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Zen

Bodhidharma. Woodcut print by Yoshitoshi, 1887.
Japanese Name
Romaji Zen
Hiragana ぜん
Kanji
Chinese Name
Mandarin Hanyu Pinyin Chán
Mandarin Wade-Giles Ch'an
Cantonese Jyutping Sim
Shanghainese (Wu) Zeu [zø]
Traditional Chinese
Simplified Chinese
Korean Name
Revised Romanization Seon
McCune-Reischauer Sŏn
Hangul
Hanja
Sanskrit Name
Romanization Dhyāna
Devanāgarī ध्यान
Pali Name
Romanization Jhāna
Devanāgarī झान
Sinhala ඣාන
Vietnamese Name
Quốc ngữ Thiền
Hán tự

Zen () is a school of Mahāyāna Buddhism notable for its emphasis on practice and experiential wisdom—particularly as realized in the form of meditation known as zazen—in the attainment of awakening. As such, it de-emphasizes both theoretical knowledge and the study of religious texts in favor of direct individual experience of one's own true nature. Zen may refer to: Zen in Buddhism Creative ZEN, a portable music player Zen Internet Zen, fictional computer from the television serial Blakes 7 Category: ... Download high resolution version (500x731, 162 KB) Bodhidharma, by Yoshitoshi, 1887. ... Bodhidharma (early 6th century CE) was the Buddhist monk traditionally credited as founder of Zen. ... Four horsemen of the Apocalypse by Albrecht Dürer Ukiyo-e woodcut, Ishiyama Moon by Tsukioka Yoshitoshi (1889) Woodcut is a relief printing artistic technique in printmaking in which an image is carved into the surface of a block of wood, with the printing parts remaining level with the surface... Tsukioka Yoshitoshi (Owariya Yonejiro): 1839 - 1892 Tsukioka Yoshitoshi (1839 - June 9, 1892) (Japanese: 月岡 芳年; also named Taiso Yoshitoshi 大蘇 芳年) was the last great master - and one of the great innovative and creative geniuses - of the Japanese woodblock print, Ukiyo-e. ... 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... Japanese writing Kanji 漢字 Kana 仮名 Hiragana 平仮名 Katakana 片仮名 Uses Furigana 振り仮名 Okurigana 送り仮名 Romaji ローマ字 The title given to this article lacks diacritics because of certain technical limitations. ... Hiragana ) is a Japanese syllabary, one component of the Japanese writing system, along with katakana and kanji; the Latin alphabet is also used in some cases. ... Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji   ) are the Chinese characters that are used in the modern Japanese logographic writing system along with hiragana (平仮名), katakana (片仮名), and the Arabic numerals. ... This article is on all of the Northern and Southwestern Chinese dialects. ... Pinyin (拼音, Pīnyīn) literally means join (together) sounds (a less literal translation being phoneticize, spell or transcription) in Chinese and usually refers to Hànyǔ Pīnyīn (汉语拼音, literal meaning: Han language pinyin), which is a system of... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... This article is on all of the Yue dialects. ... Jyutping (sometimes spelled Jyutpin) is a romanization system for Standard Cantonese developed by the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong (LSHK) in 1993. ... Shanghainese (上海言话 [] in Shanghainese), sometimes referred to as the Shanghai dialect, is a dialect of Wu Chinese spoken in the city of Shanghai. ... Wu (吳方言 pinyin wú fāng yán; 吳語 pinyin wú yǔ) is one of the major divisions of the Chinese language. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Revised Romanization of Korean is the official Korean language romanization system in South Korea. ... The Seon school is a Korean branch of Buddhism that shares its origins and many characteristics with Chinese Chan and whose influence originated aspects of Japanese Zen. ... McCune-Reischauer romanization is one of the two most widely used Korean language romanization systems, along with the Revised Romanization of Korean, which replaced (a modified) McCune-Reischauer as the official romanization system in South Korea in 2000. ... Jamo redirects here. ... Hanja is the Korean name for Chinese characters. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Languages can be romanized in a variety of ways, as shown here with Mandarin Chinese In linguistics, romanization (or Latinization, also spelled romanisation or Latinisation) is the representation of a word or language with the Roman (Latin) alphabet, or a system for doing so, where the original word or language... Dhyāna is a term in Sanskrit which refers to a type or aspect of meditation. ... () is an abugida script used to write, either along with other scripts, or exclusively, several Indian languages, including Sanskrit, Hindi, Marathi, Sindhi, Bihari, Bhili, Marwari, Konkani, Bhojpuri, languages from Nepal like Nepali, Tharu Nepal Bhasa and sometimes Kashmiri and Romani. ... Pāli is a Middle Indo-Aryan dialect or prakrit. ... Languages can be romanized in a variety of ways, as shown here with Mandarin Chinese In linguistics, romanization (or Latinization, also spelled romanisation or Latinisation) is the representation of a word or language with the Roman (Latin) alphabet, or a system for doing so, where the original word or language... Dhyāna is a term in Sanskrit which refers to a type or aspect of meditation. ... () is an abugida script used to write, either along with other scripts, or exclusively, several Indian languages, including Sanskrit, Hindi, Marathi, Sindhi, Bihari, Bhili, Marwari, Konkani, Bhojpuri, languages from Nepal like Nepali, Tharu Nepal Bhasa and sometimes Kashmiri and Romani. ... The Sinhala script is used to write the Sinhala language. ... The Vietnamese alphabet has the following 29 letters, in collating order: Vietnamese also uses the 10 digraphs and 1 trigraph below. ... JQ IS HERE GO AWAY DONT TOUCH MY NAME SHOOOO! ... Hán tá»± (漢字, lit. ... Relief image of the bodhisattva Kuan Yin from Mt. ... A silhouette of a Buddha statue at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ... Look up praxis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Experience in Wiktionary, the free dictionary This article discusses the general concept of experience. ... Prajñā (Sanskrit; Pali: paññā; Tibetan: shes rab, Chinese: 般若, banruo) meaning wisdom, cognitive acuity; or know-how -- but especially the Buddhist wisdom that is based on a realization of dependent origination, not-self, emptiness, etc. ... For other senses of this word, see Meditation (disambiguation). ... Kodo Sawaki practicing zazen Zazen (坐禅) is at the heart of Zen Buddhist practice. ... Bodhi (बोधि) is the Pāli and Sanskrit word for the awakened or knowing consciousness of a fully liberated yogi, generally translated into English as enlightenment. It is an abstract noun formed from the verbal root budh (to awake, become aware, notice, know or understand), corresponding to the verbs bujjhati (P... The word theory has a number of distinct meanings in different fields of knowledge, depending on their methodologies and the context of discussion. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... // Most religions have religious texts they view as sacred. ... Buddha-nature (originally in Sanskrit, Buddha-dhatu - Buddha Element, Buddha-Principle) is a doctrine important for many schools of Mahayana Buddhism. ...


A broader term is the Sanskrit word Dhyana, which exists also in other religions in India. Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Dhyāna is a term in Sanskrit which refers to a type or aspect of meditation. ...


The emergence of Zen as a distinct school of Buddhism was first documented in China in the 7th century CE. It is thought to have developed as an amalgam of various currents in Mahāyāna Buddhist thought—among them the Yogācāra and Madhyamaka philosophies and the Prajñāpāramitā literature—and of local traditions in China, particularly Taoism and Huáyán Buddhism. From China, Zen subsequently spread southwards to Vietnam and eastwards to Korea and Japan. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Zen also began to establish a notable presence in North America and Europe. The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... “BCE” redirects here. ... Yogācāra (Sanskrit: yoga practice), also spelled yogāchāra, is an influential school of philosophy and psychology that developed in Indian Mahayana Buddhism starting sometime in the fourth to fifth centuries C.E., also commonly known as consciousness-only or mind-only (Sanskrit: cittamātra) (although scholars increasingly... Madhyamaka (Also known as Åšunyavada) is a Buddhist Mahayāna tradition popularized by Nāgārjuna and AÅ›vaghoá¹£a. ... Perfection of Wisdom is a translation of the Sanskrit term prajñā pāramitā (Devanagari: प्रज्ञा पारमिता, Chinese: 般若波羅蜜多/般若波罗蜜多, Pinyin: bānruò-bōluómìduō, Japanese: hannya-haramita), which is one of the aspects of a bodhisattvas personality called the paramitas. ... Taoism (Daoism) is the English name referring to a variety of related Chinese philosophical and religious traditions and concepts. ... Huayan (華嚴, Pinyin: huáyán, Sanskrit: Avatamsaka) or Flower Garland is a tradition of Mahayana Buddhist philosophy that flourished in China during the Tang period. ... This article is about the Korean peninsula and civilization. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Etymology

"Zen", pronounced [zeɴ] in Japanese, is the Sino-Japanese reading of the Chinese character 禅, which is pronounced [tʂʰán] (pinyin: chán) in modern Standard Mandarin Chinese, but was likely pronounced [d​͡zʲen] in Middle Chinese.[1] The term "zen" is in fact a contraction of the seldom-used long form zenna (禅那; Mandarin: chánnà), a derivation from the Sanskrit term dhyāna (Pāli: jhāna), which refers to a specific type or aspect of meditation. While "Zen" is the name most commonly known worldwide, it is also known as Chán in China, Seon in Korea, and Thiền in Vietnam. Sino-Japanese refers to that portion of the Japanese vocabulary that originated in the Chinese language or has been created from elements borrowed from Chinese. ... Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji   ) are the Chinese characters that are used in the modern Japanese logographic writing system along with hiragana (平仮名), katakana (片仮名), and the Arabic numerals. ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quoc Ngu: Han Tu: A Chinese character or Han character (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, sometimes Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Standard Mandarin, also known as Standard Chinese, Modern Standard Chinese or Standard spoken Chinese, is the official modern Chinese spoken language used by the Peoples Republic of China, the Republic of China (Taiwan), and Singapore. ... Middle Chinese (Traditional Chinese: 中古漢語; Pinyin: zhōnggÇ” HànyÇ”), or Ancient Chinese as used by linguist Bernhard Karlgren, refers to the Chinese language spoken during Northern and Southern Dynasties and the Sui, Tang, and Song dynasties (6th century - 10th century). ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Dhyāna is a term in Sanskrit which refers to a type or aspect of meditation. ... Pāli is a Middle Indo-Aryan dialect or prakrit. ... This article is about the Korean peninsula and civilization. ...


Zen teachings and practices

Basis

In Zen, philosophical teachings and textual study are given less emphasis than in other forms of Buddhism. Nonetheless, Zen is deeply rooted in both the teachings of the Buddha Siddhārtha Gautama and Mahāyāna Buddhist thought. Philosophy (from the Greek words philos and sophia meaning love of wisdom) is understood in different ways historically and by different philosophers. ...

A Chinese Tang Dynasty image of the Buddha seated in meditation
A Chinese Tang Dynasty image of the Buddha seated in meditation

The fundamental Zen practice of zazen, or seated meditation, recalls both the posture in which the Buddha is said to have achieved enlightenment under the Bodhi tree at Bodh Gaya, and the elements of mindfulness and concentration which are part of the Eightfold Path as taught by the Buddha. All of the Buddha's fundamental teachings—among them the Eightfold Path, the Four Noble Truths, the idea of dependent origination, the five precepts, the five aggregates, and the three marks of existence—also make up important elements of Zen. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1493x2016, 961 KB) From Hebei, Tang Dynasty. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1493x2016, 961 KB) From Hebei, Tang Dynasty. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... Image:StandngBuddha. ... Buddhist meditation encompasses a variety of meditation techniques that develop mindfulness, concentration, tranquility and insight. ... The Bodhi Tree at the Mahabodhi Temple. ... , Bodh Gaya or Bodhgaya(24° 41 60N, 84° 58 60E) is a city in Gaya district in the Indian state of Bihar. ... Mindfulness (Pali: Sati) is a technique in which a person becomes intentionally aware of his or her thoughts and actions in the present moment, non-judgmentally. ... Samadhi (Sanskrit, lit. ... The Noble Eightfold Path, according to Buddhism and as taught by Gautama Buddha, is the way to the cessation of suffering, the fourth part of the Four Noble Truths. ... The Four Noble Truths (Pali: Cattāri ariyasaccāni, Sanskrit: Catvāri āryasatyāni, Chinese: Sìshèngdì, Thai: อริยสัจสี่, Ariyasaj Sii) are one of the most fundamental Buddhist teachings. ... The doctrine of PratÄ«tyasamutpāda (Sanskrit: प्रतित्यसमुत्पादा) or Paticcasamuppāda (Pāli: पतिचसमुपादा; Tibetan: ; Chinese:緣起) Dependent Arising is an important part of Buddhist metaphysics. ... The five precepts (Pali: PañcasÄ«la, Sanskrit: Pañcaśīla Ch: 五戒 wÇ” jiè, Sinhala: පන්සිල්) constitute the basic Buddhist code of ethics, undertaken by lay followers of the Buddha Gautama. ... The skandhas (Sanskrit: Pāli: Khandha; literally: heap or bundle) are the five constituents or aggregates through which the functioning and experience of an individual is created according to Buddhist phenomenology. ... According to the Buddhist tradition, all phenomena (dharmas) are marked by three characteristics, sometimes referred to as the Dharma seals, that is dukkha (suffering), anicca (impermanence), and anatta (non-Self). ...


Additionally, as a school of Mahāyāna Buddhism, Zen draws many of its basic driving concepts, particularly the bodhisattva ideal, from that branch. Uniquely Mahāyāna figures such as Guānyīn, Mañjuśrī, Samantabhadra, and Amitābha are venerated alongside the historical Buddha. Despite Zen's lack of emphasis on textual study, it has drawn heavily on the Mahāyāna sūtras, particularly the Heart of Perfect Wisdom Sūtra, the Sūtra of the Perfection of Wisdom of the Diamond that Cuts through Illusion, the Lankavatara Sūtra, and the "Samantamukha Parivarta" section of the Lotus Sūtra. Lands Bhutan â€¢ China â€¢ Korea Japan â€¢ Tibet â€¢ Vietnam Taiwan â€¢ Mongolia Doctrine Bodhisattva â€¢ Bodhicitta Karuna â€¢ Prajna Sunyata â€¢ Buddha Nature Trikaya â€¢ Eternal Buddha Scriptures Prajnaparamita Sutra Avatamsaka Sutra Lotus Sutra Nirvana Sutra VimalakÄ«rti Sutra Lankavatara Sutra History 4th Buddhist Council Silk Road â€¢ Nagarjuna Asanga â€¢ Vasubandhu Bodhidharma      A statue of a Bodhisattva, Akasagarbha. ... For the Chen Dynasty empress whose Buddhist nun name was Guanyin, see Empress Shen Wuhua. ... Statue of Manjusri (Monju) at Senkoji in Onomichi, Japan MañjuÅ›rÄ« (Ch: 文殊 Wenshu or 文殊師利 Wenshushili; Jp: Monju; Tib: Jampelyang), also written Manjushri, is the bodhisattva of keen awareness in Buddhism. ... Samantabhadra (also Viśvabhadra, 普賢 Chinese: Pǔxián; Japanese: Fugen) is the Lord of the Truth (理) in Buddhism, who represents the practice and meditation of all Buddhas. ... Amitabha Buddha pictured in the Ushiku Daibutsu in Japan Amitābha (Sanskrit: अमिताभः, Amitābhaḥ; Chinese: 阿彌陀佛, Ä’mítuó Fó; Japanese: 阿弥陀如来, Amida Nyorai; Vietnamese: 阿彌陀佛, A Di Ðà Phật; Tibetan: འོད་དཔག་མེད་; Lhasa dialect IPA: [; Mongolian: CaÉ£lasi ügei gerel-tü) is a celestial buddha described in the scriptures of the Mahāyāna school... Mahayana sutras are a very broad genre of Buddhist scriptures that began to be compiled from the first century BCE. They form the basis of the various Mahayana schools, and survive predominantly in primary translations in Chinese and Tibetan from original texts in Sanskrit or Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit. ... The Heart of Perfect Wisdom Sutra or Heart Sutra or Essence of Wisdom Sutra (Sanskrit: प्रज्ञापारमिताहृदयसूत्र Prajñāpāramitā Hridaya SÅ«tra; Chinese: 般若波羅蜜多心經, BōrÄ›bōluómìduō XÄ«njÄ«ng; Japanese: 般若心経, Hannya Shingyō; Korean: Pannya Shimgyŏng) is a well-known Mahāyāna Buddhist sutra that is very... The Chinese Diamond Sutra, the oldest known dated printed book in the world, printed in the 9th year of Xiantong Era of the Tang Dynasty, i. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Lotus Sutra or Sutra on the White Lotus of the Sublime Dharma (Sanskrit: Saddharma PuṇḍarÄ«ka SÅ«tra; 妙法蓮華經 Chinese: MiàofÇŽ Liánhuā JÄ«ng; Japanese: Myōhō Renge Kyō; Korean: Myobeomnyeonhwagyeong) is one of the most popular and influential Mahāyāna sutras in East Asia and...


Zen has also itself produced a rich corpus of written literature which has become a part of its practice and teaching. Among the earliest and most widely studied of the specifically Zen texts, dating back to at least the 9th century CE, is the Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch, sometimes attributed to Huìnéng. Others include the various collections of kōans and the Shōbōgenzō of Dōgen Zenji. As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... The Platform Sutra (more fully, the Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch) is a Buddhist scripture that was composed in China. ... Huineng (慧能, 638 - 713) was a Chinese Chan (Chinese Zen) monastic who is one of the most important figures in the entire tradition. ... A koan (pronounced ) is a story, dialog, question, or statement in the history and lore of Chan (Zen) Buddhism, generally containing aspects that are inaccessible to rational understanding, yet that may be accessible to intuition. ... The Shōbōgenzō (正法眼蔵), lit. ... Dōgen Zenji Dōgen Zenji (道元禅師; also Kigen Dōgen 希玄道元) (19 January 1200–22 September 1253) was a Japanese Zen Buddhist teacher born in Kyōto, and the founder of the Sōtō school of Zen in Japan. ...


Zen training emphasizes daily life practice, along with intensive periods of meditation. Practicing with others is an integral part of Zen practice. In explaining Zen Buddhism, Japanese Zen teachers have made the point that Zen is a "way of life"[citation needed]. D.T. Suzuki wrote that aspects of this life are: a life of humility; a life of labor; a life of service; a life of prayer and gratitude; and a life of meditation.[2] The Chinese Chan master Baizhang (720814 CE) left behind a famous saying which had been the guiding principle of his life, "A day without work is a day without food."[3] Daisetz Teitaro Suzuki (October 18, 1870, Kanazawa, Japan – July 22, 1966; standard transliteration: Suzuki Daisetsu, 鈴木大拙) was a famous author of books and essays on Buddhism, Zen and Shin that were instrumental in spreading interest in both Zen and Shin (and Far Eastern philosophy in general) to the West. ... Baizhang Huaihai (Chinese: 百丈懷海; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Pai-chang Huai-hai; Japanese: Hyakujo Ekai) (720-814) was a Chinese Zen master during the Tang Dynasty. ... Events Umayyad caliph Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz succeeded by Yazid II ibn Abd al-Malik The Nihonshoki (日本書紀), one of the oldest history books in Japan, is completed Births Bertrada, wife of Pippin III (d. ... Events Louis the Pious succeeds Charlemagne as king of the Franks and Emperor. ... “BCE” redirects here. ...


D.T. Suzuki asserted that satori (awakening) has always been the goal of every school of Buddhism, but that which distinguished the Zen tradition as it developed in China, Korea, and Japan was a way of life radically different from that of Indian Buddhists. In India, the tradition of the mendicant (bhikkhu) prevailed, but in China social circumstances led to the development of a temple and training-center system in which the abbot and the monks all performed mundane tasks. These included food gardening or farming, carpentry, architecture, housekeeping, administration, and the practice of folk medicine. Consequently, the enlightenment sought in Zen had to stand up well to the demands and potential frustrations of everyday life.[citation needed] Satori (悟 Japanese satori; Chinese: wù - from the verb Satoru) is a Japanese Buddhist term for enlightenment. ... A Buddhist Monk in Sri Lanka In Pāli, a bhikkhu (male) or bhikkhuni (female) is a fully ordained Buddhist monk. ...


Zazen

Main article: Zazen

Zen sitting meditation, the core of zen practice, is called zazen in Japanese (坐禅; Chinese tso-chan [Wade-Giles] or zuochan [Pinyin]). During zazen, practitioners usually assume a sitting position such as the lotus, half-lotus, Burmese, or seiza postures. Awareness is directed towards one's posture and breathing. Often, a square or round cushion (zafu, 座蒲) placed on a padded mat (zabuton, 座布団) is used to sit on; in some cases, a chair may be used. In Rinzai Zen practitioners typically sit facing the center of the room; while Soto practitioners traditionally sit facing a wall. Kodo Sawaki practicing zazen Zazen (坐禅) is at the heart of Zen Buddhist practice. ... For other senses of this word, see Meditation (disambiguation). ... Kodo Sawaki practicing zazen Zazen (坐禅) is at the heart of Zen Buddhist practice. ... Kodo Sawaki in lotus position practices meditation in Zen The first pictorial representation of the lotus position is seen in the ancient Indian depiction of Shiva as Pashupati, Lord of Beasts, in Harappa The lotus position (Sanskrit: Padmasanam -- lotus posture) is a cross-legged sitting posture which originated in representations... A woman in seiza, on tatami, performing a Japanese tea ceremony Seiza (正座, literally correct sitting) is the traditional formal way of sitting in Japan. ... A zafu or zafubuton (jp. ... Traditional Japanese chair with a zabuton and a separate armrest A zabuton (座布団) is a Japanese cushion for sitting. ... The dry garden at Ryōan-ji, a Rinzai Zen temple in Kyoto. ...


In Soto Zen, shikantaza meditation ("just-sitting", 只管打坐) that is, a meditation with no objects, anchors, or content, is the primary form of practice. The meditator strives to be aware of the stream of thoughts, allowing them to arise and pass away without interference. Considerable textual, philosophical, and phenomenological justification of this practice can be found throughout Dōgen's Shōbōgenzō, as for example in the "Principles of Zazen"[4] and the "Universally Recommended Instructions for Zazen"[5]. Rinzai Zen, instead, emphasizes attention to the breath and koan practice (q.v.). Shikantaza (只管打坐) is literally translated as only focused on doing sitting. More often it is called: just sitting or silent illumination. It is the main meditation technique of the Soto school of Zen Buddhism. ... A koan (pronounced ) is a story, dialog, question, or statement in the history and lore of Chan (Zen) Buddhism, generally containing aspects that are inaccessible to rational understanding, yet that may be accessible to intuition. ...


The amount of time spent daily in zazen by practitioners varies. Dogen recommends that five minutes or more daily is beneficial for householders. The key is daily regularity, as Zen teaches that the ego will naturally resist, and the discipline of regularity is essential. Practicing Zen monks may perform four to six periods of zazen during a normal day, with each period lasting 30 to 40 minutes. Normally, a monastery will hold a monthly retreat period (sesshin), lasting between one and seven days. During this time, zazen is practiced more intensively: monks may spend four to eight hours in meditation each day, sometimes supplemented by further rounds of zazen late at night. Dōgen Zenji Dōgen Zenji (道元禅師; also Kigen Dōgen 希玄道元) (19 January 1200–22 September 1253) was a Japanese Zen Buddhist teacher born in Kyōto, and the founder of the Sōtō school of Zen in Japan. ... In canonical Buddhism, householder refers to a particular strata of society whose individuals are typified by having a home life and family. ... A sesshin (攝心) is a period of intensive meditation (zazen) in a Zen monastery. ...

This Japanese scroll calligraphy of Bodhidharma reads “Zen points directly to the human heart, see into your nature and become Buddha”. It was created by Hakuin Ekaku (1685-1768)
This Japanese scroll calligraphy of Bodhidharma reads “Zen points directly to the human heart, see into your nature and become Buddha”. It was created by Hakuin Ekaku (1685-1768)

Meditation as a practice can be applied to any posture. Walking meditation is called kinhin. Successive periods of zazen are usually interwoven with brief periods of walking meditation to relieve the legs. This Japanese scroll calligraphy of Bodhidharma reads “Zen points directly to the human heart, see into your nature and become Buddha”. It was created by Hakuin Ekaku (1685 to 1768) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United... This Japanese scroll calligraphy of Bodhidharma reads “Zen points directly to the human heart, see into your nature and become Buddha”. It was created by Hakuin Ekaku (1685 to 1768) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United... Bodhidharma (early 6th century CE) was the Buddhist monk traditionally credited as founder of Zen. ... Media:Example. ... Hakuin Ekaku (白隠 慧鶴 Hakuin Ekaku, 1686-1769) was undoubtedly one of the most influential figures in Japanese Zen Buddhism. ... Events February 6 - James Stuart, Duke of York becomes King James II of England and Ireland and King James VII of Scotland. ... 1768 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... kinhin 經行 (jap. ...


The teacher

Because the Zen tradition emphasizes direct communication over scriptural study, the Zen teacher has traditionally played a central role. Generally speaking, a Zen teacher is a person ordained in any tradition of Zen to teach the dharma, guide students of meditation, and perform rituals. An important concept for all Zen sects is the notion of Dharma transmission the claim of a line of authority that goes back to Śākyamuni Buddha via the teachings of each successive master to each successive student. This concept relates to the ideas expressed in a description of Zen attributed to Bodhidharma: Dharma transmission (Chinese: 傳法, ChuánfÇŽ or 印可, InkÄ›, Korean and Japanese: Inka) is the formal confirmation by a master of Zen or Chan Buddhism of a students awakening. ...

A special transmission outside the scriptures; (教外別傳)
No dependence upon words and letters; (不立文字)
Direct pointing to the human mind; (直指人心)
Seeing into one's own nature and attaining Buddhahood. (見性成佛)[6]

The idea of a line of descent from Śākyamuni Buddha is a distinctive institution of Zen which Suzuki (1949:168) contends was invented by hagiographers to grant Zen legitimacy and prestige. For other uses, see Zen (disambiguation). ...


John McRae’s study “Seeing Through Zen” explores this assertion of lineage as a distinctive and central aspect of Zen Buddhism. He writes of this “genealogical” approach so central to Zen’s self-understanding, that while not without precedent, has unique features. It is “relational (involving interaction between individuals rather than being based solely on individual effort), generational (in that it is organized according to parent-child, or rather teacher-student, generations) and reiterative (i.e., intended for emulation and repetition in the lives of present and future teachers and students.”


McRae offers a detailed criticism of lineage, but he also notes it is central to Zen. So much so that it is hard to envision any claim to Zen that discards claims of lineage. Therefore, for example, in Japanese Soto, lineage charts become a central part of the Sanmatsu, the documents of Dharma transmission. And it is common for daily chanting in Zen temples and monasteries to include the lineage of the school.


In Japan during the Tokugawa period (1600–1868), some came to question the lineage system and its legitimacy. The Zen master Dokuan Genko (1630–1698), for example, openly questioned the necessity of written acknowledgment from a teacher, which he dismissed as "paper Zen." Quite a number of teachers in Japan during the Tokugawa period did not adhere to the lineage system; these were termed mushi dokugo (無師獨悟, "independently enlightened without a teacher") or jigo jisho (自悟自証, "self-enlightened and self-certified"). Modern Zen Buddhists also consider questions about the dynamics of the lineage system, inspired in part by academic research into the history of Zen. History of Japan Paleolithic Jomon Yayoi Yamato period ---Kofun period ---Asuka period Nara period Heian period Kamakura period Muromachi period Azuchi-Momoyama period ---Nanban period Edo period Meiji period Taisho period Showa period ---Japanese expansionism ---Occupied Japan ---Post-Occupation Japan Heisei The Edo period (江戸時代) is a...


Honorific titles associated with teachers typically include, in Chinese, Fashi (法師) or Chanshi (禪師); in Korean, Sunim (an honorofic for a monk or nun) and Seon Sa (선사); in Japanese, Osho (和尚), Roshi (老師), or Sensei (先生); and in Vietnamese, Thầy. Note that many of these titles are not specific to Zen but are used generally for Buddhist priests; some, such as sensei are not even specific to Buddhism. Roshi (老師) is a Japanese word, common in Zen Buddhism, meaning old (ro) and teacher (shi). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The English term Zen master is often used to refer to important teachers, especially ancient and medieval ones. However, there is no specific criterion by which one may be called a Zen master. The term is less common in reference to modern teachers. In the Open Mind Zen School, English terms have been substituted for the Japanese ones to avoid confusion of this issue. "Assistant Zen Teacher" is a person authorized to begin to teach, but still under the supervision of his teacher. "Zen Teacher" applies to one authorized to teach without further direction, and "Zen Master" refers to one who is a Zen Teacher and has founded his or her own teaching center.


Koan practice

Main article: koan
Chinese character for "no thing." Chinese: wú (Korean/Japanese: mu). It figures in the famous Zhaozhou's dog koan
Chinese character for "no thing." Chinese: (Korean/Japanese: mu). It figures in the famous Zhaozhou's dog koan

Zen Buddhists of the Rinzai school practice meditation on koans during zazen. A koan (literally "public case") is a story or dialogue, generally related to Zen or other Buddhist history; the most typical form is an anecdote involving early Chinese Zen masters. Koan practice is particularly emphasized by the Japanese Rinzai school, but it also occurs in other forms of Zen. A koan (pronounced ) is a story, dialog, question, or statement in the history and lore of Chan (Zen) Buddhism, generally containing aspects that are inaccessible to rational understanding, yet that may be accessible to intuition. ... Image File history File links Wu_(negative). ... Image File history File links Wu_(negative). ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quoc Ngu: Han Tu: A Chinese character or Han character (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, sometimes Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ... The character ç„¡ in cursive script. ... A koan (pronounced ) is a story, dialog, question, or statement in the history and lore of Chan (Zen) Buddhism, generally containing aspects that are inaccessible to rational understanding, yet that may be accessible to intuition. ... There is a disputed proposal that this article should be merged with Rinzai and Linji. ... A koan (pronounced ) is a story, dialog, question, or statement in the history and lore of Chan (Zen) Buddhism, generally containing aspects that are inaccessible to rational understanding, yet that may be accessible to intuition. ...


These anecdotes involving famous Zen teachers are a practical demonstration of their wisdom, and can be used to test a student's progress in Zen practice. Koans often appear paradoxical or linguistically meaningless dialogues or questions. Answering a koan requires a student to let go of conceptual thinking and of the logical way we order the world. Look up paradox in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The Zen student's mastery of a given koan is presented to the teacher in a private interview, referred to as dokusan (独参), daisan (代参), or sanzen (参禅). Zen teachers advise that the problem posed by a koan is to be taken quite seriously, and to be approached as literally a matter of life and death. While there is no unique answer to a koan, practitioners are expected to demonstrate their understanding of the koan and of Zen through their responses. The teacher may approve or disapprove of the answer and guide the student in the right direction. There are also various commentaries on koans, written by experienced teachers, that can serve as a guide. These commentaries are also of great value to modern scholarship on the subject. Contents: Top - A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Several Buddhist terms and concepts lack direct translations into English that cover the breadth of the original term. ...


Chanting and liturgy

A practice in many Zen monasteries and centers is a daily liturgy service. Practitioners chant major sutras such as the Heart Sutra, the Avalokiteshvara Sutra, the Song of the Jewel Mirror Awareness, the Great Compassionate Heart Dharani (Daihishin Dharani)[7], and other minor mantras. The Heart of Perfect Wisdom Sutra or Heart Sutra or Essence of Wisdom Sutra (Sanskrit: प्रज्ञापारमिताहृदयसूत्र Prajñāpāramitā Hridaya Sūtra; Chinese: 般若波羅蜜多心經, Bōrěbōluómìduō Xīnjīng; Japanese: 般若心経, Hannya Shingyō; Korean: Pannya Shimgyŏng) is a well-known Mahāyāna Buddhist sutra that is very... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


The Butsudan is the altar in a monastery where offerings are made to the images of the Buddha or Bodhisattvas. The same term is also used in Japanese homes for the altar where one prays to and communicates with deceased family members. As such, reciting liturgy in Zen can be seen as a means to connect with the Bodhisattvas of the past. Liturgy is often used during funerals, memorials, and other special events as means to invoke the aid of supernatural powers. A butsudan A butsudan (仏壇) is a shrine found in religious temples and homes of Japanese and other Buddhist cultures. ... Prince Siddhartha Gautama as a bodhisattva, before becoming a Buddha. ...


Chanting usually centers on major Bodhisattvas like Avalokiteshvara (Japanese: Kannon or Kanzeon) and Manjusri (Japanese: Monju). These celestial beings have taken extraordinary vows to liberate all beings from Samsara (the cycle of birth, death, and rebirth), while remaining in Samsara themselves. Since the Zen practitioner’s aim is to walk the Bodhisattva path, chanting can be used as a means to connect with these beings and realize this ideal within oneself. By repeatedly chanting the Avalokiteshvara sutra (観世音菩薩普門品 Kanzeon Bosatsu Fumonbon?), for example, one instills the Bodhisattva's ideals into ones mind. The ultimate goal is given in the end of the sutra, which states, "In the morning, be one with Avalokiteshvara, In the evening, be one with Avalokiteshvara,"[8], Through the realization of the Emptiness of oneself, and the Mahayanist ideal of Buddha-nature in all things, one understands that there is no difference between the cosmic bodhisattva and oneself. The wisdom and compassion of the Boddhisattva one is chanting to is seen to equal the inner wisdom and compassion of the practitioner. Thus, the duality between subject and object, practitioner and Bodhisattva, chanter and sutra is ended. In Mahayana Buddhism, Avalokitesvara or Avalokiteshvara is a bodhisattva who embodies the compassion of all Buddhas. ... Śūnyatā, शून्यता (Sanskrit), Suññatā (Pāli), stong pa nyid (Tibetan), Kuu, 空 (Japanese) qoÉ£usun (Mongolian), generally translated into English as Emptiness or Voidness, is a concept of central importance in the teaching of the Buddha, as a direct realization of Sunyata is required to achieve liberation from the cycle of... Buddha-nature (originally in Sanskrit, Buddha-dhatu - Buddha Element, Buddha-Principle) is a doctrine important for many schools of Mahayana Buddhism. ... Lands Bhutan â€¢ China â€¢ Korea Japan â€¢ Tibet â€¢ Vietnam Taiwan â€¢ Mongolia Doctrine Bodhisattva â€¢ Bodhicitta Karuna â€¢ Prajna Sunyata â€¢ Buddha Nature Trikaya â€¢ Eternal Buddha Scriptures Prajnaparamita Sutra Avatamsaka Sutra Lotus Sutra Nirvana Sutra VimalakÄ«rti Sutra Lankavatara Sutra History 4th Buddhist Council Silk Road â€¢ Nagarjuna Asanga â€¢ Vasubandhu Bodhidharma      A statue of a Bodhisattva, Akasagarbha. ...


One modern day Roshi justifies the use of chanting sutras by referring to zen master Dogen.[9], Dogen is known to have refuted the statement "Painted rice cakes will not satisfy hunger". This means that sutras, which are just symbols like painted rice cakes, cannot truly satisfy one's spiritual hunger. Dogen, however, saw that there is no separation between metaphor and reality. "There is no difference between paintings, rice cakes, or any thing at all" [10]. The symbol and the symbolized were inherently the same, and thus only the sutras could truly satisfy one's spiritual needs. Dōgen Zenji Dōgen Zenji (道元禅師; also Kigen Dōgen 希玄道元) (19 January 1200–22 September 1253) was a Japanese Zen Buddhist teacher born in Kyōto, and the founder of the Sōtō school of Zen in Japan. ...


To understand this non-dual relationship experientially, one is told to practice liturgy Intimately [11]. In distinguishing between ceremony and liturgy, Dogen states, "In ceremony there are forms and there are sounds, there is understanding and there is believing. In liturgy there is only intimacy." The practitioner is instructed to listen to and speak liturgy not just with one sense, but with one's "whole body-and-mind". By listening with one's entire being, one eliminates the space between the self and the liturgy. Thus, Dogen's instructions are to "listen with the eye and see with the ear". By focusing all of one's being on one specific practice, duality is transcended. Dogen says, "Let go of the eye, and the whole body-and-mind are nothing but the eye; let go of the ear, and the whole universe is nothing but the ear." Chanting intimately thus allows one to experience a non-dual reality. The liturgy used is a tool to allow the practitioner to transcend the old conceptions of self and other. In this way, intimate liturgy practice allows one to realize Sunyata, or emptiness, which is at the heart of Buddhist teachings. Dōgen Zenji Dōgen Zenji (道元禅師; also Kigen Dōgen 希玄道元) (19 January 1200–22 September 1253) was a Japanese Zen Buddhist teacher born in Kyōto, and the founder of the Sōtō school of Zen in Japan. ... Śūnyatā, शून्यता (Sanskrit, Pali: suññatā), or Emptiness, is a term for a concept or set of concepts playing an important role in some versions of the Buddhist metaphysical critique, but also having important implications for Buddhist epistemology and phenomenology. ... For other uses, see Emptiness (disambiguation). ...


Other techniques

There are other techniques common in the Zen tradition which seem unconventional and whose purpose is said to be to shock a student in order to help him or her let go of habitual activities of the mind. Some of these are common today, while others are found mostly in anecdotes. These include the loud belly shout known as katsu. It is common in many Zen traditions today for Zen teachers to have a stick with them during formal ceremonies which is a symbol of authority and which can be also used to strike on the table during a talk. Katsu (Japanese: 喝; Cantonese:  , Pinyin: hè, Wade-Giles: ho) is a type of shout that is used in Chán and Zen Buddhism to give expression to ones own enlightened state (Japanese: satori) and/or to induce another person to move beyond rationality and logic and, potentially, achieve an initial...


Mythology

Within Zen, and thus from an emic perspective, the origins of Zen Buddhism are ascribed to what is called the Flower Sermon, in which Śākyamuni Buddha is supposed to have passed on special insight to the disciple Mahākāśyapa. The sermon itself was a wordless one in which Śākyamuni merely held up a flower before the assembled disciples, among whom there was no reaction apart from Mahākāśyapa, who smiled. The smile is said to have signified Mahākāśyapa's understanding, and Śākyamuni acknowledged this by saying: Emic and etic (also known as nemic and netic when used in an inter-cultural marketing context) are terms used by some in the social sciences and the behavioral sciences to refer to two different kinds of data concerning human behavior. ... This article is about Maha Kashyapa, a disciple of Shakyamuni Buddha. ...

I possess the true Dharma eye, the marvelous mind of Nirvana, the true form of the formless, the subtle dharma gate that does not rest on words or letters but is a special transmission outside of the scriptures. This I entrust to Mahākāśyapa.[12]

Thus, a way within Buddhism developed which concentrated on direct experience rather than on rational creeds or revealed scriptures. Zen is a method of meditative religion which seeks to enlighten people in the manner that the Mahākāśyapa experienced.[13]


In the Song of Enlightenment (證道歌 Zhèngdào gē) of Yǒngjiā Xuánjué (665-713)[14]—one of the chief disciples of Huìnéng, the 6th patriarch of Chan Buddhism—it is written that Bodhidharma was the 28th patriarch in a line of descent from Mahākāśyapa, a disciple of Śākyamuni Buddha, and the first patriarch of Chan Buddhism: Huineng (慧能, 638 - 713) was a Chinese Chan (Chinese Zen) monastic who is one of the most important figures in the entire tradition. ... Image:StandngBuddha. ...

Mahākāśyapa was the first, leading the line of transmission;
Twenty-eight Fathers followed him in the West;
The Lamp was then brought over the sea to this country;
And Bodhidharma became the First Father here:
His mantle, as we all know, passed over six Fathers,
And by them many minds came to see the Light.[15]

The idea of a line of descent from Śākyamuni Buddha is a distinctive institution of Zen which Suzuki (1949:168) contends was invented by hagiographers to grant Zen legitimacy and prestige. The earliest source for the legend of the "Flower sermon" is from 11th century China.[16]. For other uses, see Zen (disambiguation). ...

Early history

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Buddhism
A silhouette of a Buddha statue at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ...



Image File history File links Lotus-buddha. ...

History of Buddhism
The History of Buddhism spans from the 6th century BCE to the present, starting with the birth of the Buddha Siddhartha Gautama. ...

Timeline of Buddhism
Buddhist councils
563 BCE: Siddhārtha Gautama, Buddha-to-be, is born in Lumbini, Ancient India. ... // Main article: First Buddhist council Ananda reciting the Sutta Pitaka According to the scriptures of all Buddhist schools, the first Buddhist Council was held soon after the nirvana of the Buddha under the patronage of king Ajatasatru, and presided by the monk Mahakasyapa, at Rajagaha (todays Rajgir). ...

Foundations
Several Buddhist terms and concepts lack direct translations into English that cover the breadth of the original term. ...

Four Noble Truths
Noble Eightfold Path
Buddhist Precepts
Nirvāṇa · Three Jewels
The Four Noble Truths (Pali: Cattāri ariyasaccāni, Sanskrit: Catvāri āryasatyāni, Chinese: Sìshèngdì, Thai: อริยสัจสี่, Ariyasaj Sii) are one of the most fundamental Buddhist teachings. ... The Dharma wheel, often used to represent the Noble Eightfold Path The Noble Eightfold Path (Pāli: Ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo; Sanskrit: Ārya ṣṭāṅga mārgaḥ; Chinese: 八正道, Bāzhèngdào; Japanese: 八正道, Hasshōdō, Thai: อริยมรรคแปด, Ariya Mugg Paad, Mongolian qutuɣtan-u naiman gesigün-ü mör) is, in... Śīla (Sanskrit) or sīla (Pāli) is usually rendered into English as behavioral discipline, morality, or ethics. ... This article is about the Buddhist concept. ... Symbol of the triratna, as seen in the Sanchi stupa, 1st century BCE. The Three Jewels, also rendered as Three Treasures, Three Refuges or Triple Gem are the three things that Buddhists give themselves to, and in return look toward for guidance, in the process known as taking refuge. ...

Key Concepts
Several Buddhist terms and concepts lack direct translations into English that cover the breadth of the original term. ...

Three marks of existence
Skandha · Cosmology
Saṃsāra · Rebirth · Dharma
Dependent Origination · Karma
According to the Buddhist tradition, all phenomena (dharmas) are marked by three characteristics, sometimes referred to as the Dharma seals, that is dukkha (suffering), anicca (impermanence), and anatta (non-Self). ... The skandhas (Sanskrit: Pāli: Khandha; literally: heap or bundle) are the five constituents or aggregates through which the functioning and experience of an individual is created according to Buddhist phenomenology. ... Buddhist cosmology is the description of the shape and evolution of the universe according to the canonical Buddhist scriptures and commentaries. ... Saṃsāra, the Sanskrit and Pāli term for continous movement or continuous flowing refers in Buddhism to the concept of a cycle of birth (jāti) and consequent decay and death (jarāmaraṇa), in which all beings in the universe participate and which can only be escaped... Rebirth in Buddhism is the doctrine that the consciousness of a person (as conventionally regarded), upon the death or dissolution of the aggregates (skandhas) which make up that person, becomes one of the contributing causes for the arising of a new group of skandhas which may again be conventionally considered... Dharma (Sanskrit: धर्म) or Dhamma (Pāli: धम्म) in Buddhism has two primary meanings: the teachings of the Buddha which lead to enlightenment the constituent factors of the experienced world In East Asia, the character for Dharma is 法, pronounced fǎ in Mandarin and hō in Japanese. ... The doctrine of Pratītyasamutpāda (Sanskrit: प्रतित्यसमुत्पादा) or Paticcasamuppāda (Pāli: पतिचसमुपादा; Tibetan: ; Chinese:緣起) Dependent Arising is an important part of Buddhist metaphysics. ... Karma (Sanskrit: कर्मन karman, Pāli: कमा Kamma) means action or doing; whatever one does, says, or thinks is a karma. ...

Major Figures
A number of noted individuals have been Buddhists. ...

Gautama Buddha
Disciples · Later Buddhists Image:StandngBuddha. ... A number of noted individuals have been Buddhists. ...

Practices and Attainment

Buddhahood · Bodhisattva
Four Stages of Enlightenment
Paramitas · Meditation · Laity
Media:Example. ... Lands Bhutan â€¢ China â€¢ Korea Japan â€¢ Tibet â€¢ Vietnam Taiwan â€¢ Mongolia Doctrine Bodhisattva â€¢ Bodhicitta Karuna â€¢ Prajna Sunyata â€¢ Buddha Nature Trikaya â€¢ Eternal Buddha Scriptures Prajnaparamita Sutra Avatamsaka Sutra Lotus Sutra Nirvana Sutra VimalakÄ«rti Sutra Lankavatara Sutra History 4th Buddhist Council Silk Road â€¢ Nagarjuna Asanga â€¢ Vasubandhu Bodhidharma      A statue of a Bodhisattva, Akasagarbha. ... The four stages of enlightenment in Buddhism are the four degrees of approach to full enlightenment as an Arahant which a person can attain in this life. ... Pāramitā or PāramÄ« (Sanskrit and Pāli respectively): Perfection or Transcendent. In Buddhism & Jainism, the Paramitas refer to the perfection or culmination of certain practices. ... Buddhist meditation encompasses a variety of meditation techniques that develop mindfulness, concentration, tranquility and insight. ... In canonical Buddhism, householder refers to a particular strata of society whose individuals are typified by having a home life and family. ...

Regions
Buddhist beliefs and practices vary according to region. ...

Southeast Asia · East Asia
India · Sri Lanka · Tibet
Bhutan · Western Countries
Theravada (Pali; Sanskrit: Sthaviravada) is one of the eighteen (or twenty) Nikāya schools that formed early in the history of Buddhism. ... The Aomori Daibutsu (Big Buddha), Aomori, Japan. ... Tibetan Buddhism is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, the Himalayan region (including northern Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim and Ladakh), Mongolia, Buryatia, Tuva and Kalmykia (Russia), and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ... The Indo-Greek king Menander (155-130 BCE) is the first Western historical figure documented to have converted to Buddhism. ...

Branches

Theravāda · Mahāyāna
Vajrayāna · Early schools
Pre-sectarian Buddhism Theravada (Pāli: theravāda; Sanskrit: स्थविरवाद sthaviravāda; literally, the Way of the Elders) is the oldest surviving Buddhist school, and for many centuries has been the predominant religion of Sri Lanka (about 70% of the population[1]) and most of continental Southeast Asia (Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand). ... Relief image of the bodhisattva Kuan Yin from Mt. ... A mandala used in Vajrayana Buddhist practices. ... Divisions among the early Buddhist schools came about due to doctrinal or practical differences in the views of the Buddhist Sangha following the death of the Buddha. ... The term pre-sectarian Buddhism is used to refer to the Buddhism that existed before the various subsects of Buddhism came into being. ...

Texts
There are a great variety of Buddhist texts. ...

Pali Canon · Mahayana Sutras
Tibetan Canon Standard edition of the Thai Pali Canon The Pali Canon is the standard scripture collection of the Theravada Buddhist tradition. ... Mahayana sutras are a very broad genre of Buddhist scriptures that began to be compiled from the first century BCE. They form the basis of the various Mahayana schools, and survive predominantly in primary translations in Chinese and Tibetan from original texts in Sanskrit or Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit. ... The Tibetan Buddhist canon is a loosely defined list of sacred texts recognized by various sects of Tibetan Buddhism. ...

Comparative Studies
Culture · List of topics
Portal: Buddhism
The cultural elements of Buddhism vary by region and include: Buddhist cuisine Buddhist art Buddharupa Art and architecture of Japan Greco-Buddhism Tibetan Buddhist sacred art Buddhist music Buddhist chant Shomyo Categories: Buddhism-related stubs ... Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z The following is a List of Buddhist topics: A Abhidharma Ahimsa Ajahn Ajahn Chah Ajanta Aksobhya Alexandra David-Néel...

Image File history File links Dharma_wheel. ...

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Japanese
Buddhism
Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1536x2048, 1304 KB) For camera information and shooting conditions see the EXIF info fields, contained in the file. ... The Buddha in Kamakura (1252). ...

Schools

Tendai • Shingon
Pure Land • Zen
Nichiren

Founders
Tendai (Japanese: 天台宗, Tendai-shÅ«) is a Japanese school of Mahayana Buddhism, a descendant of the Chinese Tiantai or Lotus Sutra school. ... Shingon (真言宗) is a major school of Japanese Buddhism, and the most important school of Vajrayana Buddhism outside of the Himalayan region. ... The Buddha Amitabha, 13th century, Kamakura, Japan. ... Nichiren Buddhism (日蓮系諸宗派: Nichiren-kei sho shÅ«ha) is a branch of Buddhism based on the teachings of the 13th century Japanese monk Nichiren (1222–1282). ...

Saichō • Kūkai
Hōnen • Shinran
Dōgen • Eisai • Ingen
Nichiren

Sacred Texts
This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Painting of KÅ«kai (774-835). ... Hōnen (also Hōnen Bo Genku, or just Genku) (法然; 1133-1212) is the founder of the first independent branch of Japanese Pure Land Buddhism known as Jodo Shu. ... Shinran Shonin (親鸞聖人) (1173-1263) was a pupil of Honen and the founder of the Jodo Shinshu (or True Pure Land) sect in Japan. ... Dōgen Zenji Dōgen Zenji (道元禅師; also Kigen Dōgen 希玄道元) (19 January 1200–22 September 1253) was a Japanese Zen Buddhist teacher born in Kyōto, and the founder of the Sōtō school of Zen in Japan. ... Myōan Eisai, founder of the Rinzai School of Zen, 12th century. ... InGen (International Genetic Technologies) is a fictional genetic engineering company appearing in the Jurassic Park series of novels and films. ... Nichiren (日蓮) (February 16, 1222 – October 13, 1282), born Zennichimaro (善日麿), later Zeshō-bō Renchō (是生房蓮長), and finally Nichiren (日蓮), was a Buddhist monk of 13th century Japan. ...

Avatamsaka Sutra
Lotus Sutra
Prajnaparamita
Heart Sutra
Infinite Life Sutra
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See also: Silk Road transmission of Buddhism

Zen developed as an amalgam of Mahāyāna Buddhism and Taoism.[17] Dumoulin (2005) argues that Zen also has roots in yogic practices, specifically kammaṭṭhāna, the consideration of objects, and kasiṇa, total fixation of the mind. The Avataṃsaka SÅ«tra (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is one of the most influential scriptures in East Asian Buddhism. ... The Lotus Sutra or Sutra on the White Lotus of the Sublime Dharma (Sanskrit: Saddharma PuṇḍarÄ«ka SÅ«tra; 妙法蓮華經 Chinese: MiàofÇŽ Liánhuā JÄ«ng; Japanese: Myōhō Renge Kyō; Korean: Myobeomnyeonhwagyeong) is one of the most popular and influential Mahāyāna sutras in East Asia and... Perfection of Wisdom is a translation of the Sanskrit term prajñā pāramitā (Hanzi. ... The Heart of Perfect Wisdom Sutra or Heart Sutra or Essence of Wisdom Sutra (Sanskrit: प्रज्ञापारमिताहृदयसूत्र Prajñāpāramitā Hridaya SÅ«tra; Chinese: 般若波羅蜜多心經, BōrÄ›bōluómìduō XÄ«njÄ«ng; Japanese: 般若心経, Hannya Shingyō; Korean: Pannya Shimgyŏng) is a well-known Mahāyāna Buddhist sutra that is very... The Infinite Life Sutra, or Larger Pure Land Sutra, is a Mahayana Buddhist text associated with Pure Land Buddhism. ... Blue-eyed Central Asian and East-Asian Buddhist monks, Bezaklik, Eastern Tarim Basin, 9th-10th century. ... For other uses, see Zen (disambiguation). ... Hatha Yoga posture Yôga, meaning union or yoking in Sanskrit, is the primary focus of Hinduisms diverse darshans or points of view. Yôga is a science of the body, the mind, the consciousness and the soul. ...


The entry of Buddhism into China was marked by interaction and syncretism with Taoic faiths, Taoism in particular.[18] Buddhism's scriptures were translated into Chinese with Taoist vocabulary, because it was originally seen as a kind of foreign Taoism.[19] In the Tang period Taoism incorporated such Buddhist elements as monasteries, vegetarianism, prohibition of alcohol, the doctrine of emptiness, and collecting scripture into tripartite organisation. During the same time, Chan Buddhism grew to become the largest sect in Chinese Buddhism.[20] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Tang Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (18 June 618 – 4 June 907), lasting about three centuries, preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by the Song Dynasty and the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period in China. ...


The establishment of Zen is traditionally credited to the monk Bodhidharma (ca 500 CE), who is recorded as having come to China to teach a "special transmission outside scriptures" which "did not rely upon words". Bodhidharma settled in the kingdom of Wei where he took as disciples Daoyu and Huike. Shortly before his death, Bodhidharma appointed Huike to succeed him, making Huike the first Chinese patriarch and the second patriarch of Zen in China. The transmission then passed to the second patriarch (Huike), the third (Sengcan), the fourth patriarch (Dao Xin) and the fifth patriarch (Hongren). The sixth and last patriarch, Huineng (638–713), was one of the giants of Zen history, and all surviving schools regard him as their ancestor. However, the dramatic story of Huineng's life tells that there was a controversy over his claim to the title of patriarch: after being chosen by Hongren, the fifth patriarch, he had to flee by night to Nanhua Temple in the south to avoid the wrath of Hongren's jealous senior disciples. In the middle of the 8th century, monks claiming to be the successors to Huineng, calling themselves the Southern school, cast themselves in opposition to those claiming to succeed Hongren's student Shenxiu (神秀). It is commonly held that at this point—the debates between these rival factions—that Zen enters the realm of fully documented history. The Southern school eventually became predominant and their rivals died out. Modern scholarship, however, has questioned this narrative. Northern Wei Buddha Maitreya, 443 AD. A Buddhist stela from the Northern Wei period, build in the early 6th century. ... According the traditions of Zen Buddhism, Huike (慧可) was the second patriarch of the Chan (Chinese Zen). ... According the traditions of Zen Buddhism, Huike (慧可) was the second patriarch of the Chan (Chinese Zen). ... Sengcan (僧璨; Wade-Giles Seng-Tsan Japanese: Sosan; ?-606) was the Thirteeth Patriarch of Chan (Zen), or, as is more usually said, the Third Chinese Patriarch. ... Dao Xin (Chinese: 道信, Wade-Giles Tao-hsin) (580 - 651) was the fourth Zen Buddhist Patriarch. ... Hongren (Hong Reng, Chinese: 弘忍) (601 - 674) was the 5th Zen (Buddhist) Patriarch. ... Huineng (慧能, 638 - 713) was a Chinese Chan (Chinese Zen) monastic who is one of the most important figures in the entire tradition. ... Hongren (Hong Reng, Chinese: 弘忍) (601 - 674) was the 5th Zen (Buddhist) Patriarch. ... Nanhua Temple is the Zen Buddhist monastery of the 6th Patriarch of Zen Buddhism Hui Neng, located near the city of Shaoguan in China just north of Guangdong Province. ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... Shenxiu Shenxiu (神秀) (606?-706) (Wade-Giles: Shen-hsiu; Japanese: JinshÅ«) was one of the most influential Chan Buddhist masters of his day, a patriarch[1] of the so-called “Northern School” of Chan, Dharma-heir of Hongren(弘忍)(601 - 674) (Wade Giles: Shih Hung-jen; Japanese: Gunin), honored by Empress Wu...


The following are the six Patriarchs of Zen (Chan) in China as listed in traditional sources:

  1. Bodhidharma (達摩, Chinese: Damo, Japanese: Daruma) about 440 - about 528
  2. Huike (慧可, Japanese: Eka) 487 - 593
  3. Sengcan (僧燦, Japanese: Sōsan) ? - 606
  4. Daoxin (道信, Japanese: Dōshin) 580 - 651
  5. Hongren (弘忍, Japanese: Kōnin) 601 - 674
  6. Huineng (慧能, Japanese: Enō) 638 - 713

Bodhidharma (early 6th century CE) was the Buddhist monk traditionally credited as founder of Zen. ... Events September 29 - Leo succeeds Sixtus as Pope. ... Events February 13 - Justinian appoints a commission (including the jurist Tribonian) to codify all imperial laws that were still in force from Hadrian to the current date. ... According the traditions of Zen Buddhism, Huike (慧可) was the second patriarch of the Chan (Chinese Zen). ... Events Births Deaths April 17 - Proclus, Neoplatonic philosopher Syagrius, King of the Romans in Soissons See also Intel 80487 Categories: 487 ... Aethelfrith succeeds Hussa as king of Bernicia (traditional date). ... Sengcan (僧璨; Wade-Giles Seng-Tsan Japanese: Sosan; ?-606) was the Thirteeth Patriarch of Chan (Zen), or, as is more usually said, the Third Chinese Patriarch. ... Events Shashanka is the first recorded independent king of Bengal (approximate date). ... Dao Xin (Chinese: 道信, Wade-Giles Tao-hsin) (580 - 651) was the fourth Zen Buddhist Patriarch. ... Ethelbert becomes king of Kent. ... Events End of Yazdegard IIIs attempts to drive out the Saracens. ... Hongren (Hong Reng, Chinese: 弘忍) (601 - 674) was the 5th Zen (Buddhist) Patriarch. ... Events The future Archbishops of Canterbury, Mellitus, Justus, and Honorius, and the future Archbishop of York Paulinus, are sent to England by Pope Gregory I to aid Augustine in his missionary work. ... Events Dagobert II and Theuderic I succeed Childeric II as king(s) of the Franks First glass windows placed in English Churches Arabic siege of Constantinople begins Cenfus and then Aescwine succeed to the throne of Wessex Births Deaths Wulfhere, king of Mercia Seaxburh, queen of Japan - Temmu Emperor of... Huineng (慧能, 638 - 713) was a Chinese Chan (Chinese Zen) monastic who is one of the most important figures in the entire tradition. ... Events Islamic calendar introduced The Muslims capture Antioch, Caesarea Palaestina and Akko Births Deaths October 12 - Pope Honorius I Categories: 638 ... Events Byzantine Emperor Philippicus deposed. ...

Zen (Chan) in China

See also: Buddhism in China

In the following centuries, Chan grew to become the largest sect in Chinese Buddhism and, despite its "transmission beyond the scriptures", produced the largest body of literature in Chinese history of any sect or tradition. The teachers claiming Huineng's posterity began to branch off into numerous different schools, each with their own special emphasis, but all of which kept the same basic focus on meditational practice, personal instruction and personal experience. Shakyamuni Buddha teaching. ... Seated Buddha, from the Chinese Tang Dynasty, Hebei province, ca. ...


During the late Tang and the Song periods, the tradition continued, as a wide number of eminent teachers, such as Mazu (Wade-Giles: Ma-tsu; Japanese: Baso), Shitou (Shih-t'ou; Japanese: Sekito), Baizhang (Pai-chang; Japanese: Hyakujo), Huangbo (Huang-po; Jap.: Obaku), Linji (Lin-chi; Jap.: Rinzai), and Yunmen (Jap.: Ummon) developed specialized teaching methods, which would variously become characteristic of the five houses (五家) of Chan. The traditional five houses were Caodong (曹洞宗), Linji (臨濟宗), Guiyang (潙仰宗), Fayan (法眼宗), and Yunmen (雲門宗). This list does not include earlier schools such as the Hongzhou (洪州宗) of Mazu. For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... Mazu Daoyi (Chn: 馬祖道一) (709 CE–788 CE) (WG: Ma-tsu Tao-yi) was a master of the Chinese Chan Buddhist lineage and a student of the sixth Chan Patriach, Hui-neng. ... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... Baizhang Huaihai (Chinese: 百丈懷海; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Pai-chang Huai-hai; Japanese: Hyakujo Ekai) (720-814) was a Chinese Zen master during the Tang Dynasty. ... Huangbo Xiyun (Simplified Chinese: 黄檗希运; Traditional Chinese: 黄檗希運; Hanyu Pinyin: Huángbò XÄ«yùn; Wade-Giles: Huang-po Hsi-yün) (died 850) was an influential Chinese master of Chan Buddhism. ... Not to be confused with the Javanese language. ... Japanese painting of Linji Yixuan (Jap. ... Not to be confused with the Javanese language. ... The Zen Master Ummon. ... Not to be confused with the Javanese language. ... Caodong (Chinese 曹洞宗) is a Chinese Zen Buddhist sect founded by Dongshan Liangjie and his Dharma_heirs in the 9th century. ...


Over the course of Song Dynasty (9601279), the Guiyang, Fayan, and Yunmen schools were gradually absorbed into the Linji. During the same period, the various developments of Chan teaching methods crystallized into the gong-an (koan) practice which is unique to this school of Buddhism. According to Miura and Sasaki, "it was during the lifetime of Yüan-wu's successor, Ta-hui Tsung-kao 大慧宗杲 (Daie Sōkō, 1089-1163) that Koan Zen entered its determinative stage."[21] Gong-an practice was prevalent in the Linji school, to which Yuanwu and Ta-hui (pinyin: Dahui) belonged, but it was also employed on a more limited basis by the Caodong school. The teaching styles and words of the classical masters were collected in such important texts as the Blue Cliff Record (1125) of Yuanwu, The Gateless Gate (1228) of Wumen, both of the Linji lineage, and the Book of Equanimity (1223) of Wansong, of the Caodong lineage. These texts record classic gong-an cases, together with verse and prose commentaries, which would be studied by later generations of students down to the present. Events Edgar the Peaceable crowned King of England. ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... A koan (pronounced ) is a story, dialog, question, or statement in the history and lore of Chan (Zen) Buddhism, generally containing aspects that are inaccessible to rational understanding, yet that may be accessible to intuition. ... Yuanwu Keqin (圜悟克勤) (1063 - 1135) was the Chinese Chan Buddhist monk who compiled the Blue Cliff Record in its present form. ... Yuanwu Keqin (圜悟克勤) (1063 - 1135) was the Chinese Chan Buddhist monk who compiled the Blue Cliff Record in its present form. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... The Blue Cliff Record (Chinese: 《碧巖錄》 Bìyán Lù; Japanese: Hekiganroku) is a collection of Zen Buddhist koans originally compiled in China during the Song dynasty in 1125 (宋宣和七年) and then expanded into its present form by the Chan master Yuanwu... Events May 23 - Lothair of Saxony becomes Holy Roman Emperor on the death of Henry V. War ends between Toulouse and Provence. ... The Gateless Gate (無門關, Zh. ... Events The Sixth Crusade is launched by Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, after delays due to sickness and an excommunication from Pope Gregory IX. Conrad IV of Germany becomes titular King of Jerusalem, with Frederick II as regent. ... Wumen Huikai, a 13th century monk who was abbot at Ryusho (Lungxiang) monastery in China, wrote the Zen classic Wumenguan, which contains 48 now-famous Zen koans. ... // Events August 6 - Louis VIII is crowned King of France. ...


Chan continued to be influential as a religious force in China, and thrived in the post-Song period; with a vast body of texts being produced up and through the modern period. While traditionally distinct, Chan was taught alongside Pure Land Buddhism in many Chinese Buddhist monasteries. In time much of the distinction between them was lost, and many masters taught both Chan and Pure Land. Chan Buddhism enjoyed something of a revival in the Ming Dynasty with teachers such as Hanshan Deqing (憨山德清), who wrote and taught extensively on both Chan and Pure Land Buddhism; Miyun Yuanwu (密雲圓悟), who came to be seen posthumously as the first patriarch of the Obaku Zen school; as well as Yunqi Zhuhong (雲棲株宏) and Ouyi Zhixu (藕溢智旭). ÅŒbaku (Japanese. ...


After further centuries of decline, Chan was revived again in the early 20th century by Hsu Yun, a well-known figure of 20th century Chinese Buddhism. Many Chan teachers today trace their lineage back to Hsu Yun, including Sheng-yen and Hsuan Hua, who have propagated Chan in the west where it has grown steadily through the 20th and 21st century. This biography does not cite any references or sources. ... Venerable Master Sheng-yen (聖嚴法師) (1931-) is one of the more famous living teachers of Chan (Japanese: Zen) Buddhism. ... This article is about the contemporary Buddhist monk. ...


It was severely repressed in China during the recent modern era with the appearance of the People's Republic, but has more recently been re-asserting itself on the mainland, and has a significant following in Taiwan and Hong Kong as well as among Overseas Chinese. For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... Languages various Religions Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ...


Zen in Japan

Sōtō monk in Arashiyama, Kyoto
Sōtō monk in Arashiyama, Kyoto

The schools of Zen that currently exist in Japan are the Sōtō (曹洞), Rinzai (臨済), and Obaku (黃檗). Of these, Sōtō is the largest and Obaku the smallest. Rinzai is itself divided into several subschools based on temple affiliation, including Myoshin-ji, Nanzen-ji, Tenryū-ji, Daitoku-ji, and Tofuku-ji. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1296x1784, 1653 KB) Summary Same as Japanese buddhist monk by Arashiyama. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1296x1784, 1653 KB) Summary Same as Japanese buddhist monk by Arashiyama. ... Sōtō-shÅ« (Japanese: 曹洞宗, Chinese: Cáodòngzōng) is one of the two major Japanese Zen sects (the other being Rinzai). ... Arashiyama (嵐山), sometimes Ranzan, is an exclusive district on the western outskirts of Kyoto, Japan. ... Kyoto )   is a city in the central part of the island of HonshÅ«, Japan. ... Sōtō-shÅ« (Japanese: 曹洞宗, Chinese: Cáodòngzōng) is one of the two major Japanese Zen sects (the other being Rinzai). ... There is a disputed proposal that this article should be merged with Rinzai and Linji. ... Ōbaku (Japanese. ... Taizo-in at Myoshin-ji Myōshin-ji is a temple complex in Kyoto, Japan. ... Categories: Stub | Buddhist temples ... Autumn foliage on the grounds of TenryÅ«-ji TenryÅ«-ji )—more formally known as TenryÅ« Shiseizen-ji )—is the head temple of the TenryÅ« sect of Rinzai Zen Buddhism, located in Susukinobaba-chō, Ukyō Ward, Kyoto, Japan. ... Daitokuji redirects here. ... This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ...


Although the Japanese had known Zen-like practices for centuries (Taoism and Shinto), it was not introduced as a separate school until the 12th century, when Myōan Eisai traveled to China and returned to establish a Linji lineage, which is known in Japan as Rinzai. Decades later, Nanpo Jomyo (南浦紹明) also studied Linji teachings in China before founding the Japanese Otokan lineage, the most influential branch of Rinzai. In 1215, Dogen, a younger contemporary of Eisai's, journeyed to China himself, where he became a disciple of the Caodong master Tiantong Rujing. After his return, Dogen established the Sōtō school, the Japanese branch of Caodong. The Obaku lineage was introduced in the 17th century by Ingen, a Chinese monk. Ingen had been a member of the Linji school, the Chinese equivalent of Rinzai, which had developed separately from the Japanese branch for hundreds of years. Thus, when Ingen journeyed to Japan following the fall of the Ming Dynasty to the Manchus, his teachings were seen as a separate school. The Obaku school was named for Mount Obaku (Chinese: Huangboshan), which had been Ingen's home in China. Taoism (Daoism) is the English name referring to a variety of related Chinese philosophical and religious traditions and concepts. ... Shinto ) is the native religion of Japan and was once its state religion. ... Myōan Eisai, founder of the Rinzai School of Zen, 12th century. ... There is a disputed proposal that this article should be merged with Rinzai and Linji. ... A certified copy of the Magna Carta March 4 - King John of England makes an oath to the Pope as a crusader to gain the support of Innocent III. June 15 - King John of England was forced to put his seal on the Magna Carta, outlining the rights of landowning... Dōgen Zenji Dōgen Zenji (道元禅師; also Kigen Dōgen 希玄道元) (19 January 1200–22 September 1253) was a Japanese Zen Buddhist teacher born in Kyōto, and the founder of the Sōtō school of Zen in Japan. ... Dōgen Zenji Dōgen Zenji (道元禅師; also Kigen Dōgen 希玄道元) (19 January 1200–22 September 1253) was a Japanese Zen Buddhist teacher born in Kyōto, and the founder of the Sōtō school of Zen in Japan. ... Sōtō-shÅ« (Japanese: 曹洞宗, Chinese: Cáodòngzōng) is one of the two major Japanese Zen sects (the other being Rinzai). ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... InGen (International Genetic Technologies) is a fictional genetic engineering company appearing in the Jurassic Park series of novels and films. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... Mount Huangbo is a mountain in Fujian province, China. ...


Some contemporary Japanese Zen teachers, such as Daiun Harada and Shunryu Suzuki, have criticized Japanese Zen as being a formalized system of empty rituals in which very few Zen practitioners ever actually attain realization. They assert that almost all Japanese temples have become family businesses handed down from father to son, and the Zen priest's function has largely been reduced to officiating at funerals[citation needed]. Daiun Sogaku Harada (October 13, 1871 - December 12, 1961) was a Rinzai and Soto Zen priest born in an area known today as Obama, Japan in the Fukui Prefecture. ... Shunryu Suzuki (鈴木 俊隆 Suzuki Shunryū, dharma name Shogaku Shunryu) (May 18, 1904 - December 4, 1971) was a Japanese Zen master of the Soto school, who played a major role in establishing Buddhism in America. ... A ritual is a set of actions, performed mainly for their symbolic value, which is prescribed by a religion or by the traditions of a community. ... For other uses, see Funeral (disambiguation). ...


The Japanese Zen establishment—including the Sōtō sect, the major branches of Rinzai, and several renowned teachers; has been criticized for its involvement in Japanese militarism and [nationalism] during [World War II] and the preceding period. A notable work on this subject was [Zen at War] ([1998]) by Brian Victoria, an American-born Sōtō priest. At the same time, however, one must be aware that this involvement was by no means limited to the Zen school: all orthodox Japanese schools of Buddhism supported the militarist state. What may be most striking, though, as Victoria has argued, is that many Zen masters known for their post-war internationalism and promotion of "world peace" were open nationalists in the inter-war years. Militarism or militarist ideology is the doctrinal view of a society as being best served (or more efficient) when it is governed or guided by concepts embodied in the culture, doctrine, system, or people of the military. ...


This openness has allowed non-Buddhists to practice Zen, especially outside of Asia, and even for the curious phenomenon of an emerging Christian Zen lineage, as well as one or two lines that call themselves "nonsectarian." With no official governing body, it's perhaps impossible to declare any authentic lineage "heretical." Some schools emphasize lineage and trace their line of teachers back to Japan, Korea, Vietnam or China; other schools do not[citation needed].


Zen in Vietnam (Thien Buddhism)

See also: Buddhism in Vietnam

Thiền Buddhism (禪宗 Thiền Tông) is the Vietnamese name for the school of Zen Buddhism. Thien is ultimately derived from Chan Zong 禪宗 (simplified, 禅宗), itself a derivative of the Sanskrit "Dhyāna". Buddhism in Vietnam is Buddhism that had been localized to Vietnam from India and later replaced with Buddhism from China. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Dhyan (Meditation). ...


According to traditional accounts of Vietnam, in 580, an Indian monk named Vinitaruci (Vietnamese: Tì-ni-đa-lưu-chi) travelled to Vietnam after completing his studies with Sengcan, the third patriarch of Chinese Zen. This, then, would be the first appearance of Vietnamese Zen, or Thien (thiền) Buddhism. The sect that Vinitaruci and his lone Vietnamese disciple founded would become known as the oldest branch of Thien. After a period of obscurity, the Vinitaruci School became one of the most influential Buddhist groups in Vietnam by the 10th century, particularly so under the patriarch Vạn-Hạnh (died 1018). Other early Vietnamese Zen schools included the Vo Ngon Thong (Vô Ngôn Thông), which was associated with the teaching of Mazu, and the Thao Duong (Thảo Đường), which incorporated nianfo chanting techniques; both were founded by Chinese monks. A new school was founded by one of Vietnam's religious kings; this was the Truc Lam (Trúc Lâm) school, which evinced a deep influence from Confucian and Taoist philosophy. Nevertheless, Truc Lam's prestige waned over the following centuries as Confucianism became dominant in the royal court. In the 17th century, a group of Chinese monks led by Nguyen Thieu (Nguyên Thiều) established a vigorous new school, the Lam Te (Lâm Tế), which is the Vietnamese pronunciation of Linji. A more domesticated offshoot of Lam Te, the Lieu Quan (Liễu Quán) school, was founded in the 18th century and has since been the predominant branch of Vietnamese Zen. Ethelbert becomes king of Kent. ... Sengcan (僧璨; Wade-Giles Seng-Tsan Japanese: Sosan; ?-606) was the Thirteeth Patriarch of Chan (Zen), or, as is more usually said, the Third Chinese Patriarch. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... // Team# 1018 Pike High School Robotics Team Team #1018 FIRST Logo Check Out Our FIRST WIKI Page Events Bulgaria becomes part of the Byzantine Empire. ... Nianfo (念佛. Chinese pinyin nian fo; Japanese: nembutsu; Korean: yeombul), literally mindfulness of the Buddha. ... Wenmiao Temple, a Confucian Temple in Wuwei, Gansu, Peoples Republic of China. ... Taoism (Daoism) is the English name referring to a variety of related Chinese philosophical and religious traditions and concepts. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... President Nguyen Van Thieu Nguyen Van Thieu (Nguyễn Văn Thiệu) (April 5, 1923 - September 29, 2001) was a president of the Republic of Vietnam. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ...


The most famous practitioner of synchronized Thiền Buddhism in the West is Thích Nhất Hạnh who has authored dozens of books. Nhat Hanh (Vietnamese: Nhất Hạnh; IPA:   is an expatriate Vietnamese Zen Buddhist monk. ...


Zen in Korea (Seon)

See also: Korean Buddhism

Chan was gradually transmitted into Korea during the late Silla period (8th and 9th centuries) as Korean monks of predominantly Hwaeom 華嚴 and Consciousness-only 唯識 background began to travel to China to learn the newly developing tradition. During his lifetime, Mazu had begun to attract students from Korea; by tradition, the first Korean to study Zen was named Peomnang 法朗. Mazu's successors had numerous Korean students, some of whom returned to Korea and established the nine mountain 九山 schools. This was the beginning of Korean Zen, which is called Seon. The grounds of Koreas Buryeongsa Temple. ... Silla (also spelled Shilla, traditional dates 57 BCE - 935 CE) was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... Hwaeom is the name of the Korean transmission of the Huayan school of Chinese Buddhism. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Yogacara. ... This article is about the Korean peninsula and civilization. ... The nine mountain schools (九山; or gusan) were the initial monasteries of the Korean branch of Buddhism called Seon, founded in the Unified Silla period in the 8th or 9th century. ...


Seon received its most significant impetus and consolidation from the Goryeo monk Jinul 知訥 (11581210), who established a reform movement and introduced koan practice to Korea. Jinul established the Songgwangsa 松廣寺 as a new center of pure practice. It was during the time of Jinul the Jogye Order, a primarily Seon sect, became the predominant form of Korean Buddhism, a status it still holds. which survives down to the present in basically the same status. Toward the end of the Goryeo and during the Joseon period the Jogye Order would first be combined with the scholarly 教 schools, and then be relegated to lesser influence in ruling clas circles by Confucian influenced polity, even as it retained strength outside the cities, among the rural populations and ascetic monks in mountain refuges. Taegeuk is a traditional symbol of Korea Capital Gaegyeong Language(s) Korean Religion Buddhism Government Monarchy Wang  - 918 - 946 Taejo  - 949 - 975 Gwangjong  - 1259 - 1274 Wonjong  - 1351 - 1374 Gongmin Historical era 918 - 1392  - Later Three Kingdoms rise 892  - Coronation of Taejo June 15, 918  - Korea-Khitan Wars 993 - 1019  - Mongolian... Jinul (1158-1210) was a Korean monk of the Goryeo period, who is considered to be the most influential figure in the formation of Korean Seon Buddhism. ... Events January 11 - Vladislav II becomes King of Bohemia End of the formal reign of Emperor Go-Shirakawa of Japan, also the beginning of his cloistered rule, which will last to his death in 1192. ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Tsuchimikado, emperor of Japan Emperor Juntoku ascends to the throne of Japan Otto IV, Holy Roman Emperor excommunicated by Pope Innocent III for invading southern Italy in 1210 Gottfried von Strassburg writes his epic poem Tristan about 1210 Beginning of Delhi Sultanate Births... Songgwangsa is one of the most important Seon Buddhist monasteries in Korea, and is considered one of the Three Jewel Temples of Korea. ... The Jogye Order of Korean Buddhism (JOKB) is a monastic order of syncretic Seon Buddhism and serves as the largest denomination of Buddhism in Korea. ... Confucianism (儒家 Pinyin: rújiā The School of the Scholars), sometimes translated as the School of Literati, is an East Asian ethical, religious and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of Confucius. ...


Nevertheless, there would be a series of important Seon teachers during the next several centuries, such as Hyegeun 慧勤, Taego 太古, Gihwa 己和 and Hyujeong 休靜, who continued to develop the basic mold of Korean meditational Buddhism established by Jinul. Seon continues to be practiced in Korea today at a number of major monastic centers, as well as being taught at Dongguk University, which has a major of studies in this religion. Taego Bou (13011382) studied in China with Linji teacher and returned to unite the Nine Mountain Schools. In modern Korea, by far the largest Buddhist denomination is the Jogye Order, which is essentially a Zen sect; the name Jogye is the Korean equivalent of Caoxi (曹溪), another name for Huineng. Gihwa, also known as Hamheo Teuktong (1376 - 1433) was a late Goryeo-early Joseon Buddhist monk of the Seon order, who was the leading Buddhist figure of his generation, also known as Hamheo. ... Dongguk University is a private, coeducational university in South Korea. ... Events February 7 - Edward of Caernarvon (later King Edward II of England) becomes the first Prince of Wales End of the reign of Emperor Go-Fushimi, emperor of Japan Emperor Go-Nijō ascends to the throne of Japan Dante was sent into Exile in Florence. ... Year 1382 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... The Jogye Order of Korean Buddhism (JOKB) is a monastic order of syncretic Seon Buddhism and serves as the largest denomination of Buddhism in Korea. ... Huineng (慧能, 638 - 713) was a Chinese Chan (Chinese Zen) monastic who is one of the most important figures in the entire tradition. ...


Korean Zen is known for its stress on meditation, monasticism, and asceticism. Many Korean monks have few personal possessions and sometimes cut off all relations with the outside world. Several are near mendicants traveling from temple to temple practicing meditation. The hermit-recluse life is prevalent among monks to whom meditation practice is considered of paramount importance.[22][citation needed]


Currently, Korean Buddhism is in a state of slow transition. While the reigning theory behind Korean Buddhism was based on Jinul's "sudden enlightenment, gradual cultivation," the modern Korean Seon master, Seongcheol's revival of Hui Neng's "sudden enlightenment, sudden cultivation" has had a strong impact on Korean Buddhism. Although there is resistance to change within the ranks of the Jogye order, with the last three Supreme Patriarchs' stance that is in accordance with Seongcheol, there has been a gradual change in the atmosphere of Korean Buddhism. Jinul (1158-1210) was a Korean monk of the Goryeo period, who is considered to be the most influential figure in the formation of Korean Seon Buddhism. ... Seongcheol (or Seong Cheol) is the dharma name of a Korean Seon Master. ... Huineng (638 - 713) was a Chinese Chan monk who is one of the most important figures in the entire tradition. ... The Chogye Order (曹溪) is a monastic order of Zen Buddhism and serves as the largest denomination of Buddhism in Korea. ... Seongcheol (or Seong Cheol) is the dharma name of a Korean Seon Master. ...


Also, the Kwan Um School of Zen, one of the largest Zen schools in the West, teaches a form of Seon Buddhism. The Kwan Um School of Zen is an umbrella organization for the various Zen centers and groups founded by the Korean Zen master Seung Sahn. ...


The tradition of Jisei or the Death Poem

See also: Death poem

Writing death poems is done by both Chinese, Korean, and Japanese Zen monks (writing either Chinese style poetry kanshi, waka or Haiku), and by many haiku poets, as well as those who wish to write one. It was also an ancient custom in Japan for literate persons to compose a jisei on their death-bed. One of earliest records of jisei was recited by Prince Ōtsu executed in 686. For examples of death poems, see the articles on the famous haiku poet Bashō, the Japanese Buddhist monk Ryōkan, Ōta Dōkan (builder of Edo Castle), and the Japanese woodblock master Tsukioka Yoshitoshi. General Akashi Gidayu preparing to commit seppuku after losing a battle for his master in 1582. ... A Roman Catholic monk A monk is a person who practices monasticism, adopting a strict religious and ascetic lifestyle, usually in community with others following the same path. ... Waka (和歌) or Yamato uta is a genre of Japanese poetry. ... Shut up Nick, youre wrong. ... Shut up Nick, youre wrong. ... Prince ÅŒtsu (大津皇子) (663 - October 28, 686) was a Japanese poet and the son of Emperor Temmu by Princess ÅŒta whose father was Emperor Tenji. ... Events October 21 - Conon becomes Pope, succeeding Pope John V. Empress Jito ascends to the throne of Japan Kingdom of Kent attacked and conquered by West Saxons under Caedwalla Births August 23 - Charles Martel, winner of the Battle of Tours Deaths Emperor Temmu of Japan Korean Buddhist monk Weonhyo See... A statue of Bashō in Hiraizumi, Iwate. ... A statue of Ryōkan. ... ÅŒta Dōkan (太田道灌) (1432-1486) was born as ÅŒta Sukenaga (太田資長) into a daimyo family descending from Minamoto no Yorimasa. ... Edo Castle (江戸城 -jō) was built in 1457 by ÅŒta Dōkan in what is now the Chiyoda ward of Tokyo, but was then known as Edo, Toshima District, Musashi Province. ... Tsukioka Yoshitoshi (Owariya Yonejiro): 1839 - 1892 Tsukioka Yoshitoshi (1839 - June 9, 1892) (Japanese: 月岡 芳年; also named Taiso Yoshitoshi 大蘇 芳年) was the last great master - and one of the great innovative and creative geniuses - of the Japanese woodblock print, Ukiyo-e. ...


Zen in the Western world

See also: Buddhism in the West

Although it is difficult to trace when the West first became aware of Zen as a distinct form of Buddhism, the visit of Soyen Shaku, a Japanese Zen monk, to Chicago during the World Parliament of Religions in 1893 is often pointed to as an event that enhanced its profile in the Western world. It was during the late 1950s and the early 1960s that the number of Westerners, other than the descendants of Asian immigrants, pursuing a serious interest in Zen reached a significant level. The Indo-Greek king Menander (155-130 BCE) is the first Western historical figure documented to have converted to Buddhism. ... Soyen Shaku (1859 – 1919; sometimes written as Soen Shaku or Kogaku So’en Shaku) was the first Zen Buddhist master to teach in the United States. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Parliament of the World’s Religions. ... The 1950s decade refers to the years 1950 to 1959 inclusive. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969, inclusive. ...


Zen and Western culture

In Europe, the Expressionist and Dada movements in art tend to have much in common thematically with the study of koans and actual Zen. The early French surrealist René Daumal translated D.T. Suzuki as well as Sanskrit Buddhist texts. On White II by Wassily Kandinsky, 1923. ... Cover of the first edition of the publication, Dada. ... Surrealism is an artistic movement and an aesthetic philosophy that aims for the liberation of the mind by emphasizing the critical and imaginative powers of the subconscious. ... René Daumal (16 March, 1908 - 21 May, 1944) was a French writer, philosopher and poet. ... Dr. Daisetz Teitaro Suzuki (1870, Kanazawa, Japan - 1966; standard transliteration: Suzuki Daisetsu, 鈴木大拙) was a famous author of books and essays on Buddhism and Zen that were instrumental in spreading interest in Zen to the West. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ...


Eugen Herrigel's book Zen in the Art of Archery (1953),[23] describing his training in the Zen-influenced martial art of Kyūdō, inspired many of the Western world's early Zen practitioners. However, many scholars are quick to criticize this book. (eg see Yamada Shoji)[24] Eugen Herrigel (20 March 1884, near Heidelberg - 1955) was a German philosopher who taught philosophy at Tohoku Imperial University in Sendai, Japan, from 1924-1929 and introduced Zen to large parts of Europe. ... Zen in the Art of Archery (ISBN 0679722971) is a book written by Eugen Herrigel in 1953. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Hawaiian State Grappling Championships. ... This article contains a trivia section. ...


The British-American philosopher Alan Watts took a close interest in Zen Buddhism and wrote and lectured extensively on it during the 1950s. He understood it as a vehicle for a mystical transformation of consciousness, and also as a historical example of a non-Western, non-Christian way of life that had fostered both the practical and fine arts. A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... From The Essential Alan Watts Alan Wilson Watts (January 6, 1915 – November 16, 1973) was a philosopher, writer, speaker, and expert in comparative religion. ... The 1950s decade refers to the years 1950 to 1959 inclusive. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Fine art is a term used to refer to fields traditionally considered to be artistic. ...


The Dharma Bums, a novel written by Jack Kerouac and published in 1959, gave its readers a look at how a fascination with Buddhism and Zen was being absorbed into the bohemian lifestyles of a small group of American youths, primarily on the West Coast. Beside the narrator, the main character in this novel was "Japhy Ryder", a thinly-veiled depiction of Gary Snyder. The story was based on actual events taking place while Snyder prepared, in California, for the formal Zen studies that he would pursue in Japanese monasteries between 1956 and 1968.[25] The Dharma Bums cover This is an article about the novel by Jack Kerouac. ... This article is about the literary concept. ... Jack Kerouac (pronounced ) (March 12, 1922 – October 21, 1969) was an American novelist, writer, poet, and artist. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Young Gary Snyder, on one of his early book covers Gary Snyder (born May 8, 1930) is an American poet (originally, often associated with the Beat Generation), essayist, lecturer, and environmental activist. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Thomas Merton (1915–1968) the Trappist monk and priest [6] was internationally recognized as having one of those rare Western minds that was entirely at home in Asian experience. Like his friend, the late D.T. Suzuki, Merton believed that there must be a little of Zen in all authentic creative and spiritual experience. The dialogue between Merton and Suzuki ("Wisdom in Emptiness" in: Zen and the Birds of Appetite, 1968) explores the many congruencies of Christian mysticism and Zen. (Main publications: The Way of Chuang Tzu, 1965; Mystics and Zen Masters, 1967; Zen and the Birds of Appetite, 1968). Thomas Merton (January 31, 1915 – December 10, 1968) was one of the most influential Catholic authors of the 20th century. ... Trappist can refer to: a religious order - see Trappists some of the products, made by the order - see Trappist beer This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Dr. Daisetz Teitaro Suzuki (1870, Kanazawa, Japan - 1966; standard transliteration: Suzuki Daisetsu, 鈴木大拙) was a famous author of books and essays on Buddhism and Zen that were instrumental in spreading interest in Zen to the West. ...


Reginald Horace Blyth (1898-1964) was an Englishman who went to Japan in 1940 to further his study of Zen. He was interned during the II World War and started writing in prison. He was tutor to the Crown Prince after the war. His greatest work is the 5-volume "Zen and Zen Classics", published in the 1960s. In it, he discusses Zen themes from a philosophical standpoint, often in conjunction with Christian elements in a comparative spirit. His essays include titles such as "God, Buddha, and Buddhahood" or "Zen Sin, and Death". He is an enthusiast of Zen, but not altogether uncritical of it. His writings can be characterized as unorthodox and quirky. Reginald Horace Blyth (December 3, 1898 - October 28, 1964), English author and devotee of Japanese culture. ...


While Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance, by Robert M. Pirsig, was a 1974 bestseller, it in fact has little to do with Zen as a religious practice. Rather it deals with the notion of the metaphysics of "quality" from the point of view of the main character. Pirsig was attending the Minnesota Zen Center at the time of writing the book[7]. He has stated that, despite its title, the book "should in no way be associated with that great body of factual information relating to orthodox Zen Buddhist practice." Though it may not deal with orthodox Zen Buddhist practice, Pirsig's book in fact deals with many of the more subtle facets of Zen living and Zen mentality without drawing attention to any religion or religious organization. Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance: An Inquiry into Values is the first of Robert M. Pirsigs texts in which he explores a Metaphysics of quality. ... Robert Maynard Pirsig (born September 6, 1928, Minneapolis, Minnesota) is an American philosopher, mainly known as the author of the book Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance: An Inquiry into Values (1974), which has sold millions of copies around the world. ... A bestseller is a book that is identified as extremely popular by its inclusion on lists of currently top selling titles that are based on publishing industry and booktrade figures and published by newspapers, magazines, or bookstore chains. ... The metaphysics of quality (MOQ) is a theory of reality introduced in Pirsigs philosophical novel Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance (1974) and expanded in Lila: An Inquiry into Morals (1991). ... Minnesota Zen Meditation Center was formed when the founding head teacher, Dainin Katagiri Roshi, (1928-1990) was invited to come from California in 1972 to teach a small but growing group of Minneapolis students interested in the dharma. ...


Western Zen lineages

Over the last fifty years mainstream forms of Zen, led by teachers who trained in East Asia and their successors, have begun to take root in the West.


In North America, the Zen lineages derived from the Japanese Soto school are the most numerous. Among these are the lineages of the San Francisco Zen Center, established by Shunryu Suzuki and the White Plum Asanga, founded by Hakuyu Taizan Maezumi. Suzuki's San Francisco Zen Center established the first Zen Monastery in America in 1967, called Tassajara in the mountains near Big Sur. Maezumi's successors have created schools including Great Plains Zen Center, founded by Susan Myoyu Andersen, Roshi, the Mountains and Rivers Order, founded by John Daido Loori, the Zen Peacemaker Order, founded by Bernard Tetsugen Glassman and the Ordinary Mind school, founded by Charlotte Joko Beck. The Katagiri lineage, founded by Dainin Katagiri, has a significant presence in the Midwest. Note that both Taizan Maezumi and Dainin Katagiri served as priests at Zenshuji Soto Mission in the 1960s. San Francisco Zen Center (SFZC) is the largest Soto Zen temple and practice place in the United States and possibly anywhere outside of Japan. ... Shunryu Suzuki (鈴木 俊隆 Suzuki Shunryū, dharma name Shogaku Shunryu) (May 18, 1904 - December 4, 1971) was a Japanese Zen master of the Soto school, who played a major role in establishing Buddhism in America. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... John Daido Loori, Roshi is one of the West’s leading Zen masters. ... Charlotte Joko Beck is a Zen teacher in the United States and the author of the books Everyday Zen: Love and Work and Nothing Special: Living Zen. ... Dainin Katagiri (b. ...


Taisen Deshimaru, a student of Kodo Sawaki, was a Soto Zen priest from Japan who taught in France. The International Zen Association, which he founded, remains influential. The American Zen Association, headquartered at the New Orleans Zen Temple, is one of the North American organizations practicing in the Deshimaru tradition. Taisen Deshimaru (1914-1982) was a Japanese Zen Buddhist teacher. ... The New Orleans Zen Temple is a dojo from the Soto Zen tradition in New Orleans, Louisiana. ...


Soyu Matsuoka, served as superintendent and abbot of the Long Beach Zen Buddhist Temple and Zen Center. The Temple was headquarters to Zen Centers in Atlanta, Chicago, Los Angeles, Seattle, and Everett, Washington. He established the Temple at Long Beach in 1971 where he resided until his passing in 1998. Rev. ...


The Sanbo Kyodan is a Japan-based reformist Zen group, founded in 1954 by Yasutani Hakuun, which has had a significant influence on Zen in the West. Sanbo Kyodan Zen is based primarily on the Soto tradition, but also incorporates Rinzai-style koan practice. Yasutani's approach to Zen first became prominent in the English-speaking world through Philip Kapleau's book The Three Pillars of Zen (1965), which was one of the first books to introduce Western audiences to Zen as a practice rather than simply a philosophy. Among the Zen groups in North America, Hawaii, Europe, and New Zealand which derive from Sanbo Kyodan are those associated with Kapleau, Robert Aitken, and John Tarrant. The Sanbō Kyōdan (Japanese: 三宝教団) is Zen Buddhist sect based in Japan. ... Philip Kapleau was born in New Haven, Connecticut, and became a teacher of Zen Buddhism in the Harada-Yasutani tradition, a blending of Soto and Rinzai schools. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... Robert Aitken and Anne Aitken Robert Baker Aitken (born 1917 in Philadelphia) is an American teacher of Zen Buddhism in the Harada-Yasutani (or Sanbo Kyodan) tradition, a blending of Soto and Rinzai schools. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In the UK, Throssel Hole Abbey was founded as a sister monastery to Shasta Abbey in California by Master Reverend Jiyu Kennett Roshi and has a number of dispersed Priories and centres. Jiyu Kennett, an English woman, was ordained as a priest and Zen master in Shoji-ji, one of the two main Soto Zen temples in Japan (her book The Wild White Goose describes her experiences in Japan). The Order is called the Order of Buddhist Contemplatives. The lineage of Hakuyu Taizan Maezumi Roshi is represented by the White Plum Sangha UK, while Taisen Deshimaru Roshi's lineage is known in the UK as IZAUK (Intl Zen Assoc. UK). This article needs to be wikified. ... Taisen Deshimaru (1914-1982) was a Japanese Zen Buddhist teacher. ...


There are also a number of Rinzai Zen centers in the West. In North America, some of the more prominent include Rinzai-ji founded by Kyozan Joshu Sasaki, Dai Bosatsu Kongo-ji established by Eido Shimano and Kyudo Nakagawi Roshi, and Chozen-ji founded by Omori Sogen Roshi. Kyozan Joshu Sasaki, Roshi (born April 1, 1907) is a Japanese Rinzai Zen teacher who has lived in the United States since 1962. ...


Not all the successful Zen teachers in the West have been from Japanese traditions. There have also been teachers of Chan, Seon, and Thien Buddhism. In addition, there are a number of Zen teachers who studied in Asian traditions that because of corruption or political issues decided to strike out on their own. One of the chief organizations of this type is Open Mind Zen in Melbourne, Florida. Zen Master Al Rapaport has developed a system of Zen that eliminates the trappings of Asian culture but maintains the core of Zen for lay students.

Covering over 480 acres of land and located in Talmage, California, the City of Ten Thousand Buddhas was founded by Hsuan Hua.
Covering over 480 acres of land and located in Talmage, California, the City of Ten Thousand Buddhas was founded by Hsuan Hua.

The first Chinese master to teach Westerners in North America was Hsuan Hua, who taught Zen, Chinese Pure Land, Tiantai, Vinaya, and Vajrayana Buddhism in San Francisco during the early 1960s. He went on to found the City Of Ten Thousand Buddhas, a monastery and retreat center located on a 237 acre (959,000 m²) property near Ukiah, California. Another Chinese Zen teacher with a Western following is Sheng-yen, a master trained in both the Caodong and Linji schools (equivalent to the Japanese Soto and Rinzai, respectively). He first visited the United States in 1978 under the sponsorship of the Buddhist Association of the United States, and, in 1980, founded the Chan Meditation Center in Queens, New York.[8]. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 176 KB) Summary Picture taken by me, Qin Zhi Lau at the City of Ten Thousand Buddhas. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 176 KB) Summary Picture taken by me, Qin Zhi Lau at the City of Ten Thousand Buddhas. ... Talmage is a census-designated place located in Mendocino County, California. ... The mountain gate to the City of Ten Thousand Buddhas. ... This article is about the contemporary Buddhist monk. ... Tiantai (天台宗, Wade-Giles: Tien Tai) is one of the thirteen schools of Buddhism in China and Japan, also called the Lotus Sutra School because of its emphasis on the supremacy of that scripture. ... The Vinaya (a word in Pali as well as in Sanskrit, with literal meaning discipline) is the textual framework for the Buddhist monastic community, or sangha. ... A mandala used in Vajrayana Buddhist practices. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969, inclusive. ... The mountain gate to the City of Ten Thousand Buddhas. ... Ukiah is the county seat of Mendocino County, California. ... Venerable Master Sheng-yen (聖嚴法師) (1931-) is one of the more famous living teachers of Chan (Japanese: Zen) Buddhism. ... Caodong (Chinese 曹洞宗) is a Chinese Zen Buddhist sect founded by Dongshan Liangjie and his Dharma_heirs in the 9th century. ... Japanese painting of Linji Yixuan (Jap. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Queens is geographically the largest of the five boroughs of New York City in the United States, and the most ethnically diverse county in the U.S. It is coterminous with Queens County in the State of New York and is located on western Long Island. ...


The most prominent Korean Zen teacher in the West was Seung Sahn. Seung Sahn founded the Providence Zen Center in Providence, Rhode Island; this was to become the headquarters of the Kwan Um School of Zen, a large international network of affiliated Zen centers. Seung Sahn Soen-sa (1927-2004) was a Korean Zen Buddhist monk, and the 78th patriarch in his lineage of Korean Zen (or Korean Sŏn) Buddhism. ... The Providence Zen Center was founded by the Korean Zen master Seung Sahn. ... “Providence” redirects here. ... The Kwan Um School of Zen is an umbrella organization for the various Zen centers and groups founded by the Korean Zen master Seung Sahn. ...


Two notable Vietnamese Zen teachers have been influential in Western countries: Thich Thien-An and Thich Nhat Hanh. Thich Thien-An came to America in 1966 as a visiting professor at UCLA and taught traditional Thien meditation. Thich Nhat Hanh was a monk in Vietnam during the Vietnam War, during which he was a peace activist. In response to these activities, he was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize in 1967 by Martin Luther King, Jr. In 1966, he left Vietnam in exile and now resides at Plum Village, a monastery in France. He has written more than one hundred books about Buddhism, which have made him one of the very few most prominent Buddhist authors among the general readership in the West. In his books and talks, Thich Nhat Hanh emphasizes mindfulness (sati) as the most important practice in daily life. Dr. Thich Thien An (September 1926 - November 1980) was an influential teacher of Vietnamese Zen Buddhism who was active in the United States. ... Nhat Hanh (Vietnamese: Nhất Hạnh; IPA:   is an expatriate Vietnamese Zen Buddhist monk. ... Dr. Thich Thien An (September 1926 - November 1980) was an influential teacher of Vietnamese Zen Buddhism who was active in the United States. ... The University of California, Los Angeles (generally known as UCLA) is a public university located in Los Angeles, California, United States. ... Nhat Hanh (Vietnamese: Nhất Hạnh; IPA:   is an expatriate Vietnamese Zen Buddhist monk. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... “MLK” redirects here. ... Arrival area for Upper Hamlet, Plum Vilage. ... Mindfulness (Pali: Sati) is a technique in which a person becomes intentionally aware of his or her thoughts and actions in the present moment, non-judgmentally. ...


Pan-lineage organizations

In the United States, two pan-lineage organizations have formed in the last few years. The oldest is the American Zen Teachers Association which sponsors an annual conference. North American Soto teachers in North America, led by several of the heirs of Taizan Maezumi and Shunryu Suzuki, have also formed the Soto Zen Buddhist Association. Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... The American Zen Teachers Association was founded in the late nineteen eighties as the Second Generation Zen Teachers Group. ... The Soto Zen Buddhist Association] was formed in 1996 by American and Japanese Zen teachers in response to a perceived need to draw the various autonomous lineages of the North American Soto stream of Zen together for mutual support as well as the development of common training and ethical standards. ...


Zen Authors

Modern

Traditional Charlotte Joko Beck is a Zen teacher in the United States and the author of the books Everyday Zen: Love and Work and Nothing Special: Living Zen. ... John Daido Loori, Roshi is one of the West’s leading Zen masters. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Robert Aitken, His Bible, sometimes referred to as The Bible of the Revolution, was the first known English-language Bible to be printed in America and was is the only Bible to receive Congressional approval. ...

Japanese painting of Linji Yixuan (Jap. ... Dōgen Zenji Dōgen Zenji (道元禅師; also Kigen Dōgen 希玄道元) (19 January 1200–22 September 1253) was a Japanese Zen Buddhist teacher born in Kyōto, and the founder of the Sōtō school of Zen in Japan. ... This biography does not cite any references or sources. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Baxter, William H. (1992). A Handbook of Old Chinese Phonology. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-012324-X. , 52–3; An Etymological Dictionary of Chinese CharactersPDF (641 KiB), Baxter 13.
  2. ^ Suzuki, Daisetz T. (2004). The Training of the Zen Budhist Monk. Tokyo: Cosimo, inc.. ISBN 1-5960-5041-1. 
  3. ^ "Baizhang Huaihai", in Digital Dictionary of Buddhism
  4. ^ "Principles of Zazen" (Zazen gi); tr. The Soto Zen Text Project
  5. ^ "Universally Recommended Instructions for Zazen" (Fukan zazengi); tr. The Soto Zen Text Project
  6. ^ Welter, Albert. The Disputed Place of "A Special Transmission" Outside the Scriptures in Ch'an (English). Retrieved on 2006-06-23.
  7. ^ "[1]", in Upaya Zen Center Liturgy
  8. ^ "[2]", in Upaya Zen Center Liturgy
  9. ^ "[3]", in Loori, John Daido. "Symbol and Symbolized." Mountain Record: The Zen Practitioner's Journal, XXV, No. 2 (2007):
  10. ^ "[4]", in Translation of Dogen's Gabyo, by Yasuda Joshu roshi and Anzan Hoshin roshi"
  11. ^ "[5]", in Zen Mountain Monastery Dharma Talk by John Daido Loori, Roshi
  12. ^ Dumoulin 2005:9
  13. ^ Great religions of the world. Center for Distance Learning. Tarrant County College DistrictPDF (1.03 MiB)
  14. ^ Chang, Chung-Yuan (1967), "Ch'an Buddhism: Logical and Illogical", Philosophy East and West 17: 37-49, <http://ccbs.ntu.edu.tw/FULLTEXT/JR-PHIL/ew27057.htm>.
  15. ^ Suzuki, D.T. (1948), Manual of Zen Buddhism, pp. 50, <http://consciouslivingfoundation.org/ebooks/new2/ManualOfZenBuddhism-manzen.pdf> PDF (211 KiB)
  16. ^ Dumoulin 2005:8
  17. ^ Dumoulin 2005:68 "the Taoist influence on Buddhism was later to culminate in the teachings of the Zen school."
  18. ^ Maspero, Henri. Translated by Frank A. Kierman, Jr. Taoism and Chinese Religion. pg 46. University of Massachusetts, 1981.
  19. ^ Prebish, Charles. Buddhism: A Modern Perspective. Pg 192. Penn State Press, 1975. ISBN 0271011955.
  20. ^ Dumoulin 2005:166-167, 169-172
  21. ^ Miura & Sasaki 1993:13
  22. ^ Jogye order of Korean Buddhism
  23. ^ Zen in the Art of Archery, (ISBN 0-375-70509-0)
  24. ^ Shoji, Yamada. The Myth of Zen in the Art of Archery. Retrieved on 2007-01-03.
  25. ^ Heller, Christine. Jack Kerouac and Gary Snyder: Chasing Zen Clouds. Retrieved on 2007-01-07.

“PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Zen (disambiguation). ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A mebibyte (a contraction of mega binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, abbreviated MiB. 1 MiB = 220 bytes = 1,048,576 bytes = 1,024 kibibytes 1 MiB = 1024 (= 210) kibibytes (KiB), and 1024 MiB equal one gibibyte (GiB). ... Daisetz Teitaro Suzuki (October 18, 1870, Kanazawa, Japan – July 22, 1966; standard transliteration: Suzuki Daisetsu, 鈴木大拙) was a famous author of books and essays on Buddhism, Zen and Shin that were instrumental in spreading interest in both Zen and Shin (and Far Eastern philosophy in general) to the West. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... For other uses, see Zen (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Zen (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Zen (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Zen (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Dumoulin, Heinrich (2005), Zen Buddhism: A History, vol. 1: India and China, Bloomington, IN: World Wisdom, ISBN 0-941532-89-5.
  • Hori, Victor Sogen, Zen Sand
  • Miura, Isshū & Ruth Fuller Sasaki (1993), The Zen Koan, New York: Harcourt Brace & Company, ISBN 0-15-699981-1
  • Suzuki, D.T. (1949), Essays in Zen Buddhism, New York: Grove Press, ISBN 0-8021-5118-3.
  • An Introduction to Zen Buddhism by D.T. Suzuki
  • Nagatomo, Shigenori (2006-06-28), "Japanese Zen Buddhist Philosophy", Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  • Blackman, Sushila (1997). Graceful Exits: How Great Beings Die: Death Stories of Tibetan, Hindu & Zen Masters. Weatherhill, Inc.: USA, New York, New York. ISBN 0-8348-0391-7

Daisetz Teitaro Suzuki (October 18, 1870, Kanazawa, Japan – July 22, 1966; standard transliteration: Suzuki Daisetsu, 鈴木大拙) was a famous author of books and essays on Buddhism, Zen and Shin that were instrumental in spreading interest in both Zen and Shin (and Far Eastern philosophy in general) to the West. ...

See also

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:

A number of noted individuals have been Buddhists. ... The Tathagatagarbha doctrine says that each sentient being contains the potential to become a Buddha. ... Dōgen Zenji Dōgen Zenji (道元禅師; also Kigen Dōgen 希玄道元) (19 January 1200–22 September 1253) was a Japanese Zen Buddhist teacher born in Kyōto, and the founder of the Sōtō school of Zen in Japan. ... Hakuin Ekaku (白隠 慧鶴 Hakuin Ekaku, 1686-1769) was undoubtedly one of the most influential figures in Japanese Zen Buddhism. ... Huangbo Xiyun (Simplified Chinese: 黄檗希运; Traditional Chinese: 黄檗希運; Hanyu Pinyin: Huángbò Xīyùn; Wade-Giles: Huang-po Hsi-yün) (died 850) was an influential Chinese master of Chan Buddhism. ... A statue of Ryōkan. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Bodhidharma (early 6th century CE) was the Buddhist monk traditionally credited as founder of Zen. ... The Book of Tea was written by Okakura Kakuzo in the early 20th century. ... From The Essential Alan Watts Alan Wilson Watts (January 6, 1915 – November 16, 1973) was a philosopher, writer, speaker, and expert in comparative religion. ... Dhyāna is a term in Sanskrit which refers to a type or aspect of meditation. ... Tao Sheng (道生 pinyin Dào shēng, ca. ... Dialectical monism is an ontological position which holds that reality is ultimately a unified whole, distinguishing itself from plain monism by asserting that this whole necessarily expresses itself in dualistic terms. ... This biography does not cite any references or sources. ... The Zen Master Ummon. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ... This article or section should be merged with Chan Southern Chan (pron. ... Seated Buddha, from the Chinese Tang Dynasty, Hebei province, ca. ... Portrait of Zen master Wuzhun Shifan, painted in 1238 AD, Song Dynasty. ... Shut up Nick, youre wrong. ...

External links

The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Encyclopedia4U - Zen - Encyclopedia Article (747 words)
Zen (&#31109; in Japanese, ch'an in Chinese, &#31146;, 선 "Seon" or "Sŏn" in Korean) Buddhism is a fusion of Mahayana Buddhist beliefs with Taoism.
Zen tradition holds that the highest form of spiritual practice is zazen meditation.
Zen is then the fundamental perfection of everything existing, and is known by all the great saints and sages of all times.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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