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Encyclopedia > Zenica
Zenica
Зеница
Coat of arms
[[Image:{{{image_coat_of_arms}}}|100px|Coat of arms]]
Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina
[[Image:{{{image_map}}}|150px|center|Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina highlighting the town or municipality location]]
General Information
Entity Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Land area 499,7 km²
Population 170,000 (estimate)
Population density 293/km²
Coordinates 44°12′N, 17°56′E
Area code +387 32
Mayor Husejin Smajlović (SDA)
Website http://www.zenica.ba

Zenica (Cyrillic: Зеница) is an industrial city (the third largest, after Sarajevo and Banja Luka) and municipality in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is the capital of the Zenica-Doboj Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina entity. Zenica is located about 70 km north of Sarajevo and is situated on the Bosna river, surrounded by mountains and hills. Image File history File links Zenica_night. ... Political divisions of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Categories: Bosnia and Herzegovina | Politics of Bosnia and Herzegovina | Lists of subnational entities | Bosnia and Herzegovina geography stubs ... The location of the FBiH entity as part of the state of Bosnia and Herzegovina in Europe. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... A telephone numbering plan is a system that allows subscribers to make and receive telephone calls across long distances. ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... The Party of Democratic Action (Stranka Demokratske Akcije) is a Bosniak nationalist political party in Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... A website (alternatively, Web site or web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos and other digital assets that is hosted on one or several Web server(s), usually accessible via the Internet, cell phone or a LAN. A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML... The Cyrillic alphabet (or azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is an alphabet used for several East and South Slavic languages; (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian) and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ... Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo) Coordinates: , Country Bosnia and Herzegovina Entity Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Canton Sarajevo Canton Government  - Mayor Semiha Borovac (SDA) Area [1]  - City 141. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... map showing the position of the canton within Bosnia and Herzegovina Zenica-Doboj Canton is one of the cantons of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... The location of the FBiH entity as part of the state of Bosnia and Herzegovina in Europe. ... Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo) Coordinates: , Country Bosnia and Herzegovina Entity Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Canton Sarajevo Canton Government  - Mayor Semiha Borovac (SDA) Area [1]  - City 141. ... The source of the Bosna river on the outskirts of Sarajevo. ...


The town's Stara čaršija (old quarter) contains several attractions, including a synagogue, which is now the City Museum and Art Gallery. There is also a mosque (Čaršijska mosque), an Austrian fountain and an old bey's farm house (Hadžimazića House). Today Fatih Sultan Mehmed Barracks of the Turkish Armed Forces is also based in Zenica within the peace-keeping activities of European forces in the country. A synagogue (from ancient Greek: , transliterated synagogÄ“, assembly; ‎ beit knesset, house of assembly; Yiddish: or Template:Lanh-he beit tefila, house of prayer, shul; Ladino: , esnoga) is a Jewish house of worship. ... A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... Mehmed II Mehmed II (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481; nicknamed el-Fatih, the Conqueror) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446, and later from 1451 to 1481. ... Turkish Armed Forces (TAF) (Turkish: Türk Silahlı Kuvvetleri (TSK)) consists of the Army, the Navy (including Naval Air and Naval Infantry), and the Air Force of the Republic of Turkey. ...

Contents

History

The urban part of today's Zenica was formed during several specific periods which can chronologically be dated to the time of Neolithic community, Illyrian old towns ruins, Roman Municipium Bistua Nuova, and the most important archaeological find, an II to IV century AD, Early Christian double Basilica, in addition to it there is only one more like that identified so far in entire Europe. Ruins of an ancient settlement were founded not far from Bilimišce(part of the town on the south-eastern side) in the villages of Putovici and Tišina, with objects like Villa Rustica, baths, pagan temples and a variety of different structures which dominated the scenary of the environment. Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ...


The age of independence of the medieval Bosnian Kingdom is directly connected with Zenica, above all with the stone table of the Grand Magistrate Gradiša and the rule of Bosnia by Ban Kulin (Governor) in the second half of the XII century. An Act of Abjuration was sign in Bilino Polje (where the city's football stadium is today) by Kulin with the representatives of the Pope, and that action symbolized the end of an era. The Act determines the facts of the political powers of that time. The closeness to the stony fortress of Vranduk, then to the residence of the Kings of Bosnia at Bobovac and to the village Janjici where the Did, the High Priest of the Bosnian Church use to preside along with its Stecaks (type of a medieval tombstone founded only on the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina and some parts of Croatia, Montenegro and Serbia) in the villages of Puhovac and Pojske and the local population with its clerks, writers and builders of that time, who had left their own mark in history, points to the facts and gives evidence of the special significance of this region in the Middle Ages. By its old names Bistua Nuova, Bilino Polje (Bilin's Field), Brod and finally Zenica from the 20th of March 1436 this town has remained connected to the central parts of the Bosnian State and stands in the middle of the river Bosna's flow. Ban Kulin (1163-1204) was a powerful Bosnian Ban who ruled from 1180 to 1204 first as a vassal of the Byzantine Empire and then of the Kingdom of Hungary. ... Bilino Polje is the home football stadium of NK ÄŒelik from the city of Zenica in Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Look up Football in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Telstra Stadium in Sydney, Australia is capable of being converted from a rectangular rugby football field to an oval for cricket and Australian rules football games This article is about the building type. ... Anthem Oj, svijetla majska zoro Oh, Bright Dawn of May Montenegro() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Podgorica Official languages Serbian (Ijekavian dialect)1 Demonym Montenegrin Government Republic  -  President Filip Vujanović  -  Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence due to the dissolution of Serbia and Montenegro   -  Declared June 3, 2006... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 812   -  Kingdom established 1217   -  Empire established 1346   -  Independence lost to... Bilino Polje is the home football stadium of NK ÄŒelik from the city of Zenica in Bosnia and Herzegovina. ...


During the rule of the Ottoman Empire (1463 - 1878) and by the fact that the changes to the main trade road had reorganized the function of the town, accept during a brief period until 1557, when Zenica was the residence of Brod's Kadi (Ottoman judge, handles both religious and secular affairs of his subjects), Zenica was a small town with its own individual look and several mosques: Sultan Ahmet's, Osman Cheleby's, Seymen and Jali mosques, with a Madrassa (Islamic religious school), founded in 1737 and several lower primary schools, with interesting Ottoman tombstones, gardens, inns and several stopping inns for caravans. In one description from the year 1697, Zenica is mentioned as a delta of Nile, where melons grow and where the entire landscape is very pleasant. It is assumed that Zenica had 2.000 inhabitants at that time and all were mostly Bosniacs, while Serbs and Croats are mentioned in the documents at the end of XVIII century and in the XIX century Jews are also mentioned. Look up Ottoman, ottoman in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Nile (Arabic: , transliteration: , Ancient Egyptian iteru, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing river in Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. ...

The raids of Eugene of Savoy have been marked as dark times which left a lot destruction and caused an exodus and after the year 1697, Zenica had started to stabilise and to distinguish itself in the administrative, urban, economical and topographical characteristics all of which have opened the paths to the prosperity that followed in the XX century. At the end of XIX century, during Austro-Hungarian occupation, there were investments in capital projects that had wider social and economic importance, and were soon to become life and fate of Zenica. Those projects include a railroad from Bosanski Brod to Zenica built in 1879, Coal Mine b. in 1880, Paper Works b. in 1885, Steel Factory b. in 1892 and a Detention Facility b. in 1886, all of these investments caused a chain of changes in both the quality and quantity of city's development. Prince Eugen von Savoyen in a contemporary painting François-Eugène, Prince of Savoy-Carignan, known as Prinz Eugen von Savoyen in German (October 16, 1663 – April 24, 1736) was a noted general. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Bosanski Brod (Serbian: Босански Брод or Bosanski Brod; Bosnian: Bosanski Brod; Croatian: Bosanski Brod) also known as Brod (Брод), formerly known as Srpski Brod (Српски Брод), is a town and municipality located on the right bank of the river Sava in the north of Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina. ...

Lamela, the tallest building in Zenica
Lamela, the tallest building in Zenica

In the begging of the XX century, there was an urban boom and the official State Register for the year 1910 shows that for only a few years the number of population had increased to 7.215 inhabitants. It is evident that there is a huge urban acceleration. The Orthodox Church was built in 1882, two Catholic Churches in 1910, a Synagogue in 1903, several motels, hotel, school, plumbing system, modern road and etc. The Twentieth Century is marked by several interesting, typical and unusual manifestations, including increased industrialization especially after 1938 and the construction of the rough rail, pauperization of parts of the population, the rise of power of the working class and the mixture of Greater European understandings with the domestic Bosnian mentality and local customs. The city that has developed has different functions and purposes, especially after having to cope with the fact that it has a Detention Facility on one side of the town and a Steel Factory on the other. But is has also a valuable gift, the lives of its inhabitants are closely connected, the Stone Bridge binds the house of Kosta Jefic and Osmanaga Mehmedic along with the Jewish Synagogue for full ninety years. Image File history File linksMetadata Zgrada_Lamela. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Zgrada_Lamela. ...

Older part of the town at night
Older part of the town at night

During Second World War and the preparation for the uprising, there was a struggle of the local population to survive and maintain its existence and respect, that can be seen in the famous Resolution of the Muslims of Zenica, which was sighed in May of 1942 and the formation of its authentic symbol, a Muslim militia in the villages of Šerići, Doglodima, Babino and throughout rise of the partisan movements. All of these struggles had their own hard demands and burdens. That was the dimension of the resistance of Zenica, the town did not have greater damages, terror nor human causalities, which is the fact of first class importance and significance. It is regretful that the goals of the antifascist struggle collided with the ideological determination, which had some dire and unexpected consequences in the aftermath of the war. Image File history File linksMetadata Stara_carsija. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Stara_carsija. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ...


The most prominent growth of Zenica started after the partisans liberated the small town in 1945 and began to develop the steel industry. During those years new buildings were constructed there and the town grew rapidly, spreading to encompass Bilino Polje, Klopce, and Radakovo, all villages during the Ottoman period. Many apartment blocks were built to house the new miners.


In 1948 the population was only 12,000 people, but by 1961 it had grown to over 30,000. In 1981 the town had over 63,000 people, and in the last census taken 1991 Zenica was a city of some 96,027 people. Zenica has seen a sixfold increase in its population in the past 50 years.


In 1991, just one year before the Bosnian War, Zenica was the headquarters of one of the first private and independent radio stations in all of Eastern Europe, Radio CD-CEMP. In the spring of 1993, Zoran Misetic, a journalist and the owner of the Radio CD-CEMP, was awarded with the Belgian Award for Independent Journalism; “Pen Of Peace”. Combatants Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Predominantly Bosniak) Army of Republika Srpska, Yugoslav Peoples Army, various paramilitary units from Serbia and Montenegro (Serbian) Croatian Defence Council, Croatian Army (Croatian) Commanders Alija Izetbegović (President of Bosnia and Herzegovina) Sefer Halilović (Army chief of staff 1992-1993) Rasim...


During the Bosnian War, the demographics of the city were altered to a certain extent, whereby the city received a large number of ethnic Bosniak from other parts of Bosnia while the Serb population left Zenica to parts of Serb controlled Bosnia. During the Bosnian war, Bosniak forces received financial and military aid only from Islamic countries because West had enforced an arms embargo on the newly formed state. Today, Zenica is trying to regain economic influence it used to have before the war. One of the biggest steel mills in South Central Europe has been privatized and now bears name of the Mittal Steel Corp. Mittal Steel Company N.V. (NYSE: MT) is the worlds largest steel producer. ...


Demographics

In 2005, population of Zenica municipality included 88% Bosniaks and 7% Croats.


Location of Zenica

Fortress Of Vranduk
Fortress Of Vranduk

Zenica, for many of its characteristics and features, is a specific urban and economic area. Its peculiarities originate from both its geographic location, since it is situated in the very center of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the economic and social character of its development. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixels Full resolution (480 × 640 pixel, file size: 177 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Zenica. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixels Full resolution (480 × 640 pixel, file size: 177 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Zenica. ...


Zenica is situated in one of the largest and most beautiful valleys in the middle part of the River Bosna by which the state has got its name. The River Bosna well is in Ilidža near Sarajevo and its mouth into the River Sava near Bosanski Šamac, which make it a natural north south corridor. The Zenica valley itself is stretching from Lasva canyon in the south, to Vranduk canyon to the north. Mayor Amer Ćenanović Area  - Total 143. ... Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo) Coordinates: , Country Bosnia and Herzegovina Entity Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Canton Sarajevo Canton Government  - Mayor Semiha Borovac (SDA) Area [1]  - City 141. ... Sava also Save (in Serbian: Сава; German: Save; Hungarian: Száva) is a river in Europe, a right side tributary of Danube at Belgrade. ... Bosanski Å amac (Serbian: Босански Шамац) is a town in the northern part of Bosnia and Herzegovina, located on the right bank of the Sava river. ...


The main rail and road communications pass through the River Bosna valley. Sarajevo and Tuzla airports are not far away from the region. With comparatively good roads (for the present Bosnian-Herzegovian circumstances), and standard gauge railway roads (with two tracks from Doboj to Zenica), Zenica is well connected to the north, west and east of the country. What is particularly important for its economic development is the access to sea via rail and roads. European corridor of the future north-south highway also passes through Zenica. Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo) Coordinates: , Country Bosnia and Herzegovina Entity Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Canton Sarajevo Canton Government  - Mayor Semiha Borovac (SDA) Area [1]  - City 141. ... For other uses, see Tuzla (disambiguation). ...


Zenica - Doboj Canton

Zenica is a seat of Zenica-Doboj Canton. It is the center of the Canton in terms of administration, politics, economy, culture, education, science and sports.


Zenica-Doboj Canton is situated in the middle part of River Bosna valley, as well as on the banks of the River Krivaja, Usora and its confluents. Geographically, the area is equally distributed into the river valleys gradually elevating into the range of low hills, and then into the high mountains. Judging by this fact, one could make a conclusion that the area of Canton offers various opportunities: from agriculture in the valleys, cattle breeding and fruit growing in the hilly landscapes, to the exploitation of one-hundred-year old deciduous and periwinkle forests in the mountains.


Zenica – Doboj canton covers the area of 3,904 square kilometers, with its 427,000 inhabitants. This Canton is composed of the following municipalities: Zenica, Kakanj, Visoko, Breza, Vareš, Olovo, Maglaj, Zavidovići, Žepče, Tešanj, Usora and Doboj South. Transport communications and industrial infrastructure have been relatively well developed. Geographic location of the Canton offers good communications with the central European countries. Those countries are connected with the Adriatic Sea via railroad going the way down through the River Bosna valley, crossing the whole territory of the Canton. The same route will be utilized for Sarajevo-Zenica highway being registered as a corridor of the European highway network. It is going to connect Budapest to the Adriatic Sea and Ploce port. The construction of the highway has already started. Kakanj is a city in Bosnia. ... Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity Federation Canton Zenica - Doboj Land area 232 km² Population (1991 census) 46,130 Population density Coordinates Area code +387 32 Mayor Munib Alibegović (SDA) Website http://www. ... Location of Breza in BiH Breza is a town and municipality in central Bosnia and Herzegovina, famous for the local mining activities and production of coal. ... Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity {{{entity}}} Land area Population (2001 census) 13,293 Population density Coordinates Area code +387 32 Mayor Hamdo Fatić (SDP) Website http://www. ... Olovo is a city situated about 50 km north-west of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity {{{entity}}} Land area Population Population density Coordinates Area code +387 32 Mayor Mehmed MustabaÅ¡ić (SDA) Website http://www. ... Zavidovići is a town in central Bosnia and Herzegovina, located between Doboj and Zenica on the confluence of rivers Bosna and Krivaja (and Gostović nearby). ... Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity {{{entity}}} Land area ZE-DO kanton Population (1991 census) 22,840 Population density Coordinates Area code +387 32 Mayor Mato Zovko (HDZ) Website http://www. ... Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity {{{entity}}} Land area Population (1998 census) 52,249 Population density Coordinates Area code +387 32 Mayor Adem Huskić (SDA) Website http://www. ... Usora is a historic toponim of Bosnia and Herzegovina surrounding the river and the nearby area of the same name. ... View of Doboj from the fortress 14th Century Doboj Fortress, reconstructed in 2006, with a wooden stage added during reconstruction Doboj (Cyrillic: Добој) is a city and a municipality in Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina, situated on the river Bosna. ... A satellite image of the Adriatic Sea. ... For other uses, see Budapest (disambiguation). ...


Industry of Zenica – Doboj Canton is mainly characterized by two of its features: mono structure of its production facilities and large business systems. Zenica has been identified with its huge Steel Factory for decades, Zavidovici with its furniture factory Krivaja, Visoko with its leather-textile combine, Kakanj with its brown coal mines and Power Plant, etc. This paradox of socialism aspiring towards economic gigantism has a good chance of turning into one of the most realistic development opportunities for the Canton. Renewed production in these large systems offers practically unlimited opportunities for starting the whole range of small and medium-sized companies. With the skillful workforce and highly liberal and active management, one can establish all kinds of very successful businesses.


Privatization is a strategic goal of the economic development of the Canton. Presently, the state is the owner of the industrial facilities, large portion of land and all natural resources. Macroeconomists see the exceptional opportunity in the privatization process bringing forward positive results.


Geography

Zenica is a town located in the valley of the river Bosnа on the height of 316 meters above sea level. It is the economic centre of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Zenica is distanced 70 kilometres from the capital Sarajevo, north, by the valley of the river Bosna. The closest airport is in Sarajevo, which can be reached by the motor road next to the river and throughout the Stup knot. Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo) Coordinates: , Country Bosnia and Herzegovina Entity Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Canton Sarajevo Canton Government  - Mayor Semiha Borovac (SDA) Area [1]  - City 141. ...

  • Surface: 500 square kilometres
  • Geographic latitude and longitude: 44°12' and 17°56'
  • Height above sea level: 316 metres
  • Cultivable soil: 64.14 km² (12,69 %)

Forests: 37.84 km² (60,90 %) Pastures: 11.81 km² (2,34 %) Meadows: 72.63 km² (14,37 %)


Before the Second World War, the town had 15.000 inhabitants, before the last war the town had 150.000 inhabitants, while town's population today is in excess of 170.000. Many members of different nations, cultures, faiths and heritages are registered in the structure of the population of Zenica and they are all connected with deep traditions of tolerant living. Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ...


Twin cities

Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... , Gelsenkirchen-Buer looking south towards downtown Gelsenkirchen, 1955. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Romania. ... County Hunedoara County Status Municipality Mayor Nicolae Schiau, Democratic Party, since 2004 Area 97 km² Population (2002) 79,235 Density 816 inh/km² Geographical coordinates , Web site http://www. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Ãœsküdar (ancient Scutari) was a city in Bithynia in Anatolia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Karsiyaka,Izmir Karsiyaka, a suburb of Izmir, in Izmir province, situated north of the Gulf of Izmir, an inlet of the Aegean Sea, Karsiyaka borders an industrial zone and a shipping yard to the east and a large forested area to the north. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Coordinates: Country Sweden Municipality LuleÃ¥ Municipality County Norrbotten Province Norrbotten Charter 17th Century Area  - City 2,110 km²  (814. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kazakhstan. ... Temirtau is a city in the Karaganda region of Kazakhstan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hungary. ... This article is about the town of Zalaegerszeg, for the football club, see Zalaegerszegi TE Zalaegerszeg   is the administrative center of Zala county, Western Hungary. ...

External links

  • Official City Homepage
  • Official Balkan Athletic Championshionship - Zenica 2006 homepage
  • Official Zenica International Fair homepage
 
Political divisions of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina

  Results from FactBites:
 
Zenica - Search Results - MSN Encarta (57 words)
Zenica, city in central Bosnia and Herzegovina, between Sarajevo and Banja Luka, located on the Bosna River.
Zenica is on a rail line to Sarajevo to...
Before the Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian War, Zenica was a major center for heavy industry.
Zenica - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1265 words)
Zenica is the place of origin of the Serbian House of Petrovic dynasty that migrated in the 14th century to Herzegovina and would rule Montenegro for over two centuries.
The Zenica valley itself is stretching from Lasva canyon in the south, to Vranduk canyon to the north.
Zenica is distanced 70 kilometres from the capital Sarajevo, north, by the valley of the river Bosna.
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