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Encyclopedia > Zarphatic
Zarphatic, Judæo-French
(Tzarfatit/צרפתית)
Spoken in: none (extinct)
Region: Europe (France)
Total speakers: none (extinct)
Ranking: not in top 100
Genetic classification: Indo-European

 Italic
  Romance
   Italo-Western
    Western
     Gallo-Iberian
      Gallo-Romance
       Gallo-Rhaetian
        Oïl
         French
World map showing location of Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is geologically and geographically a peninsula, forming the westernmost part of Eurasia. ... The French Republic or France (French: République française or France) is a country whose metropolitan territory is located in western Europe, and which is further made up of a collection of overseas islands and territories located in other continents. ... This page attempts to present a list of languages by total native speakers. ... Human Language Families Most languages are known to belong to language families (families hereforth). ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Indo-European languages include some 443 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken by about three billion people, including most of the major language families of Europe and western Asia, which belong to a single superfamily. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Italic subfamily is a member of the Centum branch of the Indo-European language group. ... The Romance languages, also called Romanic languages, are a subfamily of the Italic languages, specifically the descendants of the Vulgar Latin dialects spoken by the common people evolving in different areas after the break-up of the Roman Empire. ... The Gallo-Romance branch of Romance languages includes French, Oïl languages, Catalan, and Occitan, among other languages. ... The langue doïl language family in linguistics comprises Romance languages originating in territories now occupied by northern France, part of Belgium and the Channel Islands. ... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ...

          Zarphatic
Official status
Official language of: none
Regulated by: -
Language codes
ISO 639-1 -
ISO 639-2 roa
SIL ZRP  (http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ZRP)
See also: Language - List of languages
Main: Jewish languages
Hebrew
Biblical · Mishnaic
Ashkenazi · Sephardi
Yemenite · Sanaani
Tiberian · Mizrahi
Aramaic
Bijil Neo-Aramaic · Hulaulá
Lishana Deni · Lishan Didan
Lishanid Noshan
Other Afro-Asiatic
Judæo-Arabic · Judæo-Berber
Kayla · Kaïliña
Yiddish
National Yiddish Book Center
Yiddish Typewriter
Yiddish Theater
Yeshivish · Yinglish
Judæo-Romance languages
Catalanic · Italkian
Ladino · Judæo-Latin
Shuadit · Zarphatic
Judæo-Portuguese
Other Indo-European
Yevanic · Knaanic
Bukhori · Juhuri
Judæo-Hamedani · Dzhidi
Ural-Altaic
Krymchak · Karaim
Dravidian
Judæo-Malayalam
Kartvelic
Gruzinic

Zarphatic or Judæo-French (Zarphatic: Tsarfatit) is an extinct Jewish language, formerly spoken among the Jewish communities of northern France and in parts of what is now west-central Germany, in such cities as Mainz, Frankfurt-am-Main, and Aachen. The name Zarphatic comes from the Hebrew name for France, Tzarfat (צרפת), the Biblical name for the Phoenician city of Sarepta. Some have conjectured that Zarphatic was the original language of the Jews who eventually adopted Old High German, which led eventually to the development of Yiddish. This is a list of bodies that regulate languages. ... ISO 639 is one of several international standards that lists short codes for language names. ... SIL International is a non-profit, faith-based, scientific organization with the main purpose to study, develop and document lesser-known languages for the purpose of expanding linguistic knowledge, promoting world literacy and aiding minority language development. ... As with any complex, emergent concept, language is somewhat resistant to definition. ... This list of languages is alphabetical by English name. ... Download high resolution version (1024x1180, 21 KB)Created from Image:Wikipedia blue star of david. ... Jewish languages: The oldest and most treasured books of the Jewish people have been the Torah and Tanakh (i. ... The Modern Hebrew language is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family. ... Categories: Language stubs | Judaism-related stubs | Canaanite languages | Hebrew language ... The Mishnaic Hebrew language or Rabbinic Hebrew language is the ancient descendant of Biblical Hebrew as preserved by the Jews after the Babylonian captivity, and definitively recorded by Jewish sages in writing the Mishnah and other contemporary documents. ... The Ashkenazi Hebrew language is a descendant of Biblical Hebrew favored for liturgical use by Ashkenazi Jewish practice. ... The Sephardi Hebrew language is an offshoot of Biblical Hebrew favored for liturgical use by Sephardi Jewish practice. ... The Yemenite Hebrew language or Temani Hebrew language is a descendant of Biblical Hebrew traditionally used by Yemenite Jews. ... The Sanaani Hebrew language is the variety of Yemenite Hebrew formerly spoken liturgically by the Jewish community in and around Sanaa, Yemen. ... Tiberian Hebrew is an oral tradition of pronunciation for ancient forms of Hebrew, especially the Hebrew of the Bible, that was given written form by masoretic scholars in the Jewish community at Tiberias in the early middle ages, beginning in the 8th century. ... The Mizrahi Hebrew language or Oriental hebrew language refers to any one of the dialects of Biblical Hebrew used liturgical by Mizrahi Jews, that is, Jews living in Arab countries or further east, and typically speaking Arabic, Persian, Hindi, Chinese, or other languages of the Middle East and Asia. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a 3,000-year history. ... Bijil Neo-Aramaic is a modern Jewish Aramaic language, often called Neo-Aramaic or Judeo-Aramaic. ... Hulaulá is a modern Jewish Aramaic language, often called Neo-Aramaic or Judeo-Aramaic. ... Lishana Deni is a modern Jewish Aramaic language, often called Neo-Aramaic or Judeo-Aramaic. ... Lishán Didán is a modern Jewish Aramaic language, often called Neo-Aramaic or Judeo-Aramaic. ... Lishanid Noshan is a modern Jewish Aramaic language, often called Neo-Aramaic or Judeo-Aramaic. ... Map showing the distribution of Afro-Asiatic languages The Afro-Asiatic languages are a language family of about 240 languages and 285 million people widespread throughout North Africa, East Africa, the Sahel, and Southwest Asia. ... The Judæo-Arabic languages are a collection of Arabic dialects spoken by Jews living or formerly living in Arabic_speaking countries; the term also refers to more or less classical Arabic written in the Hebrew script, particularly in medieval times. ... Judæo-Berber is a collective term given to the Hebrew-influenced Berber varieties spoken by some North Africans Jews, mainly in Morocco (where Tachelhit was the main factor. ... Kayla or the Qwara language was used by the Beta Israel, or Ethopian Jews. ... Kaïliña is an Agaw language formerly spoken by the Beta Israel (Ethiopian Jews). ... Yiddish (Yid. ... The National Yiddish Book Center is a cultural institution dedicated to the preservation of books and documents in the Yiddish language. ... The Yiddish Typewriter (די ייִדישע שרײַבמאַשינקע - Di Yidishe Shraybmashinke) is a free online sevice to convert Yiddish texts into the original writing, also Unicode. ... Yiddish theatre consists of plays written and performed primarily by Jews in Yiddish, the language of the Eastern European Ashkenazaic Jewish community. ... Yeshivish is spoken mainly by English-speaking Orthodox Jews who have attended a yeshiva (an institute for higher Torah study), and is, indeed, the primary vehicle of communication in major American Litvish yeshivas. ... Yinglish is a humorous means of describing the distinctive way certain Haredi Jews in America speak English among themselves. ... Judæo-Romance languages are those languages derived from Romance languages, spoken by the various Jewish communities, and altered to such an extent to gain recognition as languages in their own right, joining the great number of other Jewish languages. ... Catalanic, also called Judæo-Catalan, is the Jewish language spoken by the Jewish communities of northeastern Spain, especially in Catalonia and the Balearic Islands. ... Italkian is a Jewish-Italian dialect that combines Hebrew and Italian, it has been spoken mainly between the 10th and the 17th centuries in Rome and in central and northern Italy (notably in Livorno). ... This article deals with the Judaeo-Spanish language. ... Judæo-Latin, or La‘az is the Jewish language of the many scattered Jewish communities of the former Roman Empire, but especially by the Jewish communities of the Italian Peninsula and Transalpine Gaul. ... Shuadit, also spelled Chouhadite, Chouhadit, Chouadite, Chouadit, and Shuhadit is the extinct Jewish language of southern France, also known as Judæo-Provençal, Judéo-Comtadin, Hébraïco-Comtadin. ... Judæo-Portuguese is the extinct Jewish language of the Jews of Portugal. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Indo-European languages include some 443 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken by about three billion people, including most of the major language families of Europe and western Asia, which belong to a single superfamily. ... Yevanic, otherwise known as Yevanika, Romaniote and Judeo-Greek, was the language of the Romaniotes, the group of Greek Jews whose existence in Greece is documented since the 4th century BCE. Its linguistic lineage stems from Attic Greek and the Hellenistic Koine (Κοινή Ελληνική) and includes Hebrew elements as well. ... Knaanic (also called Canaanic, Leshon Knaan or Judeo-Slavic) was a West Slavic language, formerly spoken in the Czech lands, now the Czech Republic. ... Bukhori, also known as Bukharic or Bukharan, is an Indo-Iranian language. ... Juhuri, Juwri or Judæo-Tat is the traditional language of the Juhurim or Mountain Jews of the eastern Caucasus Mountains, especially Dagestan. ... Judæo-Hamedani is the Indo-Iranian Jewish language of the Jewish community living in Hamadan, in western Iran. ... Dzhidi, or Judæo-Persian, is the Jewish language spoken by the Jews living in Persia. ... The Ural-Altaic language family is a grouping of languages which was once widely accepted by linguists, but has since been largely rejected. ... Krymchak is the Crimean Tatar language dialect spoken by the Krymchaks - Rabbanite Jews of the Crimea. ... The Karaim language is a Turkic language with Hebrew influences, in a similar manner to Yiddish or Ladino. ... The Dravidian family of languages includes approximately 26 languages that are mainly spoken in southern India and Sri Lanka, as well as certain areas in Pakistan, Nepal, and eastern and central India. ... Judæo-Malayalam is the traditional language spoken by the Cochin Jews (also called Malabar Jews), from Kerala, in southern India, spoken today by about 8,000 people in Israel and by probably fewer than 100 in India. ... The South Caucasian languages, also called Georgian or Kartvelian, are spoken primarily in Georgia, with smaller groups of speakers in Turkey, Iran, Azerbaijan, Russia, Ukraine and other countries. ... Gruzinic (also known as Kivruli and Judæo-Georgian) is the traditional language spoken by the Gruzim, the ancient Jewish community of the Caucasus nation of Georgia. ... An extinct language is a language which is no longer natively spoken: it is estimated that one natural human language dies every two weeks. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... The French Republic or France (French: République française or France) is a country whose metropolitan territory is located in western Europe, and which is further made up of a collection of overseas islands and territories located in other continents. ... The Federal Republic of Germany (German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is one of the worlds leading industrialised countries, located in the heart of Europe. ... Map of Germany showing Mainz Mainz (French Mayence) is a city in Germany, which is the capital of the German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate. ... Frankfurt am Main [ˈfraŋkfʊrt] is the largest city in the German state of Hessen and the fifth largest city of Germany. ... Map of Germany showing Aachen Aachen is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, on the border with Belgium and the Netherlands, 65 km to the west of Cologne, and the westernmost city in Germany, at 50°46 N, 6°6 E. Population: 256,605 (2003). ... The Modern Hebrew language is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family. ... 11th century Targum Tanakh [תנ״ך] (also spelt Tanach or Tenach) is an acronym for the three parts of the Hebrew Bible, based upon the initial Hebrew letters of each part: Torah [תורה] (The Law; also: Teaching or Instruction), Chumash [חומש] (The five, also Pentateuch or The five books of... Phoenicia was an ancient civilization in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coastal plain of what is now Lebanon and Syria. ... Sarepta (modern Sarafand, Lebanon) was a Phoenician city on the Mediterranean coast between Sidon and Tyre. ... Old High German is the earliest recorded form of the modern German language, and was spoken from the middle of the 9th to the end of the 11th century. ... Yiddish (Yid. ...


Zarphatic was written using a variant of the Hebrew alphabet, and made its first appearance in the 11th century, in glosses to texts of the Bible and Talmud written by the great rabbis Rashi and Rabbi Moshe HaDarshan. Constant expulsions and persecutions, resulting in great waves of Jewish migration, brought about the extinction of this short-lived, but important, language by the end of the 14th century. This article is mainly about Hebrew letters. ... A gloss is a note made in the margins or between the lines of a book, in which the meaning of the text in its original language is explained in another language. ... The first page of the Talmud, in the standard Vilna edition. ... See Semicha for article about ordination of rabbis. ... Rashi (1040-1105) is the acronym of Rabbi Solomon ben Isaac (or: Shlomo Yitzhaki). ...


One feature of Zarphatic, that sets it apart from most other Indo-European Jewish languages, is that to represent vowel sounds, rather than using Hebrew letters with no matching phonemes in the language, it instead made extensive use of the Tiberian system of nikkudot to indicate the full range of Old French vowels. Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Indo-European languages include some 443 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken by about three billion people, including most of the major language families of Europe and western Asia, which belong to a single superfamily. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... This article is mainly about Hebrew letters. ... In spoken language, a phoneme is a basic, theoretical unit of sound that can distinguish words (i. ... Tiberian Hebrew is an oral tradition of pronunciation for ancient forms of Hebrew, especially the Hebrew of the Bible, that was given written form by masoretic scholars in the Jewish community at Tiberias in the early middle ages, beginning in the 8th century. ... Niqqud or Nikkud (Standard Hebrew ניקוד, Biblical Hebrew נקדות, Tiberian Hebrew Nəquddôṯ vowels) is the system of vowel points in the Hebrew alphabet. ... Old French is a term sometimes used to refer to the langue doïl, the continuum of varieties of Romance language spoken in territories corresponding roughly to the northern half of modern France and parts of Belgium and Switzerland during the period roughly from 1000 to 1300 A.D...


Another interesting feature of Zarphatic is that it displays relatively few Hebrew loanwords. This sets it apart from the vast majority of other Jewish languages, and may indicate that it is not actually a distinct language, rather a dialect of Old French, or simply Old French, written using a different orthography. (Old French did not have a written standard.) A loanword (or a borrowing) is a word taken in by one language from another. ... Jewish languages: The oldest and most treasured books of the Jewish people have been the Torah and Tanakh (i. ... As with any complex, emergent concept, language is somewhat resistant to definition. ... A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος) is a variety of a language used by people from a particular geographic area. ... The orthography of a language is the set of rules of how to write correctly in the writing system of a language. ... The word standard has several meanings: Classically, standard referred to a flag or banner; especially, a national or other ensign carried into battle; thus standard bearer indicates the one who bears, or carries, the standard. ...


See also

  • Judæo-Romance languages

Judæo-Romance languages are those languages derived from Romance languages, spoken by the various Jewish communities, and altered to such an extent to gain recognition as languages in their own right, joining the great number of other Jewish languages. ...

References

  • Information for this article draws heavily on the information presented on the Jewish Languages project Judæo-French page (http://www.jewish-languages.org/judeo-french.html)
  • Information on the classification of Zarphatic was taken from the Ethnologue.com "Zarphatic" page (http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ZRP)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Zarphatic language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (313 words)
Zarphatic or Jud├Žo-French (Zarphatic: Tsarfatit) is an extinct Jewish language, formerly spoken among the Jewish communities of northern France and in parts of what is now west-central Germany, in such cities as Mainz, Frankfurt-am-Main, and Aachen.
Some have conjectured that Zarphatic was the original language of the Jews who eventually adopted Old High German, which led to the development of Yiddish.
One feature of Zarphatic spelling, that sets it apart from most other Indo-European Jewish languages, is that to represent vowel sounds, rather than using Hebrew letters with no matching phonemes in the language, it instead made extensive use of the Tiberian system of nikkudot to indicate the full range of Old French vowels.
NodeWorks - Encyclopedia: Zarphatic (307 words)
Some have conjectured that Zarphatic was the original language of the Jews who eventually adopted Old High German, which led eventually to the development of Yiddish.
Zarphatic was written using a variant of the Hebrew alphabet, and made its first appearance in the 11
One feature of Zarphatic, that sets it apart from most other Indo-European Jewish languages, is that to represent vowel sounds, rather than using Hebrew letters with no matching phonemes in the language, it instead made extensive use of the Tiberian system of nikkudot to indicate the full range of Old French vowels.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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