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Encyclopedia > Zidovudine
Zidovudine chemical structure
Zidovudine
Systematic (IUPAC) name
1-[(2R,4S,5S)- 4-azido-5-(hydroxymethyl) oxolan-2-yl]- 5-methyl-pyrimidine-2,4-dione
Identifiers
CAS number 30516-87-1
ATC code J05AF01
PubChem 35370
DrugBank APRD00449
Chemical data
Formula C10H13N5O4 
Mol. weight 267.242 g/mol
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability near complete absoprtion, following first-pass metabolism systemic availability 65% (range 52 to 75%)
Protein binding 30 to 38%
Metabolism Hepatic
Half life 0.5 to 3 hours
Excretion Renal
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.

C(US) Image File history File links Zidovudine. ... IUPAC nomenclature is a systematic way of naming organic chemical compounds. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences and alloys. ... The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System is used for the classification of drugs. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... PubChem is a database of chemical molecules . ... DrugBank is a database available at the University of Alberta that provides information about thousands of products. ... A chemical formula (also called molecular formula) is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Atomic mass 12. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... General Name, Symbol, Number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 14. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series Nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Atomic mass 15. ... The molecular mass of a substance (less accurately called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW) is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... In pharmacology, bioavailability is used to describe the fraction of an administered dose of medication that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs. ... Many drugs are bound to Blood plasma proteins. ... Overview of the citric acid cycle The citric acid cycle, one of the central metabolic pathways in aerobic organisms. ... The liver is an organ in some animals, including mammals (and therefore humans), birds, and reptiles. ... The elimination half-life of a drug (or any xenobiotic agent) refers to the timecourse necessary for the quantity of the xenobiotic agent in the body (or plasma concentration) to be reduced to half of its original level through various elimination processes. ... Excretion is the biological process by which an organism chemically separates waste products from its body. ... The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ... The pregnancy category of a pharmaceutical agent is an assessment of the risk of fetal injury due to the pharmaceutical, if it is used as directed by the mother during pregnancy. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from...

Legal status
Routes Oral

Zidovudine (INN) or azidothymidine (AZT) (also called ZDV) is an antiretroviral drug, the first one approved for treatment of HIV. It is also sold under the names Retrovir® and Retrovis®, and as an ingredient in Combivir® and Trizivir®. It is an analog of thymidine. The regulation of therapeutic goods, that is drugs and therapeutic devices, varies by jurisdiction. ... In pharmacology and toxicology, a route of administration is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison or other substance is brought into contact with the body 1. ... An International Nonproprietary Name (INN) is the official non-proprietary or generic name given to a pharmaceutical substance, as designated by the World Health Organization. ... Antiretroviral drugs are medications for the treatment of infection by retroviruses, primarily HIV. Different classes of antiretroviral drugs act at different stages of the HIV life cycle. ... Human immunodeficiency virus or HIV is a retrovirus that causes Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), a condition in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections. ... Trizivirâ„¢ is a combination of three drugs patented by GlaxoSmithKline. ... An analog is in chemistry a chemical closely related to another usually sharing the same nucleus. ... The chemical structure of deoxythymidine Thymidine (more precisely called deoxythymidine can also be labelled deoxyribosylthymine, and thymine deoxyriboside) is a chemical compound, more precisely a pyrimidine deoxynucleoside. ...

Contents

History

Zidovudine was the first drug approved for the treatment of AIDS and HIV infection. Jerome Horwitz of Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute and Wayne State University School of Medicine first synthesized AZT in 1964, under a US National Institutes of Health (NIH) grant. It was originally intended to treat cancer, but failed to show efficacy and had an unacceptably high side effect profile. The drug then faded from view until February 1985, when Samuel Broder, Hiroaki Mitsuya, and Robert Yarchoan, three scientists in the National Cancer Institute (NCI), collaborating with Janet Rideout and several other scientists at Burroughs Wellcome (now GlaxoSmithKline), started working on it as an AIDS drug. After showing that this drug was an effective agent against HIV in vitro, the team conducted the initial clinical trial that provided evidence that it could increase CD4 counts in AIDS patients. Curly Howard, whose real name was Jerome Lester Horwitz (October 22, 1903 - January 18, 1952), was one of the Three Stooges. ... The entire School of Medicine is located within Scott Hall The Wayne State University School of Medicine (WSUSOM) is the largest single-campus medical school in the United States with more than 1,000 medical students. ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for medical research. ... In the United States Federal grants are economic aid issued by the United States government out of the general federal revenue. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these cells to invade other tissues, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis. ... An adverse drug reaction (abbreviated ADR) is a term to describe the unwanted, negative consequences sometimes associated with the use of medications. ... 1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Samuel Broder is an oncologist and medical researcher. ... Hiroaki Mitsuya (1950 - ) is a Japanese virologist famous for his discovery of the anti-HIV drug AZT. Mitsuya obtained his M.D. and Ph. ... Robert Yarchoan (born 1950) is a medical researcher who played an important role in the development of the first effective drugs for AIDS. Dr. Yarchoan attended Amherst College and subsequently received his M.D. from the University of Pennsylvania. ... The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is the United States federal governments principal agency for cancer research and training, and the first institute of the present-day National Institutes of Health. ... GlaxoSmithKline plc (LSE: GSK NYSE: GSK) is a British based pharmaceutical, biologicals, and healthcare company. ... Wiktionary has a definition of: In vitro In vitro (Latin: within glass) means within a test tube, or, more generally, outside a living organism or cell. ... In medicine, a clinical trial (synonyms: clinical studies, research protocols, medical research) is a type of research study. ... CD4 (cluster of differentiation 4) is a molecule that is expressed on the surface of T helper cells (as well as regulatory T cells and dendritic cells). ...


A placebo-controlled randomized trial of AZT was subsequently conducted by Burroughs-Wellcome, in which it was shown that AZT could prolong the life of patients with AIDS. Burroughs Wellcome Co. filed for a patent on AZT in 1986. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the drug (via the then-new FDA accelerated approval system) for use against HIV, AIDS, and AIDS Related Complex (ARC, a now-defunct medical term for pre-AIDS illness) on March 20, 1987, and then as a preventive treatment in 1990. It was initially administered in much higher dosages than today, typically 400 mg every four hours (even at night). However, the unavailability at that time of alternatives to treat AIDS affected the risk/benefit ratio, with the certain toxicity of HIV infection outweighing the risk of drug toxicity. One of AZT's side effects includes anemia, a common complaint in early trials. // A placebo is a medicine or preparation which has no inherent pertinent pharmacologic activity but which is effective only by virtue of the factor of suggestion attendant upon its administration. ... In medicine, a clinical trial (synonyms: clinical studies, research protocols, medical research) is a research study. ... 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services and is responsible for regulating food (humans and animal), dietary supplements, drugs (human and animal), cosmetics, medical devices (human and animal) and radiation emitting devices (including non-medical devices), biologics, and... March 20 is the 79th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (80th in Leap years). ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Anemia (AmE) or anaemia (BrE), from the Greek () meaning without blood, refers to a deficiency of red blood cells (RBCs) and/or hemoglobin. ...


Modern treatment regimens typically use lower dosages (e.g. 300 mg) two to three times a day. As of 1996, AZT, like other antiretroviral drugs, is almost always used as part of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). That is, it is combined with other drugs in order to prevent mutation of HIV into an AZT-resistant form.[1][2] 1996 is a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... Antiretroviral drugs are medications for the treatment of infection by retroviruses, primarily HIV. Different classes of antiretroviral drugs act at different stages of the HIV life cycle. ... The term antiretroviral drugs is used to describe drugs used against HIV infection (HIV is an RNA retrovirus). ...


The crystal structure of AZT was reported by Alan Howie (Aberdeen University) in 1988.[3] In the solid state AZT forms a hydrogen bond network. Note that AZT is based upon a sugar. University of Aberdeen Motto: Initium sapientiae timor domini (The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom) Logo © University of Aberdeen The University of Aberdeen is a university in Aberdeen, Scotland, founded by William Elphinstone, Bishop of Aberdeen in 1495 as Kings College. ... Snapshot from a simulation of liquid water. ...


Prophylaxis

AZT may be used in combination with other antiretroviral medications to substantially reduce the risk of HIV infection following a significant exposure to the virus (such as a needle-stick injury involving blood or body fluids from an individual known to be infected with HIV).[4]


AZT is also recommended as part of a regimen to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV during pregnancy, labor and delivery.[5] With no treatment, approximately 25% of infants whose mothers are infected with HIV will become infected. AZT has been shown to reduce this risk to approximately 8% when given in a three-part regimen during pregnancy, delivery and to the infant for 6 weeks after birth.[6] Use of appropriate combinations of antiretroviral medications and cesarean section when necessary can further reduce mother-child transmission of HIV to 1-2%. Vertical transmission refers to transmission of an infection, such as HIV, hepatitis B, or hepatitis C, from mother to child during the perinatal period, the period immediately before and after birth. ... A caesarean section (cesarean section AE), is a surgical incision through a mothers abdomen (laparotomy) and uterus (hysterotomy) to deliver one or more fetuses. ...


Side effects

Common side effects of AZT include nausea, headache, changes in body fat, and discoloration of fingernails and toenails. More severe side effects include anaemia and bone marrow suppression. These unwanted side effects might be caused by the sensitivity of the γ-DNA polymerase in the cell mitochondria. AZT has been shown to work additively or synergistically with many anti-HIV agents; however, acyclovir and ribavirin decrease the antiviral effect of AZT. Drugs that inhibit hepatic glucuronidation, such as indomethacin, acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin) and trimethoprim, decrease the elimination rate and increase the toxicity.[7] This article discusses the medical condition. ... Bone marrow suppression is a serious side effect of chemotherapy and certain drugs affecting the immune system such as azathioprine. ... In cell biology, a mitochondrion is an organelle found in the cells of most eukaryotes. ... Aciclovir (INN) or aciclovir (USAN), marketed as Zovirax®, is one of the main antiviral drugs. ... Ribavirin (Copegus®; Rebetol®; Ribasphere®; Vilona®,Virazole®, also generics from Sandoz, Teva, Warrick) is an anti-viral drug which is active against a number of DNA and RNA viruses. ... The liver is an organ in some animals, including mammals (and therefore humans), birds, and reptiles. ... Example of glucuronidation Glucuronidation of alcohols and acids Glucuronidation is a major inactivating pathway for a huge variety of exogenous and endogenous molecules, including drugs, polluants, bilirubin, androgens, estrogens, mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, fatty acid derivatives, retinoids and bile acids. ... Indomethacin (USAN) or indometacin (INN) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug commonly used to reduce fever, pain, stiffness, and swelling. ... A very old bottle of Aspirin Aspirin or acetylsalicylic acid is a drug in the family of salicylates, often used as an analgesic (against minor pains and aches), antipyretic (against fever), and anti-inflammatory. ... Trimethoprim is a bacteriostatic antibiotic mainly used in the prophylaxis and treatment of urinary tract infections (cystitis). ...


Viral resistance

AZT does not destroy the HIV infection, but only delays the progression of the disease and the replication of virus, even at very high doses. During prolonged AZT treatment HIV has the ability to gain an increased resistance to AZT by mutation of the reverse transcriptase. A study showed that AZT could not impede the resumption of virus production, and eventually cells treated with AZT produced viruses as much as the untreated cells. So as to slow the development of resistance, it is generally recommended that AZT be given in combination with another reverse transcriptase inhibitor and an antiretroviral from another group, such as a protease inhibitor or a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor. In biology, mutations are changes to the genetic material (either DNA or RNA). ... In biochemistry, a reverse transcriptase, also known as RNA-directed DNA polymerase, is a DNA polymerase enzyme that transcribes single-stranded RNA into double-stranded DNA. Normal transcription involves the synthesis of RNA from DNA, hence reverse transcription is the reverse of this, as it synthesises DNA from RNA. Reverse... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Protease inhibitor can refer to: Protease inhibitor (pharmacology): a class of medication that inhibits viral protease Protease inhibitor (biology): a group of proteins that inhibit proteases. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Mode of action

Like other reverse transcriptase inhibitors, AZT works by inhibiting the action of reverse transcriptase, the enzyme that HIV uses to make a DNA copy of its RNA. The viral double-stranded DNA is subsequently spliced into the DNA of a target cell, where it is called a provirus.[8][9][10] This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... In biochemistry, a reverse transcriptase, also known as RNA-directed DNA polymerase, is a DNA polymerase enzyme that transcribes single-stranded RNA into double-stranded DNA. Normal transcription involves the synthesis of RNA from DNA, hence reverse transcription is the reverse of this, as it synthesises DNA from RNA. Reverse... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... For other uses, see DNA (disambiguation). ... Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a nucleic acid polymer consisting of nucleotide monomers. ... For other uses, see DNA (disambiguation). ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell. Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green). ... A provirus is a retrovirus that has integrated itself into the DNA of a host cell. ...


The azido group increases the lipophilic nature of AZT, allowing it to cross cell membranes easily by diffusion and thereby also to cross the blood-brain barrier. Cellular enzymes convert AZT into the effective 5’-triphosphate form. Studies have shown that the termination of the formed DNA chains is the specific factor in the inhibitory effect. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Illustration of a lipid bilayer The cell membrane, also called the plasma membrane or plasmalemma, is a selectively permeable lipid bilayer which comprises the outer layer of a cell. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Freeze-fracture morphology of the blood-brain barrier of a rat The blood-brain barrier (abbreviated BBB, not to be confused with the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier, a function of the choroid plexus) is a membrane that controls the passage of substances from the blood into the central nervous system. ...


The triphosphate form also has some ability to inhibit cellular DNA polymerase, which is used by normal cells as part of cell division.[11][12][13] However, AZT has a 100- to 300-fold greater affinity for the HIV reverse transcriptase, as compared to the human DNA polymerase, accounting for its selective antiviral activity.[14] A special kind of cellular DNA polymerase that replicates the DNA in mitochondria is relatively more sensitive to inibition by AZT, and this accounts for certain toxicities such as damage to cardiac and other muscles (also called myositis).[15][16][17][18][19] 3D structure of the DNA-binding helix-hairpin-helix motifs in human DNA polymerase beta A DNA polymerase is an enzyme that assists in DNA replication. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... In cell biology, a mitochondrion is an organelle found in the cells of most eukaryotes. ...


Controversy

AZT has been the target of some controversy due to the nature of the patent process[20] and as part of Dr. Peter Duesberg's challenge to the virus-AIDS hypothesis. The Duesberg hypothesis is the claim, initially put forward by Peter Duesberg, that various non-infectious factors including recreational and pharmaceutical drug use are the cause of AIDS, and that HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is a harmless passenger virus. ...


Patent issues

In 1991, Public Citizen filed a lawsuit claiming that the AZT/Zidovudine patent was invalid. The United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit ruled in 1994 in favour of GlaxoSmithKline. In 2002, another lawsuit was filed over the patent by the AIDS Healthcare Foundation. 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Public Citizen is a U.S. non-governmental organization, founded by Ralph Nader in 1971 and based in Washington, DC. Its activities span across a diverse range of issues, including energy policy, trade policy, campaign finance reform and accountability, consumer protection, medical malpractice, and public health. ... The United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit, or simply the Federal Circuit, was founded in 1982 to combine similar federal cases to a specialized appellate court. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... GlaxoSmithKline plc (LSE: GSK NYSE: GSK) is a British based pharmaceutical, biologicals, and healthcare company. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... The AIDS Healthcare Foundation is a non profit, Los Angeles-based AIDS treatment and advocacy center. ...


However, the patent expired in March 2006 (placing AZT in the public domain), allowing other drug companies to manufacture and market generic AZT without having to pay GlaxoSmithKline any royalties. The U.S. FDA has since approved four generic forms of AZT for sale in the U.S. A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a state to a patentee (the inventor or assignee) for a fixed period of time in exchange for the regulated, public disclosure of certain details of a device, method, process or composition of matter (substance) (known as an invention) which... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... GlaxoSmithKline plc (LSE: GSK NYSE: GSK) is a British based pharmaceutical, biologicals, and healthcare company. ... A generic drug (pl. ...


Peter Duesberg's claims

See also: AIDS reappraisal
See also: Duesberg hypothesis

Dr. Peter Duesberg claims that AZT or other immunosuppressive drugs (nitrite inhalants, cocaine, amphetamines, etc.), rather than HIV, cause AIDS in Western countries.[21] Most scientists believe that Duesberg's claims are contradicted by an overwhelming amount of clinical and epidemiological evidence.[22] The AIDS reappraisal movement (or AIDS dissident movement) is a loosely connected group of activists — journalists, scientists, HIV-positive persons, and concerned citizens — who dispute the scientific consensus that the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the cause of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). ... The Duesberg hypothesis is the claim, initially put forward by Peter Duesberg, that various non-infectious factors including recreational and pharmaceutical drug use are the cause of AIDS, and that HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is a harmless passenger virus. ... Peter H. Duesberg (born December 2, 1936 in Germany) is an award-winning professor of molecular and cell biology at the University of California, Berkeley. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not include all significant viewpoints. ... For other uses, see Cocaine (disambiguation). ... Amphetamine is a synthetic drug originally developed (and still used) as an appetite suppressant. ... The Duesberg hypothesis is the claim, initially put forward by Peter Duesberg, that various non-infectious factors including recreational and pharmaceutical drug use are the cause of AIDS, and that HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is a harmless passenger virus. ...


Footnotes

  1. ^ De Clercq E (1994). "HIV resistance to reverse transcriptase inhibitors.". Biochem Pharmacol 47 (2): 155-69. PMID 7508227.
  2. ^ Yarchoan R, Mitsuya H, Broder S (1988). "AIDS therapies.". Sci Am 259 (4): 110-9. PMID 3072667.
  3. ^ Dr. Alan Howie. Dr Alan Howie. University of Aberdeen. Retrieved on 2006-01-18.
  4. ^ Updated U.S. Public Health Service Guidelines for the Management of Occupational Exposures to HIV. Retrieved on 2006-03-29.
  5. ^ Recommendations for Use of Antiretroviral Drugs in Pregnant HIV-1-Infected Women for Maternal Health. Retrieved on 2006-03-29.
  6. ^ Connor E, Sperling R, Gelber R, Kiselev P, Scott G, O'Sullivan M, VanDyke R, Bey M, Shearer W, Jacobson R (1994). "Reduction of maternal-infant transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 with zidovudine treatment. Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 076 Study Group.". N Engl J Med 331 (18): 1173-80. PMID 7935654.
  7. ^ ZIDOVUDINE (AZT) - ORAL (Retrovir) side effects, medical uses, and drug interactions. MedicineNet. Retrieved on 2006-01-09.
  8. ^ Mitsuya H, Yarchoan R, Broder S (1990). "Molecular targets for AIDS therapy.". Science 249 (4976): 1533-44. PMID 1699273.
  9. ^ Mitsuya H, Weinhold K, Furman P, St Clair M, Lehrman S, Gallo R, Bolognesi D, Barry D, Broder S (1985). "3'-Azido-3'-deoxythymidine (BW A509U): an antiviral agent that inhibits the infectivity and cytopathic effect of human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus in vitro.". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 82 (20): 7096-100. PMID 2413459.
  10. ^ Yarchoan R, Klecker R, Weinhold K, Markham P, Lyerly H, Durack D, Gelmann E, Lehrman S, Blum R, Barry D (1986). "Administration of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine, an inhibitor of HTLV-III/LAV replication, to patients with AIDS or AIDS-related complex.". Lancet 1 (8481): 575-80. PMID 2869302.
  11. ^ Furman P, Fyfe J, St Clair M, Weinhold K, Rideout J, Freeman G, Lehrman S, Bolognesi D, Broder S, Mitsuya H (1986). "Phosphorylation of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine and selective interaction of the 5'-triphosphate with human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase.". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 83 (21): 8333-7. PMID 2430286.
  12. ^ Mitsuya H, Weinhold K, Furman P, St Clair M, Lehrman S, Gallo R, Bolognesi D, Barry D, Broder S (1985). "3'-Azido-3'-deoxythymidine (BW A509U): an antiviral agent that inhibits the infectivity and cytopathic effect of human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus in vitro.". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 82 (20): 7096-100. PMID 2413459.
  13. ^ Plessinger M, Miller R. "Effects of zidovudine (AZT) and dideoxyinosine (ddI) on human trophoblast cells.". Reprod Toxicol 13 (6): 537-46. PMID 10613402.
  14. ^ Mitsuya H, Weinhold KJ, Furman PA, et al: 3'-azido-3;-deoxythymidine (BW A509U): an antiviral agent that inhibits the infectivity and cytopathic effect of human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus in vitro. Med Sci 1985; 82:7096-7100.
  15. ^ Collins M, Sondel N, Cesar D, Hellerstein M (2004). "Effect of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors on mitochondrial DNA synthesis in rats and humans.". J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 37 (1): 1132-9. PMID 15319672.
  16. ^ Parker W, White E, Shaddix S, Ross L, Buckheit R, Germany J, Secrist J, Vince R, Shannon W (1991). "Mechanism of inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase and human DNA polymerases alpha, beta, and gamma by the 5'-triphosphates of carbovir, 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine, 2',3'-dideoxyguanosine and 3'-deoxythymidine. A novel RNA template for the evaluation of antiretroviral drugs.". J Biol Chem 266 (3): 1754-62. PMID 1703154.
  17. ^ Rang H.P., Dale M.M., Ritter J.M. (1995). Pharmacology, 3rd edition, Pearson Professional Ltd.
  18. ^ Balzarini J, Naesens L, Aquaro S, Knispel T, Perno C, De Clercq E, Meier C (1999). "Intracellular metabolism of CycloSaligenyl 3'-azido-2', 3'-dideoxythymidine monophosphate, a prodrug of 3'-azido-2', 3'-dideoxythymidine (zidovudine).". Mol Pharmacol 56 (6): 1354-61. PMID 10570065.
  19. ^ Yarchoan R, Mitsuya H, Myers C, Broder S (1989). "Clinical pharmacology of 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine (zidovudine) and related dideoxynucleosides.". N Engl J Med 321 (11): 726-38. PMID 2671731.
  20. ^ The Best Democracy Money Can Buy by Greg Palast (2002)
  21. ^ Peter H. Duesberg. Duesberg on AIDS. Peter H. Duesberg. Retrieved on 2006-01-18.
  22. ^ The Evidence That HIV Causes AIDS. Retrieved on 2006-03-29.


2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 18 is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 29 is the 88th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (89th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 29 is the 88th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (89th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 9 is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Best Democracy Money Can Buy (ISBN 0452283914, Penguin Plume USA) is a 2002 book written by left-wing investigative journalist Greg Palast. ... Gee Dogsbody, whats the matter? Dont you like freedom of the press? Greg Palast is a New York Times-bestselling author and a journalist for the British Broadcasting Corporation as well as the British newspaper The Observer. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 18 is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 29 is the 88th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (89th in leap years). ... Human immunodeficiency virus or HIV is a retrovirus that causes Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), a condition in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections. ... Acquired immune deficiency syndrome or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS or Aids) is a collection of symptoms and infections resulting from the specific damage to the immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). ... The genome and proteins of HIV have been the subject of extensive research in the twenty years since the discovery of the virus. ... Randal Tobias, U.S. Global AIDS Coordinator, being publicly tested for HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia in an effort to reduce the stigma of being tested. ... This classification system is how the United States agency, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) classifies HIV disease and infection. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... An HIV vaccine is a hypothetical vaccine against HIV, the etiological agent of AIDS. As there is no known cure for AIDS, the search for a vaccine has become part of the struggle against the disease. ... WHO Disease Staging System for HIV Infection and Disease are produced by the World Health Organisation. ... AIDS dementia complex (ADC; also known as HIV dementia, HIV encephalopathy and HIV-associated dementia) has become a common neurological disorder associated with HIV infection and AIDS. It is is a metabolic encephalopathy induced by HIV infection and fueled by immune activation of brain macrophages and microglia. ... Antiretroviral drugs are medications for the treatment of infection by retroviruses, primarily HIV. Different classes of antiretroviral drugs act at different stages of the HIV life cycle. ... Scanning electron micrograph of HIV-1 budding from cultured lymphocyte. ... Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has killed more than 25 million people since it was first recognized in 1981, making it one of the most destructive epidemics in recorded history. ... A United States HIV/AIDS Memorial Museum, to be located in Newark, New Jersey, is being planned for opening in 2006. ... This is a timeline of AIDS. 1959 The first known case of HIV in a human was found in a person who died in the Congo (Zhu et al. ... According to the oral polio vaccine (OPV) AIDS hypothesis, the AIDS pandemic originated from live polio vaccines prepared in chimpanzee tissue cultures (at least some of which were almost certainly contaminated with chimpanzee SIV) which were administered to up to one million Africans between 1957 and 1960. ... The AIDS reappraisal movement (or AIDS dissident movement) is a loosely connected group of activists — journalists, scientists, HIV-positive persons, and concerned citizens — who dispute the scientific consensus that the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the cause of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). ... The Duesberg hypothesis is the claim, initially put forward by Peter Duesberg, that various non-infectious factors including recreational and pharmaceutical drug use are the cause of AIDS, and that HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is a harmless passenger virus. ... The International AIDS Society is the custodian of the International AIDS Conferences, the paramount gathering of all disciplines in HIV/AIDS now held every two years. ... The International AIDS Society (IAS) is the worlds professional society for scientists, health care and public health workers, and others engaged in HIV/AIDS prevention, control and care. ... The Red Ribbon is the global symbol for solidarity with HIV-positive people and those living with AIDS. World AIDS Day, observed December 1 each year, is dedicated to raising awareness of the global AIDS pandemic caused by the spread of HIV infection. ... The Treatment Action Campaign is a South African grassroots pressure group which was founded by Zackie Achmat, an HIV-positive activist who refused anti-retroviral treatment (ARVs) until they were universally available. ... The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS, or UNAIDS, is the main advocate for accelerated, comprehensive and coordinated global action on the HIV epidemic. ... The AIDS Quilt The AIDS Memorial Quilt is an enormous quilt made as a memorial to and celebration of the lives of people who have died of AIDS-related causes. ... Because the worldwide spread of AIDS has had such a great effect on millions of people worldwide, a number of misconceptions have arisen surrounding the disease. ... Television star Pedro Zamora did much to promote understanding of people living with HIV in the USA This is an incomplete list, which may never be able to satisfy certain standards for completeness. ... The People With AIDS (PWA) Self-Empowerment Movement was a movement of those diagnosed with AIDS and grew out of San Francisco. ... Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has killed more than 25 million people since it was first recognized in 1981, making it one of the most destructive epidemics in recorded history. ... AIDS education at a school in Uganda. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... // History In the early 1980s, doctors in Los Angeles, New York City, and San Francisco began seeing young men with Kaposis Sarcoma, a cancer usually associated with elderly men of Mediterranean ethnicity. ... This is a list of countries and territories by HIV/AIDS adult prevalence rate, based on The World Factbook, accessed in September 2005. ...

Antivirals (primarily J05A, also S01AD and D06BB) edit
Anti-herpesvirus agents   Aciclovir, Cidofovir, Docosanol, Famciclovir, Fomivirsen, Foscarnet, Ganciclovir, Idoxuridine, Penciclovir, Trifluridine, Tromantadine, Valaciclovir, Valganciclovir, Vidarabine
Anti-influenza agents Amantadine, Oseltamivir, Peramivir, Rimantadine, Zanamivir
 
Antiretroviral drugs   NRTIs Abacavir, Didanosine, Emtricitabine, Lamivudine, Stavudine, Zalcitabine, Zidovudine
NtRTIs   Tenofovir
NNRTIs   Efavirenz, Delavirdine, Nevirapine
PIs Amprenavir, Atazanavir, Darunavir, Fosamprenavir, Indinavir, Lopinavir, Nelfinavir, Ritonavir, Saquinavir, Tipranavir
Fusion inhibitors Enfuvirtide
 
Other antiviral agents Adefovir, Fomivirsen, Imiquimod, Inosine, Interferon, Podophyllotoxin, Ribavirin, Viramidine

  Results from FactBites:
 
Zidovudine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1747 words)
Zidovudine (INN) or azidothymidine (AZT) (also called ZDV) is an antiretroviral drug, the first one approved for treatment of HIV.
Zidovudine was the first drug approved for the treatment of AIDS and HIV infection.
"Intracellular metabolism of CycloSaligenyl 3'-azido-2', 3'-dideoxythymidine monophosphate, a prodrug of 3'-azido-2', 3'-dideoxythymidine (zidovudine).
Retrovir Online, Description, Chemistry, Ingredients - Zidovudine - RxList Monographs (709 words)
Zidovudine is a white to beige, odorless, crystalline solid with a molecular weight of 267.24 and a solubility of 20.1 mg/mL in water at 25
Intracellularly, zidovudine is phosphorylated to its active 5’-triphosphate metabolite, zidovudine triphosphate (ZDV-TP).
In cell culture drug combination studies, zidovudine demonstrates synergistic activity with the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) abacavir, didanosine, lamivudine, and zalcitabine; the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) delavirdine and nevirapine; and the protease inhibitors (PIs) indinavir, nelfinavir, ritonavir, and saquinavir; and additive activity with interferon alfa.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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