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Encyclopedia > Zheng He
A modern illustration of Zheng He, by an unidentified artist.

Zheng He (Traditional Chinese: 鄭和; Simplified Chinese: 郑和; Hanyu Pinyin: Zhèng Hé; Wade-Giles: Cheng Ho; Birth name: 馬三寶 / 马三宝; pinyin: Mǎ Sānbǎo; Arabic name: حجّي محمود شمس Hajji Mahmud Shams) (13711433), was a Chinese mariner, explorer, diplomat and fleet admiral, who made the voyages collectively referred to as the travels of "Eunuch Sanbao to the Western Ocean" (Chinese: 三保太監下西洋) or "Zheng He to the Western Ocean", from 1405 to 1433 . Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Pinyin (拼音, Pīnyīn) literally means join (together) sounds (a less literal translation being phoneticize, spell or transcription) in Chinese and usually refers to Hànyǔ Pīnyīn (汉语拼音, literal meaning: Han language pinyin), which is a system of... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... “Arabic” redirects here. ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Go-Kogon of Japan, fourth of the Northern Ashikaga Pretenders Start of the reign of Emperor Go-Enyu of Japan, fifth and last of the Northern Ashikaga Pretenders Charterhouse Carthusian Monastery founded in Aldersgate, London. ... Year 1433 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Exploration is the act of searching or traveling for the purpose of discovery, e. ... This page is about negotiations; for the board game, see Diplomacy (game). ... For other uses, see Admiral (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Life

Zheng He was born in 1371 of the Hui ethnic group and the Muslim faith in modern-day Yunnan Province,[1][2] one of the last possessions of the Mongols of the Yuan Dynasty before being conquered by the Ming Dynasty. He served as a close confidant of the Yongle Emperor of China (reigned 14031424), the third emperor of the Ming Dynasty. Zheng He's ancestors include a general for Genghis Khan. The Hui people (Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Xiaoerjing: حُوِ Ø°ÙŽÙˆ ) are a Chinese ethnic group, typically distinguished by their practice of the Islamic religion. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Yunnan (Simplified Chinese: 云南; Traditional Chinese: 雲南; pinyin: Yúnnán) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the far southwestern corner of the country. ... The name Mongols (Mongolian: Mongol) specifies one or several ethnic groups. ... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... The Yongle Emperor (May 2, 1360 – August 12, 1424), born Zhu Di (Chu Ti) , was the third emperor of the Ming Dynasty of China from 1402 to 1424. ... Events July 21 - Battle of Shrewsbury. ... August 17 - Battle of Verneuil - An English force under John, Duke of Bedford defeats a larger French army under the Duke of Alençon, John Stewart, and Earl Archibald of Douglas. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... For other uses, see Genghis Khan (disambiguation). ...


According to his biography in the History of Ming, he was originally named Ma Sanbao (馬三保), and came from Kunyang (昆阳), present day Jinning (晋宁), Yunnan Province. Zheng belonged to the Semu or Semur caste which practiced Islam. He was a sixth generation descendant of Sayyid Ajjal Shams al-Din Omar, a famous Khwarezmian Yuan governor of Yunnan Province from Bukhara in modern day Uzbekistan. His family name "Ma" came from Shams al-Din's fifth son Masuh (Mansour). Both his father Mir Tekin and grandfather Charameddin had traveled on the hajj to Mecca. Their travels contributed much to the young boy's education. In 1381, following the fall of the Yuan Dynasty, a Ming army was dispatched to Yunnan to put down the Mongol rebel Basalawarmi. Zheng He, then only a young boy of eleven years, was taken captive by that army and castrated, thus becoming a eunuch. He soon became a servant at the Imperial court. The name Zheng He was given by the Yongle emperor for meritorious service in the Yongle rebellion against the Jianwen Emperor. He studied at Nanjing Taixue (The Imperial Central College). The History of Ming (明史) is one of the official Chinese historical works known as the Twenty-Four Histories of China. ... Yunan redirects here. ... The Semu (色目 in Chinese characters) Contrary to popular definition, the term Semu (literally color-eye) actually does not mean people with colored eyes as if other castes of the Mongol Yuan society had black eyed in contrast. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Chinese 賽典赤‧詹斯丁. Yunnans first provincial govenor appointed by a Chinese imperial state. ... Chorasmian, also known as Khwarezmian or Khwarazmian, is the name of an extinct northeastern Iranian language closely related to Sogdian. ... Bukhara (Tajik: Бухоро; Persian: , Buxârâ; Uzbek: ; Russian: ), from the Soghdian βuxārak (lucky place), is the fifth-largest city in Uzbekistan, and capital of the Bukhara Province (viloyat). ... This article is about the Islamic tradition. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... Yunan redirects here. ... The name Mongols (Mongolian: Mongol) specifies one or several ethnic groups. ... Basalawarmi (died January 6, 1382), commonly known as the Prince of Liang, was a descendant of Kublai Khan and a Yuan Dynasty loyalist who fought against the ascendant Ming Dynasty. ... Castration (also referred as: gelding, neutering, orchiectomy, orchidectomy, and oophorectomy) is any action, surgical, chemical, or otherwise, by which a male loses the functions of the testes or a female loses the functions of the ovaries. ... European illustration of a Eunuch (1749) Chief Eunuch of Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II at the Imperial Palace, 1912. ... The Yongle Emperor (May 2, 1360 – August 12, 1424), born Zhu Di (Chu Ti) , was the third emperor of the Ming Dynasty of China from 1402 to 1424. ... The Jianwen Emperor (December 5, 1377–July 13, 1402), with the personal name Zhu Yunwen, reigned as the second Emperor of the Ming dynasty. ... Nanjing University (南京大学, 南京大學, Pinyin: Nánjīng Dàxué; colloquially 南大, Pinyin Nándà) is one of the oldest higher education institutions in the world and became the first modern Chinese university in the early 1920s. ...


Zheng He travelled to Mecca, though he did not perform the pilgrimage itself. At the beginning of the 1980s, his tomb was renovated in a more Islamic style, although he himself was buried at sea. The government of the People's Republic of China uses him as a model to integrate the Muslim minority into the Chinese nation. He himself was a living example of religious tolerance, perhaps even syncretism. The Galle Trilingual Inscription set up by Zheng He around 1410 in Sri Lanka records the offerings he made at a Buddhist mountain temple.[3][unreliable source?] Burial at Sea for two victims of a Japanese submarine attack on the US aircraft carrier Liscome Bay, November 1943 Burial at sea describes the procedure of disposing of human remains in the ocean. ... Freedom of religion is the individuals right or freedom to hold whatever religious beliefs he or she wishes, or none at all. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A silhouette of a Buddha statue at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ...


In around 1431, he set up a commemorative pillar at the temple of the Taoist goddess Tian Fei, the Celestial Spouse, in Fujian province, to whom he and his sailors prayed for safety at sea.[4] This pillar records his veneration for the goddess and his belief in her divine protection, as well as a few details about his voyages.[5] Visitors to the Jinghaisi (静海寺) in Nanjing are reminded of the donations Zheng He made to this non-Muslim area. Year 1431 was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Taoism (Daoism) is the English name referring to a variety of related Chinese philosophical and religious traditions and concepts. ... Statue of Ceres, the Roman goddess of agriculture For the 1934 film, see, see The Goddess (1934 film). ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Fu-chien; Postal map spelling: Fukien, Foukien; local transliteration Hokkien from Min Nan Hok-kiàn) is one of the provinces on the southeast coast of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Expeditions

Between 1405 and 1433, the Ming government sponsored a series of seven naval expeditions. Emperor Yongle designed them to establish a Chinese presence, impose imperial control over trade, and impress foreign peoples in the Indian Ocean basin. He also might have wanted to extend the tributary system, by which Chinese dynasties traditionally recognized foreign peoples.


Zheng He was placed as the admiral in control of the huge fleet and armed forces that undertook these expeditions. Zheng He's first voyage consisted of a fleet of 317 ships holding almost 28,000 armed troops. Many of these ships were mammoth nine-masted "treasure ships" which were by far the largest marine craft the world had ever seen. It is believed that Zheng He's fleets included several foreigners like Tamil Muslims of South India.[1][unreliable source?] Early 17th century Chinese woodblock print, thought to represent Zheng Hes ships. ... Mamak, Ankara is a district of Ankara, Turkey. ...

One of a set of maps of Zheng He's missions (郑和航海图), also known as the Mao Kun maps, 1628.
One of a set of maps of Zheng He's missions (郑和航海图), also known as the Mao Kun maps, 1628.

On the first three voyages, Zheng He visited southeast Asia, India, and Ceylon. The fourth expedition went to the Persian Gulf and Arabia, and later expeditions ventured down the east African coast, as far as Malindi in what is now Kenya. Throughout his travels, Zheng He liberally dispensed Chinese gifts of silk, porcelain, and other goods. In return, he received rich and unusual presents from his hosts, including African zebras and giraffes that ended their days in the Ming imperial zoo. Zheng He and his company paid respects to local deities and customs, and in Ceylon they erected a monument honouring Buddha, Allah, and Vishnu. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... World map showing location of Africa A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second_largest continent in both area and population, after Asia. ... Malindi is a city in Kenya that has been a Swahili settlement since the 14th century. ... For other uses of this word, see Silk (disambiguation). ... “Fine China” redirects here. ... Species Equus zebra Equus quagga Equus grevyi See Equus for other species. ... Binomial name Giraffa camelopardalis Linnaeus, 1758 The Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) is an even-toed ungulate mammal and the tallest of all land living animal species. ... Ming is a common personal name in China, It may also mean: Ming Dynasty, the ruling dynasty in China from 1368 to 1644 Ming class submarine, a class of diesel-electric submarines built by China Motorola MING, a smartphone released by Motorola Ming library, a C library with PHP bindings... This list of deities aims at giving information about deities in the different religions, cultures and mythologies of the world. ... Media:Example. ... Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ... Vishnu (IAST , Devanagari ), (honorific: Sri Vishnu) also known as Narayana is the Supreme Being (i. ...


Zheng He generally sought to attain his goals through diplomacy, and his large army awed most would-be enemies into submission. But a contemporary reported that Zheng He "walked like a tiger", and did not shrink from violence when he considered it necessary to impress foreign peoples with China's military might. He ruthlessly suppressed pirates who had long plagued Chinese and southeast Asian waters. He also intervened in a civil disturbance in order to establish his authority in Ceylon, and he made displays of military force when local officials threatened his fleet in Arabia and East Africa. From his fourth voyage, he brought envoys from thirty states who traveled to China and paid their respects at the Ming court.


In 1424, the Yongle Emperor died. His successor, the Hongxi Emperor (reigned 1424–1425), decided to curb the influence at court. Zheng He made one more voyage under the Xuande Emperor (reigned 1426–1435), but after that Chinese treasure ship fleets ended. Zheng He died during the treasure fleet's last voyage. Although he has a tomb in China, it is empty: he was, like many great admirals, buried at sea.[6] August 17 - Battle of Verneuil - An English force under John, Duke of Bedford defeats a larger French army under the Duke of Alençon, John Stewart, and Earl Archibald of Douglas. ... The Hongxi Emperor (August 16, 1378–May 29, 1425) was an Emperor of the Ming Dynasty in China. ... Categories: China-related stubs | 1398 births | 1435 deaths | Ming Dynasty emperors ... Burial at Sea for two victims of a Japanese submarine attack on the US aircraft carrier Liscome Bay, November 1943 Burial at sea describes the procedure of disposing of human remains in the ocean. ...


Zheng He, on his seven voyages, successfully relocated large numbers of Chinese Muslims to Malacca, Palembang, Surabaya and other places and Malacca became the center of Islamic learning and also a large international Islamic trade center of the southern seas. State motto: Bersatu Teguh State anthem: Melaka Maju Jaya Capital Malacca Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Yang di-Pertua Negeri Mohd Khalil Yaakob  - Ketua Menteri Mohd Ali Mohd Rustam History    - Malacca Sultanate 13th century   - Portuguese control 24 August 1511   - Dutch control 14 January 1641   - British control 17 March 1824   - Japanese occupation... Location of Palembang Palembang is a city in the south of the Indonesian island of Sumatra. ... Location of Surabaya in Indonesia Coordinates: , Country Province Area  - City 274. ...


His missions showed impressive demonstrations of organizational capability and technological might, but did not lead to significant trade, since Zheng He was an admiral and an official, not a merchant. Chinese merchants continued to trade in Japan and southeast Asia, but Imperial officials gave up any plans to maintain a Chinese presence in the Indian Ocean and even destroyed most of the nautical charts that Zheng He had carefully prepared. [citation needed] The decommissioned treasure ships sat in harbors until they rotted away, and Chinese craftsmen forgot the technology of building such large vessels.[citation needed]


Voyages

The Kangnido map (1402) predates Zheng's voyages and suggests that he had quite detailed geographical information on much of the Old World.
The Kangnido map (1402) predates Zheng's voyages and suggests that he had quite detailed geographical information on much of the Old World.
Order Time Regions along the way[7]
1st Voyage 1405-1407 Champa, Java, Palembang, Malacca, Aru, Sumatra, Lambri, Ceylon, Kollam, Cochin, Calicut
2nd Voyage 1407-1408 Champa, Java, Siam, Sumatra, Lambri, Calicut, Cochin, Ceylon
3rd Voyage 1409-1411 Champa, Java, Malacca, Sumatra, Ceylon, Quilon, Cochin, Calicut, Siam, Lambri, Kaya, Coimbatore, Puttanpur
4th Voyage 1413-1415 Champa, Java, Palembang, Malacca, Sumatra, Ceylon, Cochin, Calicut, Kayal, Pahang, Kelantan, Aru, Lambri, Hormuz, Maldives, Mogadishu, Brawa, Malindi, Aden, Muscat, Dhufar
5th Voyage 1416-1419 Champa, Pahang, Java, Malacca, Sumatra, Lambri, Ceylon, Sharwayn, Cochin, Calicut, Hormuz, Maldives, Mogadishu, Brawa, Malindi, Aden
6th Voyage 1421-1422 Hormuz, East Africa, countries of the Arabian Peninsula
7th Voyage 1430-1433 Champa, Java, Palembang, Malacca, Sumatra, Ceylon, Calicut, Hormuz... (17 politics in total)

Zheng He led seven expeditions to what the Chinese called "the Western Ocean" (Indian Ocean). He brought back to China many trophies and envoys from more than thirty kingdoms — including King Alagonakkara of Ceylon, who came to China to apologize to the Emperor. Download high resolution version (1739x1615, 2623 KB)The Korean Kangnido map (1402). ... Download high resolution version (1739x1615, 2623 KB)The Korean Kangnido map (1402). ... The Kangnido map (Integrated Historical Map of Countries and Cities), was made in Korea from Chinese source material in 1402, by Kim Sa-hyeong (김사형:金士衡), Yi Mu (이무:李茂) and Yi Hoe (이회). The map depicts the totality of the Old World, from Europe and Africa in the west, to Korea and Japan in... The Old World consists of those parts of Earth known to Europeans, Asians, and Africans before the voyages of Christopher Columbus; it includes Europe, Asia, and Africa (collectively known as Africa-Eurasia), plus surrounding islands. ... South East Asia circa 1100 C.E. Champa territory in green. ... This article is about the Java island. ... Location of Palembang Palembang is a city in the south of the Indonesian island of Sumatra. ... State motto: Bersatu Teguh State anthem: Melaka Maju Jaya Capital Malacca Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Yang di-Pertua Negeri Mohd Khalil Yaakob  - Ketua Menteri Mohd Ali Mohd Rustam History    - Malacca Sultanate 13th century   - Portuguese control 24 August 1511   - Dutch control 14 January 1641   - British control 17 March 1824   - Japanese occupation... The Aru Islands (also Aroe Islands or Kepulauan Aru) are a group of about 95 low-lying islands in the Maluku province of Indonesia. ... Sumatra (also spelled Sumatera) is the sixth largest island in the world (approximately 470,000 km²) and is the largest island entirely in Indonesia (two larger islands, Borneo and New Guinea, are partially in Indonesia). ... , For the district with the same name, see Kollam District. ... Kochi ( ; Malayalam: []); formerly known as Cochin) is a city in the Indian state of Kerala. ... Kozhikode, also known as Calicut, is the third largest city (pop. ... For the country formerly called Siam see Thailand SIAM is an acronym for Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. ... Kollam, formerly known as Quilon, is a city in Kerala which is also the headquarters of a district by the same name. ... Kaya can be: In history and geography: Kaya, Burkina Faso, a town in West Africa Kaya, Sudan, the town in southern Sudan Gaya confederacy of ancient Korea In popular culture: Kaya (album), by Bob Marley and the Wailers Kaya (musician), a popular singer in Mauritius Kaya (One Piece), a fictional... , Coimbatore   (Tamil: ), also known as Kovai (Tamil: ), is a major industrial city in India. ... State anthem: Pahang State Anthem Capital Kuantan Royal capital Pekan Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Sultan Sultan Ahmad Shah  - Menteri Besar Adnan Yaakob History    - Federated into FMS 1895   - Japanese occupation 1942   - Accession into Federation of Malaya 1948  Area  - Total 35,964 km² Population  - 2005 estimate 1,372,500  - Density 38. ... State motto: Berserah kepada Tuhan Kerajaan Kelantan State anthem: Selamat Sultan Capital (and royal capital) Kota Bharu Ruling party PAS  - Sultan Tuanku Ismail Petra  - Menteri Besar Nik Aziz Nik Mat History    - Siamese control 1603   - British control 1909   - Japanese occupation 1942-1946   - Accession into Federation of Malaya 1948  Area  - Total 14... Hormozgān is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Mogadishu (Somali: Muqdisho, popularly Xamar; Arabic: ; Italian: ), is the largest city in Somalia, and its capital. ... Malindi is a city in Kenya that has been a Swahili settlement since the 14th century. ... Port of Aden (around 1910). ... Classification City Sultan Qaboos bin Said al Said Area 3,500 km² [1] Population  - Total (2005)  - Density  - Oman calculated rank 606,024 [2] 184. ... The Dhofar (Arabic ظفار Ẓufār) region lies in Oman, east of Yemen. ...  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  geographic, including above East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ... The Arabian Peninsula Emirets towers in United Arab Emirates; the eastern part of Arabian Penisula The Arabian Peninsula (in Arabic: شبه الجزيرة العربية, or جزيرة العرب) is a peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia consisting mainly of desert. ...


The records of Zheng's last two voyage, which is believed to be his farthest, were unfortunately destroyed by the Ming emperor. Therefore it is never certain where Zheng has sailed in these two expeditions. The traditional view is that he went as far as to Persia. It is now the widely accepted view that his expeditions went as far as the Mozambique Channel in East Africa, from the Chinese ancient artifact discovered there. The latest view, advanced by Gavin Menzies (see below) suggested Zheng's fleet has travelled every part of the world. However, virtually every authority in the field denounces Menzies' claims as speculation. For other uses, see Ming. ... Anthem SorÅ«d-e MellÄ«-e Īrān Â² Capital (and largest city) Tehran Official languages Persian Demonym Iranian Government Islamic Republic  -  Supreme Leader  -  President Unification  -  Unified by Cyrus the Great 559 BCE   -  Parthian (Arsacid) dynastic empire (first reunification) 248 BCE-224 CE   -  Sassanid dynastic empire 224–651 CE   -  Safavid dynasty... Location of Mozambique Channel The Mozambique Channel is a portion of the Indian Ocean between the island of Madagascar and southeast Africa, namely Mozambique. ... Gavin Menzies Gavin Menzies (b. ...

Detail of the Fra Mauro map relating the travels of a junk into the Atlantic Ocean in 1420. The ship also is illustrated above the text.
Detail of the Fra Mauro map relating the travels of a junk into the Atlantic Ocean in 1420. The ship also is illustrated above the text.

There are speculations that some of Zheng's ships may have traveled beyond the Cape of Good Hope. In particular, the Venetian monk and cartographer Fra Mauro describes in his 1457 Fra Mauro map the travels of a huge "junk from India" 2,000 miles into the Atlantic Ocean in 1420 . Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 478 pixelsFull resolution (1286 × 768 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 478 pixelsFull resolution (1286 × 768 pixel, file size: 2. ... The Fra Mauro map (1459) in Venice (inverted, South is normally at the top). ... The Junk is a Chinese sailing vessel. ... The Cape of Good Hope; looking towards the west, from the coastal cliffs above Cape Point. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... The 1459 Fra Mauro map (south is at the top). ... Events University of Freiburg founded. ... The Fra Mauro map (1459) in Venice (inverted, South is normally at the top). ... A junk is a Chinese sailing vessel. ...


Zheng himself wrote of his travels:

We have traversed more than 100,000 li (50,000 kilometers) of immense water spaces and have beheld in the ocean huge waves like mountains rising in the sky, and we have set eyes on barbarian regions far away hidden in a blue transparency of light vapors, while our sails, loftily unfurled like clouds day and night, continued their course [as rapidly] as a star, traversing those savage waves as if we were treading a public thoroughfare… Li: A Chinese unit of distance, 里 (Lǐ), a li is equal to 500 metres, or about 1/3 mile. ...


— (Tablet erected by Zheng He, Changle, Fujian, 1432. Louise Levathes Changle(长乐) is located in Southeast Fujian Province, Peoples Republic of China. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Fu-chien; Postal map spelling: Fukien, Foukien; local transliteration Hokkien from Min Nan Hok-kiàn) is one of the provinces on the southeast coast of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Events June 1 - Battle of San Romano - Florence defeats Siena foundation of Université de Caen In the end of the Hook and Cod wars, Jacqueline, Countess of Hainaut and Holland is forced by Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, to abdicate all her estates in his favour; end of Hainaut...

His voyages, records, and maps are suggested to be the sources of some of the other Ancient world maps, which are claimed by Menzies to have depicted the Americas, Antarctica, and the tip of Africa before the (European) official discovery and drawings of the Fra Mauro map or the De Virga world map. Ancient world maps cover depictions of the world from Classical times to the Age of Discovery and the emergence of modern Geography. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... The Fra Mauro map (1459) in Venice (inverted, South is normally at the top). ... The De Virga world map (1411-1415). ...


Former submarine commander Gavin Menzies in his book 1421: The Year China Discovered the World claims that several parts of Zheng's fleet explored virtually the entire globe, discovering West Africa, North and South America, Greenland, Iceland, Antarctica and Australia (except visiting Europe). Menzies also claimed that Zheng's wooden fleet passed the Arctic Ocean. However none of the citations in 1421 are from Chinese sources and scholars in China do not share Menzies's assertions. Gavin Menzies Gavin Menzies (b. ... (Redirected from 1421: The Year China Discovered The World) The 1421 theory is a term to describe a theory from former British Royal Navy submarine commander Gavin Menzies. ...


A related book, The Island of Seven Cities: Where the Chinese Settled When They Discovered America by Paul Chiasson maintains that a nation of native peoples known as the Mi'kmaq on the east coast of Canada are descendants of Chinese explorers, offering evidence in the form of archaeological remains, customs, costume, artwork, etc. It is worth noting that several advocates of these theories believe that Zheng He also discovered modern day New Zealand on either his sixth or seventh expedition. Paul Chiasson is a Canadian architect and author of The Island of Seven Cities: Where the Chinese Settled When They Discovered America, published 2006 by St. ... The Mikmaq The Mikmaq (; (also spelled Míkmaq, Migmaq, Micmac or MicMac) are a First Nations people, indigenous to northeastern New England, Canadas Atlantic Provinces, and the Gaspé Peninsula of Quebec. ...


Size of the ships

Ancient chronicles

Treasure ship is the name of a type of vessel that the Chinese admiral Zheng He sailed in. His fleet included 62 treasure ships, with some said to have reached 600 feet (146 meters) long. The fleet was manned by over 27,000 crew members, including navigators, explorers, sailors, doctors, workers, and soldiers. See also Junk (ship). As the size estimates are those given in later works of fiction, it's likely that actual ships may have been smaller, since in later historical periods ships approaching this size(such as HMS Orlando) were unwieldy and visibly undulated with the waves, even with steel braces. The problem of "hogging", the tendency of the largest wooden ships to sag (like a pig's body) because of buoyancy in the middle, would have been impossible to solve. Italian Full rigged ship Amerigo Vespucci in New York Harbor, 1976 A ship is a large watercraft capable of offshore navigation. ... For other uses, see Admiral (disambiguation). ... This article is about a foot as a unit of length. ... The metre, or meter (symbol: m) is the SI base unit of length. ... A navigator is the person onboard a ship responsible for the navigation of the vessel. ... See also explorations, sea explorers, astronaut, conquistador, travelogue, the History of Science and Technology and Biography. ... Three types of mariners are seen here in the wheelhouse: a master, an able seaman, and a harbour pilot. ... Manual labor is a term used for physical work done with the hands, especially in an unskilled manual job such as fruit and vegetable picking, road building, or any other field where the work may be considered hard or arduous, which has as its objective the production of goods. ... This article is about a military rank. ... A junk is a Chinese sailing vessel. ... HMS Orlando and her sister ship HMS Mersey were the longest wooden warships built for the Royal Navy. ... // Finding the largest wooden ship in the world is not straightforward since there are several contenders, depending on which definitions are used. ... For other uses, see Pig (disambiguation). ...


According to ancient Chinese sources, Zheng He commanded seven expeditions. The 1405 expedition consisted of 27,800 men and a fleet of 62 treasure ships supported by approximately 190 smaller ships.[8][9] The fleet included:

Ships of the world in 1460, according to the Fra Mauro map. Chinese junks are described as very large, three or four-masted ships.
Ships of the world in 1460, according to the Fra Mauro map. Chinese junks are described as very large, three or four-masted ships.

The dimensions of the Zheng He's ships according to ancient Chinese chronicles and disputed by modern scholars (see below): Image File history File links Size of this preview: 595 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1071 × 1080 pixel, file size: 258 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Ships of the Fra Mauro map (1460). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 595 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1071 × 1080 pixel, file size: 258 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Ships of the Fra Mauro map (1460). ... Events The first Portuguese navigators reach the coast of modern Sierra Leone. ... The Fra Mauro map (1459) in Venice (inverted, South is normally at the top). ...

  • Treasure ships, used by the commander of the fleet and his deputies (nine-masted, about 126.73 metres (416 ft) long and 51.84 metres (170 ft) wide), according to later writers (no proof of the supposed great size of these ships exists, and as stated above, they are improbably large). The treasure ships purportedly weighed as much as 1,500 tons.126.73m by 51.84 m (415.780ft by 170.078ft)[10][11] By way of comparison, a modern ship of about 1,200 tons is 60 meter (200 ft) long [2], and the ships Christopher Columbus sailed to the New World in 1492 were about 70-100 tons and 17 meter (55 ft) long.[12]
  • Horse ships, carrying tribute goods and repair material for the fleet (eight-masted, about 103 m (339 ft) long and 42 m (138 ft) wide).[10]
  • Supply ships, containing staple for the crew (seven-masted, about 78 m (257 ft) long and 35 m (115 ft) wide).[10]
  • Troop transports, six-masted, about 67 m (220 ft) long and 25 m (83 ft) wide).[10]
  • Fuchuan warships, five-masted, about 50 m (165 ft) long).[10]
  • Patrol boats, eight-oared, about 37 m (120 feet) long).[10]
  • Water tankers, with 1 month supply of fresh water. 126.73 m by 51.84 m (415.780ft by 170.078ft)[10]

Six more expeditions took place, from 1407 to 1433, with fleets of comparable size.[13] Treasure ship is the name of a vessel that the Chinese admiral Zheng He sailed in. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... The metre, or meter (symbol: m) is the SI base unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator and maritime explorer credited as the discoverer of the Americas. ... The metre, or meter (symbol: m) is the SI base unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Year 1433 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ...

Early 17th century Chinese woodblock print, thought to represent Zheng He's ships.

Early 17th century Chinese woodblock print, thought to represent Zheng Hes ships. ... Early 17th century Chinese woodblock print, thought to represent Zheng Hes ships. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... A woodcut is a method of printing in which an image is carved into the surface of a piece of wood, with the printing parts remaining level with the surface while the non-printing parts are removed, typically with chisels. ...

Modern scholarship

The dimensions of the treasure ship as recorded in historical chronicles are disputed by scholars, since the length-to-width ratio of 2.47 isn't very well suited for fast navigation on the oceans. Hydrodynamic models have proved ships with such dimensions are unsailable in the open ocean. Also the treasure ships described in Chinese chronicles would have been several times larger than any wooden ship ever recorded since, including the largest, l'Orient (65 m long). The first ships to attain such lengths were twentieth-century aircraft carriers with metal hulls. Research on the first source of these dimensions indicated that they came from a novel in the 16th century. Recent research traced the earliest reports of the treasure ships' gigantic dimensions to a 16th-century novel.[14] Other research suggests that the actual length of the biggest treasure ships may have been between 59 m and 84 m.[15]


Accounts of medieval travellers

The characteristics of the Chinese ships of the period are described by Western travelers to the East, such as Ibn Battuta and Marco Polo. According to Ibn Battuta, who visited China in 1347: It has been suggested that Travelling route of Ibn Batuta be merged into this article or section. ... Marco Polo (September 15, 1254 – January 8, 1324) was a Venetian trader and explorer who gained fame for his worldwide travels, recorded in the book Il Milione (The Million or The Travels of Marco Polo). ... Illustration of the Black Death from the Toggenburg Bible (1411). ...

…We stopped in the port of Calicut, in which there were at the time thirteen Chinese vessels, and disembarked. China Sea traveling is done in Chinese ships only, so we shall describe their arrangements. The Chinese vessels are of three kinds; large ships called chunks (junks), middle sized ones called zaws (dhows) and the small ones kakams. The large ships have anything from twelve down to three sails, which are made of bamboo rods plaited into mats. They are never lowered, but turned according to the direction of the wind; at anchor they are left floating in the wind. Kozhikode, also known as Calicut, is the third largest city (pop. ... The China Sea can refer to the: South China Sea, or East China Sea This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Junk is a Chinese sailing vessel. ... A Dhow near Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. ...


Three smaller ones, the "half", the "third" and the "quarter", accompany each large vessel. These vessels are built in the towns of Zaytun and Sin-Kalan. The vessel has four decks and contains rooms, cabins, and saloons for merchants; a cabin has chambers and a lavatory, and can be locked by its occupants. The characters 泉州 are also used for Senshū, an alternate name for the former Japanese province of Izumi. ... Location within China Guangzhou is the capital of Guangdong Province in southern China. ...


This is the manner after which they are made; two (parallel) walls of very thick wooden (planking) are raised and across the space between them are placed very thick planks (the bulkheads) secured longitudinally and transversely by means of large nails, each three ells in length. When these walls have thus been built the lower deck is fitted in and the ship is launched before the upper works are finished." (Ibn Battuta). An ell, when used as a unit of length, is usually 45 inches, i. ...

Zheng He and Islam in Southeast Asia

Islam in China


Islam has a rich heritage in China. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1300x844, 157 KB)top of Great Mosque of Xian, cropped by me from Image:Chinese-style minaret of the Great Mosque. ...

History of Islam in China

History
Tang Dynasty
Song Dynasty
Yuan Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
Qing Dynasty
Islam in China (1911-present)
Islam is still officially recognised in China Muslims in China have managed to practise their faith in China, sometimes against great odds, since the seventh century. ... One of the earliest mosques in China the The Great Mosque in Xian was built in 742 (according to an engraving on a stone tablet inside) See also: Great Mosque of Xian During the Tang Dynasty, Sa`d led a delegation of the Prophet Muhammad’s Companions to China. ... Many Muslims went to China to trade, and these Muslims began to have a great economic impact and influence on the country. ... The Yuan Dynasty of China, continued to maintain excellent relationship with other nomadic tribes of Mongolia. ... Muslims continued to flourish in China during the Ming Dynasty. ... The rise of the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) made relations between the Muslims and Chinese more difficult. ... After the fall of the Qing Dynasty, which was hostile to Muslims, there appeared to be a reason for hope as Sun Yat Sen, who led the new republic, immediately proclaimed that the country belonged equally to the Han, Hui (Muslim), Meng (Mongol), and the Tsang (Tibetan) peoples. ...

Architecture

Chinese mosques
Niujie Mosque The Great Mosque of Xian, one of Chinas largest mosques Dongsi Mosque [1] Great Mosque, Huhhot [2] Great Mosque, Tianjin [3] Great Mosque, Xian [4] Huaisheng Mosque in Guangzhou [5] Huajue Mosque in Xian Id Kah Mosque in Kashgar [6] Najiahu Mosque in Yinchuan Nanguan Mosque... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...

Major figures

Lan YuHui LiangyuZheng HeMa Bufang
Haji Noor Lan Yu (Chinese: ; pinyin: Lán Yǔ) is a gay-themed Chinese film by Hong Kong director Stanley Kwan in 2001. ... Hui Liangyu (born 1938) is the Vice Premier of China in charge of agriculture. ... Ma Bufang 馬步芳, (1903-1975), was a prominent Ma clique warlord in China during the Republic of China era, ruling the northwestern province of Qinghai. ... Hajji Noor Deen Mi Guangjiang (米廣江, 1963-) is an expert in Islamic calligraphy, specializing in the Sini style which originated from the Chinese Muslim tradition. ...

People Groups

HuiSalarUygur
KazakhsKyrgyzTatarsBonan
UzbeksTibetansDongxiang
Bao'anTajiksUtsul
The Hui people (Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Xiaoerjing: حُوِ ذَو ) are a Chinese ethnic group, typically distinguished by their practice of the Islamic religion. ... The Salar people (Chinese: 撒拉族, Pinyin: Sālāzú) are one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Uyghur (also spelled Uygur, Uighur, Uigur; Uyghur: ئۇيغۇر; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) are a Turkic people of Central Asia. ... Languages Kazakh (and/or languages in country of residence) Religions Sunni Islam The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Kazakh: Қазақтар []; Russian: Казахи; the English name is transliterated from Russian) are a Turkic people of the northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also found in parts of Uzbekistan, China, Russia, and... Languages Kyrgyz Religions Sunni Islam Related ethnic groups other Turkic peoples Kyrgyz (also spelled Kirghiz) are a Turkic ethnic group found primarily in Kyrgyzstan. ... The Chinese Tatars (塔塔尔族 Tǎtǎěrzú) form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Bonan (also Baoan) people (保安族; pinyin: bǎoān zú) are an ethnic group living in Gansu and Qinghai provinces in northwestern China. ... The Tibetan Muslims, also known as the Kachee (Kache), form a small minority in Tibet. ... The Dongxiang people (autonym: Sarta or Santa (撒尔塔); Simplified Chinese: 东乡族 Traditional Chinese︰東鄉族; Pinyin: Dōngxiāngzú) are one of 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Bonan (also Baoan) people (保安族; pinyin: bǎoān zú) are an ethnic group living in Gansu and Qinghai provinces in northwestern China. ... Tajiks in China (Chinese: 塔吉克族, Pinyin: ) are one of the 56 nationalities officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Utsuls are a tiny ethnic group which lives on the Chinese island of Hainan. ...

Islamic Cities/Regions

LinxiaXinjiang
NingxiaKashgar Linxia (simplified Chinese: 临夏; traditional Chinese: 臨夏; pinyin: Línxià, once known as Hezhou) is a county-level city in the province of Gansu of the Peoples Republic of China. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... Ningxia (Simplified Chinese: 宁夏; Traditional Chinese: 寧夏; Pinyin: Níngxià; Wade-Giles: Ning-hsia; Postal Pinyin: Ningsia), full name Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (Simplified Chinese: 宁夏回族自治区; Traditional Chinese: 寧夏回族自治區; Pinyin: Níngxià Huízú Zìzhìqū), is a Hui autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China, located on the northwest Loess... Location of Kashgar Kashgars Sunday market Kashgar (also spelled Cascar[1]) (Uyghur: /; Chinese: ; pinyin: , ), is an oasis city in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ...

Culture

Islamic Association of China
CuisineCalligraphyMartial arts islamic association of china ... Due to the majority Muslim population in western China, many Chinese restaurants cater to Muslims or cater to the general public but are run by Muslims. ... Sini is a Chinese Islamic calligraphic form for the Arabic script. ... Muslim Chinese martial arts have a long history in China, and many Muslims have participated at the highest level of Chinese Wushu. ...

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Indonesian religious leader and Islamic scholar Hamka (1908–1981) wrote in 1961: "The development of Islam in Indonesia and Malaya is intimately related to a Chinese Muslim, Admiral Zheng He."[16] In Malacca he built granaries, warehouses and a stockade, and most probably he left behind many of his Muslim crews. Much of the information on Zheng He's voyages was compiled by Ma Huan, also Muslim, who accompanied Zheng He on several of his inspection tours and served as his chronicler / interpreter. In his book 'The Overall Survey of the Ocean Shores' (Chinese: 瀛涯勝覽) written in 1416, Ma Huan gave very detailed accounts of his observations of the peoples' customs and lives in ports they visited. Zheng He had many Muslim Eunuchs as his companions. At the time when his fleet first arrived in Malacca, there were already Chinese of the 'Muslim' faith living there. Ma Huan talks about them as tangren (Chinese: 唐人) who were Muslim. At places they went, they frequented mosques, actively propagated the Islamic faith, established Chinese Muslim communities and built mosques. Hamka (born in Maninjau, West Sumatra February 17, 1908 - July 24, 1981) is a prominent Indonesian author, ulema and politician. ... Map of Peninsular Malaysia Peninsular Malaysia (Malay: Semenanjung Malaysia) is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula, and shares a land border with Thailand in the north. ... A page from Ming dynasty woodcut printed edtion of Ying-yai Sheng-lan by Ma Huan Ma Huan(Chinese 马欢),courtesy name Chung-dao宗道, pen name Mountain-woodcutter, born in Hui Ji county of Zhejiang province. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ...


Indonesian scholar Slamet Muljana writes: "Zheng He built Chinese Muslim communities first in Palembang, then in San Fa (West Kalimantan), subsequently he founded similar communities along the shores of Java, the Malay Peninsula and the Philippines. They propagated the Islamic faith according to the Hanafi school of thought and in Chinese language." Location of Palembang Palembang is a city in the south of the Indonesian island of Sumatra. ... This article is about the Java island. ... The Malay Peninsula (Malay: Semenanjung Tanah Melayu) is a major peninsula located in Southeast Asia. ... The Hanafi (Arabic حنفي) school is the oldest of the four schools of thought (Madhhabs) or jurisprudence (Fiqh) within Sunni Islam. ...


Li Tong Cai, in his book 'Indonesia – Legends and Facts', writes: "in 1430, Zheng He had already successfully established the foundations of the Hui religion Islam. After his death in 1434, Hajji Yan Ying Yu became the force behind the Chinese Muslim community, and he delegated a few local Chinese as leaders, such as trader Sun Long from Semarang, Peng Rui He and Hajji Peng De Qin. Sun Long and Peng Rui He actively urged the Chinese community to 'Javanise'. They encouraged the younger Chinese generation to assimilate with the Javanese society, to take on Javanese names and their way of life. Sun Long's adopted son Chen Wen, also named Radin Pada is the son of King Majapahit and his Chinese wife." The Majapahit Empire was based in eastern Java and ruled much of the southern Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra, and Bali from about 1293 to around 1500. ...


After Zheng He's death, Chinese naval expeditions were suspended. The Hanafi Islam that Zheng He and his people propagated lost almost all contact with Islam in China, and gradually was totally absorbed by the local Shafi’i sect. When Melaka was successively colonised by the Portuguese, the Dutch, and later the British, Chinese were discouraged from converting to Islam. Many of the Chinese Muslim mosques became San Bao Chinese temples commemorating Zheng He. After a lapse of 600 years, the influence of Chinese Muslims in Malacca declined to almost nil.[17] In many ways, Zheng He can be considered a major founder of the present community of Chinese Indonesians. Chinese Indonesians (Mandarin: Yin du ni xi ya Huaren (Traditional: 印度尼西亞華人, Simplified: 印度尼西亚华人) Hakka: Thong ngin, Min: Teng lang, Indonesian: Tionghoa Indonesia, or (derisively) Cina totok) are ethnically Chinese people living in Indonesia, as a result of centuries of overseas Chinese migration. ...


In Malacca

According to the Malaysian history, Sultan Mansur Shah (ruled 1459–1477) dispatched Tun Perpatih Putih as his envoy to China and carried a letter from the Sultan to the Ming Emperor. Tun Perpatih succeeded in impressing the Emperor of Ming with the fame and grandeur of Sultan Mansur Shah. In the year 1459, a princess Hang Li Po (or Hang Liu), was sent by the emperor of Ming to marry Malacca Sultan Mansur Shah (ruled 1459–1477). The princess came with her entourage 500 male and a few hundred handmaidens. They eventually settled in Bukit Cina, Malacca. The descendants of these people, from mixed marriages with the local natives, are known today as Peranakan: Baba (the male title) and Nyonya (the female title). Sultan Mansur Shah was the fourth Sultan of Malacca. ... Artist impression of princess Hang Li Po, wife of Sultan Mansur Shah of Malacca. ... Bukit Cina (Malay: China hill) is a hillside of historical significance in the Malaysia state of Malacca near its capital, Malacca Town. ... State motto: Bersatu Teguh State anthem: Melaka Maju Jaya Capital Malacca Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Yang di-Pertua Negeri Mohd Khalil Yaakob  - Ketua Menteri Mohd Ali Mohd Rustam History    - Malacca Sultanate 13th century   - Portuguese control 24 August 1511   - Dutch control 14 January 1641   - British control 17 March 1824   - Japanese occupation... Peranakan, Baba-Nyonya () and Straits Chinese (; named after the Straits Settlements) are terms used for the descendants of the very early Chinese immigrants to the Nusantara region, including both the British Straits Settlements of Malaya and the Dutch-controlled island of Java among other places, who have partially adopted Malay... Peranakan, Baba-Nyonya (峇峇娘惹) and Straits Chinese (after the Straits of Malacca) (土生華人) are terms used for the descendants of the early Chinese immigrants to Malacca on the Malay Peninsula, who spread through the British Straits Settlements of Singapore, Malacca and Penang, and as...


In Malaysia today, many people believe it was Admiral Zheng He (died 1433) who sent princess Hang Li Po to Malacca in year 1459. However there is no record of Hang Li Po (or Hang Liu) in Ming documents, she is known only from Malacca folklore. In that case, Ma Huan's observation was true, the so-called Peranakan in Malacca was in fact Tang-Ren or Hui Chinese Muslims. These Chinese Muslims together with Parameswara were refugees of the declining Srivijaya kingdom, they came from Palembang, Java and other places. Some of the Chinese Muslims were soldiers and so they served as warrior and bodyguard to protect the Sultanate of Malacca. Artist impression of princess Hang Li Po, wife of Sultan Mansur Shah of Malacca. ... People by name Parameshwara: The fourteenth century Indian mathematician. ... Map of Southeast Asia at end of 12th century. ... Location of Palembang Palembang is a city in the south of the Indonesian island of Sumatra. ... This article is about the Java island. ...


On his return trip from China, Parameswara was so impressed by Zheng He that he converted to Islam and adopted the name Sultan Iskandar Shah. Malacca prosper under his leadership and became the half-way house, an entreport, for trade between India and China.


Connection to the history of Late Imperial China

Zheng He's initial objective was to enroll far flung states into the Ming tributary system, but it was later decided that the voyages were not cost efficient. One popular belief holds that after Zheng's voyages, China turned away from the seas and underwent a period of technological stagnation. Although historians such as John Fairbank and Joseph Needham popularized this view in the 1950s, most current historians of China question its accuracy. They point out that Chinese maritime commerce did not stop after Zheng He, that Chinese ships continued to dominate Southeast Asian commerce until the 19th century and that active Chinese trading with India and East Africa continued long after the time of Zheng. The travels of the Chinese Junk Keying to the United States and England between 1846 and 1848 testify to the power of Chinese shipping until the 19th century. Moreover historians such as Jack Goldstone argue that the Zheng He voyages ended for practical reasons that did not reflect the technological level of China[18] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (734x1495, 147 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Zheng He ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (734x1495, 147 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Zheng He ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Range map The giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) is an African even-toed ungulate mammal, the tallest of all land-living animal species. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... // Events Council of Constance begins. ... John King Fairbank (1907-1991) was among the most renowned American scholars of East Asia in the twentieth century. ... Joseph Terence Montgomery Needham (December 9, 1900 – March 24, 1995) was a British biochemist and pre-eminent authority on the history of Chinese science. ... The 1950s decade refers to the years 1950 to 1959 inclusive. ... The Junk Keying (Chinese: ; pinyin: literally Elder and Brave; the English name is based on Cantonese pronunciation) was a three-masted, 800-ton Foochow Chinese trading junk which sailed from China around the Cape of Good Hope to the United States and England between 1836 and 1838. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Jack A. Goldstone is an American sociologist and political scientist, specializing in studies of social movements, revolutions, and international politics. ...


Although the Ming Dynasty did ban shipping for a few decades with the Hai jin edict, they eventually lifted this ban. The alternative view cites the fact that by banning oceangoing shipping, the Ming (and later Qing) dynasties forced countless numbers of people into black market smuggling. This reduced government tax revenue and increased piracy. The lack of an oceangoing navy then left China highly vulnerable to the Waku (wakou) pirates that ravaged China in the 16th century. The Hai jin (海禁) was a ban on maritime activities during the mid-Ming Dynasty of China. ... Sixteenth century Japanese pirate raids. ...


One thing is certain: State-sponsored Ming naval efforts declined dramatically after Zheng's voyages. Starting in the early 15th century, China experienced increasing pressure from resurgent Mongolian tribes from the north. In recognition of this threat and possibly to move closer to his family's historical geographic power base, in 1421 the emperor Yongle moved the capital north from Nanjing to present-day Beijing. From the new capital he could apply greater imperial supervision to the effort to defend the northern borders. At considerable expense, China launched annual military expeditions from Beijing to weaken the Mongolians. The expenditures necessary for these land campaigns directly competed with the funds necessary to continue naval expeditions. “Nanking” redirects here. ... “Peking” redirects here. ...


In 1449 Mongolian cavalry ambushed a land expedition personally led by the emperor Zhengtong less than a day's march from the walls of the capital. In the Battle of Tumu Fortress the Mongolians wiped out the Chinese army and captured the emperor. This battle had two salient effects. First, it demonstrated the clear threat posed by the northern nomads. Second, the Mongols caused a political crisis in China when they released Zhengtong after his half-brother had proclaimed himself the new Jingtai emperor. Not until 1457 did political stability return when Zhengtong recovered the throne. Upon his return to power China abandoned the strategy of annual land expeditions and instead embarked upon a massive and expensive expansion of the Great Wall of China. In this environment, funding for naval expeditions simply did not happen. Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ... Zhu Qizhen (November 29, 1427–February 23, 1464) was an emperor of the Ming Dynasty. ... The Tumu Crisis (Chinese: 土木之變; pinyin: Tŭmù zhī bìan); also called Crisis of Tumubao (土木堡之變); or Battle of Tumu (土木之役), was frontier conflict between Mongolia and the Chinese Ming Dynasty leading to the capture of Zhengtong... Zhu Qiyu (September 21, 1428–March 14, 1457) ruled the Ming Dynasty from 1449 to 1457 as the Jingtai Emperor. ... “Great Wall” redirects here. ...


More fundamentally, unlike the later naval expeditions conducted by European nations, the Chinese treasure ships appear to have been doomed in the long run because the voyages lacked any economic motive. They were primarily conducted to increase the prestige of the emperor and the costs of the expeditions and of the return gifts provided to foreign royalty and ambassadors more than outstripped the benefits of any tribute collected. Thus when China's governmental finances came under pressure (which like all governments' finances they eventually did), funding for the naval expeditions melted away. In contrast, by the 16th century, most European missions of exploration made enough profit from the resulting trade to become self-financing, allowing them to continue regardless of the condition of the state's finances.


Zheng He's tomb and museum

Zheng He's tomb in Nanjing
Zheng He's tomb in Nanjing
Museum in honour of Zheng He, Nanjing
Museum in honour of Zheng He, Nanjing
Direct descendant of Wenming, Zheng He's elder brother, next to Zheng He's statue
Direct descendant of Wenming, Zheng He's elder brother, next to Zheng He's statue

Zheng He's tomb in Nanjing has been repaired and a small museum has been built next to it. Of course, Zheng He's body is not here as he was buried at sea off the Malabar coast near Calicut in Western India. However, his sword and other personal possessions were interred in the typical Muslim tomb inscribed with Arabic characters. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 799 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1229 × 922 pixel, file size: 207 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo taken in 2007 by Peter Pang, a direct descendant of Wenming, Zheng Hes elder brother. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 799 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1229 × 922 pixel, file size: 207 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo taken in 2007 by Peter Pang, a direct descendant of Wenming, Zheng Hes elder brother. ... “Nanking” redirects here. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (819 × 614 pixel, file size: 113 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo taken in May 2007 by Peter Pang, a direct descendant of Wenming, Zheng Hes elder brother. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (819 × 614 pixel, file size: 113 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo taken in May 2007 by Peter Pang, a direct descendant of Wenming, Zheng Hes elder brother. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... “Nanking” redirects here. ... [Land of uncivilised] Bekal Fort Beach, Kerala Malabar (Malayalam: മലബാര്‍ ) is a region of southern India, lying between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea, and derived from the Malayalam word Mala mean Hill and Persian word Bar means Kingdom, and is same as the word meaning of Malayalam. ... Kozhikode, also known as Calicut, is the third largest city (pop. ...


Zheng He map

In January 2006, BBC News and The Economist both published news regarding the exhibition of a Chinese sailing map claimed to be dated 1763, which was stated to be a copy of another map purportedly made in 1418 . The map has detailed descriptions of both Native Americans and Native Australians. According to the map's owner, Liu Gang, a Chinese lawyer and collector, he purchased the map in 2001 for $500 USD from a Shanghai dealer. BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... The Economist is a weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London, UK. It has been in continuous publication since September 1843. ... 1763 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


After Liu read the book 1421: The Year China discovered the World by Gavin Menzies, he realized the significant potential value of the map. The map has been tested to verify the age of its paper, but not the ink. Even though the map has been shown to date from a period that could cover 1763, the question remains as to whether it is an accurate copy of an earlier 1418 map, or simply a copy of a contemporary 18th-century European map. Gavin Menzies Gavin Menzies (b. ...


A number of authorities on Chinese history have questioned the authenticity of the map. Some point to the use of the Mercator-style projection, its accurate reckoning of longitude and its North-based orientation. None of these features was used in the best maps made in either Asia or Europe during this period (for example see the Kangnido map (1410) and the Fra Mauro map (1459)). Also mentioned is the depiction of the erroneous Island of California, a mistake commonly repeated in European maps from the sixteenth to eighteenth centuries. On the map the American continent is labelled phonetically "A-me-ri-ca" (亞墨利加), also a clear borrowing from the West. Mercator world map Nova et Aucta Orbis Terrae Descriptio ad Usum Navigatium Emendate (1569) The Mercator projection is a cylindrical map projection presented by the Flemish geographer and cartographer Gerardus Mercator, in 1569. ... Longitude is the east-west geographic coordinate measurement most commonly utilized in cartography and global navigation. ... The Kangnido map (Integrated Historical Map of Countries and Cities), was made in Korea from Chinese source material in 1402, by Kim Sa-hyeong (김사형:金士衡), Yi Mu (이무:李茂) and Yi Hoe (이회). The map depicts the totality of the Old World, from Europe and Africa in the west, to Korea and Japan in... The Fra Mauro map (1459) in Venice (inverted, South is normally at the top). ... The Island of California is shown on a 1650 map by Nicolas Sanson The Island of California refers to a long-held European misconception, dating from the 16th century, that California was not part of mainland North America but rather a large island separated from the continent by the Mare...

1763 Chinese map of the world, claiming to incorporate information from a 1418 map. Discovered by Lui Gang in 2005.
1763 Chinese map of the world, claiming to incorporate information from a 1418 map. Discovered by Lui Gang in 2005.
Phonetic transcription of the word "America" on the "Zheng He map". Literally: "Now Name Northern A-me-ri-ca" ("今名北亞墨利加").
Phonetic transcription of the word "America" on the "Zheng He map". Literally: "Now Name Northern A-me-ri-ca" ("今名北亞墨利加").

Geoff Wade of the Asia Research Institute at the National University of Singapore has strongly disputed the authenticity of the map and has suggested that it is either an 18th or 21st-century fake. He has pointed out a number of anachronisms that appear in the map and its text annotations. For example, in the text next to Eastern Europe, which has been translated as "People here mostly believe in God and their religion is called 'Jing' (景, referring to Nestorianism)", Wade notes that the Chinese word for the Christian God is given as "Shang-di" (上帝), which is a usage that was first borrowed from Chinese ancient text by Jesuit missionary Matteo Ricci in the 16th century.[19] Image File history File links Zhenghemap. ... Image File history File links Zhenghemap. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Nestorianism is the doctrine that Jesus exists as two persons, the man Jesus and the divine Son of God, or Logos, rather than as a unified person. ... Matteo Ricci. ...


In May 2006, it was reported by the Dominion Post that Fiona Petchey, head of the testing unit at Waikato University, which had carbon dated the map, had asked Gavin Menzies to remove claims from his website that the dating proved the map was genuine. The carbon dating indicated with an 80% probability a date for the paper of the map between either 1640–1690 or 1730–1810. However as the ink was not tested, it was impossible to know when it was drawn. Ms Petchey said, "we asked him to remove those, not because we were not happy with the dates, but because we were not overly happy with being associated with his interpretations of those dates."[20] The Dominion Post is a metropolitan broadsheet newspaper published in Wellington, owned by the Australian Fairfax group, owners of The Age of Melbourne and The Sydney Morning Herald. ... The University of Waikato is located in Hamilton and Tauranga, New Zealand, and was established in 1964. ...


In popular culture

  • The Europa Universalis II grand strategy game by Paradox Interactive spawns a naval explorer "Zheng He" for China in the beginning of the Grand Campaign with (the customary) three ships to begin with (although in some mods he begins with more to compensate for attrition).

Sindbad the Sailor (also spelled Sinbad, from Persian سندباد—As-Sindibad, 三保 Sānbǎo, from Chinese ) is the name of a legendary sailor who has numerous fantastic adventures during his voyages throughout the seas east of Africa and south of Asia. ... Queen Scheherazade tells her stories to King Shahryar. ... Gavin Menzies Gavin Menzies (b. ... For the Presidential railcar named Ferdinand Magellan, see Ferdinand Magellan Railcar. ... Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator and maritime explorer credited as the discoverer of the Americas. ... This Chinese map, produced in 1763 and claimed by the unidentified author to be based on a 1418 Chinese map, has produced much controversy as to how much knowledge Medieval China had of the Americas and Antarctica. ... Europa Universalis II is historical grand strategy video game for the PC. It is the sequel to Europa Universalis. ... Grand strategy is military strategy considered at the level of the movement and use of an entire nation state or empires resources. ... Paradox Interactive (formerly a division of Paradox Entertainment) is a Swedish company based in Stockholm that is known for producing historical strategy computer games. ... In 1999 Vernor Vinge published his science fiction novel, A Deepness in the Sky, a loose prequel (set 30,000 years earlier) to his novel A Fire Upon the Deep (1992). ... This article is about the year. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Vernor Steffen Vinge (IPA: ) (born February 10, 1944) is a mathematician, computer scientist and science fiction author who is best known for his Hugo award-winning novels A Fire Upon the Deep and A Deepness in the Sky, as well as for his 1993 essay The Technological Singularity, in which... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... The Years of Rice and Salt (2002, ISBN 0553580078) is an alternate history novel written by science fiction author Kim Stanley Robinson, a thought experiment about a world without Christianity. ... For the late American actress, see Kim Stanley. ... WizKids, Inc. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... A Constructable Strategy Game (or CSG) is a strategy game employing pieces assembled from components. ... Treasure ship is the name of a vessel that the Chinese admiral Zheng He sailed in. ... Seven Brothers (originally Seitsemän veljestä) is the only novel of the Finnish author Aleksis Kivi and the first significant novel in the Finnish language. ... Devi Snakewoman The Sadhu Ramayana Reborn Seven Brothers End of Story Five upcoming titles Promotional poster Virgin Comics LLC is a comic book company, which produces Indian-related comics for an international audience. ... Garth Ennis (born January 16, 1970 in Holywood, Northern Ireland) is a Northern Irish comics writer, best known for the DC/Vertigo series Preacher, co-created with artist Steve Dillon. ... For other uses, see John Woo (disambiguation). ...

Further reading

  • Dreyer, Edward L. (2006). Zheng He: China and the Oceans in the Early Ming, 1405–1433 (Library of World Biography Series). Longman. ISBN 0-321-08443-8.
  • Levathes, Louise (1997). When China Ruled the Seas: The Treasure Fleet of the Dragon Throne, 1405–1433. Oxford University Press, trade paperback. ISBN 0-19-511207-5.
  • Ma Huan (1970). Ying-yai Sheng-lan, The Overall Survey of the Ocean's Shores (1433), translated from the Chinese text edited by Feng Ch'eng Chun with introduction, notes and appendices by J.V.G.Mills. White Lotus Press. Reprinted 1970, 1997. ISBN 974-8496-78-3.
  • Menzies, Gavin (2003). 1421: The Year the Chinese Discovered the World. Morrow/Avon, hardcover 576 pages. ISBN 0-06-053763-9. (Scholars consider this book, insofar as it relates to the Chinese discovery of America, to lack factual foundation:
The 1421 myth exposed
Review of 1421 by a science editor at the New York Times (login required)
Robert Finlay: How (not) to rewrite World History. Gavin Menzies and the Chinese Discovery of America (login required), Journal of World History, Vol. 15, No. 2 (2004), S.229–242
黃振翔: 《1421》的大謊言
  • Viviano, Frank (2005). China's Great Armada. National Geographic, 208(1):28–53, July.
  • China Has an Ancient Mariner to Tell You About

There may be other books, publications and papers available (especially in China), but these have not yet been translated into languages other than the original Chinese. A page from Ming dynasty woodcut printed edtion of Ying-yai Sheng-lan by Ma Huan Ma Huan(Chinese 马欢),courtesy name Chung-dao宗道, pen name Mountain-woodcutter, born in Hui Ji county of Zhejiang province. ... Gavin Menzies Gavin Menzies (b. ... The 1421 theory of the Chinese discovery of the Americas originates from former British Royal Navy submarine commander Gavin Menzies. ...


References

  1. ^ The Hui ethnic minority - People's Daily. "During the Ming Dynasty, the Hui navigator Zheng He led massive fleets in making as many as seven visits to more than 30 Asian and African countries in 29 years."
  2. ^ National Library of Singapore - "Zheng He himself was a Muslim who made a great contribution to the spread of Islam 600 years ago"
  3. ^ A Peaceful Mariner and Diplomat
  4. ^ Ancient Chinese Explorers
  5. ^ Zheng He's Inscription
  6. ^ The Seventh and Final Grand Voyage of the Treasure Fleet
  7. ^ Maritime Silk Road 五洲传播出版社. ISBN 7508509323
  8. ^ Dreyer (2006): 122–124
  9. ^ Briton charts Zheng He's course across globe
  10. ^ a b c d e f g "History of the Ming dynasty" «明史», Zhang Tingyu chief editor, published 1737, “四十四丈一十八丈”
  11. ^ "Eunuch Sanbao's Journey to the Western Seas" «三宝太监西洋通俗演义记»,Luo Maodeng, published 1597, “宝船长四十四丈四,阔一十八丈,每只船上有九道桅。”
  12. ^ http://www.columbusnavigation.com/ships.shtml
  13. ^ Dreyer (2006)
  14. ^ http://proj.ncku.edu.tw/chengho/ National Cheng Kung University of Taiwan
  15. ^ Sally K. Church: The Colossal Ships of Zheng He: Image or Reality ? (p.155-176) Zheng He; Images & Perceptions In: South China and Maritime Asia , Volume 15, Hrsg: Ptak, Roderich /Höllmann Thomas, O. Harrasowitz Verlag, Wiesbaden, (2005)
  16. ^ Chinese Muslims in Malaysia, History and Development by Rosey Wang Ma
  17. ^ Suryadinata Leo (2005). Admiral Zheng He & Southeast Asia. Singapore Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. ISBN 981-230-329-4. 
  18. ^ Goldstone, Jack. The Rise of the West - or Not? A Revision to Socio-economic History.
  19. ^ [www.singtaonet.com:82/arts/200702/t20070208_465576.html]
  20. ^ "Writer trashes origins of Maori", 1421exposed.com.

The Peoples Daily (Chinese: 人民日报 Pinyin ) is the official newspaper of the Communist Party of China, published worldwide with a circulation of 3 to 4 million. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Events 12 February — The San Carlo, the oldest working opera house in Europe, is inaugurated. ... For other uses, see: 1597 (number). ...

See also

  • Zhou Man
  • Timeline of pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact
  • Pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact
  • 1421 Hypothesis
  • Ming Shi-lu

Zhou Man, 15th century Chinese admiral and explorer, was born into a wealthy merchant family in the year 1378. ... This is a Timeline of contacts between the Americas and the rest of the world, both legendary and historically based. ... Pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contacts were interactions between the indigenous peoples of the Americas and peoples of other continents—Europe, Africa, Asia, or Oceania—before the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1492. ... This Chinese map, produced in 1763 and claimed by the unidentified author to be based on a 1418 Chinese map, has produced much controversy as to how much knowledge Medieval China had of the Americas and Antarctica. ... The Ming Shi-lu contains the imperial annals of Ming dynasty emperors (1368-1644) and is the single largest historical source for the dynasty and plays an extremely important role in the historical reconstruction of Ming society and politics. ...

External links

Persondata
NAME Zheng He
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION Chinese explorer
DATE OF BIRTH 1371
PLACE OF BIRTH Yunnan Province, China
DATE OF DEATH 1433
PLACE OF DEATH

  Results from FactBites:
 
Chinese Mariner Zheng He [Cheng Ho] (367 words)
Zheng He (1371-1435), or Cheng Ho, is arguably China's most famous navigator.
Zheng He died in the tenth year of the reign of the Ming emperor Xuande (1435) and was buried in the southern outskirts of Bull's Head Hill (Niushou) in Nanjing.
In 1985, during the 580th anniversary of Zheng He's voyage, his tomb was restored.
The Admiral Of the Western Seas – Cheng Ho (Zheng He) (2409 words)
Zheng He described how the emperor of the Ming Dynasty had ordered him to sail to "the countries beyond the horizon," all the way to the end of the earth." His mission was to display the might of Chinese power and collect tribute from the "barbarians from beyond the seas."
Zheng He is described in Chinese historical records as tall and heavy, with "clear-cut features and long ear lobes; a stride like a tiger's and voice clear and vibrant." He was well liked and admired for his quick wit in argument.
Zheng He had started the process that might have led the Middle Kingdom to greater glory Unfortunately the rulers of the Ming Dynasty refused to follow his lead.
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