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Encyclopedia > Zapatista Army of National Liberation
The flag of the EZLN.
The flag of the EZLN.

The Zapatista Army of National Liberation (Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional, EZLN) is an armed revolutionary group based in Chiapas, one of the poorest states of Mexico. Their social base is mostly indigenous but they have supporters in urban areas as well as an international web of support. Their spokesperson and military commander, although not their leader, is Subcomandante Marcos (currently a.k.a. Delegate Zero in relation to the "Other Campaign"). Unlike other Zapatista comandantes, Subcomandante Marcos is not an indigenous Mayan. Image File history File links Flag_of_the_EZLN.svg Summary The flag of the w:EZLN, based from [1] and [2] Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Zapatista Army of National Liberation User:Cmadler User:Dtasripin User:Konulu User:Horses In The Sky User:Nightstallion/userboxes Template talk... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_EZLN.svg Summary The flag of the w:EZLN, based from [1] and [2] Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Zapatista Army of National Liberation User:Cmadler User:Dtasripin User:Konulu User:Horses In The Sky User:Nightstallion/userboxes Template talk... For other uses, see Revolution (disambiguation). ... Location within Mexico Country  Mexico Capital Tuxtla Gutiérrez Municipalities 118 Largest City Tuxtla Gutiérrez Government  - Governor Juan José Sabines Guerrero ( PRD)  - Federal Deputies PRI: 7 PRD: 5  - Federal Senators PRI: 1 PRD: 1 PVEM: 1 Area Ranked 8th  - State 74,211 km²  (28,653 sq mi) Population (2005... The United Mexican States or Mexico (Estados Unidos Mexicanos or México) is a federal republic made up of 31 states (estados) and one Federal District, (Distrito Federal), which contains the capital, Mexico City. ... Subcomandante Marcos in Chiapas Subcomandante Insurgente Marcos (allegedly born June 19, 1957 in Tampico, Tamaulipas, Mexico), also known as Delegado Cero (Delegate Zero) in matters concerning the Other Campaign, describes himself as the spokesperson for the Zapatista Army of National Liberation (EZLN) but, due to his prominence in the EZLN... The Other Campaign (Spanish: La otra campaña) is a two-part plan of the Zapatista Army of National Liberation (EZLN for its Spanish initials). ... Mayas at San Juan Chamula, Chiapas Mexico has defined itself, in the second article of its constitution, as a pluricultural nation, in recognition of the diverse ethnic groups that constitute it. ... This article is about the contemporary indigenous peoples and cultures who descend from, or remain, speakers of the Mayan languages of southern Mesoamerica. ...


In 1994 they "declared war to the mexican state".


The group takes its name from Emiliano Zapata, the most progressive proponent of the Mexican Revolution (1910-1920); The Zapatistas see themselves as his ideological heirs. Emiliano Zapata Salazar (August 8, 1879 – April 10, 1919) was a leading figure in the Mexican Revolution, which broke out in 1910, and which was initially directed against the dictatorship of Porfirio Díaz. ...


Some consider the Zapatista movement the first "post-modern" revolution: an armed revolutionary group that has abstained from using their weapons since their 1994 uprising was countered by the overpowering military might of the Mexican Army. The Zapatistas have survived because they quickly adopted a new strategy by trying to garner the support of Mexican and international civil society. They try to achieve this by making use of the internet to disseminate their communiqués and to enlist the support of NGOs and solidarity groups. Outwardly, they portray themselves as part of the wider anti-globalization, anti-neoliberalism social movement while for their indigenous base the Zapatista struggle is all about control over their own resources, particularly the land they live on. Postmodernism is a term applied to a wide-ranging set of developments in critical theory, philosophy, architecture, art, literature, and culture, which are generally characterized as either emerging from, in reaction to, or superseding, modernism. ... Heroic Naval Military Academy cadets Mexicos armed forces number about 300,000. ... NGO is an abbreviation or code for: Non-governmental organization Nagoya Airport (IATA code) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The term anti stems from a Canadian TKer who goes by the alias /|r51-AnTi. ... For the school of international relations, see Neoliberalism (international relations). ... American Civil Rights Movement is one of the most famous social movements of the 20th century. ...

Contents

Ideology

Zapatista Insurgency
Part of Chiapas Conflict
Date January 1, 1994 to Present
Location Chiapas, Mexico
Result Mexican army military victory; Low intensity civilian resistance ongoing.
Combatants
EZLN Mexican Army
Commanders
Subcomandante Marcos
Subcomandante Elisa
Carlos Salinas
Ernesto Zedillo
Strength
about 3000 insurgents and militia and tens of thousands civilian supporters (bases de apoyo)
70,000 federal soldiers and police are stationed in Chiapas
Casualties
Thousands
unknown

The EZLN opposes corporate globalization, or neoliberalism, arguing that it severely and negatively affects the peasant way of life of its indigenous support base. is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Location within Mexico Country  Mexico Capital Tuxtla Gutiérrez Municipalities 118 Largest City Tuxtla Gutiérrez Government  - Governor Juan José Sabines Guerrero ( PRD)  - Federal Deputies PRI: 7 PRD: 5  - Federal Senators PRI: 1 PRD: 1 PVEM: 1 Area Ranked 8th  - State 74,211 km²  (28,653 sq mi) Population (2005... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_EZLN.svg Summary The flag of the w:EZLN, based from [1] and [2] Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Zapatista Army of National Liberation User:Cmadler User:Dtasripin User:Konulu User:Horses In The Sky User:Nightstallion/userboxes Template talk... The Zapatista Army of National Liberation (Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional, EZLN) is an armed revolutionary group based in Chiapas, one of the poorest states of Mexico. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mexico. ... Heroic Naval Military Academy cadets Mexicos armed forces number about 300,000. ... Subcomandante Marcos in Chiapas Subcomandante Insurgente Marcos (allegedly born June 19, 1957 in Tampico, Tamaulipas, Mexico), also known as Delegado Cero (Delegate Zero) in matters concerning the Other Campaign, describes himself as the spokesperson for the Zapatista Army of National Liberation (EZLN) but, due to his prominence in the EZLN... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Ernesto Zedillo Ponce de León (born December 27, 1951) was President of Mexico from 1994 to 2000. ... For the school of international relations, see Neoliberalism (international relations). ...


The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) is an example of neoliberal policy that the EZLN is against. Apart from opening the Mexican market to cheap mass-produced US agricultural products it spells an end to Mexican crop subsidies and drastically reduces income and living standards of many southern Mexican farmers who cannot compete with the subsidized, artificially fertilized, mechanically harvested and genetically modified imports from the United States. The signing of NAFTA also resulted in the removal of Article 27 Section VII in the Mexican Constitution which previously had guaranteed land reparations to indigenous groups throughout Mexico. The start of the 1994 Zapatista revolution was made to coincide with the coming into effect of NAFTA. NAFTA redirects here. ... This article is about the current Political Constitution of the United Mexican States. ...


Another key element of the Zapatista ideology is how they aspire to realize a new vision of politics: A truly participatory one that comes from the "bottom-up" instead of "top-down." The Zapatistas view the contemporary political system of Mexico as one that is inherently flawed due to what they claim is its purely representative nature and obvious disconnection from the people and their needs. The EZLN claims to, in contrast, reinforce the idea of participatory democracy by limiting public servants' terms to only two weeks a term, lacking visible organization leaders and constantly referring to the people they are governing for major decisions, strategies and conceptual visions. As Marcos reiterates time and time again, "my real commander is the people." In accordance with this principle, the Zapatistas are not a political party: they do not seek office throughout the state and wish to reconceptualize the entire Mexican political system rather than perpetuating it by attempting to gain power within its ranks. Politics of Mexico takes place in a framework of a federal presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Mexico is both head of state and head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ...


Unusual for any revolutionary organization, documents released by the EZLN [1] (in Spanish) before the initial uprising in 1994 explicitly defined a right of the people to resist any unjust actions of the EZLN. However, it can be argued that this has been a right in a number of other rebellions and revolutions, particularly in the Anglo-Saxon tradition, such as the Glorious Revolution and Shays' Rebellion, as well as arguably being the view of the moderate majority of parliamentarians in the English Civil War. They also defined a right of the people to: The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (VII of Scotland) in 1688 by a union of Parliamentarians and the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange), who as a result ascended the English throne as William... Shays rebellion was an armed uprising in Western Massachusetts from 1786 to 1787. ... For other uses, see English Civil War (disambiguation). ...

demand that the revolutionary armed forces not intervene in matters of civil order or the disposition of capital relating to agriculture, commerce, finances, and industry, as these are the exclusive domain of the civil authorities, elected freely and democratically". Furthermore, it added that the people should "acquire and possess arms to defend their persons, families and property, according to the laws of disposition of capital of farms, commerce, finance and industry, against the armed attacks committed by the revolutionary forces or those of the government. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Finance studies and addresses the ways in which individuals, businesses, and organizations raise, allocate, and use monetary resources over time, taking into account the risks entailed in their projects. ...

Brief history

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Overview

This section highlights some of the most important events in the Zapatistas' history.


The Zapatistas went public on January 1, 1994, the day that the NAFTA agreement went into effect. The initial goal of the EZLN was to instigate a revolution in all of Mexico but as this did not happen, they used their uprising as a platform to call the world's attention to their movement to protest the signing of NAFTA, which the EZLN felt would only intensify the gap between the rich and the poor in Chiapas. The EZLN does not demand independence from Mexico, but rather autonomy, asking (among other things) that the natural resources that are extracted from Chiapas benefit more directly the people of Chiapas. They aim to impose a communist government in Mexico, or a form of socialism that theorizes freedom and equality can be obtained from the abolition of property and individual rights mixed with the absence of any government coercion.[citation needed] is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ...


Short armed clashes in Chiapas ended on January 12, 1994, with a ceasefire brokered by the Catholic diocese in San Cristóbal de las Casas under Bishop Samuel Ruiz, a well known liberation theologist. Some of the land taken over by the Zapatistas in 1994 was retained but the territory they militarily held for a little more than a year was overrun by the Mexican army in a surprise raid in February 1995. While army camps were set up along all major thoroughfares, the Mexican army failed to capture the guerrilla movement's commanders. After that, the Mexican government instead pursued a policy of negotiation, while the Zapatistas developed a mobilization and media campaign through numerous newspaper comunicados and over time a set of Six Declarations of the Lacandon Jungle with no further military actions on their part. A strong international internet presence has prompted the adherence to the movement of numerous left-wing international groups. is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Samuel Ruiz García (born 3 November 1924) was a Mexican bishop from San Cristóbal de las Casas, Chiapas from 1959 until 1999. ... Guerilla may refer to Guerrilla warfare. ... In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms which refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially in the American sense of the word), or with opposition...


The Intercontinental Encounter for Humanity and against Neoliberalism held in Chiapas in 1996 resulted in various pro-Zapatista support groups emerging outside of Mexico, particularly in the US, Argentina, Spain, Italy, Germany, Austria, Switzerland, France and Britain.


Government talks with the EZLN culminated in the signing of the San Andrés Accords (1996) that granted autonomy and special rights to the indigenous population. With the new government of President Fox in 2001, the Zapatistas marched on Mexico City to present their case to the Mexican Congress, a movement which was largely saw as a media show-off . Watered-down agreements were rejected by the rebels who proceeded to create 32 "autonomous municipalities" in Chiapas, thus partially implementing the agreements without government support but with some funding from international organizations. The San Andrés Accords are an agreement reached between the Zapatista Army of National Liberation and the Mexican government, at that time headed by President Ernesto Zedillo. ... Vicente Fox Quesada (born July 2, 1942) is the current president of Mexico. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Nickname: Motto: Capital en movimiento Location of Mexico City in south central Mexico Coordinates: , Country Federal entity Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded c. ... Congress of Mexico - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... A municipio (Spanish for municipality) is a second-level political and administrative division in Mexico. ...


On June 28, 2005 the Zapatistas presented the so-called Sixth Declaration of the Lacandon Jungle declaring their principles and vision for Mexico and the world. is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Sixth Declaration of the Lacandon Jungle (Spanish: Sexta Declaración de la Selva Lacandona) was a manifesto issued by the Zapatista Army of National Liberation (Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional, EZLN) on June 28, 2005, declaring their principles and vision for Mexico and the world. ... For other uses, see World (disambiguation). ...


The first such declaration, issued in 1993, had amounted to a declaration of war on the Mexican government, which they considered so out of touch with the will of the people as to make it completely illegitimate. Subsequent declarations have focused on non-violent solutions, both through political channels and through the assumption of many of the functions of government in the Chiapas state of southeastern Mexico. Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs a declaration of war against the Empire of Japan on December 8, 1941, one day after the attack on Pearl Harbor. ...


This latest declaration reiterates the support of the Zapatistas for the indigenous peoples who compose roughly one third of the population of the state of Chiapas, and extends the cause to include "all the exploited and dispossessed of Mexico." It also expresses the movement's simpathy to the international alter-globalization movement, and offers to provide material aid to those in Cuba, Bolivia, Ecuador and elsewhere, with whom they make common cause. The declaration ends with an exhortation for all who have more respect for humanity than for money to join with the Zapatistas in the struggle for social justice both in Mexico and abroad. In this new Declaration, the EZLN called for an alternative national campaign (the "Other Campaign") in opposition to the current presidential campaign. In preparation for this alternative campaign, the Zapatistas invited to their territory over 600 national leftist organizations, indigenous groups and non-governmental organizations in order to listen to their claims for human rights in a series of biweekly meetings that culminated in a plenary meeting in September 16, the day Mexico celebrates its independence from Spain. In this meeting, Subcomandante Marcos requested official adherence of the organizations to the Sixth Declaration, and detailed a six-month tour of the Zapatistas through all 31 Mexican states that took place concurrently with the electoral campaign starting January 2006. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Anti-globalization. ... The Other Campaign (Spanish: La otra campaña) is a two-part plan of the Zapatista Army of National Liberation (EZLN for its Spanish initials). ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

This sign reads, in Spanish: Top sign: "You are in Zapatista rebel territory. Here the people give the orders and the government obeys." Bottom sign: "North Zone. Council of Good Government. Trafficking in weapons, planting of drugs, drug use, alcoholic beverages, and illegal sales of wood are strictly prohibited. No to the destruction of nature." Federal Highway 307, Chiapas.
This sign reads, in Spanish: Top sign: "You are in Zapatista rebel territory. Here the people give the orders and the government obeys." Bottom sign: "North Zone. Council of Good Government. Trafficking in weapons, planting of drugs, drug use, alcoholic beverages, and illegal sales of wood are strictly prohibited. No to the destruction of nature." Federal Highway 307, Chiapas.

"Everything for everyone, and nothing for ourselves." ("Para todos todo, para nosotros nada.") is a Zapatista slogan. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (751x1000, 118 KB) Federal Highway 307, Chiapas. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (751x1000, 118 KB) Federal Highway 307, Chiapas. ... Gunrunning, also known as arms trafficking, is trafficking in (smuggling) contraband weapons and ammunition. ... Farming, ploughing rice paddy, in Indonesia Agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fiber and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals (livestock). ... Recreational drug use is the use of psychoactive drugs for recreational rather than medical or spiritual purposes, although the distinction is not always clear. ... Alcoholic beverages. ... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... “Natural” redirects here. ... Location within Mexico Country  Mexico Capital Tuxtla Gutiérrez Municipalities 118 Largest City Tuxtla Gutiérrez Government  - Governor Juan José Sabines Guerrero ( PRD)  - Federal Deputies PRI: 7 PRD: 5  - Federal Senators PRI: 1 PRD: 1 PVEM: 1 Area Ranked 8th  - State 74,211 km²  (28,653 sq mi) Population (2005...


Detailed History

The group was founded on November 17, 1983 by non-indigenous members of the FLN guerrilla group from Mexico's urban north and by indigenous inhabitants of the remote Las Cañadas/Selva Lacandona regions in eastern Chiapas, by members of former rebel movements. Over the years, the group slowly grew, building on social relations among the indigenous base and making use of an organizational infrastructure created by peasant organizations and the Catholic church. The Zapatistas appeared on the national and international scene on January 1, 1994, the same day that the North American Free Trade Agreement between Mexico, the United States and Canada became operational, as a way of stating the presence of indigenous peoples in a globalized world. 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... The National Liberation Front (French: Front de libération nationale, Arabic: Jabhah al-Taḩrīr al-Waţanī) is a socialist political party in Algeria. ... Tha Lacandon Jungle (Spanish: Selva Lacandona) is a jungle in the state of Chiapas, Mexico. ... In a detail of Brueghels Land of Cockaigne (1567) a soft-boiled egg has little feet to rush to the luxuriating peasant who catches drops of honey on his tongue, while roast pigs roam wild: in fact, hunger and harsh winters were realities for the average European in the... The name Catholic Church can mean a visible organization that refers to itself as Catholic, or the invisible Christian Church, viz. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... NAFTA redirects here. ... The term indigenous people has no universal, standard or fixed definition, but can be used about any ethnic group who inhabit the geographic region with which they have the earliest historical connection. ...


Indigenous fighters wearing the black ski masks (pasamontañas) or red bandanas (paliacates) that have since become the group's trademark, some of them armed only with fake wooden rifles provided by their leaders, took hold of five municipalities in Chiapas. There was token resistance in four of those and hundreds of casualties in and around the city of Ocosingo. The Zapatistas officially declared war against the Mexican government, and announced their plans to march towards Mexico City, the capital of Mexico, either defeating the Mexican army or allowing it to surrender and imposing a war tax on the cities that they conquered in their way. This article is about the headgear known as a balaclava, for information about the town in the Crimea see: Balaklava. ... Ocosingo is a town in the Mexican state of Chiapas. ... This article describes the government of the United Mexican States. ...


After just a few days of localized fighting in the jungle, and, having the army defeated the rebels, President Carlos Salinas de Gortari, then in his last year in office, offered a cease-fire agreement and opened dialog with the rebels, whose official spokesperson was Subcomandante Marcos. After twelve days, the fighting stopped. Carlos Salinas de Gortari (born April 3, 1948 in Mexico City) was President of Mexico from 1988 to 1994. ... Rebel may mean: A participant in a rebellion, see Rebellion. ...


The dialogue between the Zapatistas and the government extended over a period of three years and ended with the San Andrés Accords, which entailed modifying the national constitution in order to grant special rights, including autonomy, to indigenous people. A commission of deputies from different political parties, called COCOPA, slightly modified the agreements with the acceptance of the EZLN. However, the new President of Mexico, Ernesto Zedillo, said Congress would have to decide whether to pass it or not. Claiming a violation of promises at the negotiating table, the EZLN went back into the jungle, while Zedillo increased the military presence in Chiapas to prevent the spread of EZLN's influence. An unofficial truce accompanied by EZLN's silence ensued for the next three years, the last in Zedillo's term. The President of the United Mexican States is the head of state of Mexico. ... Term of office: 1 December 1994 – 1 December 2000 Preceded by: Carlos Salinas de Gortari Succeeded by: Vicente Fox Quesada Date of birth: 27 December 1951 Place of birth: Mexico City Profession: Economist First Lady: Nilda Patricia Velasco Political Party: PRI Ernesto Zedillo Ponce de León was President of... For other uses, see Jungle (disambiguation). ...


After the dialogue ended, many accusations were made against the Mexican army and paramilitary groups due to prosecution, detentions and killings of Zapatistas and supporters; one particular incident was the Massacre of Acteal, where 45 people attending a church service were killed by unknown persons. The motives and the identities of the attackers aren't clear, to the point it might not be related to the EZLN at all (however, the survivors claim that they were attacked by paramilitaries). The Acteal Massacre was a massacre of 45 people (although some sources claim 60 or more) attending a prayer meeting of Roman Catholic activists for indigenous causes in the small village of Acteal in the Mexican state of Chiapas. ...


Almost at the end of the armed conflict between the Mexican army and the Zapatista rebels, the Mexican army could overun most Zapatista forces. Subcomandante Marcos, realizing that his rebels were near total defeat, and not having the expected support, got an agreement with the Mexican government to cease fire. [citation needed] The Mexican government accepted due to the fact that the armed conflict took away the lives of many civilians during the shooting. [citation needed]


In 2000 President Vicente Fox Quesada, the first from the opposition in 71 years, sent the COCOPA Law (constitutional changes) to Congress on one of his first acts of government (December 5, 2000), as he had promised during his campaign. After seeing the criticism and proposed modifications by notable congressmen, Subcomandante Marcos and part of his group decided to go, unarmed, to Mexico City in order to speak at congress in support of the original proposal. After a march through seven Mexican states with substantial support from the population and media coverage (and escorted by police to protect the EZLN members), representatives of the EZLN (not including Marcos) spoke at Congress in March 2001, in a controversial event. The march was nicknamed "Zapatour", and on the day of their arrival an unrelated concert for peace was held. During their stay they visited schools and universities. Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... Vicente Fox Quesada (born July 2, 1942) is the current president of Mexico. ... Congress of Mexico - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... Subcomandante Marcos in Chiapas Subcomandante Insurgente Marcos (allegedly born June 19, 1957 in Tampico, Tamaulipas, Mexico), also known as Delegado Cero (Delegate Zero) in matters concerning the Other Campaign, describes himself as the spokesperson for the Zapatista Army of National Liberation (EZLN) but, due to his prominence in the EZLN...


Soon after the EZLN had returned to Chiapas, Congress approved a different version of the COCOPA Law, which did not include the autonomy clauses, claiming they were in contradiction with some constitutional rights (including private property and secret voting); this and other changes were seen as a betrayal by the EZLN and other political groups. These constitutional changes still had to be approved by a majority of state congresses. Many political and ethnic groups filed complaints both against and in favour of the changes, which were finally approved and went into effect on August 14, 2001. This, and the still recent electoral victory of President Fox in 2000 slowed down the movement, which had less media coverage since then. This page deals with property as ownership rights. ... The Polling by William Hogarth (1755); Before the secret ballot was introduced voter intimidation was commonplace The secret ballot is a process in elections where the choice of the voters is kept confidential. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ...


As a last recourse to void the changes, a constitutionality complaint was filed to be resolved by the Supreme Court of Justice, which ruled in September 6, 2002 that since they were constitutional changes made by Congress and not a law as it was wrongly called, it was outside its power to reverse the changes, as that would be an invasion of Congress' sovereignty. is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ...


Until 2004, many people believed Marcos had fled Chiapas. Attempts to contact him failed or were answered by email or internet publications. Marcos denies being the head of the Zapatista movement, instead presenting himself as a spokesman, but he is by far the most prominent figure of the EZLN to the public. The collective leadership of the EZLN is made up of 23 commanders and 1 sub commander. This is one of the unique characteristics of the Comité Clandestino Revolucionario Indígena or CCRI, Revolutionary Indigenous Clandestine Committee).


The communiques of 2004 list accomplishments and failures of their movement. From their own point of view, the Councils of Good Government, or Juntas de Buen Gobierno have been successful, as well as efforts to keep the violence between them and the military to a minimum. Their efforts to increase the role of women in cultural and political matters were not as successful. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


He also reiterated the EZLN's long known opposition to what they see as a worldwide movement towards a neoliberal globalized economy, claiming that the current trend in government policies disempowers the people and establishes a de facto corporate government. The United States' "war on terror", IMF/World Bank sponsored economic policies, and free trade agreements are seen as an application of these policies. For the school of international relations, see Neoliberalism (international relations). ... A KFC franchise in Kuwait. ... This article is about U.S. actions, and those of other states, after September 11, 2001. ... The flag of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is the international organization entrusted with overseeing the global financial system by monitoring foreign exchange rates and balance of payments, as well as offering technical and financial assistance when asked. ... The World Bank (the Bank), a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), was formally established on December 27, 1945, following the ratification of the Bretton Woods agreement. ... Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ...


In October 2004, Subcomandante Marcos issued communiques explaining the problems that the EZLN had with the Mexican government. Some Zapatista communities were expelled from their homes. The EZLN claims that this is an attempt to gain control of an area rich in natural resources. These communities were relocated with great difficulty due to lack of resources, something that the EZLN intended to alleviate by calling for international help. October 2004 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December See also: October 2004 in sports Events Deaths in October • 29 HRH Princess Alice • 25 John Peel • 24 James Cardinal Hickey • 23 Robert Merrill • 19 Paul Nitze • 18 K. M. Veerappan • 16 Pierre Salinger • 10 Christopher...


However, the relevance of the EZLN to the national political agenda diminished. The Zapatistas maintain that this silent period of their uprising has been an extremely rich effort, centered in organizing their own "good government" and autonomously organized lives; in particular the establishment of an autonomous education and healthcare system, with its own schools, hospitals and pharmacies in places neglected by the Mexican government. Recently, with the Sixth Declaration of the Lacandon jungle it seems that the Zapatistas will soon re-enter into the political arena. The Lacandon people are indigenous Native American Maya people who live mostly in the jungles in Chiapas, Mexico (until 1854 a part of Guatemala). ...


There are currently 32 of the so-called "rebel autonomous zapatista municipalities" (independent Zapatista communities, MAREZ from their name in Spanish) in Chiapas.


Controversies

In the late months of 2002, Subcommandante Marcos wrote a letter to a Spanish supporter on October 12, the date Columbus arrived to the Americas in 1492, (according to EZLN, the day marked as the beginning of the suffering of indigenous suffering). In that long letter, Marcos calls Spanish Judge Baltasar Garzón a "grotesque clown" for, among other things, banning Batasuna, an independent Basque nationalist party on claims it was supporting the Basque terrrorist group ETA, and then calling Garzón's attempt to try Chilean General Pinochet for human rights violations against Spanish citizens a "fool-deceiving tale". Marcos also criticized the Spanish monarchy and then Spanish Prime Minister José María Aznar. After the publication of the letter by the Mexican press on November 25, Marcos and Garzón exchanged many more via the international press, in a not-so-elegant duel of words, which included Marcos' joking acceptance of Garzón's challenge to a debate, betting to reveal his secret identity if he lost against Garzón's commitment to the EZLN cause if he won. The whole incident caused much debate among many of Marcos' supporters. Some were upset about Marcos devoting his time to other causes; others thought the tone of his letters was improper of the official spokesman of the EZLN and finally others interpreted his letters as supporting ETA. Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator and colonialist who is one of the first Europeans to discover the Americas, after the Vikings. ... Also film, 1492: Conquest of Paradise. ... Baltasar Garzón (Photo credit: Presidency of Argentina. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Gernika oak is a symbol of Basque freedoms. ... Languages Basque - few monoglots Spanish - 1,525,000 monoglots French - 150,000 monoglots Basque-Spanish - 600,000 speakers Basque-French - 76,000 speakers [4] other native languages Religions Traditionally Roman Catholic The Basques (Basque: ) are an indigenous people[5] who inhabit parts of northeastern Spain and southwestern France. ... For other uses, see ETA (disambiguation). ... General Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte1 (born November 25, 1915) was head of the military government that ruled Chile from 1973 to 1990. ... Coat of Arms of the King of Spain King of Spain redirects here. ...   (born in Madrid on February 25, 1953) is a Spanish politician who served as Spanish prime minister from 1996 to 2004. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In February 2003, Marcos wrote yet another letter. This one condemned the congressmen of the only party that supported the Zapatistas to some degree, the leftist Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD). Marcos claimed they agreed to approve a modified version of the EZLN-sanctioned COCOPA Law the previous year. That letter and the replies that followed left many of EZLN's strongest and most influential allies ill-disposed toward Marcos. It was not a surprising move, however, since the PRD had dismissed the San Andrés Accords. 2003 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December A timeline of events in the news for February, 2003. ... The Party of the Democratic Revolution (in Spanish: Partido de la Revolución Democrática, PRD) is one of the three main political parties in Mexico. ...


Aside from criticism of political actors, Marcos vaguely described EZLN's ongoing work in its zones of influence and changes in its internal organization.


Political initiatives

Since December 1994, the Zapatistas had been gradually forming several autonomous municipalities, more or less independent of the Mexican government. By August 2003 these municipalities had evolved into the so-called local governments "juntas", implementing several communist programs: food-producing programs, health and school systems. Then several "Juntas of Good Government" formed by representatives of the autonomous municipalities and overseen by the EZLN were created as an upper level of government under the motto mandar obedeciendo (to command obeying). These renegade municipalities had been tolerated by the government. Although they do not tax the inhabitants, the Zapatistas decide, through assemblies, to work in communitarian projects; when someone does not participate in these communitarian efforts it is discussed and sometimes it is decided to not consider the person a Zapatista. This for example implies that the person has to pay for medicine in Zapatista pharmacies (although not for medical care). Membership in the Juntas rotates continuously, so that all members of the community have an opportunity to serve the community and also to prevent people in power to become addicted to it or become corrupted. Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... 2003 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December A timeline of events in the news for August, 2003. ... Look up junta in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Communications

From the beginning, the EZLN has made communication with the rest of Mexico and the world a high priority. The EZLN has used technology, including satellite phones and the Internet, to generate international solidarity with sympathetic people and organizations. 1990s rock band Rage Against the Machine were well known for their support of the EZLN and often informed concert crowds of the ongoing situation. As a result, on trips abroad the president of Mexico is routinely confronted by small activist groups about "the Chiapas situation". U.S. military MILSTAR communications satellite A communications satellite (sometimes abbreviated to comsat) is an artificial satellite stationed in space for the purposes of telecommunications. ... (Redirected from 1990s in music) 1990 in music International trends Barbadian artists like Gabby, Spice and Square One bring a new sound to Trinidadian soca Mari Boines Gula Gula, and its titular hit single, bring Sami joik-based folk to popular attention Paradise Lost emerges at the forefront of... Rage Against the Machine (also Rage and RATM) is a Grammy Award-winning American rock band, noted for their blend of hip hop, heavy metal, punk and funk as well as their revolutionary politics and lyrics. ...


Subcomandante Marcos, a man of uncertain origins, acts as the primary public spokesperson for EZLN. He is recognized by many as a skillful communicator; his colloquial, ironic style and references to indigenous cultures have significant appeal. However, Marcos has paler-than-average skin and is clearly not indigenous, plus his weak military tactics (he frequently armed his rebels with fake rifles and used no real guerrilla tacticts), leading many to question his goals and motives. Subcomandante Marcos in Chiapas Subcomandante Insurgente Marcos (allegedly born June 19, 1957 in Tampico, Tamaulipas, Mexico), also known as Delegado Cero (Delegate Zero) in matters concerning the Other Campaign, describes himself as the spokesperson for the Zapatista Army of National Liberation (EZLN) but, due to his prominence in the EZLN...


Prior to 2001, Marcos' writings were frequently published in some Mexican and few newspapers. Marcos then fell silent until 2002, and his relationship with the media declined. When he resumed writing in 2002, he assumed a more aggressive tone, and his attacks on former allies angered some of the EZLN's supporters. Except for these letters and occasional critical "communicados" concerning the political climate, the EZLN was largely silent until August 2004, and COCOPA head Luis H. Álvarez stated in the middle of 2004 that Marcos had not been seen in Chiapas for some time. The EZLN received little press coverage during this time, although it continued to develop the local governments it had created earlier. August 2004 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December See also: August 2004 in sports Deaths in August 2004 • 30 Fred Whipple • 26 Laura Branigan • 24 Elisabeth Kübler-Ross • 18 Elmer Bernstein • 15 Amarsinh Chaudhary • 14 CzesÅ‚aw MiÅ‚osz • 13 Julia Child • 8... Luis Hector Álvarez Luis Héctor Álvarez (Camargo, Chihuahua, October 19, 1919) He is an outstanding industralist and Mexican politician, member of the National Action Party and that went candidate to the President of Mexico, Mayor of Chihuahua, President of his party and to the date is coordinating for the...


In August, Marcos sent eight brief communiques to the Mexican press, published from August 20 to August 28. The set was entitled "Reading a video" (possibly mocking political video scandals that occurred earlier that year). The set began and ended as a kind of written description of an imaginary low-budget Zapatista video, with the rest being Marcos' comments on political events of the year and the EZLN current stance and development. is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Videoscandals were political scandals in Mexico in 2004 when videos taken with hidden cameras were made public. ...


In 2005, Marcos tried to make headlines again by comparing the then presidential candidate Andrés Manuel López Obrador with Carlos Salinas de Gortari (as part of a broad criticism of the three main political parties in Mexico - the PAN, PRI, and PRD), and at the same time contradicting himself (as Andrés Manuel was from the PRD, his former supporter), and publicly declaring the EZLN in "Red Alert". Shortly thereafter, communiques announced that the EZLN had undergone a restructuring that enabled them to withstand the loss of their public leadership (Marcos and the CCRI). A consultation with the Zapatistas' support base led to the Sixth Declaration of the Lacandon Jungle. Andrés Manuel López Obrador (born 13 November 1953) is a Mexican politician, affiliated with the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD). ... Carlos Salinas de Gortari (born April 3, 1948 in Mexico City) was President of Mexico from 1988 to 1994. ...


Since the first uprising, the leftist newspaper La Jornada has continuously covered the Zapatistas. Most communicados and many of Marcos' letters are delivered to and only published by La Jornada, and the online edition of the newspaper has a section dedicated to the Other Campaign. La Jornada is one of Mexico Citys leading daily newspapers. ... The Other Campaign (Spanish: La otra campaña) is a two-part plan of the Zapatista Army of National Liberation (EZLN for its Spanish initials). ...


Recent and current activities

On June 28, 2005 the EZLN released an installment of what it called the Sixth Declaration of the Lacandon Jungle. According to the communique, the EZLN has reflected on its history and decided that it must make changes in order to continue its struggle. Accordingly, the EZLN has decided to unite with the "workers, farmers, students, teachers, and employees... the workers of the city and the countryside." They propose to do so through a non-electoral front to talk and collectively write a new constitution to establish a new political culture. is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Sixth Declaration of the Lacandon Jungle (Spanish: Sexta Declaración de la Selva Lacandona) was a manifesto issued by the Zapatista Army of National Liberation (Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional, EZLN) on June 28, 2005, declaring their principles and vision for Mexico and the world. ...


On January 1, 2006 the EZLN began a massive tour - "The Other Campaign" - encompassing all 31 Mexican states in the build up to the year's presidential election, which the EZLN made clear they would not participate directly in. is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Other Campaign is a position of opposition to neoliberal capitalism that dominates Mexico. ...


On May 3-4, 2006, a series of demonstrations protesting the forcible removal of irregular flower vendors from a lot in Texcoco for the construction of a Walmart, turned violent when Mexico State Police and the Federal Preventive Police bused in some 5,000 agents to San Salvador Atenco and the surrounding communities. A local organization called the People's Front in Defense of the Land (FPDT for its initials in Spanish), which is an adherent to the Sixth Declaration, called in support from other regional and national adherent organizations. "Delegate Zero" and his so-called "Other Campaign" were at the time in nearby Mexico City having just organized May Day events there and quickly arrived at the scene. The following days were marked by violence, with some 216 arrests, over 30 uncofirmed rape and sexual abuse accusations against the police, five deportations, and one casualty, a fourteen-year old boy named Javier Cortes supposedly shot by a policeman. A twenty-year old UNAM economics student, Alexis Benhumea, died the morning of June 7, 2006, after being in a coma caused by a blow to the head from a police-launched tear-gas grenade. Most of the resistance organizing was done by the EZLN and Sixth Declaration adherents, and Delegate Zero has stated that the "Other Campaign" tour will be temporarily halted until all prisoners are released. Texcoco is a municipio (municipality) of México State, located in the Valley of Mexico to the east of the national capital, Mexico City. ... Nickname: Motto: Capital en movimiento Location of Mexico City in south central Mexico Coordinates: , Country Federal entity Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded c. ... May Day is May 1, and refers to any of several holidays celebrated on this day. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In late 2006 and early 2007 the Zapatistas, through Subcomandante Marcos, along with other Indigenous, announced the Intercontinental Indigenous Encounter. They are inviting Indigenous from North and South America, and the world, to the gathering on October 11-14 2007, near Guaymas, Sonora. In the declaration for the Indigenous Intercontinental Conference, it designated this date because of "515 years since the invasion of ancient Indigenous territories and the onslaught of the war of conquest, spoils and capitalist exploitation". Comandante David said in an interview, "The object of this meeting is to meet one another and to come to know one another’s pains and sufferings. It is to share our experiences, because each tribe is different."[1] Native Americans redirects here. ... No authentic contemporary portrait of Columbus has been found; this late 19th-century engraving is one of many conjectural images For information about the director, see the article on Chris Columbus. ...


Pop culture references

World music star Manu Chao is an avid supporter of the EZLN. The red star logo appears on various Chao CDs and other merchandise, and a speech by Subcomandante Marcos appears on his first album Clandestino as well as the performer's live album, Radio Bemba Sound System. Manu Chao (born José-Manuel Thomas Arthur Chao on June 21, 1961 in Paris, France) is a French-born and raised singer from Spanish origins (mainly Galician and Basque). ... Clandestino is the first full-length album released by Manu Chao in 1998, his first solo effort. ... Radio Bemba Sound System is an album by Manu Chao. ...


The U.S. band Rage Against the Machine expressed support for the Zapatista movement and included Zapatista references in several songs ("People of the Sun", "Calm Like A Bomb", "Zapata's Blood", "War Within a Breath"). They also used the EZLN flag as the backdrop for their 2007 reunion shows. Rage Against the Machine (also Rage and RATM) is a Grammy Award-winning American rock band, noted for their blend of hip hop, heavy metal, punk and funk as well as their revolutionary politics and lyrics. ...


The U.S. Hip Hop Group Dead Prez is known for their admiration and support of the EZLN and other anti capitalist movements. Dead Prez is a critically acclaimed underground hip-hop duo of alternative rappers stic. ... The Zapatista Army of National Liberation (Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional, EZLN) is an armed revolutionary group based in Chiapas, one of the poorest states of Mexico. ...


The U.S. punk rock band Anti-Flag has performed a song called "Zapatista, Don't Give Up." Anti-Flag is an American political punk band from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, consisting of four members: Justin Sane (lead guitar, lead vocals), Chris #2 (bass, vocals), Chris Head (rhythm guitar, backing vocals), and Pat Thetic (drums). ...


The American experimental band Jackie-O Motherfucker has a song called "Chiapas, I Must Go There!" and while not necessarily about the Zapatistas, it may be influenced as such. Jackie-O Motherfucker (or JOMF) is an American experimental rock group that formed in Portland, Oregon in 1994. ...


Boston-based alternative rock band Swirlies included a song "San Cristobal de las Casas", apparently about the Zapatista movement, on their 1996 album "They Spent Their Wild Youthful Days In The Glittering World Of The Salons". Swirlies are a band from Boston that formed in 1990. ...


Spanish ska punk band Ska-P made a song and a video of the song "Paramilitar" about the paramilitaries and Zapatistas. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


American death metal band Brujeria made a song "Revolucion" that expressed their support for the Zapatista movement. Brujeria is a Mexican death-grind band. ...


Rap group The Coup's, Boots Riley states he is "Pro-Zapatista" in the song "Ride the Fence."


Swedish anarchopunk group named Operation made a song in 1996 named EZLN. The word operation can mean any of several things: The method, act, process, or effect of using a device or system. ...


See also

A Place Called Chiapas is a documentary on the Zapatistas that provides a first-hand account of the lives of the Zapatistas filmed by Nettie Wild. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

Similar and allied movements elsewhere

  • Abahlali baseMjondolo, African shack dwellers' movement

External links

Leftist supporters and "Official" EZLN links:

is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Tom Hayden outside the 2004 Democratic National Convention Thomas Emmett Tom Hayden (born December 11, 1939) is an American social and political activist and politician, most famous for his involvement in the anti-war and civil rights movements of the 1960s. ...

References


 
 

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