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Encyclopedia > Zaporozhian Host
The Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Turkey. Painted by Ilya Repin from 1880 to 1891.
The Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Turkey. Painted by Ilya Repin from 1880 to 1891.

The Zaporozhian Host or Zaporozhian Voisko (Ukrainian: Запорозьке Войсько, Zaporoz’ke Vois’ko, sometimes translated Cossack Army), also called Zaporizhian Sich after its fortified capital, was a political, social, and military organization of Ukrainian (Ruthenian) Cossacks, from the 16th to the 18th centuries. It was established in the central Ukrainian territory called Zaporizhzhia, below the rapids of the Dnieper river. Its appearance challenged the authority of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Muscovy, and Ottoman Empire, all of which desired to control its territories and people. The Host was formally recognized as an equal entity by the Commonwealth at the Treaty of Hadiach 1648. It went through a series of conflicts and alliances involving Poland, the Crimean Khanate, and Muscovy, then came under the protection of Muscovy after the Treaty of Pereyaslav in 1654. The Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan of Turkey (1880-91). ... The Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan of Turkey (1880-91). ... Sultan Mehmed IV Mehmed IV (January 2, 1642–1693), also known as Dördüncü (fourth) and Avci (hunter), was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1648 to 1687. ... Ilyá Yefímovich Répin (Илья́ Ефи́мович Ре́пин) (August 5, 1844 (Julian calendar: July 24) – September 29, 1930) was a leading Russian painter and sculptor of the Peredvizhniki artistic school. ... Zaporizhian Sich or Zaporozhian Sech (Ukrainian: Запорозька Січ, Zaporozka Sich) original Slavonic name Zaporizhska Sich was the center of the Cossacks of Zaporizhzhia. ... Ruthenians is a name that has been applied to different ethnic groups at different times; for an explanation of the reasons for this, see Ruthenia. ... This article needs cleanup. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Zaporizhia (Ukrainian: Запоріжжя, Zaporizhzhia; Polish: Zaporoże or Dzikie Pola (Wild Fields), Russian: Запоро́жье, Zaporozhye) is a historical region of Ukraine. ... This article is about the river. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское) to Russian Tsardom (Царство Русское) is a traditional Western name for the Russian state that existed from the 14th century to the late 17th century. ... The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (Ottoman Turkish for the Eternal State) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Constantinople (Ä°stanbul) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 6. ... This is a 19th century design for a COA of a proposed Polish-Lithuanian-Ruthenian Commonwealth which never came into being. ... // Events Peace treaty signed at Westphalia ends the Thirty Years War. ... The Crimean Khanate (Khanate of Crimea), 1441–1783, the independent state of the Crimean Tatar people. ... Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское) to Russian Tsardom (Царство Русское) is a traditional Western name for the Russian state that existed from the 14th century to the late 17th century. ... Pereyaslav Rada The Treaty of Pereyaslav was concluded in 1654 in the Ukrainian city of Pereyaslav during the meeting known as Pereyaslavska Uhoda (Pereyaslav Treaty). ...


The Zaporozhian Host was led by a hetman and the supreme government body called the Sich Rada. The most famous hetmans were Bohdan Khmelnytsky, Petro Sahaidachny, Pylyp Orlyk, and Ivan Mazepa. Cossack society was semi-militarized. Their territory was organized into regimental districts (polky), further subdivided into company districts (sotni) and villages (stanytsi). Senior officers were the starshyna. Hetman (from Czech: hejtman, German: Hauptmann, Old Slavonik vatamman, Turkish: Ataman) was the title of the second highest military commander (after the monarch) used in 15th to 18th century Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania, known from 1569 to 1795 as the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Rada is the term for council or assembly borrowed by Polish from Middle High German Rat (council) and later passed into Czech, Ukrainian, and Belarusian languages. ... Bohdan Zynovii Mykhailovych Khmelnytskyi (Богдан Зиновій Михайлович Хмельницький in Ukrainian, commonly transliterated as Khmelnytsky; known in Polish as Bogdan Zenobi Chmielnicki; in Russian as Bohdan Khmelnitsky) ( 1595 – August 6, 1657) was a Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth noble of Polish or Ruthenian origin, leader of the Zaporozhian Cossack Hetmanate, hetman of Ukraine, noted for... Ivan Stepanovich Mazepa (Іван Степанович Мазепа in Ukrainian; Иван Степанович Мазепа in Russian, historically spelled as Mazeppa) (circa 1640 — August 28, 1709), Cossack Hetman (Ataman) of the Left-bank Ukraine in 1687—1708. ... // Size and Composition A regiment is a military unit, larger than a company and smaller than a division. ... Starshina, or Starshyna (Ukrainian and Russian: , from старший, starshyi, senior), had a number of meanings, all related to the position of chiefdom. ...


After the Treaty of Pereyaslav in 1654, the Host became at least nominally a part of the Russian state (Muscovy and later the Russian Empire), although for a long time it enjoyed nearly complete autonomy. Under Russia, the Host comprised the Cossack Hetmanate of Left-bank Ukraine, and Zaporozhia, centred around the fortress, Zaporizhian Sich. It was called Little Russia by the Russians. Pereyaslav Rada The Treaty of Pereyaslav was concluded in 1654 in the Ukrainian city of Pereyaslav during the meeting known as Pereyaslavska Uhoda (Pereyaslav Treaty). ... Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское) to Russian Tsardom (Царство Русское) is a traditional Western name for the Russian state that existed from the 14th century to the late 17th century. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of Russian history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... The Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan of Turkey. ... Left-bank Ukraine (Ukrainian: Лівобережна Україна Russian: Левобережная Украина, Polish: Lewobrzeżna Ukraina ): historic name of the part of Ukraine on the left bank of the Dnipro River, comprising the modern-day regions of Chernihiv, Poltava and Sumy and the eastern part of the Kyiv and Cherkasy regions, in Russian histories... Zaporizhia (Ukrainian: Запоріжжя, Zaporizhzhia; Polish: Zaporoże or Dzikie Pola (Wild Fields), Russian: Запоро́жье, Zaporozhye) is a historical region of Ukraine. ... Zaporizhian Sich or Zaporozhian Sech (Ukrainian: Запорозька Січ, Zaporozka Sich) original Slavonic name Zaporizhska Sich was the center of the Cossacks of Zaporizhzhia. ... Little Russia or Malorossiya (Russian: ) was the name for the territory of Ukraine applied in the time of the Russian Empire and earlier. ...


Cossacks fought for their independence from Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, which attempted to turn them into serfs, and later began several uprisings against the Russian Tsar, which wanted to destroy their independend culture. Gradually, their state lost its autonomy granted to it after Pereyaslav, and was eventually abolished by Empress Catherine the Great. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Costumes of Slaves or Serfs, from the Sixth to the Twelfth Centuries, collected by H. de Vielcastel, from original Documents in the great Libraries of Europe. ... Tsar (Bulgarian цар, Russian царь,   listen?; often spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English), was the title used for the autocratic rulers of the First and Second Bulgarian Empires since 913, in Serbia in the middle of the 14th century, and in Russia from 1547 to 1917 (although... Catherine II (Екатерина II Алексеевна: Yekaterína II Alekséyevna, April 21, 1729 - November 6, 1796), born Sophie Augusta Fredericka, known as Catherine the Great, reigned as empress of Russia from June 28, 1762, to her death on November 6, 1796. ...


See also


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The Host was formally recognized as a third consituent part of the Commonwealth (together with Poland and Lithuania) in the Treaty of Hadiach ratified by the Polish Sejm or parliament in 1659.
The last Zaporozhian leader, Petro Kalnyshevsky, was arrested and exiled to Siberia (where he lived to 105 years of age, despite latter pardon), while some of the cossacks (approximately 5,000) sought refuge on the Danube delta region in Turkey.
Much of the original Zaporozhian legacy remains in the Kuban peoples, including in their dialect, and in the folk music, although none ([2], [3]) consider themselves to be Ukrainian, and most hold exclussively patriotic position for the future of Russia.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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