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Encyclopedia > Zealots

Zealotry denotes zeal in excess, referring to cases where activism and ambition in relation to an ideology have become excessive to the point of being harmful to others, oneself, and one's own cause. A zealous person is called a zealot. Zeal is a volunteer-built web directory, first appearing in 1999, and then acquired by LookSmart in October 2000 for $20 million. ... Activism, in a general sense, can be described as intentional action to bring about social or political change. ... The Elections and Parties Series Democracy Representative democracy History of democracy Referenda Liberal democracy Representation Voting Voting systems Ideology Elections Elections by country Elections by calender Electoral systems Politics Politics by country Political campaigns Political science Political philosophy Related topics Political parties Parties by country Parties by name Parties by...

Contents


Introduction

The term Zealot, in Hebrew kanai means one who is jealous on behalf of God. As a word in English it means anyone who is overly zealous. Specific uses in popular culture also exist. Particular aspects can focus on religion, politics, but can also apply to any other area where partisanship and its related dogma are fostered and encouraged. The Elections and Parties Series Democracy Representative democracy History of democracy Referenda Liberal democracy Representation Voting Voting systems Ideology Elections Elections by country Elections by calender Electoral systems Politics Politics by country Political campaigns Political science Political philosophy Related topics Political parties Parties by country Parties by name Parties by... Partisan may refer to: A member of a lightly-equipped irregular military force formed to oppose control of an area by a foreign power or by an army of occupation. ... Dogma (the plural is either dogmata or dogmas) is belief or doctrine held by a religion or any kind of organization to be authoritative. ...


While "excess of zeal" may be used to refer to very common and individual instances of excess, "zealotry" tends to be reserved for cases where excess zeal is shared with others, and has formed or merged with a dogma; typically with ideological self-perpetuation as among its primary foundations. The espoused use of force and violence to propagate the ideology, is a common characteristic of this self-perpetuation; perhaps inline with the "ends justify the means" rationale.


History

Jewish war with Rome

Zealots were a Jewish political movement in the 1st century AD which sought to incite the people of Judea to rebel against the Roman Empire and expel it from the country by force of arms during the Great Jewish Revolt (AD 66-70). When the Romans introduced the Imperial cult to Judaea, the Jews had rebelled and been put down. The Zealots continued to oppose the Romans, on the grounds that Israel belonged only to a Jewish king derived from David. The word Jew (Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity; and often a combination of these attributes. ... (1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century - other centuries) The 1st century was that century which lasted from 1 to 100. ... Desert hills in southern Judea, looking east from the town of Arad Judea or Judaea (יהודה Praise, Standard Hebrew Yəhuda, Tiberian Hebrew Yəhûḏāh) is a term used for the mountainous southern part of historic Palestine, an area now divided between Israel, Jordan and the West Bank. ... The Roman Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Ancient Roman polity in the centuries following its reorganization under the leadership of Octavian (better known as Caesar Augustus). ... The Great Jewish Revolt (66–73 CE), sometimes called The first Jewish-Roman War, was the first of two major rebellions by the Jews of Judea against the Roman Empire (the second was Bar Kokhbas revolt in 132-135). ... For other uses, see number 66. ... For other uses, see number 70. ... An Imperial cult is a cult were an Emperor, or a dynasty of emperors, are worshipped as (semi-)gods or deities Ancient Rome In the Roman Empire the Imperial cult was the worship of the Roman emperor as a god. ... Desert hills in southern Judea, looking east from the town of Arad Judea or Judaea (יהודה Praise, Standard Hebrew Yəhuda, Tiberian Hebrew Yəhûḏāh) is a term used for the mountainous southern part of historic Palestine, an area now divided between Israel, Jordan and the West Bank. ... This page is about the Biblical king David. ...


Other important Jewish factions during the wars against Rome, were the Pharisees, the Sadducees, and the Essenes. The Zealots had the leading role in the Jewish Revolt of 66. They succeeded in taking Jerusalem, and held it until 70, when the son of Roman emperor Vespasian, Titus Flavius, recaptured the city and destroyed the Second Temple during the destruction of Jerusalem. The Pharisees (from the Hebrew perushim, from parash, meaning to separate) were, depending on the time, a political party, a social movement, and a school of thought among Jews that flourished during the Second Temple Era (536 BCE–70 CE). ... The sect of the Sadducees (or Zadokites and other variants) - which may have originated as a Political Party - was founded in the 2nd century BC and ceased to exist sometime after the 1st century AD. Their rivals, the Pharisees, are said to have originated in the same time period, but... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... For other uses, see number 66. ... Jerusalem (31°46′ N 35°14′ E; Hebrew: יְרוּשָׁלַיִם Yerushalayim; Arabic: القدس al-Quds; see also names of Jerusalem) is an ancient Middle Eastern city of key importance to the religions of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. ... For other uses, see number 70. ... Emperor Vespasian Caesar Vespasianus Augustus (November 18, CE 9 – June 23, 79), originally known as Titus Flavius Vespasianus and best known as Vespasian, was the emperor of Rome from 69 to 79. ... This is about the emperor of ancient Rome. ... Drawing of Herods Second Temple in Jerusalem A stone (2. ... The Destruction of Jerusalem (specifically, the Second Destruction of Jerusalem) was the culmination of the successful campaign of Titus Flavius against Judea after an unsuccessful attack four years prior by Cestius Gallus. ...


The Zealots were opposed to Roman rule and sought to eliminate it by violent means. Their activities included raids on Jewish settlements and eliminating Jewish collaborators, as well as inciting the Jews to fight Rome and each other if necessary. Josephus paints a very bleak picture of their murderous activities as they instituted a "reign of terror" in the build-up to the Temple's destruction. Ancient Rome was a civilization that existed in Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East between 753 BC and its downfall in AD 476. ... City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) Founded 21 April 753 BC mythical, 1st millennium BC Region Latium Mayor Walter Veltroni (Democratici di Sinistra) Area  - City Proper  1290 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 2,546,807 almost 4,000,000 1...


According to Josephus, the Zealots followed John of Gischala, who had fought the Romans in Galilee, escaped, come to Jerusalem, and then inspired the locals to a fanatical position that led to the destruction of the Temple. This figure has been identified by modern scholars as either Judas of Gamala, who led a revolt in AD 6, or the Sicarii. According to Josephus, the followers of Judas of Gamala agreed in all doctrinal points with the Pharisees, except in the matter of rule. The Sicarii, on the other hand, sought to gain their power by killing their opponents and ended up in the siege of Masada. Both of these identifications are troubled, however. Josephus (c. ... Galilee (Hebrew hagalil הגליל, Arabic al-jaleel الجليل), meaning circuit, is a large area overlappping with much of the North District of Israel. ... Judas of Galilee, Judas Galileus, or Judas of Gamala (after his birth-place) was the leader of a Jewish revolt, or Zealot movement, against the Romans about 6AD. Judas, along with Zadok (Zadduk, Sadduc), a Pharisee, preached that God alone was the ruler of Israel and later urged that no... For other uses, see number 6. ... Sicarii (Latin plural of Sicarius, dagger- or later contract- killer) is a term applied, in the decades immediately preceding the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 CE, to the Jewish Zealots, (or insurgents) who attempted to expel the Romans and their partisans from Judea: —Josephus, Jewish Antiquities (xx. ... This article is about the Judean fortress. ...


The Talmud

In the Talmud, the Zealots are also called the baryonim meaning "boorish" or "wild", and are condemned for their aggression, unwillingness to compromise to save the living survivors of Jerusalem besieged by the Romans, and blind-militarism and are blamed for having contributed to the demise of Jerusalem, the second Jewish Temple and of ensuring Rome's retributions and stranglehold on Judea. Jerusalem (31°46′ N 35°14′ E; Hebrew: יְרוּשָׁלַיִם Yerushalayim; Arabic: القدس al-Quds; see also names of Jerusalem) is an ancient Middle Eastern city of key importance to the religions of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. ... The Jerusalem Temple (Hebrew: beit ha-mikdash) was the center of Israelite and Jewish worship, primarily for the offering of sacrifices known as the korbanot. ...


Masada

The Zealots took the Roman fortress, Masada, and killed everyone inside. The Romans expended thousands of troops in an effort to re-take the stronghold, but even after inventing intricate new types of battering rams, some five stories high, the fortress remained in Zealot hands. The Romans eventually gave up and burned the walls down. When they stormed in, all they found were corpses. The Zealots had committed suicide rather than continue in servitude. One of their leaders, Elazar ben Yair managed to escape to the desert fortress of Masada and fought alongside the Sicarii Zealots until Masada was captured in 73. The Jewish Revolt was quickly suppressed and the Zealots lost all their influence and finally vanished. Masada seen from the east Masada is derived from the Hebrew word metzuda (מצדה), meaning fortress. It is the site of ancient palaces and fortifications in Israel on top of an isolated rock cliff on the eastern edge of the Judean desert overlooking the Dead Sea. ... Sicarii (Latin plural of Sicarius, dagger- or later contract- killer) is a term applied, in the decades immediately preceding the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 CE, to the Jewish Zealots, (or insurgents) who attempted to expel the Romans and their partisans from Judea: —Josephus, Jewish Antiquities (xx. ... For other uses, see number 73. ...


Sicarii

One particularly extreme group of Zealots was also known in Latin as sicarii, "daggermen" (sing. sicarius), because of their policy of assassinating Jews opposed to their call for war against Rome. Probably many Zealots were sicarri simultaneously, and they may be the baryonim of the Talmud that were feared even by the Jewish sages of the Mishnah, such as Rabbi Yochanan ben Zakai who feared assassination for suggesting a truce with the Roman forces besieging ancient Jerusalem, and had to feign death in a casket to escape being stabbed. Latin is the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Sicarii (Latin plural of Sicarius, dagger- or later contract- killer) is a term applied, in the decades immediately preceding the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 CE, to the Jewish Zealots, (or insurgents) who attempted to expel the Romans and their partisans from Judea: —Josephus, Jewish Antiquities (xx. ... The Mishnah (Hebrew משנה, repetition) is a major source of rabbinic Judaisms religious texts. ...


New Testament narratives

The New Testament was written much later but its narrative is set during those times. Some have speculated that the name of Jesus' disciple Judas Iscariot means that he was a sicarii, "daggermen" (sing. sicarius is a corruption of this term) - "Judas the Zealot". However, the Latin and Hebrew words for "zealot" sound very different, so it is hard to conclude definitively. Tax collectors, like Matthew, were often collaborating with the Romans. Paul of Tarsus was also known as a zealot, if not a Shammaite. (Gal 1:13-14) The New Testament, sometimes called the Greek Testament or Greek Scriptures is the name given to the part of the Christian Bible that was written after the birth of Jesus. ... This 11th-century portrait is one of many images of Jesus in which a halo with a cross is used. ... Judas Iscariot (died April AD 29–33, Hebrew יהודה איש־קריות YÉ™hûḏāh ʾΚ-qÉ™riyyôṯ) was, according to the New Testament, one of the twelve original apostles of Jesus, and the one who ultimately betrayed him. ... Rembrandts The Evangelist Matthew Inspired by an Angel Matthew the Evangelist (מתי Gift of the LORD, Standard Hebrew and Tiberian Hebrew Mattay; Septuagint Greek Ματθαιος, Matthaios) is traditionally believed to be the author of the Gospel of Matthew. ... An early portrait of the Apostle Paul. ... Shammaites, as a sect of Judaism, are followers of Shammai, they are considered hard-liners akin to the zealots in that they believe that an earthly Messiah will free Israel from Roman oppression and that the job of the truly righteous to give God a helping hand even through violent...


Among the Apostles of Jesus, there were two possible Zealots, Judas Iscariot and Simon the Canaanite, also known by Luke as "Simon the Zealot". The epithet for Simon is a Greek translation of an Aramaic word that corresponds to "zealot," and it is possible either that the Zealots were in existence at this time (earlier than the Sicarii identification) or simply that Simon was enthusiastic and like a Zealot. Alternate meaning: See Apostle (Mormonism) The Christian Apostles were Jewish men chosen from among the disciples, who were sent forth (as indicated by the Greek word απόστολος apostolos= messenger), by Jesus to preach the Gospel to both Jews and Gentiles, across the world. ... Judas Iscariot (died April AD 29–33, Hebrew יהודה איש־קריות YÉ™hûḏāh ʾΚ-qÉ™riyyôṯ) was, according to the New Testament, one of the twelve original apostles of Jesus, and the one who ultimately betrayed him. ... The apostle Simon, called Simon the Zealot in Luke 6:15 and Acts 1:13; and Simon Kananaios (Simon signifying שמעון hearkening; listening, Standard Hebrew Å imÊ¿on, Tiberian Hebrew Å imʿôn), was one of the most obscure among the apostles of Jesus: little is recorded of him aside from his name. ... The Gospel of Luke is the third of the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament, which tell the story of Jesus life, death, and resurrection. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ...


See also

Look up Zealot in Wiktionary, the free dictionary

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary full URL is a sister project to Wikipedia intended to be a free wiki dictionary (including thesaurus and lexicon) in every language. ... The word militant can refer to any individual engaged in warfare, a fight, combat, or generally serving as a soldier. ... Partisan may refer to: Look up Partisan in Wiktionary, the free dictionary A member of a lightly-equipped irregular military force formed to oppose control of an area by a foreign power or by an army of occupation. ... Fanaticism, from French fanatique or Latin fanaticus of a temple, inspired by a god. Fanatical character, spirit or conduct. ... There is also a movie called Intolerance. ...

Outside links

  • Jewish Encylopedia: Zealots

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Zealots - Encyclopedia.com (1096 words)
The Zealots were organized as a party during the reign (37 BC-4 BC) of Herod the Great, whose idolatrous practices they resisted.
The Zealots played a role in the unsuccessful revolt in which the Temple was destroyed (AD 70) by the Romans.
The Zealot garrison at Masada, a mountaintop fortress near the Dead Sea, was captured by the Romans only after its 900 defenders had committed mass suicide (AD 73) rather than be captured.
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