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Encyclopedia > Zeitgeist
Look up Zeitgeist in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Zeitgeist (pronounced [ˈt͡saɪtgaɪst] ) is originally a German expression that means "the spirit of the age", literally translated as time (Zeit), spirit (Geist) (Geist)". In some countries it has a different meaning; e.g. in the Netherlands Zeitgeist literally refers to; the mind of the time(tijdsgeest), and mind is understood as the mental spirit (state of mind). The word zeitgeist describes the intellectual and cultural climate of an era. In German, the word has more layers of meaning than the English translation, including the fact that Zeitgeist can only be observed for past events. Zeitgeist is a German expression meaning the spirit (Geist) of the time (Zeit). It denotes the intellectual and cultural climate of an era. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Image File history File links De-zeitgeist. ... For other uses, see Spirit (disambiguation). ... Geist is German for mind, also for spirit and ghost. ... Look up mental in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An era is a long period of time with different technical and colloquial meanings, and usages in language. ...


Zeitgeist has achieved a rare status among German loanwords in other languages, having found an entrance into at least English.[citation needed] A loanword (or a borrowing) is a word taken in by one language from another. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...

Contents

Origins

The concept of Zeitgeist goes back to Johann Gottfried Herder and other German Romantics such as Cornelius Jagdmann, but is best known in relation to Hegel's philosophy of history. In 1769 Herder wrote a critique of the work Genius seculi by the philologist Christian Adolph Klotz and introduced the word Zeitgeist into German as a translation of genius seculi (Latin: genius - "guardian spirit" and saeculi - "of the century"). This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 - November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher born in Stuttgart, Württemberg, in present-day southwest Germany. ... Philosophy of history or historiosophy is an area of philosophy concerning the eventual significance, if any, of human history. ... Philology is the study of ancient texts and languages. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ...


The German Romantics, habitually tempted to reduce the past to essences, treated the Zeitgeist as a historical character in its own right, rather than a generalized description for an era.


Definitions

"Zeitgeist" refers to the ethos of a select group of people, that express a particular world view which is prevalent at a particular period of socio-cultural progression. Ethos (ἦθος) (plurals: ethe, ethea) is a Greek word originally meaning the place of living that can be translated into English in different ways. ... A world view (or worldview) is a term calqued from the German word Weltanschauung ( ) Welt is the German word for world, and Anschauung is the German word for view or outlook. It is a concept fundamental to German philosophy and epistemology and refers to a wide world perception. ...


Zeitgeist is the experience of a dominant cultural climate that defines, particularly in Hegelian thinking, an era in the dialectical progression of a people or the world at large. Hegel's main contribution to the formulation of the concept of Volksgeist is the attribution of a historical character to the concept. The spirit of a nation is one of the manifestations of "World Spirit" (Weltgeist). That Spirit is essentially alive and active throughout mankind's history. Now, the spirit of a nation is an intermediate stage of world history as the history of the World Spirit. The World Spirit gives impetus to the realization of the historical spirits of various nations (Volksgeister'). In classical philosophy, dialectic (Greek: διαλεκτική) is controversy, Viz. ... For other uses, see World (disambiguation). ...


The spirits of individual nations are both the articulations (Gliederungen) of an organization and its realization. The spirits of individual nations represent a segment of the World Spirit out of which emerges the unlimited universal spirit. A comparison is introduced here between the status of an individual and that of a nation's spirit. In the process of his formation the individual undergoes various changes without, however, losing his identity. As a part of world history, a nation—exhibiting a certain trend expressed in its Volksgeist— plays its part in the total process of world history. But once it contributes its share to world history it can no longer play a role in the process of world history. The submersion in the total process prevents a people's cultural rebirth, because it has exhausted its creativity in the historical growth of its guiding spirit. It is for this reason that one of Hegel's disciples, Michelet, considered the idea of a renaissance of the Jewish people as philosophically impossible.


Quotations

  • Whoever marries the zeitgeist will be a widower soon or in the near future. - August Everding
  • Opinions that deviate from the ruling zeitgeist always aggravate the crowd. - Germaine de Staël
  • The product of paper and printed ink, that we commonly call the book, is one of the great visible mediators between spirit and time, and, reflecting zeitgeist, lasts as long as ore and stone. - Johann Georg Hamann

Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... August Everding (born 31 October 1928 in Bottrop, Germany, died 26 January 1999) was a German opera director and administrator. ... Madame de Staël Anne Louise Germaine de Staël (April 22, 1766 – July 14, 1817) was a French author who determined literary tastes of Europe at the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries. ... Johann Georg Hamann Johann Georg Hamann (August 27, 1730 - June 21, 1788) was an important philosopher of the German (Counter-)Enlightenment and Sturm und Drang movement. ...

See also

The French social theorist Émile Durkheim (1858-1917) used the term collective consciousness in his The Rules of Sociological Method (1895), Suicide (1897), and The Elementary Forms of Religious Life (1912). ... Below is a list of German expressions used in English. ... -1... The noosphere can be seen as the sphere of human thought being derived from the Greek νους (nous) meaning mind in the style of atmosphere and biosphere. In the original theory of Vernadsky, the noosphere is the third in a succession of phases of development of the Earth, after the geosphere... Vox Populi redirects here. ... Google uses the information it gathers by tracking search results to compile a list of the most frequent search queries. ... Social Identity Theory is a theory formed by Henri Tajfel and John Turner to understand the psychological basis of intergroup discrimination. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

External links

  • Christian Adolph Klotz
  • Christian Adolf Klotz in: Meyers Konversations-Lexikon, 4. Aufl., 1888, Vol. 9, Page 859
  • Zeitgeist, History of Ideas
Philosophy Portal
Image File history File links Socrates. ...

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Zeitgeist is the experience of a dominant cultural climate that defines, particularly in Hegelian thinking, an era in the dialectical progression of a people or the world at large.
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