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Encyclopedia > Zambo
A representation of Zambos in "Pintura de Castas" during the Latin American colonial period. "De negro e india, sale lobo" (Of a black and an Amerindian, produces a Lobo). Lobo is a Mexican synonym for "Zambo." Note the discarded shackles in the background near the timbers, it represents the Zambo's freedom from slavery thanks to his Amerindian ancestry.
A representation of Zambos in "Pintura de Castas" during the Latin American colonial period. "De negro e india, sale lobo" (Of a black and an Amerindian, produces a Lobo). Lobo is a Mexican synonym for "Zambo." Note the discarded shackles in the background near the timbers, it represents the Zambo's freedom from slavery thanks to his Amerindian ancestry.

Zambo is also the name of the cucurbita ficifolia squash in Ecuador. Image File history File links Zambo. ... Image File history File links Zambo. ... Binomial name Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché Cucurbita ficifolia is an annual vine or trailing plant grown at high altitudes for its edible seeds, fruit, and greens. ...

Zambo (Cafuzo in Brazil, Lobo in Mexico [citation needed], Garifuna in Honduras, Belize, and Guatemala) is a term of Spanish origin describing Latin Americans of mixed African and Amerindian racial descent. The feminine form is zamba (not to be confused with the afro-Brazilian Samba folk dance or Samba music, or with Argentine Zamba folk dance. Cafuzo is a term of Portuguese origin describing the first generation offspring of a Black African and an Amerindian (see Zambo). ... Lobo is the Mexican wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) Lobo is a superhuman anti-hero published by DC Comics Lobo is a musician Lobo is a television show Lobo was a synonym for Zambo in the racial classification of colonial Mexico. ... Garífuna is a spanish term for the people and language of the Garínagu. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Samba is a lively, rhythmical dance of Brazilian origin in 2/4 time danced under the Samba music. ... Samba is the most famous of the various forms of music arising from the amalgam of African and Portuguese music in Brazil. ... Zamba, creator-god of the Yanude people of the Cameroons, made the Earth and all its creatures except human beings. ...


Under the caste system of colonial Latin America, the term originally applied to the children of one African and one Amerindian parent, or the children of two zambo parents. During this era a myriad of other terms were in use to denote other individuals of African/Amerindian ancestry in ratios smaller or greater than the 50:50 of zambos: "Cambujo" (Zambo/Amerindian mix) for example. Today, zambo refers to all people with significant amounts of both African and Amerindian ancestry. Caste systems are traditional, hereditary systems of social stratification, enforced by law or common practice, based on classifications such as occupation, race, ethnicity, etc. ... World map showing location of Africa A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second_largest continent in both area and population, after Asia. ... Native Americans (also Indians, Aboriginal Peoples, American Indians, First Nations, Alaskan Natives, or Indigenous Peoples of America) are the indigenous inhabitants of The Americas prior to the European colonization, and their modern descendants. ...

Contents

History

The first zambos were initially the offspring of escaping shipwrecked slaves, as well as plantation slave escapees, who ventured into various Central American, South American and Caribbean jungles seeking refuge in remote Amerindian communities to hide and escape capture by colonial authorities. These Amerindians — themselves under threat from encroaching European colonizers — were sympathetic to the plight of the fleeing slaves and welcomed them into their communities, offered them food and sanctuary, and in many cases also their daughters as wives. As in the United States during slavery, there are instances in Latin American history of Africans and Amerindians joining together and forming free renegade encampments to fight their European colonizers and slaveholders. In Latin America, these primarily African settlements of runaways, or Maroons, were called quilombos. The most famous of all quilombos is the legendary Palmares in Brazil, which at the height of its flourishing had a population of over 30,000. The word "Zambo" later became a racist word used to describe individuals of African decent. The Atlantic slave trade was the purchase of slaves in and transport from West Africa and Central Africa, into slavery in the New World. ... Central America is the region of North America located between the southern border of Mexico and the northwest border of Colombia, in South America. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... West Indian redirects here. ... Box Log Falls, Lamington National Park, Queensland, Australia Jungle usually refers to a dense forest in a hot climate, such as a tropical rainforest. ... Pith helmet of the Second French Empire. ... This article needs cleanup. ... A quilombo (from a Kimbundu word) is a hinterland settlement originally created by runaway slaves in Brazil and sometimes included a minority of marginalised Portuguese, indigenous Native Americans and other non-black, non-slave Brazilians. ... Palmares, or Quilombo dos Palmares, was a quilombo, a settlement of runaway and free-born African slaves, founded around 1600 in the Serra da Barriga hills of northeastern Brazil. ...


The history behind the African ancestry of the Garifuna is usually attributed to escaping shipwrecked slaves, whereas for the Zambos of north-western South America, the Lobos of Mexico and most other Zambos in general are attributed to escaping plantation slaves. Some Mexicans, however, acknowledge African lineage from a presumed pre-Columbian African presence in Mexico.


Population today

President of Venezuela Hugo Chávez is half zambo, half mestizo
President of Venezuela Hugo Chávez is half zambo, half mestizo

Officially, Zambos represent small minorities in the northwestern South American countries of Colombia (13%), Venezuela, and Ecuador. A small but noticeable number of zambos resulting from recent unions of Amerindian women to Afro-Ecuadorian men are not uncommon in major coastal cities of Ecuador. Prior to the rural to urban migration, the Amerindian and Afro-Ecuadorian ethnicities were mostly constrained to the Andes region and province of Esmeraldas respectively. The communities that exist in Brazil, mainly along the northwestern region of the country, are known as Cafuzos. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1801x1181, 235 KB) Hugo Chávez in Porto Alegre, Brazil. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1801x1181, 235 KB) Hugo Chávez in Porto Alegre, Brazil. ... Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (IPA: ) (born July 28, 1954) is the 53rd[1] and current President of Venezuela. ... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... The Afro-Ecuadorian culture is found in the northwest coastal region of Ecuador. ... The Andes form the longest mountain chain in the world. ... Esmeraldas is a province in northwestern Ecuador. ...


In Honduras, they are known as Garifunas, and while Zambos can also be found in other Caribbean and Central America countries (notably Belize and Nicaragua) their history and origins are not linked to that of the Garifuna. In Mexico, where they were known as Lobos, literally meaning wolf, they formed a sizeable minority in the past. The great majority of Lobos have now been absorbed into the much larger Mexican Mestizo population and can only be found in tiny communities scattered around the southern coastal states, such as Michoacan, Oaxaca, Campeche, Quintana Roo, and Yucatan, most notably the state of Veracruz and the Costa Chica, incidentally the same locales where the country's Afro-Mexicans reside. Garífuna is a spanish term for the people and language of the Garínagu. ... Wolf Wolf Man Mount Wolf Wolf Prizes Wolf Spider Wolf 424 Wolf 359 Wolf Point Wolf-herring Frank Wolf Friedrich Wolf Friedrich August Wolf Hugo Wolf Johannes Wolf Julius Wolf Max Franz Joseph Cornelius Wolf Maximilian Wolf Rudolf Wolf Thomas Wolf As Name Wolf Breidenbach Wolf Hirshorn Other The call... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... Other Mexican States Capital Morelia Other major cities Lázaro Cárdenas list of municipalities Area 59,928 km² Ranked 16th Population (2000 census) 3,979,180 Ranked 7th Governor (2002-08) Lázaro Cárdenas Batel (PRD) Federal Deputies (13) PRD = 9 PRI = 2 PAN = 1 disputed = 1 Federal... Catedral de Santo Domingo The Free and Sovereign State of Oaxaca or simply Oaxaca   is one of the 31 states of Mexico, located in the southern part of Mexico, west of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. ... The State of Campeche was long a part of Yucatán and shared its history through the mid 19th century. ... Quintana Roo is a state of Mexico, on the eastern part of the Yucatán Peninsula. ... The Yucatán Peninsula separates the Caribbean Sea from the Gulf of Mexico. ... The state of Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave is one of the 31 states that compose Mexico (does not include the Mexican Federal District). ...


Culturally, Mexican Lobos followed Amerindian traditions rather than African ones, as is also the case in Bolivia, where the Afro-Bolivian community has absorbed/retained many aspects of Amerindian culture, such as dress and use of the Aymara language. Aymara is an Aymaran language spoken by the Aymara of the Andes. ...


Racism and discrimination

These populations of mixed Amerindian and African ancestry are generally marginalized and discriminated against, with color bias being pervasive throughout much of Latin America. Beyond the pockets of these specifically identified ethnic communities, in Latin American nations with large populations of people of African descent, the percentage of those with Amerindian ancestry is relatively high (though not as a ratio of the make up of the individuals). Such is the case in nations such as Puerto Rico, Nicaragua, Panama and Brazil. An African-American drinks out of a water fountain marked for colored in 1939 at a street car terminal in Oklahoma City. ...


Long-standing problems of race and class discrimination in Latin America confront Latin Americans of African and Indian ancestry to varying degrees, depending on their membership in or identification with a specific Afro-Amerindian ethnic group such as those mentioned above, or the degree to which their ancestry is expressed in their physical characeristics. Generally, those with dark skin and frizzy hair tend to be among the region's poorest and most disenfranchised. For instance, in 1998, when Hurricane Mitch battered the northeast coast of Honduras, the nation's Garifuna communities were among the hardest hit, yet because of a history of racism and discrimination, they were virtually ignored by government relief efforts. Lowest pressure 905 mbar (hPa) Damage $5+ billion (1998 USD) $6 billion (2006 USD) Fatalities 11,000–18,000 direct (deadliest Atlantic hurricane since 1780 hurricane) Areas affected Central America (particularly Honduras and Nicaragua), Yucatán Peninsula, South Florida Part of the 1998 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane Mitch was one... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Gay bashing Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Hate groups White/Black/Latino supremacy Radical Islam · Fundamentalism · Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights · Gay rights Womens/Universal suffrage Childrens rights...


U.S. Senator Barack Obama recently addressed the plight of Afro-Latinos in general in a May 25, 2005 statement: Barack Hussein Obama (born August 4, 1961; IPA pronunciation: ) is the junior United States Senator from Illinois. ... Most Latinos in the United States are of mixed ancestry. ...

... From Colombia to Brazil to the Dominican Republic to Ecuador, persons of African descent continue to experience racial discrimination and remain among the poorest and most marginalized groups in the entire region. While recent positive steps have been taken in some areas—for example, giving land titles to Afro-Columbians and passing explicit anti-discrimination legislation in Brazil—much work still needs to be done to ensure that this is the beginning of an ongoing process of reform, not the end.

In places where civil conflict has taken hold, Afro-Latinos are much more likely to become victims of violence or refugees in their own countries. In many areas, Afro-Latinos are also subject to aggression by local police forces at far greater rates than those perceived to be white. Access to health services is another serious concern, and recent stuides have shown that Afro-Latino communities are at greater risk of contracting HIV/AIDS.[1]

See also

This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Atlantic slave trade was the purchase of slaves in and transport from West Africa and Central Africa, into slavery in the New World. ... Black Indians is a term generally used to describe people who have significant traces of both African and Native American ancestry and/or African Americans who have lived for a long time with Native Americans. ... Cafuzo is a term of Portuguese origin describing the first generation offspring of a Black African and an Amerindian (see Zambo). ... Capoeira (IPA: ) is a Brazilian martial art created by enslaved Africans during the 16th Century. ... Garífuna is a spanish term for the people and language of the Garínagu. ... This is a list of terms for multiraciality used worldwide for people of various types, kinds and degrees of multiracial backgrounds. ... Palmares, or Quilombo dos Palmares, was a quilombo, a settlement of runaway and free-born African slaves, founded around 1600 in the Serra da Barriga hills of northeastern Brazil. ... A quilombo (from a Kimbundu word) is a hinterland settlement originally created by runaway slaves in Brazil and sometimes included a minority of marginalised Portuguese, indigenous Native Americans and other non-black, non-slave Brazilians. ... // Main article: Abolitionism Slavery has existed, in one form or another, through the whole of recorded human history — as have, in various periods, movements to free large or distinct groups of slaves. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Zumbi (1655 - November 20, 1695, pronounced: ) was the last of the leaders of the Quilombo dos Palmares, in the present-day state of Alagoas, Brazil. ...

External links

  • GarifunaWeb
  • Stranded in Paradise: Shipwrecked Hundreds of Years Ago, the Garifuna Are Still Trying to Find Their Way by Teresa Wiltz, The Washington Post.

 
 

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