FACTOID # 5: Minnesota and Connecticut are both in the top 5 in saving money and total tax burden per capita.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Zaidiyyah

Part of a series on
Shi'ah Islam
Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ...



Branches

Twelver · Ismaili · Zaidi Twelvers ( Ithnāˤashariyyah) are those Shiˤa Muslims who believe there were twelve Imāms, as distinct from Ismaili & Zaidi Shiite Muslims, who believe in a different number of Imams or in a different path of succession. ... The IsmāʿīlÄ« (Urdu: اسماعیلی IsmāʿīlÄ«, Arabic: الإسماعيليون al-IsmāʿīliyyÅ«n; Persian: اسماعیلیان Esmāʿīliyān) branch of Islam is the second largest part of the ShÄ«a community, after the Twelvers (Ithnāʿashariyya). ...

Beliefs & Practices

Succession of Ali
Imamate of the Family
The Four Companions
Mourning of Muharram
Light of Aql The Succession to Muhammad concerns the different viewpoints and beliefs that are held in relation to the succession to the leadership of the Muslim community after the death of Muhammad. ... This article is about the Shia concept, for the more general Islamic term, see Imam. ... The Four Companions, also called the Four Pillars of the Sahaba is a Shia term that refers to the four Sahaba Shia belive stayed most loyal to Ali after the death of Muhammad: Miqdad Abu Dharr Salman al-Farsi Ammar ibn Yasir. ... The Mourning of Muharram is an important period of mourning in the Shia branch of Islam, taking place in Muharram which is the first month of the Islamic calendar. ... Shias believe that the souls of the Prophets and the Imams are derived from the first light in the universe which was created by Allah, the light of Aql, which in Arabic roughly translates as knowledge. ...

People of the House

Muhammad
Ali ibn Abu Talib
Fatimah Zahra
Hasan · Husayn
Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Ali ibn Abi Talib (علي بن أبي طالب) (c. ... Fāţimah Zahrā’ also called Faatemah Az-Zahraa (Arabic: ) was the daughter of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his first wife Khadija. ... Hasan ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib ()‎ (Fifteenth of Ramadan, 3 AH – Twenty-eighth of Safar, 50 AH) [6] was the grandson of Muhammad, and was the son of Ali ibn Abi Talib (fourth Sunni Caliph and first Shia Imam) and Fatima Zahra (a daughter of Muhammad). ... This article is about Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). ...

The Four Companions

Salman al-Farsi
Miqdad ibn Aswad
Abu Dharr al-Ghifari
Ammar ibn Yasir
According to Sunnis sources he did not give alligance to Abu Bakr, until Ali suposedly did so. ... venerated by Shia Muslims as one of the Four Companions, who were followers of Ali ibn Abi Talib. ... Jundub ibn Junadah ibn Sakan (Arabic جُندب بن جَنادة), better known as Abu Dharr, Abu Dharr al-Ghafari, or Abu Tharr Al-Ghefari (Arabic أبو ذر الغفاري) was an early convert to Islam. ... “Ammar” redirects here. ...

Views

The Qur'an
View of Ali ibn Abu Talib
View of Fatimah Zahra
Sahaba · Mu'awiya I
Abu Bakr · Umar
This is a sub-article to Shia Islam and Quran The Shia view of the Quran has some differences from the Sunni view but it must be noted that the text of the Quran is exactly identical in both Shia and Sunni. ... This is a parallel sub-article to Shia and Ali This article is about the Shia view of Ali ibn Abi Talib, the fourth Sunni Caliph and first Shia Imam. ... This is a sub-article of Fatima Zahra and Shia Islam. ... For other views of Sahaba and a short description, see sahaba. ... The Shia have lost no opportunity to vilify Muˤāwiyya. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... AS SALAM AU ALIKUM, not to mistaken, this salam was not for shias its only for muslims. ...

History

Ghadir Khumm
The Battle of Karbala
Further History[1]
This is a sub-article to the Succession to Muhammad The word Hadith refers to a saying of the Prophet of Islam. ... Combatants Banu Hashim Commanders Umar ibn Saad Husayn ibn Ali Strength over 40 000 72 Casualties 5000+ 123 (72 Adult Men (Tabari)and 51 Children including a sixmonth old infant) The Battle of Karbala took place on Muharram 10, 61 AH (October 9 or 10, 680 CE)[1][2... Shī‘a Islam, also Shi‘ite Islam or Shi‘ism is the largest minority denomination based on the Islamic faith . ...

This box: view  talk  edit

Zaidiyya, Zaidism or Zaydism (Arabic: الزيدية az-zaydiyya, adjective form Zaidi or Zaydi) is a Shī'a madhhab (sect, school) named after the Imām Zayd ibn ˤAlī. Followers of the Zaidi fiqh are called Zaidis (or occasionally, Fivers by Sunnis). However, there is also a group called the Zaidi Wasītīs who are Twelvers (see below). Shī‘a Islam, also Shi‘ite Islam, or Shi‘ism (Arabic ) is the second largest denomination of the Islamic faith. ... Madhhab (Arabic مذهب pl. ... The Shia Imam is considered by the Shia sect of Islam to be the rightful successor to Muhammad, and is similar to the Caliph in Sunni Islam only with regards to the aspect of political leadership. ... Zayd ibn Ali (Arabic: , also spelled Zaid) (695-740 C.E.) He was given the title Zayd the Martyr (Zayd ash-Shahid) by his sympathizers. ...

Contents

Zaidi Imāms

Followers of the Zaidi fiqh recognize the first four Twelver Imams but they accept Zayd ibn Ali as their "Fifth Imām", instead of his brother Muhammad al-Baqir. After Zayd ibn Ali, the Zaidi recognize other descendants of Hasan ibn Ali or Husayn ibn Ali to be Imams. Other well known Zaidi imams in history were Yahya ibn Zayd, Muhammad al Nafs az-Zakiyah and Ibraheem ibn Abdullah. Twelvers ( Ithnāˤashariyyah) are those Shiˤa Muslims who believe there were twelve Imāms, as distinct from Ismaili & Zaidi Shiite Muslims, who believe in a different number of Imams or in a different path of succession. ... Imam is an Arabic word meaning Leader. The ruler of a country might be called the Imam, for example. ... Zayd ibn Ali (Arabic: , also spelled Zaid) (695-740 C.E.) He was given the title Zayd the Martyr (Zayd ash-Shahid) by his sympathizers. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Muhammad al-Baqir Imam Muhammad al-Baqir (676 - January 31, 743) was the fifth Shia Imam. ...


Law

In matters of law or fiqh, the Zaidis follow Zaid ibn Ali's teachings which are documented in his book Al Majmu Al Fiqh. The Zaidis are similar to the Hanafi madhhab with elements of the Jafari madhhab. The Hanafi (Arabic حنفي) school is the oldest of the four schools of thought (Madhhabs) or jurisprudence (Fiqh) within Sunni Islam. ... Twelvers or the Ithna Asharia are members of the group of Shias who believe in twelve Imams. ...


Theology

In matters of theology, the Zaidis are close to the Mu'tazili school, but they are not Mu'tazili, since there are a few issues between both schools, most notably with the Zaidi doctrine of imamah which is rejected by Mutazilites. Mutazilah (Arabic المعتزلة al-mu`tazilah) is a theological school of thought within Islam. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Unique Beliefs

The Zaidi Sects [2]

  • The Zaidi sect was started by the Sahaba of Zaid bin 'Ali, his companions Abu'l Jarud Ziyad ibn Abi Ziyad, Sulayman ibn Jarir, Kathir an-Nawa Al-Abtar and Hasan ibn Salih.
  • The Zaidi sect then divided into three groups:
  1. The earliest group called, Jarudiyya (named for Abu'l Jarud Ziyad ibn Abi Ziyad), was opposed to the approval of certain companions of Muhammad. They held that there was sufficient description given by the Prophet so that all should have recognised Imam 'Ali. They therefore consider the companions sinful in failing to recognise Imam 'Ali as the legitimate Caliph. They also deny legitimacy to Abu Bakr, 'Umar and 'Uthman, they also denounce Talha, Zubair, and Aisha. This sect was active during the late Umayyad and early 'Abbasid period. Its views although predominant among the later Zaidis, became extinct due to similarities with the Ithna 'Ashari sect.
  2. The second group, Sulaimaniyya (for Sulayman ibn Jarir), held that the Imamate should be a matter to be decided by consultation. They felt that the companions, including Abu Bakr and 'Umar, had been in error in failing to follow Imam 'Ali but it did not amount to sin. Talha, Zubair, and Aisha became disbelievers.
  3. The third group is Tabiriyya, Butriyya or Salihiyya (for Kathir an-Nawa Al-Abtar and Hasan ibn Salih). They are virtually identical in belief with the Sulaimaniyya, differing only in that that the Tabiriyya do not revile 'Uthman.

Zaidi beliefs are moderate compared to other Shi'i sects. The Zaidis do not believe in the infallibility of the Imams, nor that the Imams receive divine guidance. Zaidis also do not believe that the Imamate must pass from father to son, but believe it can be held by any Sayyid descended from either Hasan ibn Ali or Husayn ibn Ali. It must be noted, however, that Shi'i Twelvers do not necessarily believe in Imamate passing from father to son either, as can be seen from the transition of Imamate from the second Imam, Hasan ibn Ali, to his brother Husayn ibn Ali, after his death.[citation needed] In Islam, the SÌ£aḥābah (Arabic: ‎ companions) were the companions of Muhammad. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Ali (disambiguation). ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... Abu Bakr As Siddiq (Arabic ابو بكر الصديق, alternative spellings, Abubakar, Abi Bakr, Abu Bakar) (c. ... For other uses, see Umar (disambiguation). ... Uthman, Othman, Osman, Usman, or Ozman (Arabic: عثمان) is a male Arabic given name meaning the chosen one amongst the tribe of brave and noble people, honest, caring, sincere, genuine, and attractive. The following people share this name: Uthman Ibn Affan Osman I Uthman I, a Marinid caliph Usman dan Fodio... Talhah ibn Ubayd-Allah (d. ... Abu ‘Abd Allah Zubayr ibn al-Awwam (Arabic: ‎) was a Sahaba, or companion, of the prophet Muhammad. ... For other uses, see Aisha (disambiguation). ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... This article is about the honorific. ... Hasan ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib ()‎ (Fifteenth of Ramadan, 3 AH – Twenty-eighth of Safar, 50 AH) [6] was the grandson of Muhammad, and was the son of Ali ibn Abi Talib (fourth Sunni Caliph and first Shia Imam) and Fatima Zahra (a daughter of Muhammad). ... This article is about Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). ...


Zaidis believe Zayd was the rightful successor to the Imāmate because he led a rebellion against the Umayyads, whom he believed were tyrannical and corrupt. Muhammad al-Baqir did not engage in political action and the followers of Zayd believed that a true Imām must fight against corrupt rulers.[citation needed] The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ...


Zaidis also reject the notion of Occultation (ghayba) of the "Hidden Imām". Like the Ismā'īlīs, they believe in a living Imām (or Imāms).[citation needed] In this July, 1997 still frame captured from video, the bright star Aldebaran has just reappeared on the dark limb of the waning crescent moon in this predawn occultation. ... The IsmāʿīlÄ« (Urdu: اسماعیلی IsmāʿīlÄ«, Arabic: الإسماعيليون al-IsmāʿīliyyÅ«n; Persian: اسماعیلیان Esmāʿīliyān) branch of Islam is the second largest part of the ShÄ«a community, after the Twelvers (Ithnāʿashariyya). ...


Community

Since the earliest form of Zaidism was of the Jarudiyya group[3], many of the first Zaidi states, like those of the Alavids, Buyids, Ukhaidhirids[citation needed] and Rassids, were inclined to the Jarudiyya group. The Alavids (سلسله علویان طبرستان in Persian) were a Shia emirate based in Tabaristan of Iran. ... The Buwayhids or Buyyids or Āl-i Buyeh, were a Shiite tribal confederation from Daylam, a region on the southern shore of the Caspian Sea. ... Banu Ukhaidhir (Arabic: ) established a kingdom in Al-Yamamah (central Arabia) in 866 C.E.. They were descendents of Muhammad through his daughter Fatimah and his grandson Al-Hassan, and at least one contemporary traveller [1] describes them as having been Shiites of the Zaydi persuasion. ... The Rassids were the first Zaidi Imams of Yemen, with their capital at Sada, in the highlands. ...


The first Zaidi state was established in Daylaman and Tabaristan (northern Iran) in 864 C.E. by the Alavids[4]; it lasted until the death of its leader at the hand of the Samanids in 928 C.E. Roughly forty years later the state was revived in Gilan (north-western Iran) and survived under Hasanid leaders until 1126 C.E. After which from the 12th-13th centuries, the Zaidis of Daylaman, Gilan and Tabaristan then acknowledge the Zaidi Imams of Yemen or rival Zaidi Imams within Iran.[5] Guilan (گیلان in Persian) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran, during antique time known as part of Hyrcania, with a population of approximately 2 million and an area of 14,700 sq. ... Mazandaran (مازندران in Persian) is a province in northern Iran, bordering the Caspian Sea in the north. ... The Alavids (سلسله علویان طبرستان in Persian) were a Shia emirate based in Tabaristan of Iran. ... Guilan (گیلان in Persian) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran, during antique time known as part of Hyrcania, with a population of approximately 2 million and an area of 14,700 sq. ... Guilan (گیلان in Persian) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran, during antique time known as part of Hyrcania, with a population of approximately 2 million and an area of 14,700 sq. ... Guilan (گیلان in Persian) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran, during antique time known as part of Hyrcania, with a population of approximately 2 million and an area of 14,700 sq. ... Mazandaran (مازندران in Persian) is a province in northern Iran, bordering the Caspian Sea in the north. ...


The Buyids were reported to have been Zaidi,[citation needed] as well as the Ukhaidhirite rulers of al-Yamama in the 9th and 10th centuries.[6] The Buwayhids or Buyyids or Āl-i Buyeh, were a Shiite tribal confederation from Daylam, a region on the southern shore of the Caspian Sea. ... Banu Ukhaidhir (Arabic: ) established a kingdom in Al-Yamamah (central Arabia) in 866 C.E.. They were descendents of Muhammad through his daughter Fatimah and his grandson Al-Hassan, and at least one contemporary traveller [1] describes them as having been Shiites of the Zaydi persuasion. ... The historical district of Al-Yamamah at its greatest extent, as described by Yaqut (13th century) and Al-Hamadani (10th century), along with some of the regions prominent settlements in pre-Islamic and early Islamic times. ...


The leader of the Zaidi community took the title of Caliph. As such, the ruler of Yemen was known as the Caliph, al-Hadi Yahya bin al-Hussain bin al-Qasim ar-Rassi (a descendant of Imam al-Hasan) who, at Sa'da, in 893-7 C.E., founded the Zaidi Imamate and this system continued until the middle of the 20th century, until the revolution of 1962 C.E. that deposed the Zaidi Imam. The founding Zaidism of Yemen was of the Jarudiyya group, however with the increasing interaction with Hanafi and Shafi'i Sunni Islam, there was a shift from the Jarudiyya group to the Sulaimaniyya, Tabiriyya, Butriyya or Salihiyya groups.[7] Hasan ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib ()‎ (Fifteenth of Ramadan, 3 AH – Twenty-eighth of Safar, 50 AH) [6] was the grandson of Muhammad, and was the son of Ali ibn Abi Talib (fourth Sunni Caliph and first Shia Imam) and Fatima Zahra (a daughter of Muhammad). ...


Zaidis form the dominant religious group in Yemen. Currently, they constitute about 40-45% of the population in Yemen. Ja'faris and Isma'ilis are 2-5%.[2],[3] In Saudi Arabia, it is estimated that there are over 1 million Zaidis (primarily in the western provinces) and 3-4 million Jafaris (primarily in the eastern provinces).[4]


Currently the most prominent Zaidi movement is Hussein al-Houthi's Shabab Al Mu'mineen who have been the subject of an ongoing campaign against them by the Yemeni Government in which the Army has lost 743 men and thousands of innocent civilians have been killed or displaced by government forces causing a grave humanitarian crisis in north Yemen. Shia Population of the Middle East[8]


Al-Zaidi (Az-Zaidi)

People with the last name Al-Zaidi (Az-Zaidi) are Sayyid, Arab descendents of Zayd bin Ali that either stayed in Kufa, Iraq or returned to Al-Hijaz and migrated to Al-Asir and Northern Yemen. They are predominantly Twelvers but some are of the Zaidi fiqh [9] This article is about the honorific. ... Zayd ibn Ali (d. ... Twelvers ( Ithnāˤashariyyah) are those Shiˤa Muslims who believe there were twelve Imāms, as distinct from Ismaili & Zaidi Shiite Muslims, who believe in a different number of Imams or in a different path of succession. ...


Zaidi Wasitis

Some Zaidis are known as Wasitis. Zayd ibn Ali was martyred in Kufa, Iraq, many of his descendants either returned to al-Hijaz or remained in Iraq. Some of those who stayed in Iraq settled in Wasit. Some descendants from Wasit then moved to the Indian subcontinent. These Zaidis believe in twelve Imams and are part of the Shia Ithna Asharia. Most of them settled in India and Pakistan. [10] Zayd ibn Ali (Arabic: , also spelled Zaid) (695-740 C.E.) He was given the title Zayd the Martyr (Zayd ash-Shahid) by his sympathizers. ... Categories: Stub | Provinces of Iraq ...


The largest group of Zaidis believing in twelve Shia Imams is known as Saadat-e-Bara. Saadat means descendant of the Prophet Muhammad and Bara means twelve in Hindi and Urdu. Saadat-e-Bara's numbers are highest in Karachi (Pakistan) and Muzaffarnagar (India). Sadat e Bara is a group of twelve villages situated in the Muzaffarnagar district of Uttar Pradesh (India). ... For other senses of this word, see Prophet (disambiguation). ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Hindi (DevanāgarÄ«: or , IAST: , IPA:  ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is used, along with English, for central government administrative purposes. ... The phrase Zaban-e Urdu-e Mualla written in Urdu Urdu () is an Indo-European language of the Indo-Aryan family that developed under Persian, Turkish, Arabic, Hindi, and Sanskrit influence in South Asia during the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire (1200-1800). ...   (Sindhi: , Urdu: ) is the largest city in Pakistan and is the provincial capital of Sindh province. ... , Muzaffarnagar   (Hindi: मुज़फ़्फ़रनगर, Urdu: مظفر نگر) is a city and a municipal board in Muzaffarnagar district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ...


Literature

  • Cornelis van Arendonk : Les débuts de l'imamat zaidite au Yemen , Leyde , Brill 1960 (French)

References

  1. ^ Imam Muslim (translated by Aftab Shahryar) (2004). Sahih Muslim Abridged. Islamic Book Service. ISBN 81-7231-592-9. 
  2. ^ Article by Sayyid 'Ali ibn 'Ali Al-Zaidi, A short History of the Yemenite Shi‘ites (2005) Referencing: Momen, p.50, 51. and S.S. Akhtar Rizvi, "Shi'a Sects"
  3. ^ Article by Sayyid 'Ali ibn 'Ali Al-Zaidi, A short History of the Yemenite Shi‘ites (2005) Referencing: Momen, p.50, 51. and S.S. Akhtar Rizvi, "Shi'a Sects"
  4. ^ Article by Sayyid 'Ali ibn 'Ali Al-Zaidi, A short History of the Yemenite Shi‘ites (2005) Referencing: Iranian Influence on Moslem Literature
  5. ^ Article by Sayyid 'Ali ibn 'Ali Al-Zaidi, A short History of the Yemenite Shi‘ites (2005) Referencing: Encyclopedia Iranica
  6. ^ Madelung, W. "al- Uk̲h̲ayḍir." Encyclopaedia of Islam. Edited by: P. Bearman , Th. Bianquis , C.E. Bosworth , E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2007. Brill Online. 07 December 2007 [1]
  7. ^ Article by Sayyid 'Ali ibn 'Ali Al-Zaidi, A short History of the Yemenite Shi‘ites (2005)
  8. ^ The Gulf 2000 Project SIPA Columbia University
  9. ^ Article by Sayyid 'Ali ibn 'Ali Al-Zaidi, A short History of the Yemenite Shi‘ites (2005)
  10. ^ Article by Sayyid 'Ali ibn 'Ali Al-Zaidi, A short History of the Yemenite Shi‘ites (2005)

Abul Husayn Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj Qushayri al-Nisaburi (Arabic: أبو الحسين مسلم بن الحجاج القشيري النيسابوري) (lived 810-70), Muslim Author of the second most widely recognized collection of Hadith in Sunni Islam, Sahih Muslim, Muslims authentic (collection). He is largely known as simply Al-Muslim. ... The Gulf 2000 Project (G2K) is a cultural and academic project created in 1993 with backing and sponsorship by Columbia Universitys School of International and Public Affairs. ...

External links

Muhammad Last Prophet
Ali ibn Abu Talib 1st Imam
Hasan ibn Ali 2nd Imam
Husayn ibn Ali 3rd Imam
Ali ibn Husayn (Zayn al Abidin) 4th Imam
Zayd ibn Ali 5th Imam
Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Ali ibn Abi Talib (علي بن أبي طالب) (c. ... Hasan ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib ()‎ (Fifteenth of Ramadan, 3 AH – Twenty-eighth of Safar, 50 AH) [6] was the grandson of Muhammad, and was the son of Ali ibn Abi Talib (fourth Sunni Caliph and first Shia Imam) and Fatima Zahra (a daughter of Muhammad). ... This article is about Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). ... Ali ibn Husayn, Zayn al-Abideen, (Arabic: علي بن حسين زين العابدين) ‎ (658 - 713) was the fourth Shia Imam (see Shia Imams). ... Zayd ibn Ali (Arabic: , also spelled Zaid) (695-740 C.E.) He was given the title Zayd the Martyr (Zayd ash-Shahid) by his sympathizers. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
surely people have no truth except what came from the imaams-(Kulainee) A good reference for non-muslims who are ... (16527 words)
The stronger sect of Zaidiyyah is steered by Abul Jarud, Abu Khalid Wasti, Fudhail Rasan and Mansur bin abi Al-Aswad.
The Zaidiyyah sent which is known by the designation Hussainiyyah believes that any member of the progeny of Muhammad (peace be upon him) who invites people to obey God, deserves to be obeyed by the people.
The Zaidiyyah sect kept on drifting in a whirpool of instability as it had lost stabilizing edge through the murder of its distinguished leaders.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m