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Encyclopedia > Zeno (emperor)
Zeno
Emperor of the Byzantine Empire
Zeno on a coin issued during his second reign and celebrating his victories
Reign 9 February 474 - 9 January 475
August 476-9 April 491
Full name Dominus Noster Flavius Zeno Perpetuus Augustus
Born c. 425
Isauria
Died April 9, 491
Constantinople
Predecessor Leo II
Successor 1) Basiliscus, revolted
2) Anastasius I, selected by Zeno's widow
Consort Ariadne
Issue Leo II
Royal House House of Leo

Flavius Zeno (c. 425–491), original name Tarasicodissa or Trascalissaeus, Eastern Roman Emperor (February 9, 474 - April 9, 491) was one of the more prominent of the early Byzantine emperors. Domestic revolts and religious dissension plagued his reign which nevertheless succeeded to some extent in foreign issues. He presided over the official end of the Roman Empire in the west under Julius Nepos and Romulus Augustus, while at the same time contributing much to stabilizing the empire in the east. This is a list of Byzantine Emperors. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... Image File history File links Zeno AV Tremissis. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 18 - Leo II briefly becomes Byzantine emperor. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... See also 475 (number) Events Orestes forces western Roman emperor Julius Nepos to flee and declares his son Romulus Augustus to be emperor. ... Events August - The usurper Basiliscus is deposed and Zeno is restored as Eastern Roman Emperor. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ælle sieges and conquers the fortified town of Anderida in England. ... Isauria, in ancient geography, is a rugged isolated district in the interior of South Asia Minor, of very different extent at different periods, but generally covering much of what is now Antalya province of Turkey, or the core of the Taurus Mountains. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ælle sieges and conquers the fortified town of Anderida in England. ... Imperator Caesar Flavius Leo Augustus or Leo II (467- November 17, 474) served as Eastern Roman Emperor from January 18 to November 17, 474. ... For the genus of lizards, see Basiliscus (genus). ... Flavius Anastasius. ... Part of a 5th century imperial diptych thought to be representing the empress Ariadne. ... Imperator Caesar Flavius Leo Augustus or Leo II (467- November 17, 474) served as Eastern Roman Emperor from January 18 to November 17, 474. ... The House of Leo which ruled the Eastern Roman Empire from 457 to 518 (and varying parts of the Western Roman Empire from 474 to 480). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Byzantine Empire. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 18 - Leo II briefly becomes Byzantine emperor. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ælle sieges and conquers the fortified town of Anderida in England. ... This is a list of Byzantine Emperors. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus The Western Roman Empire in 395. ... Julius Nepos on a coin. ... This article is about the Roman Emperor. ...

Contents

Life

Military career

Tarasicodissa, as he was known as a young man, was an Isaurian, a people who lived on the Mediterranean coast of Anatolia, in what is now Antalya. The Isaurians, like most borderland tribes, were looked upon as barbarians by the Romans even though they had been Roman citizens for more than two centuries. Still, a fortuitous turn of events ultimately placed Tarasicodissa on the throne in Constantinople. Isauria, in ancient geography, is a rugged isolated district in the interior of South Asia Minor, of very different extent at different periods, but generally covering much of what is now Antalya province of Turkey, or the core of the Taurus Mountains. ... Antalya province is located on the Mediterranean coast of south-west Turkey, between the Taurus Mountains and the Mediterranean sea. ... barbarians is a mini-series on the history channel which tells the story of four of the most barbariac tribes of the early and late middle ages. ... Map of Constantinople. ...


Well-known as a warrior, Tarasicodissa caught the eye of the Emperor Leo I in the mid-460s, when Leo was searching for alternatives to using increasingly unreliable Germanic and Alan mercenaries in his army. In 466, Tarasicodissa exposed the treachery of Ardabur, the son of the Alans eastern magister militum Aspar and made himself even more indispensable. By 468, when Leo's incompetent (and perhaps traitorous) generals led the Byzantine fleet to disaster in a campaign against the Vandals, Tarasicodissa was considered Leo's best general. While on a campaign in Thrace he narrowly escaped assassination instigated by Aspar. On Tarasicodissa's return to the capital, Aspar was killed on Leo's orders and Tarasicodissa became magister militum in his own right. Leo I coin. ... The Alans, Alani, Alauni or Halani were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people, warlike nomadic pastoralists of varied backgrounds, who spoke an Iranian language and to a large extent shared a common culture. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Magister militum (Latin for Master of the Soldiers) was a top-level command used in the later Roman Empire, dating from the reign of Constantine. ... Flavius Ardabur Aspar (? - 471), an Alan, was the magister militum (Master of Soldiers) of the Byzantine Empire. ... The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe (Germanic as defined by Tacitus) that entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century. ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ...


To make himself more acceptable to the Roman hierarchy and the native Greek population of Constantinople, Tarasicodissa adopted the Greek name of Zeno and used it for the rest of his life after his marriage to Leo's daughter Ariadne in 468. Although designed by Leo to secure Isaurian support against the aforementioned ambitious minister Aspar, this political arrangement brought them a son, who was to become the emperor Leo II upon the death of his grandfather in 474. Imperator Caesar Flavius Leo Augustus or Leo II (467- November 17, 474) served as Eastern Roman Emperor from January 18 to November 17, 474. ...


In the meantime, Zeno continued to lead the eastern armies with a great deal of success, most notably in expelling the Vandals from Epirus, which they invaded in 469 as part of King Geiseric's revenge for being attacked a year earlier. He also led troops against incursions by the Huns and Gepids south of the Danube River. Since Leo II was too young to rule himself, Ariadne and her mother Verina prevailed upon Leo to crown Zeno as co-emperor, which he did on February 9, 474. When Leo became ill and died on November 17, Zeno became sole emperor. Epirus, spanning Greece and Albania. ... Geiseric the Lame (circa 389 – January 25, 477), also spelled as Gaiseric or Genseric the Lame, was the King of the Vandals and Alans (428–477) and was one of the key players in the troubles of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century. ... The Huns were an early confederation of Central Asian equestrian nomads or semi-nomads. ... The Gepids (Latin Gepidae) were a Germanic tribe most famous in history for defeating the Huns after the death of Attila. ... Length 2,888 km Elevation of the source 1,078 m Average discharge 30 km before Passau: 580 m³/s Vienna: 1,900 m³/s Budapest: 2,350 m³/s just before Delta: 6,500 m³/s Area watershed 817,000 km² Origin Black Forest (Schwarzwald-Baar, Baden- Württemberg... Aelia Verina (died 484) was the wife of Byzantine emperor Leo I, and the mother-in-law of Zeno, who was married to her daughter Ariadne. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 18 - Leo II briefly becomes Byzantine emperor. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ...


Reign

Zeno continued to be unpopular with the people and senate because of his "foreign" origins. A revolt fomented by Verina in favour of her brother Basiliscus in January of 475 and the antipathy to his Isaurian soldiers and administrators in Constantinople forced him to flee the capital for the city of Antioch. Zeno was compelled to shut himself up in a fortress and spent the next 20 months raising an army, largely made up of fellow Isaurians, and marched on Constantinople in August 476. The growing misgovernment and unpopularity of Basiliscus ultimately enabled Zeno to re-enter Constantinople unopposed in 476 after an army led by the general Illus defected to Zeno. His rival was banished to Phrygia, where he soon afterwards died. For the genus of lizards, see Basiliscus (genus). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Antakya. ... Isauria is an ancient inland district of south central Anatolia. ... Map of Constantinople. ... Events August - The usurper Basiliscus is deposed and Zeno is restored as Eastern Roman Emperor. ... Map of Constantinople. ... Tremissis issued by Emperor Zeno. ... Location of Phrygia - traditional region (yellow) - expanded kingdom (orange line) In antiquity, Phrygia (Greek: ) was a kingdom in the west central part of the Anatolian Highland, part of modern Turkey. ...

This solidus was minted by Odoacer in name of Zeno. The king of the Heruli ruled Italy under the formal patronage of the Eastern Emperor.
This solidus was minted by Odoacer in name of Zeno. The king of the Heruli ruled Italy under the formal patronage of the Eastern Emperor.

Restored to rule of the entire empire, Zeno was within two months forced to make a momentous decision when Julius Nepos died in 480, Odoacer ceremoniously sent the imperial regalia by sea back to Constantinople, and asked for Zeno's recognition as a patrician officer of Zeno's court, and to name a new emperor in the West. Zeno granted this, but did not appoint a new Emperor and thus in theory became the first emperor of a united Roman Empire since 395. In reality, he all but wrote off the west until several years later, when Odoacer began to violate the terms of his agreement with Zeno. Image File history File links Solidus-Odoacer-ZenoRIC_3657cf. ... Image File history File links Solidus-Odoacer-ZenoRIC_3657cf. ... Julian solidus, ca. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Heruli (spelled variously in Latin and Greek) were a nomadic Germanic people, who were subjugated by the Ostrogoths, Huns, and Byzantines in the 3rd to 5th centuries. ... Julius Nepos on a coin. ... Events Odoacer defeats an attempt by Julius Nepos to recapture Italy, and has Julius killed; Odoacer also captured Dalmatia. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


At the same time, Zeno sent a mission to Carthage with the intent of making a permanent peace settlement with Geiseric, who was still making constant raids on eastern cities and merchant shipping. By recognizing Geiseric as an independent king and with the full extent of his conquests, Zeno was able to hammer out a peace which ended the Vandal attacks in the east, brought freedom of religion to the Catholics under Vandal rule, and lasted for more than 50 years. Roman Carthage with former military harbor Carthage (Greek: , Latin: , from the Phoenician meaning new town; Arabic: ) refers both to an ancient city in Tunisia and to the civilization that developed within the citys sphere of influence. ... Geiseric the Lame (circa 389 – January 25, 477), also spelled as Gaiseric or Genseric the Lame, was the King of the Vandals and Alans (428–477) and was one of the key players in the troubles of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century. ...


Since 472 the aggressions of the two Ostrogoth leaders, Theodoric the Great, son of Theodemir, and Theodoric Strabo, had been a constant source of danger. Although Zeno at times contrived to play them off against each other, they in turn were able to profit by his dynastic rivalries. It was only by offering them pay and high command that he kept them from attacking Constantinople itself. Map of Ostrogothic Kingdom The Ostrogoths (Greuthung, Gleaming Goths or Eastern Goths), along with the Visigoths (Noble Goths or Western Goths) were branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe that played a major role in the political events of the late Roman Empire. ... Theodoric the Great (454 - August 30, 526), known to the Romans as Flavius Theodoricus, was king of the Ostrogoths (488-526), ruler of Italy (493-526), and regent of the Visigoths (511-526). ... Theodemir was a king of the Ostrogoths. ... Theodoric Strabo[1] (d. ...


Zeno survived another revolt in 478, when his mother-in-law Verina attempted to kill Illus for turning against Basiliscus, her brother. The revolt was led by her son-in-law Marcian and the Ostrogoth warlord Theodoric Strabo, but Illus again proved his loyalty to Zeno by quashing the revolt. However, Illus and Zeno had a falling out by 484, and once again Zeno had to put down a bloody revolt in the east. Aelia Verina (died 484) was the wife of Byzantine emperor Leo I, and the mother-in-law of Zeno, who was married to her daughter Ariadne. ... For the genus of lizards, see Basiliscus (genus). ... Another but lesser Marcian was a son-in-law of Byzantine Emperor Leo I and his queen Verina. ... Map of Ostrogothic Kingdom The Ostrogoths (Greuthung, Gleaming Goths or Eastern Goths), along with the Visigoths (Noble Goths or Western Goths) were branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe that played a major role in the political events of the late Roman Empire. ...


After Theodoric Strabo died in 481, the future Theodoric became king of the entire Ostrogoth nation and began to be a source of trouble in the Balkan peninsula. Zeno got rid of the problem in 487 by inducing him to invade Italy to fight Odoacer who allegedly supported usperes Leontius and establish his new kingdom there. This all but eliminated the German presence in the east. The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ...


Zeno died on April 9, 491, after ruling for 17 years and 2 months. Because he and Ariadne had no other children, his widow chose a favoured member of the imperial court, Anastasius, to succeed him. is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Flavius Anastasius. ...


Opinions on Zeno

Zeno is described as a lax and indolent ruler, but he seems to have husbanded the resources of the empire so as to leave it appreciably stronger at his death.


In ecclesiastical history, Zeno is associated with the Henoticon or "instrument of union", promulgated by him and signed by all the Eastern bishops, with the design of solving the monophysite controversy. The Henotikon (the act of union) was issued by Byzantine emperor Zeno I in 482, in an attempt to reconcile the differences between the supporters of Orthodoxy and Monophysitism. ... Monophysitism (from the Greek monos meaning one, alone and physis meaning nature) is the christological position that Christ has only one nature, as opposed to the Chalcedonian position which holds that Christ has two natures, one divine and one human. ...


Trivia

A composition of Agathias of Myrine describes Zeno playing tabula, a sort of backgammon.[1] Medieval illustration of Tabula players (13. ... Backgammon is a board game for two players in which pieces are moved according to the roll of dice. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Austin, Roland G. "Zeno's Game of τάβλη", The Journal of Hellenic Studies 54:2, 1934. pp 202-205.

External links

Zeno (emperor)
House of Leo
Born: c. 425
Died: 491
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Leo II
Eastern Roman Emperor
474-475
Succeeded by
Basiliscus
Preceded by
Basiliscus as Eastern Roman Emperor, Julius Nepos as Western Ruman Emperor
Byzantine Emperor
476-491
Succeeded by
Anastasius I
Preceded by
Imp. Caesar Procopius Anthemius Augustus II (alone)
Consul of the Roman Empire
469
with Flavius Marcianus
Succeeded by
Flavius Messius Phoebus Severus,
Flavius Iordanes
Preceded by
Imp. Caesar Flavius Leo Iunior Augustus (alone)
Consul of the Roman Empire
475
Post consulatum Leonis Augusti (East)
Succeeded by
Imp. Caesar Flavius Basiliscus Augustus II,
Flavius Armatus
Preceded by
Illus (alone)
Consul of the Roman Empire
479
Succeeded by
Flavius Caecina Decius Maximus Basilius

  Results from FactBites:
 
Zeno of the Byzantine Empire (1018 words)
Zeno was compelled to shut himself up in a fortress and spent the next 20 months raising an army, largely made up of fellow Isaurians, and marched on Constantinople in August 476.
Zeno is described as a lax and indolent ruler, but he seems to have husbanded the resources of the empire so as to leave it appreciably stronger at his death.
In ecclesiastical history Zeno is associated with the Henoticon[?] or instrument of union[?], promulgated by him and signed by all the Eastern bishops, with the design of terminating the Monophysite controversy.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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