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Encyclopedia > Zarubintsy culture

The Zarubintsy culture was one of the major archaeological cultures which flourished in the area north of the Black Sea along the upper Dnieper and Pripyat Rivers, stretching west towards the Vistula Basin from the 3rd or 2nd centuries BC until the 2nd century AD. It was identified ca 1899 and is now attested by about 500 sites. It is regarded as the eastern version of the Przeworsk culture, with which it is usually joined as a single archaeological complex. In archaeology, culture refers to either of two separate but allied concepts: An archaeological culture is a pattern of similar artefacts and features found within a specific area over a limited period of time. ... Map of the Black Sea. ... This article is about the river. ... The Pripyat River (Ukrainian: Припять, Prýpyat; Belarusian: Прыпяць, Prýpyats, Polish Prypeć) is a river in Eastern Europe, of approximately 440 miles (710 km). ... Vistula river basin Vistula (Polish Wisła, German Weichsel) is the longest river in Poland. ... // Events The first two Punic Wars between Carthage and Rome over dominance in western Mediterranean Rome conquers Spain Gaulish migration to Macedonia, Thrace and Galatia 281 BCE Antiochus I Soter, on the assassination of his father Seleucus becomes emperor of the Seleucid empire. ... (3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) // Events 175 BCE - Antiochus IV Epiphanes, took possession of the Syrian throne, at the murder of his brother Seleucus IV Philopator, which rightly belonged to his nephew Demetrius I Soter. ... // Events Roman Empire governed by the Five Good Emperors (96–180) – Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius. ... 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The green area is the Przeworsk culture in the first half of the 3rd century. ...

Like its successor, the Chernyakhov culture, it was of mixed origins, influenced by the Celtic La Tène culture and the nomads of the steppes (the Scythians and the Sarmatians). Later it was also influenced by the Roman Empire's communities on the Danube. The Scythian-Sarmatian influence is evident, especially in pottery, weaponry, domestic objects and personal ornaments. The Chernyakhov culture (3rd century - 5th century) was a material culture, the distribution of which corresponded roughly to the Ukraine and parts of Belarus. ... This article is about the European people. ... The La Tène culture was an Iron Age culture named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchatel in Switzerland, where a rich trove of artifacts was discovered by Hansli Kopp in 1857. ... Kazakh nomads in the steppes of the Russian Empire, ca. ... A steppe in Western Kazakhstan in early spring In physical geography, a steppe (Russian степь or step and pronounced in English as step) is a plain without trees (apart from those near rivers and lakes); it is similar to a prairie, although a prairie is generally considered as being dominated by... Scythia was an area in Eurasia inhabited in ancient times by an Indo-Aryans known as the Scythians. ... Sarmatia Europæa separated from Sarmatia Asiatica by the Tanais (the River Don), based on Greek literary sources, in a map printed in London, ca 1770. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... The Danube (German: Donau, Slovak: Dunaj, Hungarian: Duna, Slovenian: Donava, Croatian: Dunav, Serbian: Дунав/Dunav, Bulgarian: Дунав, Romanian: Dunăre, Ukrainian: , Latin: Danuvius, Turkish: Tuna) is Europes second-longest river (after the Volga). ... Unfired green ware pottery on a traditional drying rack at Conner Prairie living history museum. ... A weapon is a tool used to kill or incapacitate a person or animal, or destroy a military target. ...

The bearers of the culture engaged in agriculture and livestock raising as well as hunting. There is evidence they also traded wild animal skins with Black Sea towns. They practiced cremation burials, with the ashes placed in an urn or pit.

Their ethnic identity has been much discussed and the dispute has been marked by political and ideological motives. Slavic scholars have argued that the Zarubintsy culture was Proto-Slavic and connected it to the Przeworsk culture. Others have stressed the influences from Central Europe, and its deep connections with the Celtic la Tène (CITATION NEEDED!) culture and considered the Scythian influences as indicative of trading. German scholars have also tried to connect the culture to the migrations of certain Germanic tribes, attested in classic literature, such as Scirii (Reineke?, 1906). Bastarnae, a tribe mentioned several times by classical authors, correspond especially well - both geographically and chronologically - to the Zarubintsy culture. It is uncertain to which linguistic group the Bastarnae belonged, but most likely they were Germanic (More evidence needed). The Slavic peoples are defined by their linguistic attainment of the Slavic languages. ... This article or section should include material from Common Slavonic Proto-Slavic is a reconstructed language which is a common ancestor of all Slavic languages. ... The green area is the Przeworsk culture in the first half of the 3rd century. ... Bastarnae were a Germanic tribe (according to Tacitus), or, possibly, a Celtic tribe in the first millennium BC. When they appear in the historical sources, they were settled in Galicia and Bukovina. ...

It is possible that the Proto-Slavic people emerged out of this cultural mix; a hypothesis which is supported by Ancient Slavic hydronyms (river-names) in the region. A hydronym, literally water name is the formal term to describe how bodies of water receive and perpetuate their names through history. ...

From the 3rd century and onwards, the culture was overrun by the Goths and became part of the Chernyakhov culture. // Overview Events 212: Constitutio Antoniniana grants citizenship to all free Roman men 212-216: Baths of Caracalla 230-232: Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east 235-284: Crisis of the Third Century shakes Roman Empire 250-538: Kofun era, the first... Invasion of the Goths: a late 19th century painting by O. Fritsche portrays the Goths as cavalrymen. ... The Chernyakhov culture (3rd century - 5th century) was a material culture, the distribution of which corresponded roughly to the Ukraine and parts of Belarus. ...

Sources and external links

  • J. P. Mallory, "Zarubintsy Culture", Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture, Fitzroy Dearborn, 1997.
  • The Early Germans
  • The Slavs in Antiquity



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