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Encyclopedia > Zand dynasty
Vakeel mosque, Shiraz. Karim-khan Zand, and Lotf-ali Khan Zand are remembered well by the people of Shiraz.
Vakeel mosque, Shiraz. Karim-khan Zand, and Lotf-ali Khan Zand are remembered well by the people of Shiraz.
History of Iran

The Zand dynasty ruled southern and central Iran (17501794). Vakeel mosque. ... Vakeel mosque. ... The arcade of Nasir al-Molk Mosque is a fine display of Shirazi Qajar era architecture. ... The historyof Iran (Persia) covers thousands of years, from the ancient civilaztion in Iranian plateau, Mani civilization in Azarbaijan and Shar-e sookhteh in Zabol and ancient Kingdom of Jiroft, followed by established kingdom of Elam to the modern Islamic Republic of Iran. ... Elam (Persian: ایلام) is one of the first civilizations on record based in the far west and south-west of what is modern-day Iran (in the Ilam Province and the lowlands of Khuzestan). ... The Medes were an Iranian people, who lived in the western and north-western portion of present-day Iran. ... Achaemenid empire at its greatest extent The Achaemenid Dynasty (Hakamanishiya in the Old Persian (Avestan ??) language - transliterated Hakamanshee in Modern Persian) - was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire. ... The Seleucid Empire was one of several political states founded after the death of Alexander the Great, whose generals squabbled over the division of Alexanders empire. ... Parthian Empire at its greatest extent, c60 BC. The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Parthia was the arch-enemy of the Roman Empire in the east and... The Sassanid Empire at the reign of Shapur II Official language Pahlavi (Middle Persian) Dominant Religion Zoroastrianism Capital Ctesiphon Sovereigns Shahanshah of the Iran (Eranshahr) First Ruler Ardashir I Last Ruler Yazdegerd III Establishment 224 AD Dissolution 651 AD Part of the History of Iran The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian... The Islamic conquest of Iran led to the collapse of the Sassanid Empire, the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Iran, and the birth of Islamic civilization. ... The Tahirid dynasty ruled the northeastern Persian region of Khorasan between AD 821-873. ... The Saffarid dynasty of Persia ruled a short-lived empire centred on Seistan, a border district between modern-day Afghanistan and Iran, between AD 861-1003. ... Tomb of Ghaboos ebne Voshmgir, built in 1007AD, rises 160 ft from its base. ... The Sāmānid dynasty (819-999) was a Iranian dynasty in Central Asia, named after its founder Saman Khoda. ... The Buwayhids were a Shiite Muslim tribal confederation from the southern shore of the Caspian Sea. ... The Ghaznavid Empire was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 963 to 1187. ... The Seljuks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān, in Turkish Selçuklu; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa;) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turkics and a dynasty that ruled parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to 14th centuries. ... The Khwarezmid Empire (also known as the Khwarezmian Empire) was a Muslim state formed by Oghuz Turks in the 11th century in Khwarezmia that lasted until the Mongol invasion in 1220. ... Khanates of Mongolian Empire: Il-Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... The Muzaffarids were a Sunni Arab family that came to power in Iran following the breakup of the Ilkhanate in the 14th century. ... Timurids Map The Timurids were a mixed Turkic-Mongol and Persian (Turco-Persian) dynasty of Central Asia established by Timur (Tamerlane). ... The Safavid Empire at its 1512 borders. ... Tomb of Nader Shah Afshar, a popular tourist attraction in Mashad. ... Mullahs in the court of a Safavid monarch, Iran. ... The Pahlavi dynasty was the ruling dynasty of Iran from 1925 to 1979, from which two Shahs were drawn. ... Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... Events March 2 - Small earthquake in London, England April 4 - Small earthquake in Warrington, England August 23 - Small earthquake in Spalding, England September 30 - Small earthquake in Northampton, England November 16 – Westminster Bridge officially opened Jonas Hanway is the first Englishman to use an umbrella James Gray reveals her sex... 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...

The dynasty was formed by Karim Khan, chief of the Zand tribe of Lurs who had previously been moved by Nadir Shah to eastern Iran, but had returned after the death of the latter. Karim Khan and Alimardan Khan Bakhtiari took control of central Iran following the unrest that arose from the assassination of Nadir Shah (1747). They both chose a minor prince of the Safavid Dynasty as their puppet ruler and named him Ismail III. Karim Khan chose to be the military commander and Alimardan Khan was the civil administrator. Soon enough Karim Khan managed to eliminate his partner as well as the puppet king and in 1760, founded his own dynasty, the Zand. He refused to accept the title of the king and instead named himself The Advocate of the People. Karim Khan Zand (Persian: کریم خان زند) was a king of Persia who reigned from 1760 until 1779. ... The Zend tribe is one of the most Arian-Iranien. ... Lurs can refer to: Ancient wind instruments, see Lur An Iranian ethnic group; see: Lorestan Lurs, Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, a commune of Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, France This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Tomb of Nadir Shah, a popular tourist attraction in Mashhad Nadir Shah (Nadir Qoli Beg, also Tahmasp-Qoli Khan) (October 22, 1688 - June, 1747) ruled as shah of Iran (1736–47) and was the founder of the short-lived Afsharid dynasty. ... // Events January 31 - The first venereal diseases clinic opens at London Dock Hospital April 9 - The Scottish Jacobite Lord Lovat was beheaded by axe on Tower Hill, London, for high treason; he was the last man to be executed in this way in Britain May 14 - First battle of Cape... The Safavids were a long-lasting Turkic-speaking Iranian dynasty that ruled from 1501 to 1736 and first established Shiite Islam as Persias official religion. ... 1760 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...

Karim Khan was a compassionate and very able ruler who soon managed to bring peace and prosperity into his area of control and made his capital city of Shiraz a centre of commerce and culture. His foreign campaigns against Azad Khan in Azerbaijan and against the Ottomans in Mesopotamia brought Azerbaijan and the province of Basra into his control. He left Shah Rukh, a grandson of Nadir Shah, as the autonomous ruler of Khorasan out of respect. But he never stopped his campaigns against his arch-enemey, Mohammad Hassan Khan Qajar, the chief of the Ghoyounlou Qajars. The latter was finally defeated by Karim Khan and his sons, Agha Mohammad Khan and Hosseingholi Khan, were brought to Shiraz as hostages. The arcade of Nasir al-Molk Mosque is a fine display of Shirazi Qajar era architecture. ... This article needs copyediting (checking for proper English spelling, grammar, usage, tone, style, and voice). ... Sumerian list of gods in cuneiform script, ca. ... Location of Basra Basra (also spelled BaÅŸrah or Basara; historically sometimes written Busra, Busrah, and the early form Bassorah; Arabic: , Al-Basrah) is the second largest city of Iraq with an estimated population of c. ... Shahrokh (Persian: شاهرخ) was the son of Nadir Shah and took over control of Khorasan after his fathers death in 1747. ... Khorasan (also spelled Khurasan and Khorassan; خراسان in Persian) is an area, located in eastern and northeastern Iran. ... Agha Muhammad Khan (1742-1797) was the chief of a Turkic tribe, the Qajars. ...

In foreign policy, Karim Khan attempted to revive the Safavid era trade by allowing the British to establish a trading post in the port of Bushehr. This opened the hands of the British East India company in Iran and increased their influence in the country. Bushehr or Bushire (بوشهر), pop. ... The British East India Company, popularly known as John Company, was founded by a Royal Charter of Queen Elizabeth I on December 31, 1600. ...

Karim Khan's monuments in Shiraz include the famous Vakil Fortress, Vakil Bazaar, and several mosques and gardens. He is also responsible for building of a palace in the town of Tehran, the future capital of the Qajar dynasty. Map of Iran and surrounding lands, showing location of Tehran Tehran is Irans commercial, economic, and political capital. ...

Karim Khan's death in 1779 left his territory vulnerable to threats from his enemies. His son and successor Abu al-Fath was an incompetent ruler who was heavily influenced by his half uncle (and Karim Khan's commander), Zaki Khan. Other rulers such as Ali Morad and Jafar Khan also failed to follow the policies of Karim Khan and soon enough, the country was under attack from all sides. 1779 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...

Biggest enemies of the Zands, the Qajar chiefs lead by the former hostage, Agha Mohammad Khan, were advancing fast against the declining kingdom. Finally, in 1789, Lotf Ali Khan, a grand-nephew of Karim Khan, declared himself the new king. His reign (until 1794) was spent mostly in war with the Qajar khan. He was finally captured and brutally killed in the fortress of Bam, putting an effective end to the Zand Dynasty. 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Lotf Ali Khan (1769 - 1794) was the last shah of Persia (resigned 1789-94) of the Zand dynasty. ... 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Bam (Persian: بم), pronounced [bæm], is a city in southern Iran, in Kerman Province, south of city of Kerman and north of the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman. ...

The Zand era was an era of relative peace and economic growth for the country. Many territories that were captured by the Ottomans in the late Safavid times were taken back and Iran was once again a coherent and prosperous country. The art of this era is remarkable and despite the short length of the dynasty, a distinct Zand art had the time to emerge. Many Qajar artistic traits was actually copied from the Zand examples.

Politically, it is also important that the Zands, especially Karim Khan, chose to call themselves Vakilol Ro'aya (Advocate of the People) instead of kings. Other than the obvious propaganda value of the title, it can be a reflection of the popular demands of the time, expecting rulers with popular leanings instead of absolute monarchs who were totally detached from the population, like the later Safavids.

After the Islamic Revolution of 1979 the Zand was the only dynasties whose names on public places and monuments were not removed by the new Republican government

Zand rulers of Iran

  • Karim Khan (1760–1779)
  • Abu al-Fath (1779)
  • Mohammad Ali Zand (1779)
  • Mohammad Sadiq (1779–1781)
  • Ali Morad (1781–1785)
  • Jafar Khan (1785–1789)
  • Lotf Ali Khan (1789–1794)

Karim Khan Zand (Persian: کریم خان زند) was a king of Persia who reigned from 1760 until 1779. ... Lotf Ali Khan (1769 - 1794) was the last shah of Persia (resigned 1789-94) of the Zand dynasty. ...

External links

See also

  Results from FactBites:
History of Iran: Zand Dynasty (382 words)
arim Khan Zand -of humble tribal origin- became one of the generals of his predecessor, Nader Shah.
In 1789 Lotf Ali Khan (ruled 1789-94) proclaimed himself as the new Zand king and took energetic action to put down a rebellion led by Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar that had begun at Karim Khan's death.
His defeat marked the final eclipse of the Zand dynasty, which was supplanted by that of the Qajars.
Qajar dynasty Summary (3130 words)
The headship of the dynasty is inherited by the eldest male descendent of Mohammad Ali Shah.
The heir presumptive is the Qajar claimant to the throne of Iran.
Qajars Dynasty Turkoman dynasty of the Shahs of Persia
  More results at FactBites »



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