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Encyclopedia > Zhou Enlai
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Zhou Enlai
周恩来
Zhou Enlai

Zhou Enlai with Deng Yingchao (left), 1954 Image File history File links Zhongwen. ... Japanese name Kanji: Kana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quoc Ngu: Hantu: A Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, sometimes Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ... Image File history File linksMetadata ZhouAndDeng. ...


In office
1 October 1949 – 8 January 1976
Preceded by none
Succeeded by Hua Guofeng

In office
1949 – 1958
Preceded by none
Succeeded by Chen Yi

Born March 5, 1898(1898-03-05)
Huaian, Jiangsu
Died January 8, 1976 (aged 77)
Nationality Chinese
Political party Communist Party of China
Spouse Deng Yingchao

Zhou Enlai (Simplified Chinese: 周恩来; Traditional Chinese: 周恩來; Hanyu Pinyin: Zhōu Ēnlái; Wade-Giles: Chou En-lai) (March 5, 1898January 8, 1976), a prominent Communist Party of China leader, was Premier of the People's Republic of China from 1949 until his death in January 1976, and China's foreign minister from 1949 to 1958. Zhou was instrumental in the Communist Party's rise to power, and subsequently in the construction of the Chinese economy and reformation of Chinese society. On the international scene Zhou was a skilled and able diplomat, having advocated for peaceful co-existence and been a participant at the Geneva Conference in 1954. As a result of his moral character, he was very popular with the Chinese public, and Zhou's death brought an outpouring of support which turned out to be crucial in China's transition of power between Mao Zedong and Deng Xiaoping. The Premier ( Chinese: 总理 pinyin: zŏnglĭ), sometimes referred to as the Prime Minister, is the Chairman of the State Council of the Peoples Republic of China and head of Central Peoples Government. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Hua Guofeng (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hua Kuo-feng) (born February 16, 1921) was Mao Zedongs designated successor as the paramount leader of the Communist Party of China and the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Foreign Minister of the Peoples Republic of China is the head of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Peoples Republic of China and one of the countrys most important cabinet posts. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Statue of Chen Yi Chen Yi (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Chén Yì; August 26, 1901 - June 6, 1972) was a Chinese communist military commander and politician. ... This article is about the day. ... Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Huaian (淮安) is a city in northern Jiangsu, China. ... Jiangsu (Simplified Chinese: 江苏; Traditional Chinese: 江蘇; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chiang-su; Postal System Pinyin: Kiangsu) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located along the east coast of the country. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China, a position guaranteed by the countrys constitution. ... Deng Yingchao with Zhou Enlai, 1954 Deng (right), with Edgar Snow (left) and Zhou approx. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... This article is about the day. ... Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China, a position guaranteed by the countrys constitution. ... The Premier ( Chinese: 总理 pinyin: zŏnglĭ), sometimes referred to as the Prime Minister, is the Chairman of the State Council of the Peoples Republic of China and head of Central Peoples Government. ... The Foreign Minister of the Peoples Republic of China is the head of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Peoples Republic of China and one of the countrys most important cabinet posts. ... Peaceful coexistence was a theory developed during the Cold War among Communist states that they could peacefully coexist with capitalist states. ... The Geneva Conference (April 26 - July 21, 1954) was a conference between many countries that agreed to end hostilities and restore peace in French Indochina and Korea. ... “Mao” redirects here. ... Deng Xiaoping   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Teng Hsiao-ping; August 22, 1904 – February 19, 1997) was a prominent Chinese politician and reformer, and the late leader of the Communist Party of China (CCP). ...

Contents

Early years and education

Zhou Enlai was born in Huaian, Jiangsu Province. His family, although of the educated scholar class, was not well off. His grandfather, a minor civil servant of the Emperor, was poorly paid. His father repeatedly failed the Imperial examinations, and throughout his life would be employed in low-paying minor clerkships. Huaian (Chinese: 淮安; Hanyu Pinyin: ), known as Huaiyin (Chinese: 淮阴; Hanyu Pinyin: ) before 2001, is a prefecture-level city in northern Jiangsu province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Jiangsu (Simplified Chinese: 江苏; Traditional Chinese: 江蘇; pinyin: Jiāngsū; Wade-Giles: Chiang-su; Postal System Pinyin: Kiangsu) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located along the east coast of the country. ... The imperial examinations (Chinese: 科舉; Pinyin: ) in dynastic China determined positions in the civil service based on merit and education, which promoted upward mobility among the population for centuries. ...


Zhou Enlai was the eldest son and eldest grandson of the Zhou family. When Enlai was still less than one year old, he was adopted by his father's youngest brother who was dying of tuberculosis. This adoption took place so that the younger brother would not die childless, a serious scandal to a traditional Confucian family of high status. Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or TuBerculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ...


Lady Chen, his adoptive mother, began to teach him Chinese characters as soon as he could toddle. By the time he was four years old he could read and write several hundred words. Japanese name Kanji: Kana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quoc Ngu: Hantu: A Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, sometimes Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ...


In 1907, Zhou’s birth mother died of Tuberculosis, and in the summer of 1908 Lady Chen also died. Zhou was orphaned at the age of ten, so it was arranged that he leave Huai'an and go to the city of Shenyang in Manchuria to live with his Uncle, Yikang. At the age of twelve, Zhou was enrolled in the Tung Guan model school that taught “new learning,” i.e. mathematics and natural science, as well as Chinese history, geography and literature. The students were also exposed to translations of western books, where Enlai learned about freedom, democracy and the American and French revolutions. Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or TuBerculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... Huaian (Chinese: 淮安; Hanyu Pinyin: ), known as Huaiyin (Chinese: 淮阴; Hanyu Pinyin: ) before 2001, is a prefecture-level city in northern Jiangsu province, Peoples Republic of China. ... This article is about a city. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In 1913, at the age of fifteen, Zhou graduated from Tung Guan and in September of that year he was enrolled in the Nankai school, located in Tianjin. For the next four years he was a diligent student of this prestigious American funded missionary school. [citation needed] Throughout the period of his schooling China was in great turmoil. In 1911 the Xinhai Revolution of Sun Yat-sen overthrew the Qing dynasty and established the Republic of China. The outbreak of the Great War in Europe relieved the pressure from European intruders, but presented an opportunity for Japan to push its own dominance. Enlai could see that China was being ruined by foreign intervention. He shared in the wrath, the protest, and the indignation at the plight of China. Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Nankai refers to the series of schools founded in China by the famous patriotic-educationists Zhang Boling(张伯苓) (1876-1951) and Yan Fansun(严范孙) (1860-1920). ...   (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Postal map spelling: Tientsin) is one of the four municipalities of China. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants Qing Dynasty Chinese Revolutionary Alliance Commanders Feng Guozhang, Yuan Shikai, and local Qing governors. ... Sun Yat-sen (November 12, 1866 – March 12, 1925) was a Chinese revolutionary and political leader often referred to as the father of modern China. Sun played an instrumental role in the eventual overthrow of the Qing Dynasty in 1911. ... The Qing Dynasty (Manchu: daicing gurun; Chinese: 清朝; pinyin: qīng cháo; Wade-Giles: ching chao), sometimes known as the Manchu Dynasty, was founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro, in what is today northeast China expanded into China proper and the surrounding territories of... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ...


The next step in Zhou’s education was to attend university in Tokyo. His goal was to become a teacher so that he could have influence on the youth of China. But he found he could not concentrate. He could not study and his Japanese language was poor also, which lead to him unable to catch up with any study. In Nankai he had written and spoken against Japan’s military and political pressure upon China, and its inexorable slide into anarchy. He challenged his fellow students on what his generation could do to save China. Their answer was to study, to become educated in the sciences and professions. China needed elite, knowledgeable doctors, engineers, and teachers. “But why?” he asked. “If China is to disappear, what is the use of studying?” [citation needed]. Zhou decision to leave Japan was also partly influrence by his fellow Nankai student also studying in Japan at that time, Tung Kwang-hsien (Chinese simplified: 童冠贤,Chinese Traditional: 童冠賢)to leave Japan.


In early May 1919, dejected and without completing his education, he left Japan. Zhou arrived in Tianjin on May 9, in time to take part in the momentous May Fourth Movement of 1919. is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Students in Beijing rallied during the May Fourth Movement. ...


Revolutionary activities

Part of a series on
Maoism

Basic concepts
Marxism-Leninism
Anti-Revisionism
3 Worlds Theory
Social-imperialism
Mass line
People's war
New Democracy
Prominent Maoists
Mao Zedong
Prachanda
Bob Avakian
Zhang Chunqiao
José María Sison
Abimael Guzmán
Charu Majumdar
Zhou Enlai
Jiang Qing
İbrahim Kaypakkaya
Maoist tendencies
Conference of M-L
Parties and Organizations
Revolutionary
Internationalist Movement
Related subjects
Communist Party of China
Cultural Revolution
Little Red Book
Naxalism
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Zhou first came to national prominence as an activist during the May Fourth Movement. He had enrolled as a student in the literature department of Nankai University, which enabled him to visit the campus, but he never attended classes. He became one of the organizers of the Tianjin Students Union, whose avowed aim was “to struggle against the warlords and against imperialism, and to save China from extinction." Zhou became the editor of the student union’s newspaper, Tianjin Student. In September, he founded the Awareness Society with twelve men and eight women. Fifteen year old Deng Yingchao, Enlai’s future wife, was one of the founding female members. (They were not married until much later, on August 8, 1925). Zhou was instrumental in the merger between the all male Tianjin Students Union and the all female Women’s Patriotic Association. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is a branch of Marxism (and it has been the dominant branch of Marxism in the world since the 1920s). ... In the communist or Marxist-Leninist movement, an anti-revisionist is one who favors a strict Stalinist or Maoist interpretation of Marxist-Leninist ideology. ... The Three Worlds theory is a theory developed by Mao Zedong that suggests that the world is politically and economically divided into three world. ... Social-imperialism is imperialism with a socialist/communist face. ... The Mass Line is the political/organizational/leadership method developed by Mao Zedong and the Chinese Communist Party (CPC) during the Chinese revolution. ... Peoples war (also called protracted peoples war) is a military-political strategy invented by Mao Zedong. ... For different uses of the term, including political parties with the name New Democracy, see New Democracy (disambiguation). ... “Mao” redirects here. ... Prachanda (NepālÄ«: प्रचण्ड pracaṇḍa, born Pushpa Kamal Dahal on December 11, 1954) is the leader of the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Zhang Chunqiao (Simplified Chinese: 张春桥; Traditional Chinese: 張春橋; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chang Chun-chiao) (1917–April 21, 2005) was a member of the Gang of Four. ... José María Sison (born February 8, 1939 in Cabugao, Ilocos Sur, Philippines) is a writer and activist who reorganized the Communist Party of the Philippines by combining elements of Maoism. ... Guzmán as a prisoner Manuel Rubén Abimael Guzmán Reynoso, also known by his nom de guerre Presidente Gonzalo (English: President Gonzalo), a former professor of philosophy, was the leader of the Maoist insurgency often referred coloquially to as Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso in Spanish). ... Charu Majumdar Charu Majumdar(Bangla: চারু মজুমদার) (1918-1972) was an Indian Maoist revolutionary born in 1918 in Siliguri, West Bengal. ... Madame Mao This is a Chinese name; the family name is Jiang Jiang Qing (Chinese: ), real name Lǐ ShÅ«méng, known under various other names, including the stage name Lan Ping (Chinese: 蓝苹), and commonly referred to as Madame Mao, (March 1914 – May 14, 1991), was the fourth wife of... Ibrahim Kaypakkaya was a leader of the Turkish communist movement. ... International Conference of Marxist-Leninist Parties and Organizations, a grouping of parties and organizations adhering to Marxism-Leninism-Mao Zedong Thought. ... The Revolutionary Internationalist Movement is an international Communist organization which upholds Marxism-Leninism-Maoism. ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China, a position guaranteed by the countrys constitution. ... The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution [1] in the Peoples Republic of China was a struggle for power within the Communist Party of China that manifested into wide-scale social, political, and economic chaos, which grew to include large sections of Chinese society and eventually brought the entire country to... Quotations from Chairman Mao Tse-Tung is also the title of a play by Edward Albee. ... Naxalite or Naxalism is an informal name given to radical, often violent, revolutionary communist groups that were born out of the Sino-Soviet split in the Indian communist movement. ... Nankai University (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a public university in Tianjin, P.R. China. ... Deng Yingchao with Zhou Enlai, 1954 Deng (right), with Edgar Snow (left) and Zhou approx. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In January 1920, the police raided the printing press and arrested several members of the Awareness Society. Enlai led a group of students to protest the arrests, and was himself arrested along with 28 others. After the trial in July, they were found guilty of a minor offense and released. An attempt was made by the Comintern to induct Zhou into the Communist Party of China, but although he was studying Marxism he remained uncommitted. Instead of being selected to go to Moscow for training, he was chosen to go to France as a student organizer. Deng Yingchao was left in charge of the Awareness Society in his absence. The Comintern (Russian: Коммунистический Интернационал, Kommunisticheskiy Internatsional – Communist International, also known as the Third International) was an international Communist organization founded in March 1919, in the midst of the war communism period (1918-1921), by Vladimir Lenin and the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik), which intended to fight by all available means, including... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China, a position guaranteed by the countrys constitution. ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ...


French "studies" and the European years

On November 7, 1920, Zhou Enlai and 196 other Chinese students sailed from Shanghai for Marseilles, France. At Marseilles they were met by a member of the Sino-French Education Committee and boarded a train to Paris. Almost as soon as he arrived Zhou became embroiled in a wrangle between the students and the education authorities running the “work and study” program. The students were supposed to work in factories part time and attend class part time. Because of corruption and graft in the Education Committee, however, the students were not paid. As a result they simply provided cheap labour for the French factory owners and received very little education in return. Zhou wrote to newspapers back in China denouncing the committee and the corrupt government officials. is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ... Marseilles redirects here. ... This article is about the capital of France. ...


Zhou traveled to Britain in January; he applied for and was accepted as a student at Edinburgh University. But the university term didn’t start until October so he returned to France, moving in with Liu Tsingyang and Zhang Shenfu, who were setting up a Communist cell. Zhou joined the group and was entrusted with political and organizational work. There is some controversy over the date Zhou joined the Communist Party of China. For secrecy reasons members did not carry membership cards. Zhou himself wrote "autumn, 1922" at a verification carried out at the Party's Seventh Congress in 1945. The University of Edinburgh was founded in 1583 as a renowned centre for teaching in Edinburgh, Scotland. ...


There were 2,000 Chinese students in France, some 200 each in Belgium and England and between 300 and 400 in Germany. For the next four years Zhou was the chief recruiter, organizer and coordinator of activities of the Socialist Youth League. He traveled constantly between Belgium, Germany and France, safely conveying party members through Berlin to entrain for Moscow, to be taught the art of revolution. The Communist Youth League of China (中国共产主义青年团; abbr. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ...


At first the CCP, established in July 1921 by Chen Duxiu, rejected the suggestion of the Comintern that they establish a “united front” with Sun Yat-sen’s new Kuomintang (KMT or Nationalist Party), but in 1923 the CCP changed its policy. Zhou was now charged with the task of coordinating cooperation between the two vastly different political movements in Europe. He apparently did such a good job he was ordered back to China to take charge of the united front work in the Kuomintang stronghold in Guangzhou. He arrived in Hong Kong in July 1924. Chen Duxiu (October 8, 1879 – May 27, 1942) played many different roles in Chinese history. ... The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chung1-kuo2 Kuo2-min2-tang3) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China, now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in...


The First United Front

Zhou Enlai (middle) and his wife Deng Yingchao with American journalist Edgar Snow, approx. 1938.
Zhou Enlai (middle) and his wife Deng Yingchao with American journalist Edgar Snow, approx. 1938.

In January, 1924, Sun Yat-sen had officially proclaimed an alliance between the Kuomintang and the Communists, and a plan for a military expedition to unify China and destroy the warlords. The Whampoa Military Academy was set up in March to train officers for the armies that would march against the warlords. Russian ships unloaded crates of weapons at the Guangzhou docks. Comintern advisers from Moscow joined Sun’s entourage. In October, shortly after he arrived back from Europe, Zhou Enlai was appointed deputy-director of the political department at the Whampoa Military Academy in Guangzhou. Image File history File links WHU-Zhou. ... Image File history File links WHU-Zhou. ... Deng Yingchao with Zhou Enlai, 1954 Deng (right), with Edgar Snow (left) and Zhou approx. ... Edgar Snow (left) with Zhou Enlai and his wife Deng Yingchao approx. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Chinese Military Academy emblem includes its motto, which was first proclaimed by Sun Yat-sen at the Whampoa Academys opening in 1924. ...


Zhou soon realized the Kuomintang was riddled with intrigue. The powerful right wing of the Kuomintang was bitterly opposed to the Communist alliance. Zhou was convinced that the CCP, in order to survive must have an army of its own. "The Kuomintang is a coalition of treacherous warlords" he told his friend Nie Rongzhen, recently arrived from Moscow and named a vice director of the academy. Together they set about to organize a nucleus of officer cadets who were CCP members and who would follow the principles of Marx. For a while they met no hindrance, not even from Chiang Kai-shek, the director of the academy. Nie Rongzhen (Simplified Chinese: 聂荣臻, Traditional Chinese: 聶榮臻, py: Niè Róngzhēn Wade-Giles:Nieh Jung-chen) (1899-1992) was a Chinese Communist military leader. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was the Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925. ...


Sun Yat-sen died on March 12, 1925. No sooner was Sun dead than trouble broke out in Guangzhou. A warlord named Chen Chiungming made a bid to take the city and province. The East Expedition, led by Zhou, was organized as a military offensive against Chen. Using the disciplined core of CCP cadets they met with resounding success. Zhou was promoted to head Whampoa’s martial law bureau. Zhou quickly crushed an attempted coup by another warlord within the city. Chen Chiungming once again took the field in October 1925. Once again Zhou defeated him and this time captured the important city of Shantou on the South China coast. Zhou was appointed special commissioner of Shantou and surrounding region. Zhou began to build up a party branch in Shantou whose membership he would keep secret. is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Geographic coordinates: 116º14 - 117º19 E, 23º02 - 23º38 N Area: 234 km² Shantou (also known as Swatow or Suátao) is a city of 1. ...


On August 8, 1925, he and Deng Yingchao were finally married after a long distance courtship of nearly five years. The couple remained childless, but adopted many orphaned children of "revolutionary martyrs"; one of the more famous was future Premier Li Peng. is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Li Peng (Simplified Chinese: 李鹏, Traditional Chinese: 李鵬, Wade-Giles: Li Peng) (b. ...


After Sun’s death the Kuomintang was run by a triumvirate composed of Chiang Kai-shek, Liao Zhungkai and Wang Jingwei, but in August, 1925 the left wing member, Liao Zhungkai, was murdered. Chiang Kai-shek used this murder to declare martial law and consolidate right wing control of the Nationalists. On 18 March 1926, while Mikhail Borodin, the Russian comintern advisor to the United Front, was in Shanghai. Chiang created a further incident to usurp power over the communists. The commander and crew of a Kuomintang gunboat was arrested at the Whampoa docks, See Zhongshan Warship Incident. This was followed by raids on the First Army Headquarters and Whampoa Military Academy. Altogether 65 communists were arrested, including Nie Rongzhen. A state of emergency was declared and curfews were imposed. Zhou had just returned from Shantou and was also detained for 48 hours. On his release he confronted Chiang and accused him of undermining the United Front but Chiang argued that he was only breaking up a plot by the communists. When Borodin returned from Shanghai he believed Chiang’s version and rebuked Zhou. At Chiang's request Borodin turned over a list of all the members of the CCP who were also members of the Kuomintang. The only omissions from this list were the members Zhou had secretly recruited. Chiang dismissed all the rest of the CCP officers from the First Army. Wang Jingwei, considered too sympathetic to the communists, was persuaded to leave on a “study tour” in Europe. Zhou Enlai was relieved of all his duties associated with the First United front, effectively giving complete control of the United Front to Chiang Kai-shek. Wang Jingwei * Courtesy name: Jixin (季新) * Alternate name: Zhaoming (兆銘). Wang Jingwei (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Wang Ching-wei) (May 4, 1883 – November 10, 1944), was a Chinese politician. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mikhail Markovich Borodin (Михаи́л Бороди́н) (July 9, 1884, - May 29, 1951) was the alias of Mikhail Gruzenberg. ... Zhongshan Warship Incident, or March 20th Incident, involving a suspected plot by Captain Li Zhilong of the warship Zhongshan to kidnap Chiang Kai-shek. ...


From Shanghai to Yan'an

After the Northern Expedition began, he worked as a labour agitator. In 1926, he organized a general strike in Shanghai, opening the city to the Kuomintang. When the Kuomintang broke with the Communists, Zhou managed to escape the white terror. Zhou eventually made his way to the Jiangxi base area and gradually began to shift his loyalty away from the more orthodox, urban-focused branch of the CCP to Mao's new brand of rural revolution, and became one of the prominent members of the CCP. This transition was completed early in the Long March, when in January 1935 Zhou threw his total support to Mao in his power struggle with the 28 Bolsheviks Faction. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that The White Terror (France) be merged into this article or section. ... Jiangxi (Chinese: 江西; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chiang-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Kiangsi) is a southern province of the Peoples Republic of China, spanning from the banks of the Yangtze River in the north into hillier areas in the south. ... Combatants Nationalist Party of China and allied warlords Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek various, eventually Mao Zedong Strength over 300,000 First Front Red Army: 86,000 (October 1934) 7,000 (October 1935) The Long March (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) was a massive military retreat undertaken... The Twenty Eight Bolsheviks were a group of Chinese students who studied at the Moscow Sun Yat-sen University from the late 1920s until early 1935. ...


In the Yan'an years, Zhou was active in promoting a united anti-Japanese front. As a result, he played a major role in the Xi'an Incident, helped to secure Chiang Kai-shek's release, and negotiated the Second CCP-KMT United Front, and coining the famous phrase "Chinese should not fight Chinese but a common enemy: the invader". Zhou spent the Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945) as CCP ambassador to Chiang's wartime government in Chongqing and took part in the failed negotiations following World War II. Yanan (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Yen-an), is a city in the Shanbei region of Shaanxi province, China. ... Chiang Kai-shek and Zhang Xueliang around the time of the Xian Incident. ... Combatants Nationalist Party of China Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War... The Second Sino-Japanese War was a major invasion of eastern China by Japan preceding and during World War II. It ended with the surrender of Japan in 1945. ... Chongqing (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Postal map spelling: Chungching, also Chungking) is the largest and most populous of the Peoples Republic of Chinas four provincial-level municipalities, and the only one in the less densely populated western half of China. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Premiership

In 1949, with the establishment of the People's Republic of China, Zhou assumed the role of Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs. In June 1953, he made the five declarations for peace. He headed the Communist Chinese delegation to the Geneva Conference and to the Bandung Conference (1955). He survived a covert proxy assassination attempt by the nationalist Kuomintang under the government of Chiang Kai-shek on his way to Bandung. An American-made MK7 was planted on a charter plane Kashmir Princess scheduled for Zhou's trip. Zhou changed plane but the rest of his crew of 16 people died. A moderate force and a new influential voice for non-aligned states in the Cold War, Zhou's diplomacy strengthened regional ties with India, Burma, and many southeast Asian countries, as well as African states. In 1958, the post of Minister of Foreign Affairs was passed to Chen Yi but Zhou remained Prime Minister until his death in 1976. The Geneva Conference (April 26 - July 21, 1954) was a conference between many countries that agreed to end hostilities and restore peace in French Indochina and Korea. ... The Bandung Conference was a meeting of Asian and African states, most of which were newly independent, organized by Egypt, Indonesia, Burma, Ceylon(Sri Lanka), India, and Pakistan. ... The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chung1-kuo2 Kuo2-min2-tang3) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China, now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was the Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925. ... Nickname: Kota Kembang (City of Flowers) Motto: Bermartabat (dignity) Location of Bandung in Indonesia Coordinates: Province West Java Country Indonesia Government  - Mayor Dada Rosada Area  - City 167. ... Kashmir Princess was a L-749A Constellation aircraft owned by Air India that exploded in midair and crashed into the sea in 11 April 1955, killing 16 people. ... Statue of Chen Yi Chen Yi (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Chén Yì; August 26, 1901 - June 6, 1972) was a Chinese communist military commander and politician. ...


Zhou's first major domestic focus after becoming premier was China's economy, in a poor state after decades of war. He aimed at increased agricultural production through the even re-distribution of land. Industrial progress was also on his to-do list. He additionally initiated the first environmental reforms in China. In government, Mao largely developed policy while Zhou carried them out.


In 1958, Mao Zedong began the Great Leap Forward, aimed at increasing China's production levels in industry and agriculture with unrealistic targets. As a popular and practical administrator, Zhou maintained his position through the Leap. The Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) was a great blow to Zhou. At its late stages in 1975, he pushed for the "four modernizations" to undo the damage caused by the campaigns. “Mao” redirects here. ... The Great Leap Forward (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) was an economic and social plan used from 1958 to 1960 which aimed to use Chinas vast population to rapidly transform mainland China from a primarily agrarian economy dominated by peasant farmers... The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution [1] in the Peoples Republic of China was a struggle for power within the Communist Party of China that manifested into wide-scale social, political, and economic chaos, which grew to include large sections of Chinese society and eventually brought the entire country to... The Four Modernizations (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) were the goals of Deng Xiaoping’s reforms. ...

Zhou, shown here with Henry Kissinger and Mao Zedong.
Zhou, shown here with Henry Kissinger and Mao Zedong.

Known as an able diplomat, Zhou was largely responsible for the re-establishment of contacts with the West in the early 1970s. He welcomed US President Richard Nixon to China in February 1972, and signed the Shanghai Communiqué. White House photo by Oliver Atkins. ... White House photo by Oliver Atkins. ... Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923) is a German-born American diplomat, and 1973 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. ... “Mao” redirects here. ... For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... The Joint Communique of the United States of America and the Peoples Republic of China, also known as the Shanghai Communiqué(上海公報), was an important diplomatic document issued by the United States of America and the Peoples Republic of China; on February 28, 1972 during the U.S. President...


After discovering he had cancer, he began to pass many of his responsibilities onto Deng Xiaoping. During the late stages of the Cultural Revolution, Zhou was the new target of Chairman Mao's and Gang of Four's political campaigns in 1975 by initiating "criticizing Song Jiang, evaluating the Water Margin", alluding to a Chinese literary work, using Zhou as an example of a political loser. In addition, the Criticize Lin, Criticize Confucius campaign was also directed at Premier Zhou because he was viewed as one of the Gang's primary political opponents. Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Deng Xiaoping   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Teng Hsiao-ping; August 22, 1904 – February 19, 1997) was a prominent Chinese politician and reformer, and the late leader of the Communist Party of China (CCP). ... The Gang of Four on trial The Gang of Four (Chinese: 四人帮; pinyin: ) was a group of Communist Party leaders in the Peoples Republic of China who were arrested and removed from their positions in 1976, following the death of Mao Zedong, and were blamed for the... Song Jiang (宋江) was the leader of a bandit group in the 12th century, during the Song Dynasty. ... It has been suggested that Guo Shiguang be merged into this article or section. ... A Chinese poster from 1974 which reads Criticizing Lin, Criticizing Confucius, is a major event for the whole party, the whole army and the whole people of the country The Criticize Lin (Biao), Criticize Confucius campaign (Chinese: ; pinyin: pÄ« Lín pÄ« KÇ’ng yùndòng) was a political...


Death and reactions

Zhou was hospitalized in 1974 for bladder cancer, but continued to conduct work from the hospital, with Deng Xiaoping as the First Deputy Premier handling most of the important State Council matters. Zhou died on the morning of January 8, 1976, 8 months before Mao Zedong. In their book, Mao: The Unknown Story, Jung Chang and Jon Halliday assert that Mao had intentionally denied Zhou treatment for his cancer while in the hospital because Mao did not want Zhou to outlive him.[1] Zhou's death brought messages of condolences from many non-aligned states that he affected during his tenure as an effective diplomat and negotiator on the world stage, and many states saw his death as a terrible loss. Zhou's body was cremated and the ashes scattered by air over hills and valleys, according to his wishes. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (627x733, 125 KB) Summary Photo-journalist waives all creative rights to self-made photo. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (627x733, 125 KB) Summary Photo-journalist waives all creative rights to self-made photo. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (627x733, 124 KB)To see this image in 3D stereo use RED-CYAN plastic or paper glasses. ... Image File history File links 3d_glasses_red_cyan. ... Bladder cancer refers to any of several types of malignant growths of the urinary bladder. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... “Mao” redirects here. ... Jung Chang (Traditional Chinese: 張戎, Simplified Chinese: 张戎, Wade-Giles: Chang Jung, Pinyin: Zhāng Róng; born March 25, 1952) is a Chinese-born British writer, best known for her family autobiography Wild Swans, selling over 10 million copies worldwide, but banned in mainland China. ... Jon Halliday is a historian of Russia who was a former Senior Visiting Research Fellow at Kings College, University of London. ... Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ...


Inside China, the infamous Gang of Four (Jiang Qing and Co.) had seen Zhou's death as an effective step forward in their political maneuvering, as the last major challenge was now gone in their plot to seize absolute power. At Zhou's funeral, Deng Xiaoping delivered the official eulogy, but later he was forced out of politics until after Mao's death. The Gang of Four (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ) was a group of Communist Party of China leaders in the Peoples Republic of China who were arrested and removed from their positions in 1976, following the death of Mao Zedong, and were primarily blamed for the events of... Madame Mao This is a Chinese name; the family name is Jiang Jiang Qing (Chinese: ), real name Lǐ ShÅ«méng, known under various other names, including the stage name Lan Ping (Chinese: 蓝苹), and commonly referred to as Madame Mao, (March 1914 – May 14, 1991), was the fourth wife of... Deng Xiaoping   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Teng Hsiao-ping; August 22, 1904 – February 19, 1997) was a prominent Chinese politician and reformer, and the late leader of the Communist Party of China (CCP). ...


Because Zhou was very popular with the people, many rose in spontaneous expressions of mourning across China, which the Gang considered to be dangerous, as they feared people might use this opportunity to express hatred towards them. During the Tiananmen Incident in April 1976, the Gang of Four tried to suppress mourning for the "Beloved Premier", which resulted in rioting. Anti-Gang of Four poetry was found on some wreaths that were laid, and all wreaths were subsequently taken down at the Monument to the People's Heroes. These actions, however, only further enraged the people. Thousands of armed worker-soldiers brutally crushed the people’s protest in Tiananmen Square, and hundreds of people were arrested. The Gang of Four blamed Deng Xiaoping for the movement and removed him from all his official positions. This article is about the protest in 1976. ... Monument to the Peoples Heroes The Monument to the Peoples Heroes (Chinese: 人民英雄纪念碑; Pinyin: ), Beijing, is a ten-story obelisk that was erected as a national monument of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Since his death, a memorial hall has been dedicated to him and his beloved wife in Tianjin, named Tianjin Zhou Enlai Deng Yingchao Memorial Hall (天津周恩來鄧穎超紀念館), and there was a statue erected in Nanjing city, where in the 1940s he was working with the Kuomintang. There was an issue of national stamps commemorating the 1 year anniversary of his death in 1977, and again in 1998 to commemorate his 100th birthday.


Assessment

Zhou Enlai is generally regarded as a skilled negotiator, a master of policy implementation, a devoted revolutionary, and a pragmatic statesman with infinite patience and an unusual attentiveness to detail and nuance. He was also known for his tireless and dedicated work ethic. He is reputedly the last Mandarin bureaucrat in the Confucian tradition. Zhou's political behavior should be viewed in light of his political philosophy as well as his personality. To a large extent, Zhou epitomized the paradox inherent in a communist politician with traditional Chinese upbringing: at once conservative and radical, pragmatic and ideological, possessed by a belief in order and harmony as well as a conviction to rebellion and revolution.


Though a firm believer in the Communist ideal on which modern China was founded, Zhou is widely seen by many to have had a moderating influence on some of the worst excesses of Mao's regime, although he did not wield the power necessary to bring about major changes to policy.[citation needed] It has been suggested that he used his powers to protect some of China's oldest royalist and religious sites (such as the Potala palace) from the rampages of Mao's Red Guards, as well as many top-level military and government leaders going through purges. The Potala Palace, located in Lhasa, Tibet, was the chief residence of the Dalai Lama until the 14th Dalai Lama fled to Dharamsala after a failed uprising in 1959. ... Red Guards refer to socialist or communist militia formed to instigate, support, or defend communist revolutions. ...


Though criticism of Chinese leaders and their decision has become more common in recent years, very few on mainland China as well as the Chinese community at large criticize Zhou[citation needed]. Many Chinese youths view him as their political idol and some scholars even consider his influence on the youth as great as Mao's. [citation needed]


Footnotes

  1. ^ Chang, Jung; Halliday, Jon. 2005. Mao: The Unknown Story. New York: Knopf. 579-580.

Further reading

  • Eldest Son by Han Suyin, a general biography.
  • There is a new book published in 2003 in Hong Kong, Zhou Enlai's Later Years by Gao Wenqian which is of interest. No English translation is currently available.
  • A biography of Zhou Enlai is due out in November 2007, the author is Gao Wenqian. It will be published by Public Affairs.

See also: History of the People's Republic of China Han Suyin (Chinese: 韩素音; pinyin: Hán Sùyīn) (born September 12, 1917), is the pen name of Elizabeth Comber, born Rosalie Elisabeth Kuanghu Chow (Chinese: 周光湖, pinyin: Zhōu Guānghú). She is a Chinese-born author of several books on modern China, novels set in East Asia, and autobiographical... The history of the Peoples Republic of China details the history of mainland China since October 1, 1949, when, after a near complete victory by the Communist Party of China (CPC) in the Chinese Civil War, Mao Zedong proclaimed the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) from atop Tiananmen...


External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Zhou Enlai
  • Zhou Enlai Biography From Spartacus Educational
Preceded by
None
Premier of the State Council
1949–1976
Succeeded by
Hua Guofeng

  Results from FactBites:
 
Zhou Enlai - Hutchinson encyclopedia article about Zhou Enlai (292 words)
Zhou, a member of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) from the 1920s, was prime minister 1949–76 and foreign minister 1949–58.
Zhou, a moderator between the opposing camps of Liu Shaoqi and Mao Zedong, restored orderly progress after the Great Leap Forward (1958–60) and the Cultural Revolution (1966–69), and was the architect of the Four Modernizations programme in 1975.
Abroad, Zhou sought to foster unity in the developing world at the Bandung Conference in 1955, averted an outright border confrontation with the USSR by negotiation with Prime Minister Kosygin in 1969, and was the principal advocate of détente with the USA during the early 1970s.
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