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Encyclopedia > Ziaur Rahman
Ziaur Rahman
January 19, 1936May 30, 1981

President Zia during inauguration of an irrigation project
Place of birth: Bogra District, Bengal
Place of death: Chittagong, Bangladesh
Major organizations: Bangladesh Nationalist Party

Ziaur Rahman (Bengali: জিয়াউর রহমান Ziaur Rôhman) (January 19, 1936May 30, 1981) was the 6th President of Bangladesh and the founder of the Bangladesh Nationalist Party. Popularly called Zia, he is also sometimes referred to as a Shaheed (Martyr). His widow Begum Khaleda Zia has served as Prime Minister of Bangladesh three times. January 19 is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... May 30 is the 150th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (151st in leap years). ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Bogra is a northern district of Bangladesh, in the Rajshahi Division. ... Bengal, known as Bôngo (Bengali: বঙ্গ), Bangla (বাংলা), Bôngodesh (বঙ্গদেশ), or Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ) in the Bengali language, is a region in the northeast of South Asia. ... Chittagong (Bengali: চট্টগ্রাম, Chôţţogram) is the major seaport and second largest city of Bangladesh. ... Bangladesh Nationalist Party (Bengali: বাংলাদেশ জাতীয়তাবাদী দল Bangladesh Jatiotabadi Dôl, BNP) is the immediate past ruling political party of Bangladesh, as part of an alliance with Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh (as of October 2006). ... Bengali or Bangla (বাংলা, IPA: ) is an Indo-Aryan language of the eastern Indian subcontinent, evolved from Prakrit, Pāli and Sanskrit. ... January 19 is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... May 30 is the 150th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (151st in leap years). ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This page lists Presidents of Bangladesh. ... Bangladesh Nationalist Party (Bengali: বাংলাদেশ জাতীয়তাবাদী দল Bangladesh Jatiotabadi Dôl, BNP) is the immediate past ruling political party of Bangladesh, as part of an alliance with Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh (as of October 2006). ... Khaleda Zia (Bangla: খালেদা জিয়া) (born 15 August 1945) was the Prime Minister of Bangladesh from 1991 to 1996, the first woman in the countrys history to hold that position, and then again from 2001 to 2006. ... The Prime Minister of Bangladesh is, in practice, the most powerful political position in Bangladesh. ...


An officer in the Pakistan Army, Zia's unit captured the Kalurghat radio station at the onset of the Bangladesh Liberation War and declared the independence of Bangladesh. Recognised as a war hero, he was honoured with the Bir Uttom in 1972. A high-ranking officer in the Bangladesh Army, Zia was appointed chief of army staff following the assassination of Sheikh Mujib Rahman in 1975. Although briefly overthrown in a counter-coup, Zia returned to power in a military coup organised by Colonel Abu Taher. Pakistan Army Flag The Pakistan Army (Urdu: پاک فوج) is the largest branch of the Pakistan military, and is responsible for protection of the state borders, the security of administered territories and defending the national interests of Pakistan within the framework of its international obligations. ... Kalurghat is located several miles north of Chittagong, Bangladesh. ... Combatants Mukti Bahini India Aided By  Soviet Union Pakistan Aided By United States People’s Republic of China Commanders • General M A G Osmani • General Jagjit Singh Aurora • General Sam Manekshaw • General A. A. K. Niazi • General Tikka Khan Strength India: 500,000+ Mukti Bahini: 100,000[1][2] Pakistan... Bir Uttom (literally, Best Hero in Bengali) is the second highest award for individual gallantry in Bangladesh. ... Official flag of Bangladesh Army Bangladesh Army, or Bānglādesh Shenā Bāhini (Bānglā: বাংলাদেশ সেনা বাহিনী) in Bangla, is a branch of Bangladesh Armed Forces. ... The Chief of the Army Staff (CAS) of the Bangladesh Army is the professional head of the Bangladesh Army. ... Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, the founding father of Bangladesh, was assassinated on August 15, 1975. ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... Colonel (retired) Abu Taher (1938-1976) was a famous Bangladeshi freedom fighter, a sector commander in Bangladesh Liberation War, and a left-leaning radical activist. ...


Declaring himself president in 1977, Zia won a referendum held in 1978. Founding the Bangladesh Nationalist Party, Zia won widespread popular support for stabilising the nation and leading it in a new direction. A right-wing politician, Zia established free-market policies in a 19-point programme of industrialisation and development. He adopted policies bringing the government increasingly under Islam, which he included in the national constitution. Zia controversially pardoned the assassins of Sheikh Mujib by signing the Indemnity Act and rehabilitated individuals who had supported the Pakistan Army. A popular yet controversial leader, Zia was assassinated in 1981 in an abortive military coup. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Left-Right politics. ... A free market is an idealized market system, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... The constitution of Bangladesh is the supreme law in Bangladesh. ... The Indemnity Act was first promulgated as an ordinance by Bangladesh president Khondaker Mostaq Ahmad. ... Ziaur Rahman, the president of Bangladesh, was assassinated by a faction of officers of Bangladesh Army, on May 30, 1981, in the south-eastern port city of Chittagong. ...

Contents

Early life

Ziaur Rahman was born in the village of Bagbari in the Bogra District of the province of Bengal (now in northwest Bangladesh), although by some other accounts he was born in the city of Calcutta.[1] His father, Mansur Rahman, was a chemist working for a government department in Kolkata. Zia's childhood was divided between living in the village and the city. He was later enrolled into the Hare School in Kolkata.[2] With the partition of India in 1947, Mansur Rahman opted to join the new Muslim state of Pakistan, moving his family to East Pakistan. The family later moved to Karachi, the national capital located in West Pakistan, where Mansur Rahman had been transferred to work for the Government of Pakistan. Zia was enrolled in the Academy School in Karachi.[2] Bogra is a northern district of Bangladesh, in the Rajshahi Division. ... Bengal, known as Bôngo (Bengali: বঙ্গ), Bangla (বাংলা), Bôngodesh (বঙ্গদেশ), or Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ) in the Bengali language, is a region in the northeast of South Asia. ...   (IPA: [] Bengali: কলকাতা) (formerly  ) is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal. ... A chemist pours from a round-bottom flask. ... 2006 Saraswati Puja at Hare School Hare School is the oldest existing school in Kolkata, currently teaching grades 1 to 12 under the West Bengal Board of Secondary Education and the West Bengal Council of Higher Secondary Education. ... Britains holdings on the Indian subcontinent were granted independence in 1947 and 1948, becoming four new independent states: India, Burma (now Myanmar), Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), and Pakistan (including East Pakistan, modern-day Bangladesh). ... East Pakistan was a former province of Pakistan which existed between 1955 and 1971. ... Karachi (Urdu: كراچى, Sindhi: ڪراچي) is the capital of the province of Sindh, and the most populated city in Pakistan. ... West Pakistan was the popular and sometimes official (1955–1970) name of the western wing of Pakistan until 1971, when the eastern wing (East Pakistan) became independent as Bangladesh. ... The Constitution of Pakistan provides for a federal parliamentary system of government in Pakistan, with a President as the head of state and an indrectly-elected Prime Minister as the chief executive. ...


Zia spent his adolescent years in Karachi and enrolled in the D. J. College there in 1953. In the same year, he entered the Pakistan Military Academy in Kakul as an officer cadet. He was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the Pakistan Army in 1955. After serving for two years in Karachi, he was transferred to the East Bengal Regiment in 1957. From 1959 to 1964 he worked in the department of military intelligence.[2] In 1960, his marriage was arranged to Khaleda Zia, a young Bengali girl from the Dinajpur District who was 15 years old.[3] Khaleda Zia remained with her parents in East Pakistan to complete her studies and joined her husband in Karachi in 1965. During the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, Zia served in the Khemkaran sector in Punjab as the commander of a company unit of 300-500 soldiers. The sector was the scene of the most intense battles between the rival armies. Zia's unit won one of the highest numbers of gallantry awards for heroic performances.[2] Pakistan Military Academy (or PMA) is a Military Academy of the Pakistan Army. ... Officer Cadet is a rank held by military cadets during their training to become commissioned officers. ... Second Lieutenant is the lowest commissioned rank in many armed forces. ... Pakistan Army Flag The Pakistan Army (Urdu: پاک فوج) is the largest branch of the Pakistan military, and is responsible for protection of the state borders, the security of administered territories and defending the national interests of Pakistan within the framework of its international obligations. ... The East Bengal Regiment is an infantry regiment of the Bangladesh Army. ... Military intelligence (abbreviated MI, int. ... Dinajpur is a district in Northern Bangladesh. ... Combatants India Pakistan Commanders Gen J N Chaudhuri, Lt Gen Harbakhsh Singh Field Marshal Ayub Khan, Gen Musa Khan Casualties 3,264 killed[1] 8,623 wounded[1] (From July to ceasefire) 3,800[2] - 6,917 killed[3] (17 day period alone) 4,000 - 7,000 killed/ captured[4... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Punjab, 1903 Punjab Province, 1909 Punjab (Persian: ‎, meaning Land of the five Rivers) (c. ... A company is a military unit, typically consisting of 100-200 soldiers. ...


In 1966, Zia was appointed military instructor at the Pakistan Military Academy, later going on to attend the prestigious Command and Staff College in Quetta, where he completed a course in command and tactical warfare. Advocating that the Pakistan Army make greater efforts to recruit and encourage Bengali military officers, Zia helped raise two Bengali battalions during his stint as instructor.[1] Trained for high-ranking command posts, Zia joined the 2nd East Bengal regiment as its second-in-command at Joydevpur in 1969. Although sectarian tensions between East and West Pakistan were intensifying, Zia travelled to West Germany to receive advanced military and command training with the German Army and NATO.[2] The Command and Staff College was established in 1974 at Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan. ... Quetta (Urdu: کوئٹہ) is the capital of the province Balochistan in Pakistan. ... Symbol of the Austrian 14th Armoured Battalion in NATO military graphic symbols A battalion is a military unit usually consisting of between two and six companies and typically commanded by a Lieutenant Colonel. ... The German Army (German: Heer, [IPA: heɐ]  ) is the land component of the Bundeswehr (Federal Defence Forces) of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ...


Zia returned to Pakistan the following year, and witnessed political turmoil and regional division. East Pakistan had been devastated by the 1970 Bhola cyclone, and the population had been embittered by the slow response of the central government.[4] The political conflict between Sheikh Mujibur Rahman's Awami League, which had won a majority in the 1970 elections, the President Yahya Khan and West Pakistani politician Zulfikar Ali Bhutto had brought sectarian tensions to a climax. Sheikh Mujib laid claim to form a government, but Yahya Khan postponed the convening of the legislature under pressure from West Pakistani politicians.[5] Bengali civil and military officers had alleged institutional discrimination through the 1960s, and now distrust had divided the Pakistani Army. Upon his return, Zia attained the rank of Major and was transferred to the 8th East Bengal regiment stationed in Chittagong to serve as its second-in-command. Lowest pressure Unknown Damages Unknown Fatalities 500,000 direct (Deadliest tropical cyclone of all time) Areas affected Bangladesh Part of the 1970 North Indian cyclone season The Bhola cyclone was a powerful tropical cyclone that made landfall in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) on 13 November 1970. ... The Bangladesh Awami League (বাংলাদেশ আওয়ামী লীগ Bāŋlādeś Āowāmī Līg) or the Bangadesh Peoples League is the main opposition party in Bangladesh. ... Agha Muhammad Yahya Khan (February 4, 1917 – August 10, 1980) was the President of Pakistan from 1969 to 1971, following the resignation of Ayub Khan. ... Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (Urdu: ذوالفقار علی بھٹو, Sindhi: ذوالفقار علي ڀُٽو) (January 5, 1928 – April 4, 1979) was a Pakistani politician who served as the President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973 and as the Prime Minister from 1973 to 1977. ... Major is a military rank the use of which varies according to country. ... Chittagong (Bengali: চট্টগ্রাম, Chôţţogram) is the major seaport and second largest city of Bangladesh. ...


Rebel commander

Major Ziaur Rahman during the Bangladesh Liberation War
Major Ziaur Rahman during the Bangladesh Liberation War

Following the failure of last-ditch talks, Yahya Khan declared martial law and ordered the army to crack down on Bengali political activities. Before his arrest, Sheikh Mujib declared the independence of Bangladesh on March 26, 1971 and exhorted the people of East Pakistan to resist the army. One of the highest-ranking Bengali officers, Zia led his unit in mutiny of the Pakistan Army, capturing a radio station in Kalurghat near Chittagong and calling it the Shadhin Bangla Betar Kendro. On March 27, addressing the people via radio, Zia delivered Sheikh Mujib's address and declared independence on his behalf and pronounced himself "Head of the Republic":[4] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Combatants Mukti Bahini India Aided By  Soviet Union Pakistan Aided By United States People’s Republic of China Commanders • General M A G Osmani • General Jagjit Singh Aurora • General Sam Manekshaw • General A. A. K. Niazi • General Tikka Khan Strength India: 500,000+ Mukti Bahini: 100,000[1][2] Pakistan... For other uses, see Martial law (disambiguation). ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (86th in leap years). ... 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday. ... Kalurghat is located several miles north of Chittagong, Bangladesh. ... Mujibnagar (Bengali: ), formerly known as Baidyanathtala is a town in the Meherpur District of Bangladesh. ... March 27 is the 86th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (87th in leap years). ...

This is Shadhin Bangla Betar Kendro. I, Major Ziaur Rahman, at the direction of Bangobondhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, hereby declare that the independent People's Republic of Bangladesh has been established. At his direction, I have taken command as the temporary Head of the Republic. In the name of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, I call upon all Bengalis to rise against the attack by the West Pakistani Army. We shall fight to the last to free our Motherland. By the grace of Allah, victory is ours. Joy Bangla.[6]

Zia was appointed commander of Mukti Bahini (Liberation Army) forces in the Chittagong Hill Tracts, working under General M. A. G. Osmani, the supreme commander.[2] He worked to provide support and resources to the Mukti Bahini guerilla force and coordinate attacks against the East Pakistani army. At a later phase of the war, Zia travelled across the border into India to receive military resources and training for his troops. Zia also helped coordinate the work of Bangladesh's government-in-exile of Mujibnagar. On June 1, 1971 Zia became the commander of the first conventional brigade of the Mukti Bahini, which was named "Z Force," after the first initial of his name. This brigade consisted of 1st, 3rd and 8th East Bengali regiments, enabling Zia to launch major attacks on Pakistani forces. During the war his family was placed under house arrest. The guerrilla war continued until the direct intervention of the Indian Army, which captured Dhaka and forced the surrender of Pakistani forces on December 16, 1971. Liberation War commemoration poster Mukti Bahini (Bangla: মুক্তি বাহিনী) (Liberation Army), was a guerrilla force which fought against the Pakistan Army during the Bangladesh War of Independence in 1971. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Muhammad Ataul Gani Osmani, better known by General M.A.G. Osmani (1 September 1918-16 February 1984) was the supreme commander of Mukti Bahini and Bangladesh Armed Forces during the Bangladesh Liberation War. ... Mujibnagar (Bengali: ), formerly known as Baidyanathtala is a town in the Meherpur District of Bangladesh. ... June 1 is the 152nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (153rd in leap years), with 213 days remaining. ... 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday. ... In military science a brigade is a military unit that is part of a division and includes regiments (where that level exists), or (in modern armies) is composed of several battalions (typically two to four) and directly attached supporting units. ... Combatants India Pakistan Commanders Sam Manekshaw J.S. Aurora A. A. K. Niazi # Strength 1,000,000+ troops[] 90,000+ troops[] Casualties 3,843 killed[1] 9,851 wounded[1] c. ... The Indian Army is the largest branch of the Armed Forces of India and has the primary responsibility of conducting land-based military operations. ... Dhaka (previously Dacca; Bangla: ঢাকা Đhaka; IPA: ) is the capital of Bangladesh and the Dhaka District. ... -1... 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday. ...


Upon his release, Sheikh Mujib assumed charge of the new state's government, and the Indian Army transferred control to the newly-formed Bangladesh Army on March 17, 1972. Having earned a reputation for courageous leadership during the war, Zia was awarded the Bir Uttom, the second-highest military honour. He was given command of a brigade stationed in Comilla, and in June he was appointed deputy chief of army staff.[2] He was later promoted to the rank of Major General by the end of 1973. As a high-ranking commander, Zia oversaw the training and development of the army. Official flag of Bangladesh Army Bangladesh Army, or Bānglādesh Shenā Bāhini (Bānglā: বাংলাদেশ সেনা বাহিনী) in Bangla, is a branch of Bangladesh Armed Forces. ... March 17 is the 76th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (77th in leap years). ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Bir Uttom (literally, Best Hero in Bengali) is the second highest award for individual gallantry in Bangladesh. ... Comilla (3085. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ...


Coup of 1975 and its aftermath

By 1975, Sheikh Mujib's assumption of dictatorial powers had disillusioned and angered many Bangladeshis, including army officers. On August 15, 1975 Sheikh Mujib and his family were murdered by a group of military officers. Khondaker Mostaq Ahmad, one of the key plotters of the coup, took over as president, and appointed Major General Ziaur Rahman as chief of army staff.[2] It is not known if Zia had himself helped plot the coup against Sheikh Mujib, but he had now become one of the most powerful men in the nation.[7] However, the coup caused a period of instability and unrest in Bangladesh. Brigadier Khaled Mosharraf and the Dhaka Brigade under Colonel Shafat Jamil made a counter-coup on November 3, 1975, and Ziaur Rahman was forced to resign and was put under house arrest. August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ... Khondaker Mostaq Ahmad Khondaker Moshtaq Ahmad (also spelled Khandakar Mushtaq Ahmed) (1918 - March 5, 1996) was a Bangladeshi politician who served as the President of Bangladesh from 15 August to 6 November 1975 after the assassination of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, the founding leader of Bangladesh. ... Khaled Mosharraf Bir Uttom, was a Bangladeshi army officer and war hero. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Shafaat Jamil. ... November 3 is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 58 days remaining. ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ...


A third coup was staged under Colonel Abu Taher and a group of socialist military officers and supporters of the left-wing Jatiyo Samajtantrik Dal on November 7, called the Sipoy-Janata Biplob (Soldiers and People's Coup).[7] Brigadier Mosharaff was killed and Colonel Jamil arrested, while Colonel Taher freed Ziaur Rahman and re-appointed him as army chief. Following a major meeting at the army headquarters, an interim government was formed with Justice Abu Sadat Mohammad Sayem as chief martial law administrator and Zia, Air Vice Marshal M. G. Tawab and Rear Admiral M. H. Khan as his deputies.[2][7] Zia also took on the portfolios of finance, home affairs, industry and information along with becoming the army chief of staff.[8] Fearing that Abu Taher, a well-known socialist, would attempt to organise another revolt, Zia ordered his arrest. Following a secret trial in a military court, Zia authorised the execution of Colonel Taher on July 21, 1976. Zia became the sole chief martial law administrator following Justice Sayem's elevation to the presidency on November 19, 1976. He tried to integrate the armed forces, giving repatriates a status appropriate to their qualifications and seniority. While this angered some veterans of the Mukti Bahini, who had rapidly reached high positions, Zia defused potential threats from discontented officers by sending them on diplomatic missions abroad.[4] Colonel (retired) Abu Taher (1938-1976) was a famous Bangladeshi freedom fighter, a sector commander in Bangladesh Liberation War, and a left-leaning radical activist. ... “Leftism” redirects here. ... The Jatiyo Samajtantrik Dal (Peoples Socialist Party) was a 1972 coalition of socialist political activists and military officers in Bangladesh. ... November 7 is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 54 days remaining. ... In Bangladesh, November 7 is celebrated as the National Revolution and Solidarity Day. ... Abu Sadat Mohammad Sayem was the president of Bangladesh between 6 November 1975 and 21 April 1977. ... An Air Vice Marshals sleeve/shoulder insignia An Air Vice Marshals command flag Air Vice Marshal is the third most senior rank active in the Royal Air Force today, after the inactivation of Marshal of the Royal Air Force as a substantive rank in peacetime during defence cuts... Air Vice Marshal M. G. Tawab was a senior commander of the Bangladesh Air Force who served as deputy chief martial law administrator of Bangladesh with Ziaur Rahman and M. H. Khan from 1975 to 1977. ... The term Rear Admiral originated from the days of Naval Sailing Squadrons, and can trace its origins to the British Royal Navy. ... Rear Admiral M. H. Khan was a senior commander of the Bangladeshi Navy and served as deputy chief martial law administrator of Bangladesh from 1975 to 1977 with Ziaur Rahman and M. G. Tawab. ... July 21 is the 202nd day (203rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 163 days remaining. ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... November 19 is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ...


President of Bangladesh

Major General Zia
Major General Zia

Major General Ziaur Rahman became the 6th President of Bangladesh on April 21, 1977 following Justice Sayem's resignation on grounds of "ill health," which many believed was simply a pretext for Zia's rise to power with the army's backing.[9] Although Sayem had held the title of president, historians believe it was Zia who exercised real power. Sayem had promised early elections, but Zia postponed the plans.[9] The years of disorder had left most of Bangladesh's state institutions in disarray, with constant threats of military coups amidst strikes and protests. Assuming full control of the state, Zia banned political parties, censored the media, re-imposed martial law and ordered the army to arrest dissidents. Martial law restored order across the country to a large measure, although Zia crushed several attempted uprisings with ruthless measures.[4] Image File history File links Pic5. ... Image File history File links Pic5. ... April 21 is the 111th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (112th in leap years). ... For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ...


In late September 1977, a group of Japanese Red Army terrorists hijacked an airplane and forced it to land in Dhaka. On September 30, while the attention of the government was riveted on this event, a mutiny broke out in Bogra. Although the mutiny was quickly quelled on the night of October 2, a second mutiny occurred in Dhaka.[4] The mutineers unsuccessfully attacked Zia's residence, captured Dhaka Radio for a short time and killed a number of air force officers at Dhaka international airport, where they were gathered for negotiations with the hijackers. The army quickly put down the rebellion, but the government was severely shaken. Government intelligence had failed and Zia promptly dismissed both the military and the civilian intelligence chiefs.[4] Special tribunals dealt harshly with the large groups of bandits, smugglers and guerrilla bands operating across the country.[4] The size of Bangladeshi police forces was doubled and the strength of the army increased from 50,000 to 90,000 soldiers.[2] The Japanese Red Army (日本赤軍, Nihon Sekigun) (JRA) is an armed leftist group founded by Fusako Shigenobu in February 1971 after breaking away from the Japanese Communist League - Red Army Faction. ... September 30 is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... October 2 is the 275th day (276th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 90 days remaining. ...


Restoration of democracy

Despite his forceful exercise of power, Zia remained under pressure to restore democracy.[10][11] He legalised political parties and revoked media censorship. In February 1978, he founded a broad coalition of supporters, known as the Jatiyatabadi Ganatantrik Dal (Nationalist Democratic Party), with Vice President Abdus Sattar as its head.[12] Zia called a presidential election in which he was elected by securing 76.67% of the votes against a front led by General Osmani.[10] Although many observers believe that Zia would have won the election with a wide margin of support anyway, the collusion of civil servants, village council officials and military authorities on Zia's behalf is believed to have shaped the final result.[13] Seeking to expand his political base, Zia amalgamated his coalition of supporters into the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP), which was officially founded on September 1, 1978. Zia himself served as the first party chairman, with Vice President Abdus Sattar, A.Q.M. Badruddoza Chowdhury and other loyalists controlling the organisation. Seeking to develop a broad political party, Zia adopted an "open arms policy" inviting activists, intellectuals and civil servants from across the political spectrum. Seeking to firmly establish his authority, Zia called fresh parliamentary elections in February 1979, with the BNP winning 207 out of the total 300 seats.[10] Following the convening of the BNP-led parliament, the Jatiya Sangsad, Zia lifted martial law on April 5, 1979.[11] Ending his army career, Zia appointed Gen. Hossain Mohammad Ershad as army chief and appointed civilians to important ministerial and civil posts. He prohibited military officials from holding civilian posts. Zia began dressing and appearing in public as a civilian leader, conspicuous for consistently wearing dark sunglasses.[4] The Jatiyatabadi Ganatantrik Dal (Nationalist Democratic Party) was a 1977-78 coalition of the political supporters of the then-President of Bangladesh Ziaur Rahman. ... Abdus Sattar (born 1906) was a Bangladeshi political figure. ... September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... A.Q.M. Badruddoza Chowdhury (born November 1, 1932 in Munsif Bari, Camilla, Bangladesh) is a politician in Bangladesh. ... April 5 is the 95th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (96th in leap years). ... For the song by the Smashing Pumpkins, see 1979 (song). ... Hossain Mohammad Ershad (b. ...


Domestic and foreign policies

Zia had taken charge of a nation suffering from severe poverty, chronic unemployment, shortages and economic stagnation. Muting the state's commitment to socialism, Zia announced a "19-point programme" which emphasised self-reliance, rural development, decentralisation and population control. Zia worked energetically and spent much of his time traveling throughout the country, preaching the "politics of hope" by continually urging all Bangladeshis to work harder and to produce more.[4] Zia focused on boosting agricultural and industrial production, especially in food and grains, and to integrate rural development through a variety of programs, of which population planning was the most important. Working with the proposals of international lending agencies, he launched an ambitious rural development program in 1977, which included a highly visible and popular food-for-work program.[4] He promoted private sector development, exports growth and the reversing of the collectivisation of farms. His government reduced quotas and restrictions on agriculture and industrial activities.[14] Zia launched major projects to construct irrigation canals, power stations, dams, roads and other public works. Directing his campaign to mobilise rural support and development, Zia established Gram Sarkar (Village Councils) system of self-government and the "Village Defence Party" system of security and crime prevention. Programmes to promote primary and adult education on a mass scale were initiated and focused mainly across rural Bangladesh. During this period, Bangladesh's economy achieved fast economic and industrial growth.[2]


Zia began reorienting Bangladesh's foreign policy, addressing the concerns of nationalists who believed that Bangladesh was reliant on Indian economic and military aid. Zia withdrew from his predecessors' affinity with the Soviet bloc, developing closer relations with the United States and Western Europe. Zia also moved to harmonise ties with Saudi Arabia and the People's Republic of China, who had opposed Bangladesh's creation and had not recognised it till 1975. Zia also dropped the demands of reparations and an official apology demanded by Sheikh Mujib and moved to normalise relations with Pakistan. While distancing Bangladesh from India, Zia sought to improve ties with other Islamic nations. Zia's move towards Islamic state policies improved the nation's standing in the Middle East.[4] Zia also proposed an organisation of the nations of South Asia to bolster economic and political co-operation at a regional level.[2] This proposal materialised in 1985 with the creation of the South Asia Association for Regional Cooperation in Dhaka. A map of the Eastern Bloc. ... A common understanding of Western Europe in modern times. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... This article is about the geopolitical region in Asia. ... Pakistan Bangladesh Bhutan India Maldives Nepal Afghanistan Sri Lanka Statistics Area  - Total 7th if ranked 5,130,746 km² Population  - Total (2004)  - Density 1st if ranked 1,467,255,669 285. ...


Islam and nationalism

President Zia at a BNP conference
President Zia at a BNP conference

Zia moved to lead the nation in a new direction, significantly different from the ideology and agenda of Sheikh Mujib.[4] He issued a proclamation order amending the constitution, increasing the direct influence and role of Islam on the government. In the preamble, he inserted the salutation "Bismillahir-Rahmaanir-Rahim" (In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful). In Article 8(1) and 8(1A) the statement "absolute trust and faith in Almighty Allah" was added, replacing the commitment to secularism. Socialism was redefined as "economic and social justice." Zia further introduced provisions to allow Muslims to practice the social and legal injunctions of the Shariat and Sunnah.[15] In Article 25(2), Zia introduced the principle that "the state shall endeavour to consolidate, preserve and strengthen fraternal relations among Muslim countries based on Islamic solidarity."[2] Zia's edits to the constitution redefined the nature of the republic from the secularism laid out by Sheikh Mujib and his supporters.[15] Islamic religious education was introduced as a compulsory subject in Bangladeshi schools, with provisions for non-Muslim students to learn of their own religions.[16] Image File history File links ZiaPic16. ... Image File history File links ZiaPic16. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ... Secularity is the state of being without religious or spiritual qualities. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to social control. ... Sharia (Arabic شريعة also Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is traditional Islamic law. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


In public speeches and policies that he formulated, Zia began expounding "Bangladeshi nationalism," as opposed to Mujib's assertion of a Bengali national identity. Zia emphasised the national role of Islam (as practised by the majority of Bangladeshis). Claiming to promote an inclusive national identity, Zia reached out to non-Bengali minorities such as the Santals, Garos, Manipuris and Chakmas, as well as the Urdu-speaking peoples of Bihari origin. However, many of these groups were predominantly Hindu and Buddhist and were alienated by Zia's promotion of political Islam. In an effort to promote cultural assimilation and economic development, Zia appointed a Chittagong Hill Tracts Development Commission in 1976, but resisted holding a political dialogue with the representatives of the hill tribes on the issue of autonomy and cultural self-preservation.[17] On July 2, 1977 Ziaur Rahman organised a tribal convention to promote a dialogue between the government and tribal groups. However, most cultural and political issues would remain unresolved and intermittent incidents of inter-community violence and militancy occurred throughout Zia's rule.[17] The Santals are a tribal people of India, residing mainly in states of Jharkhand, Bihar and West Bengal. ... The Garos are a tribe in Meghalaya, India who call themselves Achik. ... See: Manipuri (People Of Manipur) Manipuri (Meiteilon Language) Manipuri (Bishnupriya Language This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... The Chakma, who are also known as the Changma, is a Mongoloid tribe inhabiting in the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh. ... (اردو), historically spelled Ordu, is an Indo-Aryan language of the Indo-Iranian branch, belonging to Indo-European family of languages. ... Bihar (Hindi: बिहार, Urdu: بہار, IPA: ,  ) is a state of the Indian union situated in the eastern part of the country. ... Hinduism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Buddhism is a dharmic, non-theistic religion, which is also a philosophy and a system of psychology. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... July 2 is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 182 days remaining. ... For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ...


Indemnity

As Bangladesh's ruler, Zia enacted several controversial measures, ostensibly to win the support of Islamic political parties and opponents of the Awami League. He revoked the ban on the Jamaat-e-Islami, which was widely believed to have collaborated with the Pakistani army and in committing war crimes against civilians. Golam Azam, the exiled chief of the Jammat-e-Islami, was allowed to come back in July 1978 with a Pakistani passport on a visitor's visa, and he remained in Bangladesh following its expiry. He was not brought to trial over his alleged role in committing wartime atrocities, and Jamaat leaders were appointed in ministerial posts.[16] Zia also rehabilitated Shah Azizur Rahman, a high-profile opponent of the creation of Bangladesh, and several men accused of murdering Sheikh Mujib. Using the BNP's two-thirds majority in parliament, Zia obtained the passage of the Indemnity Act, which stated that no trial will happen and no case can be made for the assassination of Sheikh Mujib.[18] The Indemnity Act was later incorporated as the 5th amendment to the constitution, legalising the military coups, martial law and other political events between 1975 to 1979. Zia also gave Sheikh Mujib's assassins Major Dalim, Major Rashid, and Major Faruk jobs in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and in subsequent years they were appointed ambassadors of Bangladesh to African and Middle Eastern nations. Azizur Rahman was appointed Bangladesh's prime minister, serving through Zia's tenure in the presidency.[19] Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh (often referred as just Jamaat) is the largest and most influential Islamic party in Bangladesh. ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... Golam Azam (born 1922), is a Bangladeshi political leader. ... 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... Shah Azizur Rahman was the prime minister of Bangladesh from 1978 to 1982. ... The Indemnity Act was first promulgated as an ordinance by Bangladesh president Khondaker Mostaq Ahmad. ... Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, the founding father of Bangladesh, was assassinated on August 15, 1975. ... Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, the founding father of Bangladesh, was assassinated on August 15, 1975. ... Colonel Syed Faruque Rahman was an officer in the Bangladeshi army who was one of the assassins of president Mujibur Rahman. ...


Assassination

Large processions follow the funeral of Zia
Large processions follow the funeral of Zia

During his term of power, Zia was criticised for ruthless treatment of his political opposition.[20] Although he enjoyed overall popularity and public confidence, Zia's rehabilitation of some of the most controversial men in Bangladesh aroused fierce opposition from the supporters of the Awami League and veterans of the Mukti Bahini. Amidst speculation and fears of unrest, Zia went on tour to Chittagong on May 29, 1981 to help resolve an intra-party political dispute in the regional BNP. Zia and his entourage stayed overnight at the Chittagong Circuit House, a rest house. In the early hours of the morning of May 30, he was assassinated by a group of army officers along with six bodyguards and two aides.[21] Ziaur Rahman, the president of Bangladesh, was assassinated by a faction of officers of Bangladesh Army, on May 30, 1981, in the south-eastern port city of Chittagong. ... Image File history File links Ziapic2. ... Image File history File links Ziapic2. ... Liberation War commemoration poster Mukti Bahini (Bangla: মুক্তি বাহিনী) (Liberation Army), was a guerrilla force which fought against the Pakistan Army during the Bangladesh War of Independence in 1971. ... May 29 is the 149th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (150th in leap years). ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 30 is the 150th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (151st in leap years). ...


Zia's killing came as a central part of a botched military coup attempt led by Major General Abul Monjur, who announced the killing and his take-over of the government on radio.[21] Monjur had earlier been a senior army commander and had been transferred to Chittagong in 1977. He was scheduled for a new transfer to a non-command position in Dhaka and was reportedly disappointed over his impending demotion.[20] However, Vice President Abdus Sattar quickly reaffirmed control of the government, placed the military on high alert and ordered it to track down the conspirators and quash the revolt.[21] The army, under its chief of staff Gen. Ershad remained loyal to the Dhaka government and moved to quickly put down the rebellion and execute Monjur. In the trials that followed, a sizable number of officers and enlisted men received death penalty for complicity. Zia was buried at the Chandrima Uddan in the locality of Sher-e-Banglanagar in Dhaka.[2] Large processions of supporters and BNP activists attended the funeral. Vice President Abdus Sattar immediately succeeded him, and led the BNP to victory in elections held in 1981. However, army chief Gen. Ershad overthrew this government in a coup on March 24, 1982. Major General Muhammad Abul Monjur (? - 1981) was a Bangladeshi army officer responsible for organising the assassination of Ziaur Rahman on May 30, 1981 in Chittagong. ... Chandrima Uddan (sometimes called Zia Uddan) is a park situated in the road beside the Jatiyo Sangshad Bhaban, in Dhaka, Bangladesh. ... Sher-e-Banglanagar is a central part of the city of Dhaka, Bangladesh. ... March 24 is the 83rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (84th in leap years). ... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Criticism and legacy

Ziaur Rahman is considered one of the most important and controversial political leaders of Bangladesh.[4] Zia is criticised by historians and the supporters of the Awami League for rehabilitating the assassins of Mujibur Rahman. Jurists regard this as a gross obstruction of justice and legitimisation of political murder, to which Zia himself fell victim.[22] Also deeply controversial is Zia's rehabilitation of persons and political groups that had collaborated with the Pakistani army in carrying out atrocities against intellectuals and religious minorities.[23] Zia is also criticised for creating a "managed democracy," which remained largely beholden to the military and his political party.[11] In a verdict passed on August 30, 2005 the Dhaka High Court declared the seizures of power by military coups between 1975 and 1979, including Zia's military regime as "unlawful and unconstitutional."[24] Zia's martial law decrees, his ascendancy to the presidency in 1977 and the referendum held in 1978 were declared "unknown to the constitution." The court ruling overruled the Indemnity Act by which these very events were accorded a legal status and enshrined in the constitution.[24] August 30 is the 242nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (243rd in leap years), with 123 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Dhaka High Court is one of the most important high courts in Bangladesh, located in the capital of Dhaka with jurisdiction for the Dhaka District. ...


While credited for ending the disorder of the final years of Sheikh Mujib's rule, Zia is assailed by his critics for suppressing opposition..[4][11] However, Zia's economic reforms are credited with rebuilding the economy and his move towards Islamisation brought him the support of much of Bangladesh's Muslim-majority population.[4][11] His nationalist vision also appealed to many who resented the nation's strategic alliance with India and the Soviet Union. Moving away from Mujib's secularism, Zia asserted an Islamic political identity for Bangladesh and of membership in the wider community of Muslim nations.[16] However, these measures also isolated and embittered many ethnic and religious minorities in Bangladesh, laying in the opinion of many historians the foundations of future communal and ethnic conflicts.[16][23] Islamization (also spelt Islamisation, see spelling differences) or Islamification means the process of a societys conversion to the religion of Islam, or a neologism meaning an increase in observance by an already Muslim society. ...


Ziaur Rahman is survived by his wife Begum Khaleda Zia and his sons Tareq Rahman and Arafat Rahman. Begum Khaleda Zia became the head of the BNP and organised a coalition of political parties opposed to Ershad's regime. In elections held in 1991, Begum Khaleda Zia led the BNP to victory and became prime minister. She lost the 1996 elections to the Awami League's Sheikh Hasina Wajed, the daughter of Mujibur Rahman but returned to power in 2001.[25] Tareq Rahman serves as BNP senior joint secretary, regarded by many as the architect of the BNP's 2001 election victory.[26] Zia's life and legacy are celebrated widely. November 7 each year is celebrated as National Revolution and Solidarity Day, commemorating the military coup that returned Zia to power.[27] Zia is the namesake of many public institutions, including the Zia International Airport in Dhaka, which is the busiest airport in the nation. Zia has also been honoured by the SAARC for his statesmanship and vision.[28] Tareq Rahman is a Bangladeshi politician. ... Sheikh Hasina Wajed (born September 28, 1947) is the President of the Bangladesh Awami League and daughter of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman. ... November 7 is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 54 days remaining. ... In Bangladesh, November 7 is celebrated as the National Revolution and Solidarity Day. ... Zia International Airport (IATA: DAC, ICAO: VGZR) is the largest airport in Bangladesh located in Uttara, Dhaka. ...


See also

Liberation of Bangladesh
History and Events Partition of India • History of Pakistan • Awami LeagueLanguage MovementAgartala Conspiracy Case6 Point Movement1970 ElectionsEast Pakistan Rifles MutinyOperation SearchlightBangladesh Liberation War • Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 • Battle of GaribpurClash over BoyraBattle of DhalaiBattle of HilliBattle of Kushtia1971 Bangladesh atrocities • History of Bangladesh   
Bangladesh Sheikh Mujibur RahmanSyed Nazrul IslamTajuddin AhmadA. H. M. QamaruzzamanM. A. G. OsmaniZiaur RahmanKhaled MosharrafMuhammad Mansur AliKhondaker Mostaq AhmadMatiur RahmanManjula AnwarM A HannanAbu Sayeed ChowdhuryAwami LeagueMukti BahiniMujibnagarMitro Bahini
Pakistan Yahya KhanZulfikar Ali BhuttoNurul AminShah Azizur RahmanGolam AzamMotiur Rahman Nizami • Jamaat-e-Islami • Pakistan ArmyTikka KhanA. A. K. NiaziRazakars • Al-Badr • Al-Shams
India Indira GandhiIndian ArmySam ManekshawJagjit Singh Aurora
Preceded by
Gen. Shafiullah
Chiefs of Army Staff, Bangladesh Succeeded by
Lt. Gen. Hossain Mohammad Ershad
Preceded by
Abu Sadat Mohammad Sayem
President of Bangladesh
April 21, 1977May 30, 1981
Succeeded by
Abdus Sattar

Britains holdings on the Indian subcontinent were granted independence in 1947 and 1948, becoming four new independent states: India, Burma (now Myanmar), Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), and Pakistan (including East Pakistan, modern-day Bangladesh). ... The nation-state of Pakistan was established in 1947 as one of the two successor states of British India, yet the land and its people possess an extensive and continuous history that can be traced back to very ancient times. ... The Bangladesh Awami League (বাংলাদেশ আওয়ামী লীগ Bāŋlādeś Āowāmī Līg) or the Bangadesh Peoples League is the main opposition party in Bangladesh. ... Shaheed Minar, or the Martyrs monument, located near Dhaka Medical College, commemorates the struggle for Bangla language The Language Movement was a cultural and political movement in the erstwhile East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) in 1952. ... Agartala Conspiracy Case was a sedition case in Pakistan, framed by the Government of Pakistan against Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, leader of Awami League, and 34 other persons. ... 6 Point Movement was a Bengali nationalist movement in East Pakistan spearheaded by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, which eventually resulted in the liberation of Bangladesh. ... At the national level, Pakistan elects a bicameral legislature, the Parliament of Pakistan, which consists of a directly-elected National Assembly of Pakistan and a Senate whose members are chosen by elected provincial legislators. ... Bangladesh Rifles is a paramilitary force in Bangladesh. ... Combatants Bengali units of Pakistan Army and civilian volunteers Pakistan Armed Forces Commanders Prime Minister Tajuddin Ahmed (April 17 -December 16) Col(ret). ... Combatants Mukti Bahini India Aided By  Soviet Union Pakistan Aided By United States People’s Republic of China Commanders • General M A G Osmani • General Jagjit Singh Aurora • General Sam Manekshaw • General A. A. K. Niazi • General Tikka Khan Strength India: 500,000+ Mukti Bahini: 100,000[1][2] Pakistan... Combatants India Pakistan Commanders Sam Manekshaw J.S. Aurora A. A. K. Niazi # Strength 1,000,000+ troops[] 90,000+ troops[] Casualties 3,843 killed[1] 9,851 wounded[1] c. ... Commanders Lt. ... A HAL Ajeet fighter . ... The Battle of Dhalai was a battle in the Bangladesh Liberation War. ... Combatants Indian Armed Forces Military of Pakistan Commanders Major General Lachhman Singh Brigadier Tajammul Hussain Malik Strength 20th Indian Mountain Division 205 Infantry Brigade, Pakistan Casualties  ?  ? The Battle of Hilli or the Battle of Bogra was a major battle fought in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 and Bangladesh Liberation... The battle of Kushtia can mean two incidents, both in what is now Bangladesh:- A battle on 19 April 1971 between East Bengali rebels and Pakistani forces. ... This is false story,never been established by any scientific survey. ... Bangladesh became one of the youngest major nation states following a pair of twentieth century secessions from India (1947) and Pakistan (1971). ... Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (Bangla: শেখ মুজিবর রহমান Shekh Mujibur Rôhman) (March 17, 1920 – August 15, 1975) was a Bengali political leader in East Pakistan and the founding leader of Bangladesh. ... Saiyid Nazrul Islam (1925 – 1975) was a Bangladeshi political figure. ... Tajuddin Ahmed. ... Abul Hasnat Muhammad Qamaruzzaman was a Bangladeshi politician, a senior leader of the Awami League and a close confidante of the countrys founding leader Sheikh Mujibur Rahman. ... Muhammad Ataul Gani Osmani, better known by General M.A.G. Osmani (1 September 1918-16 February 1984) was the supreme commander of Mukti Bahini and Bangladesh Armed Forces during the Bangladesh Liberation War. ... Khaled Mosharraf Bir Uttom, was a Bangladeshi army officer and war hero. ... Muhammad Mansur Ali (b. ... Khondaker Mostaq Ahmad Khondaker Moshtaq Ahmad (also spelled Khandakar Mushtaq Ahmed) (1918 - March 5, 1996) was a Bangladeshi politician who served as the President of Bangladesh from 15 August to 6 November 1975 after the assassination of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, the founding leader of Bangladesh. ... Matiur Rahman Matiur Rahman or Shaheed M. Matiur Rahman (born February 21, 1945 in Dhaka - died August 20, 1971) was a Flight Lieutenant in the Pakistan Air Force when the Liberation War broke out. ... Dr. Manjula Anwar is a prominent Bengali linguist. ... M. A. Hannan (Abdul Hannan) is cited by many as the first person to read over radio the text declaration of independence written by the great leader of the then East Pakistan and Chief of Awami League Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman from the Kalurghat Betar Kendra, Chittagong on March 26... Abu Saiyid Chowdhury (31 January 1921, Nagbari, Bengal - 1 August 1987, London, England), was the presedent of Bangladesh 12 January 1972 - 24 December 1973. ... The Bangladesh Awami League (বাংলাদেশ আওয়ামী লীগ Bāŋlādeś Āowāmī Līg) or the Bangadesh Peoples League is the main opposition party in Bangladesh. ... Liberation War commemoration poster Mukti Bahini (Bangla: মুক্তি বাহিনী) (Liberation Army), was a guerrilla force which fought against the Pakistan Army during the Bangladesh War of Independence in 1971. ... Mujibnagar (Bengali: ), formerly known as Baidyanathtala is a town in the Meherpur District of Bangladesh. ... Mitro Bahini (meaning Allied forces in Bangla) was a military force composed of Bangladesh Army (as part of Mukti Bahini) and the Indian Army in December 1971 during the Bangladesh Liberation War. ... Agha Muhammad Yahya Khan (February 4, 1917 – August 10, 1980) was the President of Pakistan from 1969 to 1971, following the resignation of Ayub Khan. ... Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (Urdu: ذوالفقار علی بھٹو, Sindhi: ذوالفقار علي ڀُٽو) (January 5, 1928 – April 4, 1979) was a Pakistani politician who served as the President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973 and as the Prime Minister from 1973 to 1977. ... Nurul Amin (1897 - 1974), Pakistani political figure; prime minister of Pakistan 1971-1972. ... Shah Azizur Rahman was the prime minister of Bangladesh from 1978 to 1982. ... Golam Azam (born 1922), is a Bangladeshi political leader. ... Motiur Rahman Nizami (Bengali: মতিউর রহমান নিজামী) is the current chief (Ameer) of the Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh, which is the largest Islamic political party in Bangladesh. ... Jamaat-e-Islami (Arabic: جماعتِ اسلامی, Islamic Assembly Jamaat, JI) is an Islamic political movement founded in Lahore by Syed Abul Ala Maududi on 26 August 1941. ... Pakistan Army Flag The Pakistan Army (Urdu: پاک فوج) is the largest branch of the Pakistan military, and is responsible for protection of the state borders, the security of administered territories and defending the national interests of Pakistan within the framework of its international obligations. ... Tikka Khan (Urdu: ٹکا خان) (b. ... Lt. ... Razakars was the paramilitary force organized by the Pakistan Army during the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971. ... The Al-Badr was the paramilitary wing of the Jamaat-e-Islami in Bangladesh (then East Pakistan) that earned infamy for its collaboration with the Pakistan Army against the Bengali nationalist movement in the Bangladesh Liberation War. ... The Al-Shams was the great organization of great and real Patriot Pakistanis belong to the Jamaat-e-Islami in Bangladesh (then East Pakistan) The present chief of the Jamaat, Maulana Motiur Rahman Nizami has headed the Al-Shams organisation as the all-Pakistan Commander in Chief during the war. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Indian Army is the largest branch of the Armed Forces of India and has the primary responsibility of conducting land-based military operations. ... Field Marshal Sam Manekshaw Field Marshal Sam Hormusji Framji Jamshedji Manekshaw (born April 3, 1914) was the Indian Army Chief of Staff who led the Indian forces during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971. ... Lt-Gen Jagjit Singh Aurora (February 13, 1916 - May 3, 2005) was the Indian commander whose comprehensive defeat of Pakistan in 1971 led to the creation of Bangladesh. ... General Shafiullah was the first Chief of Army Staff of the Bangladesh Army, serving prior to the installation of Ziaur Rahman at the post in 1975. ... Hossain Mohammad Ershad (b. ... Abu Sadat Mohammad Sayem was the president of Bangladesh between 6 November 1975 and 21 April 1977. ... This page lists Presidents of Bangladesh. ... April 21 is the 111th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (112th in leap years). ... For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ... May 30 is the 150th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (151st in leap years). ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Abdus Sattar (born 1906) was a Bangladeshi political figure. ...

References

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  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n General Zia (PHP) (2006-08-02). Retrieved on 2006-08-02.
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  8. ^ Country Studies, Bangladesh (2006-09-12). Coups of 1975 (HTML). Retrieved on 2006-09-12.
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  10. ^ a b c Rashiduzzaman, M. (2006-08-31). Bangladesh 1978: Search for a Political Party (HTML) pp. 191-197. Asian Survey, Vol. 19, No. 2, A Survey of Asia in 1978: Part II (Feb., 1979). Retrieved on 2006-08-31.
  11. ^ a b c d e Haque, Azizul (2006-08-31). Bangladesh 1979: Cry for a Sovereign Parliament (HTML) pp. 217-30. Asian Survey, Vol. 20, No. 2, A Survey of Asia in 1979: Part II (Feb., 1980). Retrieved on 2006-08-31.
  12. ^ Rashiduzzaman, M. (2006-08-31). Bangladesh 1978: Search for a Political Party (HTML) pp. 191-197. Asian Survey, Vol. 19, No. 2, A Survey of Asia in 1978: Part II (Feb., 1979). Retrieved on 2006-08-31.
  13. ^ Rashiduzzaman, M. (2006-08-31). Bangladesh in 1977: Dilemmas of the Military Rulers (HTML) pp. 126-134. Asian Survey, Vol. 18, No. 2 (Feb., 1978). Retrieved on 2006-08-31.
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  20. ^ a b Country Studies, Bangladesh (2006-09-12). Zia's rule (HTML). Retrieved on 2006-09-12.
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August 2 is the 214th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (215th in leap years), with 151 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 19 is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 19 is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 12 is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 12 is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 11 is the 192nd day (193rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 173 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 11 is the 192nd day (193rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 173 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 2 is the 214th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (215th in leap years), with 151 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 2 is the 214th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (215th in leap years), with 151 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 31 is the 243rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (244th in leap years), with 122 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 31 is the 243rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (244th in leap years), with 122 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 12 is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 12 is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 12 is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 12 is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 31 is the 243rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (244th in leap years), with 122 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 31 is the 243rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (244th in leap years), with 122 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 31 is the 243rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (244th in leap years), with 122 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 31 is the 243rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (244th in leap years), with 122 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 31 is the 243rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (244th in leap years), with 122 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 31 is the 243rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (244th in leap years), with 122 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 31 is the 243rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (244th in leap years), with 122 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 31 is the 243rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (244th in leap years), with 122 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 7 is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 177 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 7 is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 177 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 11 is the 192nd day (193rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 173 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 11 is the 192nd day (193rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 173 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 29 is the 241st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (242nd in leap years), with 124 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 29 is the 241st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (242nd in leap years), with 124 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 12 is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 12 is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 12 is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 12 is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 12 is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 12 is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 12 is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 10 is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 10 is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 19 is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 19 is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 19 is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 19 is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 12 is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 12 is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 19 is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 19 is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 19 is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 19 is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 19 is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 19 is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 19 is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 19 is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years). ...

Further reading

  • Anthony Mascarenhas, Bangladesh: A Legacy of Blood. ISBN 0-340-39420-X.
  • Craig Baxter, Bangladesh: From a Nation to a State (1997), Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-2854-3.
  • Craig Baxter et al, Governance and Politics in South Asia (1998), Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-3901-4.

External links


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