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Encyclopedia > Zhuangzi
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Taoism


Image File history File links Zhongwen. ... Japanese name Kanji: Kana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quoc Ngu: Hantu: A Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, sometimes Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ... Taoism (Daoism) is the English name referring to a variety of related Chinese philosophical and religious traditions and concepts. ... Image File history File links Yin_yang. ...


Fundamentals
Tao · De · Xiulian This article is about the Chinese character and the philosophy it represents. ... De (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: te) is a key concept in Chinese philosophy, usually translated inherent character; inner power; integrity in Daoism, moral character; virtue; morality in Confucianism and other contexts, and quality; virtue (guna) or merit; virtuous deeds (punya) in Chinese Buddhism. ...

Prominent Taoists
Laozi · Zhuangzi
Zhang Daoling · Zhang Jiao
Ge Hong · Chen Tuan
Wang Chongyang Classical Chen Po (Chen Tuan, Chen Hsi I) Huai-nan Tzu Ho Yen Kuo Hsiang Lao Zi Lie Zi Sun Buer Sun Tzu Wang Chongyang Wang Pi Yang Hsiung Zhang Daoling Zhang Sanfeng Zhuang Zi (Chuang Tzu) Modern Abbot Wang Alan Watts Bruce Lee Ursula K. Le Guin Benjamin... Laozi (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Lao Tzu; also Lao Tse, Laotze, Lao Zi, and in other ways) was an ancient Chinese philosopher. ... Celestial Master Zhang Daoling Zhang Daoling (Chang Tao-ling), aka Zhang Ling. ... Zhang Jiao or Zhang Jue (140-188) (Simplified Chinese: 张角; Traditional Chinese: 張角; Pinyin: Zhāng Jiǎo or Zhāng Jué) was the leader of the Yellow Turbans during the period of the late Eastern Han Dynasty in China. ... Ge Hong(葛洪) (284-364, also known as Zhichuan) was a minor southern official during the Jin dynasty (263-420), best known for his interest in Daoism, alchemy, and techniques of longevity. ... Chen Tuan (陳摶) (birthname: Chen Tuan, name as a sage: Chen Hsi I, Chen Xi Yi) (871-989) was a legendary Taoist sage. ... Wang Chongyang (11 January 1113 – 22 January 1170) [Chinese calendar: 宋徽宗政和二年十二月廿二 – 金世宗大定十年正月初四] (Traditional Chinese: 王重陽; Simplified Chinese: 王重阳; pinyin: Wáng Chóngyáng) was a Song Dynasty Taoist who was one of the founders of Quanzhen Taoism in the twelfth century. ...

Deities and Immortals
Three Pure Ones
Jade Emperor · Xi Wangmu
Eight Immortals Look up deity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Xian (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: hsien) is a Chinese word for an enlightened person, translatable in English as: spiritually immortal; transcendent; super-human; celestial being (in Daoist/Taoist philosophy and cosmology) physically immortal; immortal person; immortalist; saint (in Daoist religion and pantheon) alchemist; one who seeks the elixir of life... The Three Pure Pellucid Ones (Chinese: 三清; Cantonese: Sarm Tsing; Mandarin: San-ching), also translated as The Three Pure Ones, The Three Clarities, or The Three Purities, are the three highest Taoist deities. ... The Jade Emperor (Chinese: ; pinyin: or 玉帝 Yù Dì), known informally by children and others as Heavenly Grandfather (天公 Tiān Gōng) and known formally as the Pure August Jade Emperor or August Personage of Jade (玉皇上帝 Yu Huang Shangdi or 玉皇大帝 Yu Huang Dadi), is the ruler of Heaven according to Chinese... Xi Wangmu (西王母), in Chinese mythology, literally Queen Mother of the West, is the ruler of the western paradise and goddess of immortality. ... The Eight Immortals crossing the sea, from Myths and Legends of China, 1922 by E. T. C. Werner. ...

Main Sects
Quanzhen School
Tianshi Dao
Zhengyi Dao
Shangqing School
Lingbao School
the Quanzhen School is an important school in Chinese Taoism. ... Tianshi Dao (Simplified Chinese:天师道, Traditional Chinese: 天師道, pinyin: Tiān Shī Dào) or Way of the Celestial Masters is a Chinese Daoist movement that was founded by Zhang Daoling in 142 CE. At its height, the movement controlled a theocratic state in Sichuan. ... The Shangqing School (Chinese:上清) is a Daoist movement that began during in the aristocracy of the Western Jin dynasty. ... Lingbao refers to a branch of Taoism that originated in the late 4th century CE. Lingbao can be translated as numinous gem or spiritual treasure. ...

Taoist Texts
Tao Te Ching · Zhuangzi
Daozang The Tao Te Ching (道德經, Pinyin: D Jīng, thus sometimes rendered in recent works as Dao De Jing; archaic pre-Wade-Giles rendering: Tao Teh Ching; roughly translated as The Book of the Way and its Virtue (see dedicated chapter below on translating the title)) is... The Daozang (Daoist Cannon) consists of almost 5000 individual texts that were collected circa C.E. 400 (quite some time after the Dao De Jing and Zhuang Zi which are the core Daoist texts). ...

Sacred Sites
Shizhou Sandao
Grotto-heavens
Sanshiliu Xiaodongtian
Qishi'er Fudi Grotto-heavens (Chinese:洞天; Pinyin: Dongtian) are a type of sacred Daoist site. ...


Portal:Taoism


Zhuangzi (Traditional: 莊子; Simplified: 庄子, Pinyin: Zhuāng Zǐ, Wade-Giles: Chuang Tzŭ, lit. "Master Zhuang") was an influential Chinese philosopher who lived around the 4th century BCE during the Warring States Period, corresponding to the Hundred Schools of Thought philosophical summit of Chinese thought. His name is sometimes spelled Chuang Tsu, Chuang Tzu, Zhuang Tze, Chouang-Dsi, or Chuang Tse. Traditional Chinese characters are one of two standard character sets of printed contemporary Chinese written language. ... Simplified Chinese characters (Simplified Chinese: 简体字; Traditional Chinese: 簡體字; pinyin: jiǎntǐzì; also called 简化字/簡化字, jiǎnhuàzì) are one of two standard character sets of printed contemporary Chinese written language. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... Yin Yang symbol and Ba gua paved in a clearing outside of Nanning City, Guangxi province, China. ... (5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Invasion of the Celts into Ireland Kingdom of Macedon conquers Persian empire Romans build first aqueduct Chinese use bellows The Scythians are beginning to be absorbed into the Sarmatian... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Hundred Schools of Thought (諸子百家 Pinyin: zhÅ« zǐ bÇŽi jiā) was an era of great cultural and intellectual expansion in China that lasted from 770 BCE to 222 BCE. Coinciding with the Spring and Autumn and Warring States periods, and also known as the Golden Age of Chinese thought...


Zhuangzi allegedly lived during the reign of King Hui of Liang and King Xuan of Qi, in the span from 370 to 301 BCE. Zhuangzi was from the Town of Meng (蒙城, Méng Chéng) in the State of Song (now Shāngqiū 商邱, Henan). His given name was Zhou (周, Zhōu). He was also known as Meng Official, Meng Zhuang, and Meng Elder (蒙吏, Méng Lì; 蒙莊, Méng Zhuāng, and 蒙叟, Méng sǒu, respectively). King Hui of Wei (simplified Chinese and traditional Chinese: 魏惠王) or King Hui of Liang (simplified Chinese and traditional Chinese: 梁惠王) was the third ruler of the state of Wei during the Warring States Period. ... Sòng (宋國) was a state during the Eastern Zhou Spring and Autumn Period (770 - 476 BC). ... Shangqiu (Chinese: 商丘; pinyin: ShāngqiÅ«) is a prefecture-level city within Henan province of the Peoples Republic of China . ... Henan (Chinese: 河南; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-nan), is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. ... Look up Appendix:Most popular given names by country in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Contents

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

The book

The Taoist book Zhuangzi (莊子) was named after its purported author. Since 742 CE, when Emperor Xuanzong of Tang mandated honorific titles for Taoist texts, it has also been known as the Nán huá zhēn jīng (南華眞經), literally meaning "True Classic of Southern (Cultural) Florescence," alluding to the tradition that Zhuangzi came from South China. Taoism (Daoism) is the English name referring to a variety of related Chinese philosophical and religious traditions and concepts. ... Authorship redirects here. ... Emperor Tang Xuanzong (唐玄宗) (September 8, 685 - May 3, 762), born Li Longji (李隆基), was the sixth emperor of the Tang dynasty of China, reigning from 712 to 756. ...


The text is a composite of writings from various sources. The traditional view is that Zhuangzi himself wrote the first seven chapters (the "inner chapters") and his students and related thinkers were responsible for the other parts (the "outer" and "miscellaneous" chapters). Strong proof of direct authorship by Zhuangzi of any of the text is difficult. The recension by Guo Xiang (circa 300 CE) is the basis for practically all extant editions of the Zhuangzi. Chapter has multiple meanings. ... Guo Xiang (Chinese: 郭象; Pinyin: Guō Xiàng; Wade-Giles: Kuo Hsiang; d. ...


The inner chapters have great grammatical and conceptual coherence and are believed to have been primarily written by one hand, even if not by Zhuangzi himself. Zhuangzi has been categorized as a "Taoist" by the Chinese tradition, but especially in the inner chapters, he stands out from the rest. He also writes comparatively little about Tao in the inner chapters of the work, even less than Mencius and other prominent Confucians, prompting scholar A. C. Graham to note, "Zhuangzi never knew he was a Daoist". For other uses of the words tao and dao, see Dao (disambiguation). ... Mencius (Romanization; 孟子, pinyin: Mèng Zǐ; Wade-Giles: Meng Tzu; most accepted dates: 372 – 289 BCE; other possible dates: 385 – 303/302 BCE) was a Chinese philosopher who was arguably the most famous Confucian after Confucius himself. ... Wenmiao Temple, a Confucian Temple in Wuwei, Gansu, China Confucian temple in Kaohsiung, Republic of China (Taiwan). ...


The beliefs

In general, Zhuangzi's philosophy is mildly skeptical, arguing that our life is limited and the amount of things to know is unlimited. To use the limited to pursue the unlimited, he said, was foolish. Our language and cognition in general presuppose a dao to which each of us is committed by our separate past—our paths. Consequently, we should be aware that our most carefully considered conclusions might seem misguided had we experienced a different past. "Our heart-minds are completed along with our bodies." Natural dispositions to behavior combine with acquired ones—including dispositions to use names of things, to approve/disapprove based on those names and to act in accordance to the embodied standards. Thinking about and choosing our next step down our dao or path is conditioned by this unique set of natural acquisitions. The philosopher Socrates about to take poison hemlock as ordered by the court. ... Skepticism (Commonwealth spelling: Scepticism) can mean: Philosophical skepticism - a philosophical position in which people choose to critically examine whether the knowledge and perceptions that they have are actually true, and whether or not one can ever be said to have absolutely true knowledge; or Scientific skepticism - a scientific, or practical... Look up Cognition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the Chinese character and the philosophy it represents. ...


Zhuangzi's thought can also be considered a precursor of multiculturalism and pluralism of systems of value. His pluralism even leads him to doubt the basis of pragmatic arguments (that a course of action preserves our lives) since this presupposes that life is good and death bad. In the fourth section of "The Great Happiness" (至樂 zhìlè, chapter 18), Zhuangzi expresses pity to a skull he sees lying at the side of the road. Zhuangzi laments that the skull is now dead, but the skull retorts, "How do you know it's bad to be dead?" The multicultural national representation of the countries of origin at the student union of San Francisco City College. ... Compare Moral relativism, Aesthetic relativism, Social constructionism and Cultural relativism. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that temporal fenestra be merged into this article or section. ...


Another example about two famous courtesans points out that there is no universally objective standard for beauty. This is taken from Chapter 2 (齊物論 qí wù lùn) "On Arranging Things", or "Discussion of Setting Things Right" or, in Burton Watson's translation, "Discussion on Making All Things Equal". Burton Watson (born 1925) is one of the worlds best-known translators of the Chinese and Japanese literary works. ...

Men claim that Mao [Qiang] and Lady Li were beautiful, but if fish saw them they would dive to the bottom of the stream; if birds saw them they would fly away, and if deer saw them they would break into a run. Of these four, who knows how to fix the standard of beauty in the world? (2, tr. Watson 1968:46)

However, this subjectivism is balanced by a kind of sensitive holism in the conclusion of the section called "The Happiness of Fish" (魚之樂, yúzhīlè). The names have been changed to pinyin romanization for consistency: Whole redirects here. ... Pinyin (拼音, Pīnyīn) literally means join (together) sounds (a less literal translation being phoneticize, spell or transcription) in Chinese and usually refers to Hànyǔ Pīnyīn (汉语拼音, literal meaning: Han language pinyin), which is a system of...

Zhuangzi and Huizi were strolling along the dam of the Hao Waterfall when Zhuangzi said, "See how the minnows come out and dart around where they please! That's what fish really enjoy!"
Huizi said, "You're not a fish — how do you know what fish enjoy?"
Zhuangzi said, "You're not I, so how do you know I don't know what fish enjoy?"
Huizi said, "I'm not you, so I certainly don't know what you know. On the other hand, you're certainly not a fish — so that still proves you don't know what fish enjoy!"
Zhuangzi said, "Let's go back to your original question, please. You asked me how I know what fish enjoy — so you already knew I knew it when you asked the question. I know it by standing here beside the Hao." (17, tr. Watson 1968:188-9) Hui Shi (惠施 Also Hui Shih) (4th century B.C.) Documents of the teachings of Hui Shi are only preserved in the Zhuangzi Chuang Chou. ...

The butterfly dream

Another well-known part of the book, which is also found in Chapter 2, is usually called "Zhuangzi dreamed he was a butterfly" (莊周夢蝶 Zhuāng Zhōu mèng dié).

Once Chuang Chou dreamt he was a butterfly, a butterfly flitting and fluttering around, happy with himself and doing as he pleased. He didn't know he was Chuang Chou. Suddenly he woke up and there he was, solid and unmistakable Chuang Chou. But he didn't know if he was Chuang Chou who had dreamt he was a butterfly, or a butterfly dreaming he was Chuang Chou. Between Chuang Chou and a butterfly there must be some distinction! This is called the Transformation of Things. (2, tr. Burton Watson 1968:49)

This hints at many questions in the philosophy of mind, philosophy of language, and epistemology. The name of the passage has become a common Chinese idiom, and has spread into Western languages as well. It appears, inter alia, as an illustration in Jorge Luis Borges' famous essay "A New Refutation of Time", and may have inspired Howard Phillips Lovecraft's 1918 short story "Polaris". A Phrenological mapping of the brain. ... Philosophy of language is the reasoned inquiry into the nature, origins, and usage of language. ... It has been suggested that Meta-epistemology be merged into this article or section. ... ... Jorge Luis Borges (August 24, 1899 – June 14, 1986) was an Argentine writer. ... A New Refutation of Time is an essay by Argentinian writer Jorge Luis Borges in which he argues that the negations of idealism may be extended to time. ... H. P. Lovecraft Howard Phillips Lovecraft (August 20, 1890–March 15, 1937) was an American author of fantasy and horror fiction, noted for giving horror stories a science fiction framework. ... Polaris (1918) is a short story by H.P. Lovecraft. ...


Zhuangzi's philosophy was very influential in the development of Chinese Buddhism, especially Chán, and Zen which evolved out of Chán. Zhuangzi's points about the limitations of language and the importance of being spontaneous, in particular, were strongly influential in the development of Chán. This article explores how Buddhism, a Indian origin, has affected and been affected by Chinese culture, politics, literature and philosophy. ... Chán is a major school of Chinese Mahāyāna Buddhism. ... Zen is a school of Mahāyāna Buddhism notable for its emphasis on practice and experiential wisdom—particularly as realized in the form of meditation known as zazen—in the attainment of awakening. ...


Anarchy

To put it lightly, Zhuangzi didn't want people to affiliate themselves with government. According to Murray Rothbard, Zhuangzi was "perhaps the world's first anarchist"; Zhuangzi said, the world "does not need governing; in fact it should not be governed," and, "Good order results spontaneously when things are let alone." Rothbard claims that Zhuangzi was the first to work out the idea of spontaneous order, before Proudhon and Hayek.[1] Murray Newton Rothbard (March 2, 1926 – January 7, 1995) was an influential American economist, historian and natural law theorist belonging to the Austrian School of Economics who helped define modern libertarianism. ... Anarchism is a generic term describing various political philosophies and social movements that advocate the elimination of hierarchy and imposed authority. ... Spontaneous order (sometimes called self-organization) is a phenomenon that happens when individuals each follow a set of self-interest-based rules without a central authority designing a plan for everyone. ... Pierre-Joseph Proudhon Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (pronounced Pruood-on, not prowd-hon) (January 15, 1809 - January 19, 1865) was a French anarchist of the 19th century. ... Friedrich August von Hayek, CH (May 8, 1899 in Vienna – March 23, 1992 in Freiburg) was an Austrian-born British economist and political philosopher known for his defense of liberal democracy and free-market capitalism against socialist and collectivist thought in the mid-20th century. ...


Alan Watts, who in his mature and later years was sympathetic to minarchical libertarianism, declared more moderately that Zhuangzi was a libertarian. From The Essential Alan Watts Alan Wilson Watts (January 6, 1915 – November 16, 1973) was a philosopher, writer, speaker, and expert in comparative religion. ... In civics, minarchism, sometimes called minimal statism or small government, is the view that the size, role and influence of government in a free society should be minimal — only large enough to protect the liberty and property of each individual. ... See also Libertarianism and Libertarian Party Libertarian,is a term for person who has made a conscious and principled commitment, evidenced by a statement or Pledge, to forswear violating others rights and usually living in voluntary communities: thus in law no longer subject to government supervision. ...


This however can also be seen as an over-simplification, because Zhuangzi would have been probably equally critical about large corporations as he was about governments.


Translations

The Zhuangzi text is widely regarded as both deeply insightful in thought and as an achievement of the Chinese poetical essay form. It uses the Chinese language in complex, multi-layered, and often playful ways, and is notoriously difficult to translate. Nevertheless, some sinologists have tried. There are complete English translations of all thirty-three chapters by Frederic Balfour, James Legge, Herbert Giles, James Ware, Burton Watson, Martin Palmer, Victor H. Mair, Wang Rongpei, and Nina Correa. There are selected translations of the seven "inner chapters" by Fung Yu-lan, Burton Watson, Gia-Fu Feng, A. C. Graham, Thomas Cleary, and David Hinton. There are interpretations of selected Zhuangzi passages by Thomas Merton and Brian Bruya. Graham's is, to date, the most academically thorough, but Watson's is highly praised for its poetic style. Mair's translation also has its highlights, including his decision to translate the poetic parts of the text into English poetry. Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngw n) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: H nyǔ, Hu yǔ, or Zhōngw n) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... Sinology is the study of China, and things related to China, using a combination of Western and traditional Chinese methodologies, concepts, and theories. ... Ezra Pounds annotations on his copy of James Legges translation of the Book of Poetry (Shih Ching), in the Sacred Books of the East. ... Herbert Allen Giles (December 8, 1845 - February 13, 1935) was a British linguist who modified a Mandarin Chinese Romanization system established by Thomas Wade earlier, resulting in the Wade-Giles Chinese transliteration system. ... Burton Watson (born 1925) is one of the worlds best-known translators of the Chinese and Japanese literary works. ... Martin Palmer is the translator of several popular books on Sinology, including Zhuangzi, the I Ching, and the Jesus Sutras. ... Victor H. Mair is Professor of Chinese Language and Literature in the Department of East Asian Languages and Civilizations at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, United States. ... Feng Youlan (冯友兰) (December 4, 1895, Henan, China, November 26, 1990, Peking) was a 20th century Chinese philosopher who wrote books introducing Chinese philosophy. ... Tao Te Ching, Calligraphy by Gia-Fu Feng Gia-Fu Feng, (1919-1985), was educated in China, and came to the United States in 1947 to study comparative religion, holding a BA from Peking University and an MA from the University of Pennsylvania. ... Thomas Merton (January 31, 1915 – December 10, 1968) was one of the most influential Catholic authors of the 20th century. ...


References

  • Balfour, Frederic Henry (translator). (1881). The Divine Classic of Nan-Hua; Being the Works of Chuang Tsze, Taoist Philosopher. Shanghai: Kelly & Walsh.
  • Bruya, Brian (translator). (1992). Zhuangzi Speaks: The Music of Nature. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-00882-0.
  • Cleary, Thomas (translator). (1992). The Essential Tao: An Initiation into the Heart of Taoism Through the Authentic Tao Te Ching and the Inner Teachings of Chuang-Tzu. HarperSanFrancisco. ISBN 978-0-06-250177-6 (one of several)
  • Feng, Gia-Fu and English, Jane (translators). (1974). Chuang Tsu: Inner Chapters. New York: Vintage Books. ISBN 0394719905.
  • Fung, Yu-lan (translator). (1933). Chuang-tzǔ: a new selected translation with an exposition of the philosophy of Kuo Hsiang. Shanghai: The Commercial Press. Reprint: 1964. A Taoist Classic: Chuang-Tzu. Beijing: Foreign Languages Press. ISBN 978-7-119-00104-3.
  • Giles, Herbert Allen (translator). (1926). Chuang Tzǔ: Mystic, Moralist, and Social Reformer. Shanghai: Kelly & Walsh. Reprint: 1974. New York: AMS Press. ISBN 0404569153.
  • Graham, A. C. (translator). (1981). Chuang-tzǔ: The Seven Inner Chapters and other writings from the book Chuang-tzǔ. London: George Allen & Unwin. ISBN 978-0-04-299010-1. Reprint: 2001. Chuang-tzǔ: The Inner Chapters. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company, Inc. ISBN 978-0-87220-582-6; ISBN 978-0-87220-581-9 (paper).
  • Hinton, David. (1997). Chuang Tzu: the Inner Chapters. New York: Counterpoint. ISBN 978-1-887178-34-1.
  • Legge, James (translator). (1891). The Sacred Books of China: The Texts of Taoism, Part I. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Reprint: 1962. New York: Dover Publications. ISBN 978-0486209906.
  • Mair, Victor H. (translator). (1994). Wandering on the Way: Early Taoist Tales and Parables of Chuang Tzu. New York: Bantam Books. ISBN 978-0-553-37406-3.
  • Merton, Thomas. (1969). The Way of Chuang Tzu. New York: New Directions.
  • Palmer, Martin et al. (translators). (1996). The Book of Chuang Tzu. London: Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-019488-3.
  • Waltham, Clae (editor). (1971). Chuang Tzu: Genius of the Absurd. New York: Ace Books.
  • Wang Rongpei (translator). (1999). Zhuangzi (Library of Chinese Classics: Chinese-English edition). Beijing: Foreign Languages Press. ISBN 978-7-5438-2087-6.
  • Ware, James R. (translator). (1963). The Sayings of Chuang Chou. New York: Mentor Classics.
  • Watson, Burton (translator). (1964). Chuang Tzu: Basic Writings. New York: Columbia University Press. Reprint: 1996. ISBN 978-0-231-08606-6; ISBN 978-0-231-10595-8 (paper).
  • Watson, Burton (translator). (1968). The Complete Works of Chuang Tzu. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0231031479.

Notes

  1. ^ Rothbard, Murray. Concepts of the Role of Intellectuals in Social Change Toward Laissez Faire, The Journal of Libertarian Studies, Vol IX No. 2 (Fall 1990)

See also

Laozi (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Lao Tzu; also Lao Tse, Laotze, Lao Zi, and in other ways) was an ancient Chinese philosopher. ... Lie Zi or Lieh Tzu is a famous legendary Taoist sage mentioned several times in the Zhuang Zi. ... The Tao Te Ching (道德經, Pinyin: D Jīng, thus sometimes rendered in recent works as Dao De Jing; archaic pre-Wade-Giles rendering: Tao Teh Ching; roughly translated as The Book of the Way and its Virtue (see dedicated chapter below on translating the title)) is...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ... Ezra Pounds annotations on his copy of James Legges translation of the Book of Poetry (Shih Ching), in the Sacred Books of the East. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Lin Yutang Lin Yutang, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1939 This is a Chinese name; the family name is Lin (林) Lin Yutang (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: , October 10, 1895 – March 26, 1976) was a Chinese writer and inventor whose original works...


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