor. ... Consumer electronics is electronic equipment intended for use by everyday people. ...


Industrial/professional:

Consumer electronics: Office supplies is the generic term that refers to all supplies regularly used in offices by businesses and other organizations, from private citizens to governments, who works with the collection, refinement, and output of information (colloquially referred to as paper work). The term includes small, expendable, daily use items such... A dot matrix printer or impact matrix printer refers to a type of computer printer with a print head that runs back and forth on the page and prints by impact, striking an ink-soaked cloth ribbon against the paper, much like a typewriter. ... ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... PLC & input/output arrangements A Programmable Logic Controller, PLC, or Programmable Controller is a digital computer used for automation of industrial processes, such as control of machinery on factory assembly lines. ... Look up servo in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... RS-232 (also referred to as EIA RS-232C or V.24) is a standard for serial binary data interchange between a DTE (Data terminal equipment) and a DCE (Data communication equipment). ... A computer terminal is an electronic or electromechanical hardware device that is used for entering data into, and displaying data from, a computer or a computing system. ... Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and/or video signals which transmit programs to an audience. ... A Sony BVS-3200CP vision mixer A vision mixer (also called video switcher, video mixer or production switcher) is a device used to select between several different video sources and in some cases composite (mix) video sources together and add special effects. ... It has been suggested that Real-time computing be merged into this article or section. ... Seagate Technology (NYSE: STX) is a major American manufacturer of hard drives, founded in 1979 and based in Scotts Valley, California. ... Typical hard drives of the mid-1990s. ... Look up credit card in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Collectible card games (CCGs), also called customizable card games or trading card games, are played using specially designed sets of cards. ... Adaptec, Inc. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Copy of the original phone of Alexander Graham Bell at the Musée des Arts et Métiers in Paris Telecommunication is the transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. ... In the field of telecommunications, a central office houses equipment that is commonly known as simply a switch, which is a piece of equipment that connects phone calls. ... A modem (from modulate and demodulate) is a device that modulates an analog carrier signal to encode digital information, and also demodulates such a carrier signal to decode the transmitted information. ... The Fenwood Stofor Logo Stofor: A store and forward message switching system designed by Fenwood Designs Ltd, UK in 1980. ...

Musical instruments etc: A modern basic arithmetic calculator For other uses, see Calculator (disambiguation). ... Texas Instruments (NYSE: TXN), better known in the electronics industry (and popularly) as TI, is an American company based in Dallas, Texas, USA, renowned for developing and commercializing semiconductor and computer technology. ... The TI-83 series graphing calculators are manufactured by Texas Instruments. ... Categories: Stub | Graphing calculators ... TI-85 graphing calculator The TI-85 is a graphing calculator made by Texas Instruments based around the Zilog Z80 microprocessor. ... TI-86 The TI-86 is a programmable graphing calculator introduced in 1997 and produced by Texas Instruments. ... A typical graphing calculator. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Centipede by Atari is a typical example of a 1980s era arcade game. ... Pac-Man is an arcade game developed by Namco and licensed for distribution by Midway Games in 1979. ... Galaga is a fixed shooter arcade game that was released by Namco in 1981 (and also licensed to Midway). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Sega Master System ) or SMS for short (1986 - 2000), is an 8-bit cartridge-based video game console that was manufactured by Sega. ... The Sega Game Gear is a handheld game console which was Segas response to Nintendos Game Boy. ... “Game console” redirects here. ... Nintendo Company, Limited (任天堂 or ニンテンドー Nintendō; NASDAQ: NTDOY, TYO: 7974 usually referred to as simply Nintendo, or Big N ) is a multinational corporation founded on September 23, 1889[1] in Kyoto, Japan by Fusajiro Yamauchi to produce handmade hanafuda cards. ... For the entire Game Boy series of handheld consoles, see Game Boy line. ... The Game Boy Color , shortened to GBC) is Nintendos successor to the Game Boy and was released on October 21, 1998 in Japan and in November of 1998 in the United States and 1999 in Europe. ... Sharp Corporation ) (TYO: 6753 ) is a Japanese electronics manufacturer, founded in 1912. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... SNK Playmore (formerly SNK) is a Japanese video game hardware and software company. ... Neo-Geo is the name of a cartridge-based arcade and home video game system released in 1990 by Japanese game company SNK. The system offered comparatively colorful 2D graphics and high-quality sound. ... The Sega Mega Drive ) was a video game console released by Sega in Japan in 1988, North America in 1989, and the PAL region in 1990. ... Sound reproduction is the electrical or mechanical re-creation and/or amplification of sound, often as music. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Musical Instrument Digital Interface, or MIDI, is a system designed to transmit information between electronic musical instruments. ... E-mu Systems was a synthesizer maker and pioneer in the manufacture of low-cost digital sampling music workstations. ... It has been suggested that Orlando (character) be merged into this article or section. ... Musical Instrument Digital Interface, or MIDI, is a system designed to transmit information between electronic musical instruments. ... In music, the word texture is often used in a rather vague way in reference to the overall sound of a piece of music. ... An analog synthesizer is a synthesizer that uses analog circuits and analog computer techniques to generate sound electronically. ... In electronics, a digital-to-analog converter (DAC or D-to-A) is a device for converting a digital (usually binary) code to an analogue signal (current, voltage or charges). ... Pulse-width modulation of a signal or power source involves the modulation of its duty cycle, to either convey information over a communications channel or control the amount of power sent to a load. ... Musical Instrument Digital Interface, or MIDI, is a system designed to transmit information between electronic musical instruments. ... LFO may refer to: In electronic music, a low frequency oscillation. ... An ADSR envelope is a parameter used in synthesizers, including those that produce sound by subtractive synthesis, to control the sound produced. ... The Prophet 5 was an analog synthesizer manufactured by Sequential Circuits in San Jose, California between 1978 and 1984. ... The Korg Polysix is a six voice programmable polyphonic synthesizer released by Korg in 1981. ... The Jupiter-8, Rolands flagship analog synthesizer of the early 1980s is an eight-voice polyphonic synth which is still quite popular today. ... The Oberheim OB-8 (Source) The Oberheim OB-8 was an analogue synthesiser launched by Oberheim in 1983 and discontinued in 1985. ... The term Moog(pronounced // as in moan) synthesizer can refer to any number of analog synthesizers designed by Dr. Robert Moog or manufactured by Moog Music, and is commonly used as a generic term for analog and digital music synthesisers. ... The Memorymoog is a polyphonic synthesizer manufactured by Moog Music from 1982 to 1985, the last synthesizer to be released by the company. ... In signal processing, sampling is the reduction of a continuous signal to a discrete signal. ... For other uses, see Synthesizer (disambiguation). ... After seeing a Fairlight CMI at a convention in 1979, E-mu founders Scott Wedge and Dave Rossum began working on designing a less expensive sampler. ... Released commercially in 1984, the Emulator II was E-mus second sampler. ... A Boss DR-202 Drum Machine Drum machines are sequencers with a synthesizer, sampler, and/or a sample playback (rompler) component that is tailored to imitate the sounds of drums and other percussion instruments. ...

See also

This is a list of home and office computers by category where the main category is the home computers CPU wordlength (8/16/32/64 bits) and the subcategory is the specific CPU used in each machine. ... Z88DK is a Small-C-derived cross compiler for a long list of Z80 based computers. ... BDS C (or the BD Software C Compiler) is a compiler for a sizeable subset of the C programming language, that ran on and generated code for the Intel 8080 and Zilog Z80 processors. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

Articles about the Z80 microprocessor

Articles about Z80 architecture

  • El-Hajj A, Kabalan KY, Mneimneh M, Karablieh F (August 2000). "Microprocessor simulation and program assembling using spreadsheets". Simulation 75 (2): 82-90. DOI:10.1119/1.14604. 
  • Nagasawa K, Taki K, Tamemoto H, Lee BY, Tanaka H, Imai S, Kajikawa Y, Azuma D (April 1997). "Design and evaluation for super low power Z80 with pass-transistor logic". Sharp Technical Journal 67: 35-40. 
  • LUNSCHER W (1985). "SEMAPHORE STRATEGY FOR Z80". IEEE Micro 5 (3): 4. 
  • SMITH MF, LUFF BE (1984). "AUTOMATIC ASSEMBLER SOURCE TRANSLATION FROM THE Z80 TO THE MC6809". IEEE Micro 4 (2): 3-9. 

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

Educational uses

  • Diab HB, Demashkieh I (May 1991). "A computer-aided teaching package for microprocessor systems education". IEEE Transactions on Education 34 (2): 179-183. DOI:10.1109/13.81598. 
  • C. D. Spencer and P. F. Seligmann (May 1986). "Microcomputers as digital electronics". American Journal of Physics 54 (5): 411-415. DOI:10.1119/1.14604. 
  • Mudge TN, Buzzard GD (1983). "Teaching Assembly Language Programming With ZIP, A Z80 Assembly Language Interpreter Program". IEEE Transactions on Education 26 (3): 91-98. 

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

Scientific Applications

  • Thomas L. Bunn, W. Stephen Woodward, and Tomas Baer (November 1984). "Design and operation of a 12.5-ns multichannel scaler". Review of Scientific Instruments 55 (11): 1849-1853. DOI:10.1063/1.1137678. 
  • K. L. Sala, R. LeSage, and R. W. Yip (November 1982). "S–100/Z80 microprocessor-based scanning microdensitometer and signal processing system". Review of Scientific Instruments 53 (11): 1682-1684. DOI:10.1063/1.1136870. 

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ Margins are great, and most chips actually works well at significantly higher (such as 2x) clock frequencies than specified; memory speed has often been the real (physical) limiting factor up until the last 15 years or so, when cheaper and faster available memory chips changed this relation.
  2. ^ According to one of the designers, Masatoshi Shima, the market focus was on high performance printers, high-end cash registers, and intelligent terminals.
  3. ^ While R is an 8 bit register, it wraps around at 128 instead of 256. If the programmer stores a value in the register, its high bit will be preserved regardless of what the CPU does to the remaining 7 bits. Incorrect implementation of this behaviour is a common source of problems when running games on emulated Z80-machines
  4. ^ Surprisingly, only quite superficial similarities (such as the word MOV, or the letter X, for extended register) exists between the 8080 and 8086 assembly languages, despite the fact that 8080 programs can be compiled into x86 code (using a special assembler).
  5. ^ The 10-year-newer microcoded Z180 design could initially afford more "chip area", permitting a slightly more efficient implementation (using a wider ALU, among other things), similar things can be said for the Z800, Z280, and Z380. However, it was not until the fully pipelined eZ80 was launched in 2001 that those instructions finally became approximately as cycle-efficient as it is technically possible to make them, i.e. given the Z80 encodings combined with the capability to do an 8-bit read or write every clock cycle.
  6. ^ A retroactive "home computer" comparison: The Z80 takes 11 clocks for a 16-bit addition; the popular 6502 needs around 20 cycles to do the same thing using 8-bit operations. Using "typical" clocks of 4MHz versus 1MHz respectively (i.e. similarly fast memory chips), this translates into the Z80 being approximately seven times as fast as the 6502 for this particular operation (20/(11/4) ≈ 7).
  7. ^ Minicomputer features such as, user and system modes, multiprocessor support, on chip MMU, on chip instruction and data cache, etc. was seen rather as more complexity than as functionality and support for the (usually electronics-oriented) embedded systems designer, it also made it very hard to predict instruction execution times.

Masatoshi Shima (嶋正利 Shima Masatoshi, born on August 22, 1943 in Shizuoka, Japan) was at least partly responsible for the design of the worlds first microprocessor, the Intel 4004. ... The Zilog Z180 processor is the successor of the Z80. ... The arithmetic logic unit/arithmetic-logic unit (ALU) of a computers CPU is a part of the execution unit, a core component of all CPUs. ... The Zilog Z800 was a 16-bit microprocessor designed by Zilog to be released in 1985. ... The Z280 is a Zilog 16 bit, Z80 compatible processor from 1987. ... Zilogs 32 bit processor from 1994. ... The ZiLOG eZ80 is an 8-bit microprocessor which is essentially an updated version of the companys earlier Z80 8-bit microprocessor. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... The MOS Technology 6502 is an 8-bit microprocessor designed by MOS Technology in 1975. ...

External links

References

Zilog Components Data Book, Zilog, Campbell California, 1985, no ISBN


  Results from FactBites:
 
ZILOG Z80 - Definition (275 words)
Zilog Z8, Zilog Z8000, Zilog Z80000, Zilog Z80A
The Z80 was a much improved Intel 8080 (as was the Intel 8085).
The Zilog Z280 was an enhanced version with an MMU and many new op codes.
Zilog Z80 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2629 words)
The Z80 and its derivatives and clones make up one of the most commonly used CPU families of all time, and, along with the MOS 6502 family, dominated the 8-bit microcomputer market from the late 1970s to the mid-1980s.
The Z80 was also used in the Norwegian Tiki 100 computers, which were the computers of choice in Norwegian primary schools during the late 1980s.
Z80 processors are used in industrial programmable logic controllers (PLCs), both as the main processor and for auxiliary functions such as analog input/output modules or for communication processors.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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