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Encyclopedia > Zhonghua minzu
Zhonghua minzu
Traditional Chinese: 中華民族
Simplified Chinese: 中华民族

Zhonghua minzu (Chinese: 中華民族; Pinyin: Zhōnghuá Mínzú), literally "Chinese ethnic group", refers to the modern notion of a Chinese nationality transcending ethnic divisions, with a central identity to China as a whole. It includes peoples who have historically interacted, contributed and assimilated to various extents with Chinese civilization. It has also been translated as Chinese nation. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... Map of eastern China and Taiwan, showing the historic distribution of Mandarin Chinese in light brown. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... This article is about the Chinese civilization. ...


The boundaries of Zhonghua minzu are fuzzy but most Chinese today use the term to include all peoples within the territorial boundaries of China integrated as one national, political, cultural and perhaps even ideological-moral group. It is sometimes also extended to overseas Chinese. For other uses, see Nation (disambiguation). ... Politics is the process by which decisions are made within groups. ... The word culture, from the Latin colo, -ere, with its root meaning to cultivate, generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ... Languages various Religions Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ...


Zhonghua refers to the concept of "China" and is the term used in the formal names for both the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China. (See: Names of China) Minzu can be translated as "nation", "people", or "ethnic group". For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... The different usages and names of China in world languages are generally consistent with how knowledge of Chinas existence first reached each culture. ...


The ideology and challenges of the Zhonghua minzu concept in developing upon a perceived homogenous society, into a multi-ethnic or multi-racial society is akin to the "Melting Pot" concept of the United States of America. Homogeneous is an adjective that has several meanings. ... Multiethnic societies, in contrast to monoethnic societies, integrate different ethnic groups irrespective of differences in culture, race, and history under a common social identity larger than one nation in the conventional sense. ... Actress Halle Berry was born to a white mother, and a black father. ... Alternate meaning: crucible (science) The melting pot is a metaphor for the way in which heterogenous societies develop, in which the ingredients in the pot (iron, tin; people of different backgrounds and religions, etc. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized...


Confusion can arise because the term "Chinese" in Western languages is often used to refer both to Zhonghua minzu and to the Han ethnicity, two concepts which are usually (although not always successfully) kept distinct among modern Chinese speakers. Language(s) Chinese languages Religion(s) Predominantly Mahayana Buddhism and Taoism. ...

Contents

History

The immediate roots of the Zhonghua minzu lie in the Qing Empire, a multi-ethnic empire created in the 17th century by the Manchus. Faced with the necessity to legitimize their rule over the different peoples that they had conquered, the Manchus sought to portray themselves as ideal Confucian rulers for the Chinese, Grand khans for the Mongols, and Chakravartin kings for Tibetan Buddhists. This involved developing clear ethnic or religious identities within the empire. Administratively, the empire was divided into the provinces of China (China proper) and the territories of Mongols, Tibetans, and Muslims, which were not subject to the control of the Chinese bureaucracy. Settlement of Han Chinese in these territories (including Manchuria) was forbidden. In this fashion, the Qing court intended and to a large part succeeded in gaining the loyalty of the large Han Chinese gentry, whose cooperation was essential to govern China, as well as other groups such as the Mongols, who acknowledged the Qing as successors to Chinggis Khan. Qing policy on these territories only changed with the establishment of Xinjiang as a province of China in 1884. The Qing Dynasty (Manchu: daicing gurun; Chinese: 清朝; pinyin: qīng cháo; Wade-Giles: ching chao), sometimes known as the Manchu Dynasty, was founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro, in what is today northeast China expanded into China proper and the surrounding territories of Inner Asia, establishing the... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... KHAGAN, alternatively spelled Chagan, Qaqan etc, is a title of royal or imperial rank in Mongolian and Turkic languages. ... For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ... This term first used to describe Ashoka of the Mauryan Dynasty literally translates to he for whom the wheel of law turns. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... China proper refers to the historical heartlands of China in the context of that paradigm which contrasts these heartlands with frontier regions of Outer China (including sections of Inner Asia and other regions). ... Willow Palisade was a system of ditches and embankments planted with willows intended to restrict movement into Manchuria. ... Language(s) Chinese languages Religion(s) Predominantly Mahayana Buddhism and Taoism. ... In imperial China, gentry were the class of landowners who were retired mandarins or their descendents. ... Genghis Khan (Mongolian: Чингис Хаан, Jenghis Khan, Jinghis Khan, Chinghiz Khan, Jinghiz Khan, Chinggis Khan, Changaiz Khan, original name Temüjin, Temuchin, Mongolian: Тэмүүжин) (c. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ...


In the late 19th century, the identities which the Qing promoted were modified under the influence of Western concepts of ethnicity and nationality. Chinese nationalists such as Sun Yat-sen initially planned to expel the Manchus as "foreign invaders" and establish a Chinese nation-state modelled closely after Germany and Japan. Fearing, however, that this restrictive view of the ethnic nation-state would result in the dismemberment and domination of the Qing empire by Western powers, Chinese nationalists discarded this concept and extended the scope of China to cover the entire territory of the Qing state. The abdication of the Qing emperor inevitably led to controversy about the status of territories in Tibet and Mongolia. While the emperor formally bequeathed all the Qing territories to the new republic, it was the position of Mongols and Tibetans that their allegiance had been to the Qing monarch; with the abdication of the Qing, they owed no allegiance to the new Chinese state. This was rejected by the Republic of China and subsequently the People's Republic of China. Dr. Sun Yat-sen Traditional Chinese: 孫中山; Pinyin: Sūn Zhōngshān; or Sun Yixian (Pinyin: Sūn Yìxiān) (November 12, 1866 – March 12, 1925) was a Chinese revolutionary and political leader often referred to as the father of modern China. Sun played an instrumental role in the... The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ...


This development in Chinese thinking was mirrored in the expansion of the meaning of the term Zhonghua minzu. Originally coined by the late Qing philologist Liang Qichao, Zhonghua minzu initially referred only to the Han Chinese. It was then expanded to include the Five Races Under One Union, based on the ethnic categories of the Qing. Sun Yatsen further expanded this concept when he wrote, "Some people say, after the overthrow of the Qing, we do not need nationalism anymore. Those words now are certainly wrong.... Right now we speak of the 'union of five nationalities' (Han, Manchu, Mongol, Hui and Tibetan), but how is it our country only has five nationalities? My stand is that we should incorporate all the peoples within China into one Chinese nation (Zhonghua minzu)...and develop the Chinese nation into a very civilized nation, only then will we no longer need nationalism." Portrait of Liang Qichao (Tung Wah News, 17 April 1901) Liang Qichao (Chinese: 梁啟超, Liáng Qǐchāo; Courtesy: Zhuoru, 卓如; Pseudonym: Rengong, 任公) (February 23, 1873–January 19, 1929) was a Chinese scholar, journalist, philosopher and reformist during the Qing Dynasty (1644–1911) who inspired Chinese scholars with his writings and... Language(s) Chinese languages Religion(s) Predominantly Mahayana Buddhism and Taoism. ... The center flag is the Five-Colored Flag of the Republic of China. ... Language(s) Chinese languages Religion(s) Predominantly Mahayana Buddhism and Taoism. ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... The Hui (回) ethnic group is unrelated to the Hui (徽) dialects. ... The Tibetan people are a people indigenous to Tibet and surrounding areas stretching from Central Asia in the West to Myanmar and China in the East. ...


The concept of Zhonghua minzu was first publicly espoused by President Yuan Shikai in 1912, shortly after the overthrow of the Qing Empire and the founding of the Republic of China. Facing the imminent independence of Outer Mongolia from China, Yuan Shikai stated, "Outer Mongolia is part of Zhonghua minzu [the Chinese nation] and has been of one family for centuries" (外蒙同為中華民族,數百年來儼如一家). Yuan Shikai (Courtesy Weiting 慰亭; Pseudonym: Rongan 容庵 Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: Yuán ShìkÇŽi; Wade-Giles: Yüan Shih-kai) (September 16, 1859[1] – June 6, 1916) was a Chinese military official and politician during the late Qing Dynasty and the early Republic of China. ... The Qing Dynasty (Manchu: daicing gurun; Chinese: 清朝; pinyin: qīng cháo; Wade-Giles: ching chao), sometimes known as the Manchu Dynasty, was founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro, in what is today northeast China expanded into China proper and the surrounding territories of Inner Asia, establishing the... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... Outer Mongolia makes up Mongolia (presently a sovereign state) and Tannu Uriankhai (the majority of which is the modern-day Tuva Republic, a federal subject of the Russian Federation), while Inner Mongolia (内蒙古; Nèi MÄ›nggÇ”) is an autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


After the founding of the People's Republic of China, the concept of Zhonghua minzu became influenced by Soviet nationalities policy. Officially, the PRC is a unitary state composed of 56 ethnic groups, of which the Han ethnic group is by far the largest. The concept of Zhonghua minzu is seen as an all-encompassing category consisting of people within the borders of the PRC. Language(s) Chinese languages Religion(s) Predominantly Mahayana Buddhism and Taoism. ...


This term has continued to be invoked and remains a powerful concept in China into the 21st century. In mainland China, it continues to hold use as the leaders of China need to unify into one political entity a highly diverse set of ethnic and social groups as well as to mobilize the support of overseas Chinese in developing China. In Taiwan, it is invoked as a non-political unifying concept of Taiwan with mainland China. [1] 20XX redirects here. ... Languages various Religions Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ...


Implications

The adoption of the Zhonghua minzu concept has given rise to the reinterpretation or rewriting of Chinese history. For example, the Manchu Dynasty was originally often characterized as a "conquest regime" or a "non-Han" regime. Following the adoption of the Zhonghua minzu ideology, which regards the Manchus as a member of the Zhonghua minzu, the distinction between non-native and native dynasties had to be abandoned. In the new orthodoxy, the Manchus, being as "Chinese" as the Han, could no longer be regarded as "barbarian conquerors", and the Qing empire could no longer be regarded as a "conquest empire". China is the worlds oldest continuous major civilization, with written records dating back about 3,500 years and with 5,000 years being commonly used by Chinese as the age of their civilization. ... For other uses, see Barbarian (disambiguation). ...


Rewriting history also meant reassessing the role of many traditional hero figures. Heroes such as Yue Fei and Koxinga, who were originally considered to have fought for China against barbarian incursions, have been recharacterized as minzu yingxiong (ethnic heroes) who fought not against barbarians but against other members of the Zhonghua minzu (the Jurchens and Manchus respectively). At the same time, China exemplified heroes such as Chinggis Khan, who became a "Chinese hero" by virtue of the fact that the Mongols are considered part of the Zhonghua minzu. It can be further deduced that Chinggis Khan himself was an early precursor of a certain concept of the "Zhonghua Minzu", based principally on grounds of Meritocracy, and employing a multi-ethnic contingent in his administrative entourage and military ranks, such as the Khitan statesman Yeh'Lu Tsu'Tsai and Han Chinese general Guo Kan; his empire encompassing cultures and ethnicities from the Yellow Sea to the Black Sea. This concept was further extrapolated by Chinggis Khan’s grandson Kublai Khan[2], who finally defeated the Southern Song, and unified China under the sinicized hallmark of the Yuan Dynasty with a multi-ethnic govermental administration. Statue of Yue Fei, from the Yue Fei Mausoleum in Hangzhou. ... Koxinga (Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: Gúoxìngyé; Tongyong Pinyin: Gúosìngyé; Taiwanese; Kok-sèng-iâ/Kok-sìⁿ-iâ) is the popular name of Zheng Chenggong (Traditional Chinese: 鄭成功; Hanyu Pinyin: Zhèng Chénggōng; Tongyong Pinyin: Jhèng Chénggong; Wade-Giles: Cheng Cheng-kung; Pe... The Jurchens (Traditional Chinese: 女眞; Simplified Chinese: 女真; pinyin: nÇšzhÄ“n) were a Tungus people who inhabited parts of Manchuria and northern Korea until the 17th century, when they became the Manchus. ... The Manchu (manju in Manchu; 滿族 (pinyin: mǎnzú) in Chinese, often shortened to 滿 (pinyin: mǎn) are an ethnic group who originated in northeastern Manchuria. ... Genghis Khan (Mongolian: Чингис Хаан, Jenghis Khan, Jinghis Khan, Chinghiz Khan, Jinghiz Khan, Chinggis Khan, Changaiz Khan, original name Temüjin, Temuchin, Mongolian: Тэмүүжин) (c. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Meritocracy is a system of a government or another organization wherein appointments are made *who* makes the appointments - ultimately, it is the people (all members of the group). ... Khitan may refer to: Khitan people Khitan language Khitan script Category: ... Yelü Chucai (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Yeh-lü Chu-tsai; Mongolian: Urtu Saqal, 吾图撒合里, long beard; also Yeh-Lu Chu-Tsai) was a Mandarin statesman of Khitan ethnicity with royal family lineage to the Liao Dynasty. ... Guo Kan (郭侃) was a famous general of Chinese descent that served the Mongolian Khans in their Western conquests and the conquest of China itself. ... ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Kublai Khan (disambiguation). ... Alternative meaning: Song Dynasty (420-479) The Song dynasty (Chinese: 宋朝) was a ruling dynasty in China from 960-1279. ... Sinicization, or less commonly Sinification, is to make things Chinese. ... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ...


Despite the superficial application of the Zhonghua Minzu concept to ethnic groups and history, the older concept of China as largely synonymous with the Han ethnic group is still widespread, even in China. For instance, discussions of Chinese cuisine usually refer to the culinary practices of and subdivisions within the Han majority, and do not seriously pretend to categorize "Chinese" food according to the theoretical framework of Zhonghua minzu. Chinese cuisine (Chinese: 中國菜) originated from different regions of China and has become widespread in many other parts of the world — from East Asia to North America, Australasia and Western Europe. ...


Controversy

The theory behind the ideology of Zhonghua minzu is that it includes not only the Han but also other minority ethnic groups within China, such as the Mongols, Manchus, Hmong, Tibetans, Tuvans, etc. This theoretical concept is not universally accepted, even in China. Supporters of the separate historical identities of different ethnic groups reject the notion these ethnic groups are part of a single people with Han Chinese. Proponents of Tibetan independence or Uighur independence would even reject the concept of Zhonghua minzu as grounds for a unified nation-state. They would argue that their peoples have a culture, history of political independence, and sense of nationhood which is quite distinct from that of the Han Chinese, and that under the right of self-determination, they have a right to political independence from the Chinese state. The following is a list of ethnic groups in China. ... For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... Language(s) Hmong/Mong Religion(s) Shamanism, Buddhism, Christianity, others The terms Hmong (pronounced ) and Mong () both refer to an Asian ethnic group in the mountainous regions of southern China. ... A Tibetan pilgrim The Tibetans speak the Tibetan language natively and form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), although in anthropological terms they include more than one ethnic group. ... Tuva or Tyva (Russian: Республика Тыва [Тува], Respublika Tyva [Tuva]) (pop. ... Language(s) Chinese languages Religion(s) Predominantly Mahayana Buddhism and Taoism. ... Self-determination is a principle in international law that a people ought to be able to determine their own governmental forms and structure free from outside influence. ...


The concept of the Zhonghua minzu is generally accepted in Taiwan, because its implication that both Taiwan and mainland China belong to the one Chinese "nation" reflects the ethnic, cultural, and linguistic homogeneity of the two sides, without making any assumptions about the political status of Taiwan. Taiwan Strait area The controversy regarding the political status of Taiwan hinges on whether Taiwan, including the Pescadores (Penghu), should remain the effective territory of the Republic of China (ROC), become unified with the territories now governed by the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), or become the Republic of...


The boundaries of who is or is not a member of the Chinese nation are not necessarily consistent. A person of Russian (Éluōsī Zú), Korean (Cháoxiǎn Zú), Vietnamese (Jīng Zú), Kyrgyz (Kēěrkèzī Zú), Hmong (Miáo Zú), or Mongol (Měnggǔ Zú) ethnicity with Chinese citizenship would be considered a full member of the Zhonghua Minzu. A Russian living in Russia, a Korean living in Korea, a Vietnamese living in Vietnam, a Kyrgyz living in Kyrgyzstan, a Hmong person living in Southeast Asia, or a Mongol living in Mongolia would almost universally be considered not to be. On the other hand, Cháoxiǎn Zú living and working in Korea or Mongolian from Inner Mongolia living and working in the independent state of Mongolia would be considered members of the Zhonghua Minzu, which can give rise to potential issues of identity.[citation needed] It has been suggested that Harbin Russians be merged into this article or section. ... This article talks about the Korean people (朝鲜族/조선족) in China. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... For the language spoken by this ethnic group, see Kyrgyz language. ... The Hmong, also known as Miao (Chinese: 苗: Miáo; Vietnamese: Mẹo or Hmông; Thai: ม้ง (mong) or แม้ว (maew)), are an Asian ethnic group whose homeland is in the mountainous regions of southern China (especially Guizhou) that cross into northern Southeast Asia (northern Vietnam and Laos). ... Ethnic Mongols in China (Chinese: 蒙古族) are citizens of the Peoples Republic of China who are ethnic Mongols. ... This article is about the Korean civilization. ... Hmong may refer to: Hmong people, an ethnic group in China and Southeast Asia Hmong language, a cluster of closely related Hmong-Mien languages Hmong customs and culture Category: ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N i Měnggǔ Z qū) is an Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Whether ethnic Han Chinese living overseas and not having Chinese citizenship are considered part of this Chinese nationality depends on the speaker and the context. Overseas Chinese in Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore make a clear distinction between being Chinese in a political sense and being Chinese in an ethnic sense, making it unclear whether or not they belong to such a group that contains both political and ethnic connotations. Languages various Religions Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ...


The conceptual boundaries of the Zhonghua minzu may be complicated by independent countries such as Mongolia and Korea, with their differing interpretations of historical peoples and states. For instance, the idea of Chinggis Khan as a "Chinese hero" is contested by Mongolia, which since the fall of socialism has explicitly positioned Chinggis Khan as the father of the Mongolian state. In opposition to this, it is common to point out that there are more ethnic Mongolians in China than in the state of Mongolia. This article is about the Korean civilization. ... This article is about the person. ...


In the context of historical regimes in northeastern China, Korean nationalists dispute the identification of several peoples as part of the heterogeneous origin of the Chinese nation - as part of the Zhonghua minzu. The historical territories of the kingdom of Goguryo was ruled by Chinese dynasties in subsequent centuries. Korean nationalists claim that Goguryo is so intertwined with the origins of the Korean nation, that it cannot be identified as Chinese. A separate kingdom, Bohai, which is pronounced "Balhae" in Sino-Korean, was located entirely within modern Chinese territory. However, its founders were connected with Goguryo. Thus, the argument that Goguryo is "Korean" and not "Chinese" has been applied by extension to Bohai. This is despite the founders of Bohai being recorded as of Mohe ethnicity, rather than Korean. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Goguryeo (37 BC-668) was an empire in Manchuria and northern Korea. ... Alternate meaning: Bohai Sea Balhae (Korean) or Bohai (Chinese) was a kingdom in northeast Asia from AD 698 to 926, occupying parts of Manchuria, northern Korea and the Russian Far East. ... The Mohe (靺鞨, Korean: Malgal, 말갈), were a Tungusic tribe in ancient Manchuria. ...


See also

Flag of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) The Nationality Law of the Peoples Republic of China (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó guójí fÇŽ) regulates citizenship in the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... China proper refers to the historical heartlands of China in the context of that paradigm which contrasts these heartlands with frontier regions of Outer China (including sections of Inner Asia and other regions). ... The May Fourth Movement in 1919 marked a turning point in the history of Chinese nationalism. ... The term Chinese people may refer to any of the following: A person who resides in and holds citizenship of the Peoples Republic of China (including Hong Kong and Macau) or the Republic of China (Taiwan). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Peoples Republic of China officially describes itself as a multinational unitary state and as such officially recognizes 56 nationalities or Mínzú (民族), within China: the Han being the majority (>92%), and the remaining 55 nationalities being the national minorities. ... Ethnolinguistic map of China The Peoples Republic of China (PRC) is a multi-ethnic unitary state and, as such, officially recognizes 56 nationalities or mínzú (民族), within China: the Han being the majority (>92%), and the remaining 55 nationalities being the national minorities. ... The Northeast Project (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ), which is short for the Northeast Borderland History and the Chain of Events Research Project (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ), was a 20-billion-yuan (2. ... The Sinocentric World: The area of usage of Chinese characters at its maximum extent (to a considerable extent following the borders of the Qing dynasty). ...

Related studies

see African studies for the study of African culture and history in Africa. ... Progress of America, 1875, by Domenico Tojetti American exceptionalism (cf. ... Anthropocentrism (Greek άνθρωπος, anthropos, human, κέντρον, kentron, center), or the human-centered principle, refers to the idea that humanity must always remain the central concern for humans. ... Christopher Columbus 1492 voyage is seen by many Europeans as the discovery of the Americas, despite the fact that humans first reached it some 12,000 years prior. ... Eurocentrism is the practice, conscious or otherwise, of placing emphasis on European (and, generally, Western) concerns, culture and values at the expense of those of other cultures. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Pan-Europeanism. ... For the book by Edward Said, see Orientalism (book). ... Postmodernism (sometimes abbreviated Po-mo[1]) is a term originating in architecture, literally after the modern, denoting a style that is more ornamental than modernism, and which borrows from previous architectural styles, often in a playful or ironic fashion. ...

References

  1. ^ See, e.g. Ma Ying-jeou, President of Republic of China inauguration speech, 20 May 2008: "兩岸人民同屬中華民族,本應各盡所能,齊頭並進,共同貢獻國際社會,而非惡性競爭、虛耗資源。我深信,以世界之大、中華民族智慧之高,台灣與大陸一定可以找到和平共榮之道。"
  2. ^ [1]

Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...

External links

  • The War of Words Between South Korea and China Over An Ancient Kingdom: Why Both Sides Are Misguided Zhonghua minzu and the Sino-Korean controversy over the 'ownership' of ancient Koguryo.

  Results from FactBites:
 
The History of Zhonghua minzu|china guides (755 words)
The term Zhonghua minzu was first used by President Yuan Shikai in 1912, shortly after the overthrow of the Qing Empire and the founding of the Republic of China.
Zhonghua refers to the concept of "Chinese" independently of ethnic concepts such as the Han ethnic group and is the term for "China" used in the formal names for both the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China.
Minzu can be translated as either "nation" or "people." Confusion also arises because the term Chinese is often used in Western languages to refer both to Zhonghua minzu and to the Han ethnicity, two concepts which are usually distinct among Chinese speakers.
Zhonghua Minzu (792 words)
Zhonghua Minzu (Traditional Chinese: 中華民族; Simplified Chinese: 中华民族; Hanyu Pinyin: Zhōnghuá Mínzú), is a Chinese term that in modern China refers to the notion of a "Chinese nationality" transcending ethnic divisions - in other words, a civic "nationality" as opposed to an "ethnic" one, with a central loyalty to China as a whole.
For instance, Genghis Khan is claimed to be a "Chinese" by China (because the Mongolians are part of the Zhonghua Minzu) and a "Mongolian" by Mongolia.
To resolve the contradiction, the concept of Zhonghua minzu was invented and was advocated by Chinese nationalists from 1895.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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