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Encyclopedia > Zaibatsu

Zaibatsu (財閥; ざいばつ lit. property?) is a Japanese term referring to the "financial cliques," or business conglomerates, whose influence and size allowed for control over significant parts of the Japanese economy throughout the Edo and Meiji periods. The term was commonly used up until the end of the Pacific War (World War II). Conglomerate is the term used to describe a large company which consists of divisions of often seemingly unrelated businesses. ... Japans industrialized, free-market economy is the second-largest in the world after the United States in terms of international purchasing power. ... The Edo period ), also called Tokugawa period, is a division of Japanese history running from 1603 to 1868. ... The Meiji period ), or Meiji era, denotes the 45-year reign of Emperor Meiji, running, in the Gregorian calendar, from 23 October 1868 to 30 July 1912. ... For other uses, see Pacific War (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...

Contents

History and significance

"Zaibatsu"

The term zaibatsu was used in the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century to refer to large family-controlled banking and industrial combines in Japan. While the term was used arbitrarily in the United States throughout the 1980s to refer to any large Japanese corporation, it is not used natively by Japanese speakers for anything other than historical discussions in reference to Edo- and Meiji-era zaibatsu. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... For other uses, see Bank (disambiguation). ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... For other uses, see Corporation (disambiguation). ... HIStory - Past, Present and Future, Book I is a double-disc album (one half greatest hits, one half studio album) by American musician Michael Jackson released in June of 1995 by the Epic Records division of Sony BMG. The first disc, (HIStory Begins) contains fifteen hit singles from the past...


Historical influence

The Big Four zaibatsu (四大財閥? shidai zaibatsu) of Mitsubishi, Mitsui, Sumitomo and Yasuda are the most historically significant zaibatsu groups, having roots stemming from the Edo period of Japanese history. During this period and later into the Meiji period, the Tokugawa shogunate employed their services and financial powers for various endeavors, which the zaibatsu often provided free of charge in exchange for the privilege of using government funds.[1] After the Russo-Japanese War, a number of so-called "second-tier" zaibatsu also emerged, mostly as the result of business conglomerations. Some more famous second-tier zaibatsu included the Okura, Furukawa, Nakajima, and Nissan groups, among several others. Mitsubishi Logo The Mitsubishi Group ), Mitsubishi Group of Companies, or Mitsubishi Companies, all refer to a large grouping of independently operated Japanese companies which share the Mitsubishi brand name. ... Mitsui Group ) is one of the largest corporate conglomerates (Keiretsu) in Japan and one of the largest publicly traded companies in the world. ... Sumitomo Group ) is a family of related Japanese companies, or keiretsu. ... Yasuda (安田) was formed by Yasuda Zenjiro. ... The Tokugawa shogunate or Tokugawa bakufu (徳川幕府) (also known as the Edo bakufu) was a feudal military dictatorship of Japan established in 1603 by Tokugawa Ieyasu and ruled by the shoguns of the Tokugawa family until 1868. ... Minamoto no Yoritomo, the first shogun of the Kamakura shogunate Shōgun )   is supreme general of the samurai,a military rank and historical title in Japan. ... Combatants Russian Empire Montenegro[1] Empire of Japan Commanders Emperor Nicholas II Aleksey Kuropatkin Stepan Makarov â€  Emperor Meiji Oyama Iwao Heihachiro Togo The Russo–Japanese War (Japanese: Nichi-Ro Sensō, Russian: , Chinese: , February 10, 1904 – September 5, 1905) was a conflict that grew out of the rival imperialist ambitions of... School of the Kyogen uses an older sytle of language than its sister school izumi ... Furukawa (古川市; -shi) is a city located in Miyagi, Japan. ... The Nakajima Aircraft Company (Japanese:中島飛行機株式会社) was a prominent Japanese aircraft manufacturer throughout World War II. It was founded in 1917 by Nakajima Chikuhei and took the name Nakajima Aircraft Company in 1931. ... It has been suggested that Nissan 180 Plan be merged into this article or section. ...


Postwar dissolution

The zaibatsu were dissolved by reformers during the Allied occupation of Japan. Their controlling families' assets were seized, holding companies (the previous "heads" of the zaibatsu conglomerates) eliminated, and interlocking directorships, essential to the old system of intercompany coordination, were outlawed. Among the zaibatsu that were targeted by the SCAP for dissolution in 1946 were Asano, Furukawa, Nakajima, Nissan, Nomura, and Okura. Matsushita, while not a zaibatsu, was originally targeted for breakup, but was saved by a petition signed by 15,000 of its union workers and their families.[2] Look up ally in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... History of Japan Paleolithic Jomon Yayoi Yamato period ---Kofun period ---Asuka period Nara period Heian period Kamakura period Muromachi period Azuchi-Momoyama period ---Nanban period Edo period Meiji period Taisho period Showa period ---Japanese expansionism ---Occupied Japan ---Post-Occupation Japan Heisei The Surrender of Japan Japan surrendered to the Allies... a family of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso in 1997 Family is a Western term used to denote a domestic group of people, or a number of domestic groups linked through descent (demonstrated or stipulated) from a common ancestor, marriage or adoption. ... A holding company is a company that owns part, all, or a majority of other companies outstanding stock. ... In relation to a company, a director is an officer (that is, someone who works for the company) charged with the conduct and management of its affairs. ... For other uses, see System (disambiguation). ... Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers (SCAP) was the title for Douglas MacArthur during the Occupation of Japan following WWII. The title did belong to Dwight David Eisenhower during WWII, however, he had nothing to do with the attacks on Japan. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Shiro Asano(浅野史郎 Asano Shirō), born February 8, 1948) is the former governor of Miyagi, Japan, and currently university teacher, political comentator and one of the candidates for the 2007 Tokyo gubernatorial election. ... Nomura (野村 or 乃村 or 埜村) is a Japanese surname. ... Matsushita Electric Industrial Co. ... A trade union or labor union is an organization of individuals associated through employment, or labour. ... In classical economics and all micro-economics labour is one of three factors of production, the others being land and capital. ...


Complete dissolution of the zaibatsu was never achieved by Allied reformers or SCAP, mostly because U.S. government rescinded the SCAP orders to deconcentrate Japan's large companies in an effort to reindustrialize Japan as a bulwark against Communism in Asia.[3] Zaibatsu as a whole were widely considered to be beneficial to the Japanese economy and government, and the opinions of the Japanese public, of the zaibatsu workers and management, and of the entrenched bureaucracy regarding plans for zaibatsu dissolution ranged from unenthusiastic to disapproving. Additionally, the changing politics of the Occupation during the reverse course served as a crippling, if not terminal, roadblock to zaibatsu elimination. For other uses, see Management (disambiguation). ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about the sociological concept. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions. ... Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Stub ... For other uses, see Roadblock (disambiguation). ...


Modern-day influence

Today, the influence of the zaibatsu can still be seen in the form of financial groups, institutions, and larger companies whose origins reach back to the original zaibatsu, often sharing the same original family names (for example, Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation). However, some argue that the "old mechanisms of financial and administrative control" that zaibatsu once enjoyed have been destroyed. Despite the absence of an actualized sweeping change to the existence of large industrial conglomerates in Japan, the zaibatsu's previous vertically integrated chain of command, ending with a single family, has now widely been displaced by the horizontal relationships of association and coordination characteristic of keiretsu (系列?). Keiretsu, meaning "series" or "subsidiary", could be interpreted as being suggestive of this difference. Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation (SMBC, Mitsui Sumitomo Ginko) is a Japanese bank based in Tokyo, Japan. ... It has been suggested that Vertical expansion be merged into this article or section. ... For the Star Trek: The Next Generation episode, see Chain of Command (Star Trek: The Next Generation). ... Horizontal plane is used in radio to plot a antennas relative field strength (which directly affects a stations coverage area) on a polar graph. ... A keiretsu lit. ... A subsidiary, in business, is an entity that is controlled by another entity. ...


List of zaibatsu

The Big Four

Mitsubishi Logo The Mitsubishi Group ), Mitsubishi Group of Companies, or Mitsubishi Companies, all refer to a large grouping of independently operated Japanese companies which share the Mitsubishi brand name. ... Mitsui Group ) is one of the largest corporate conglomerates (Keiretsu) in Japan and one of the largest publicly traded companies in the world. ... Sumitomo Group ) is a family of related Japanese companies, or keiretsu. ... Yasuda (安田) was formed by Yasuda Zenjiro. ...

Second-tier zaibatsu

Taiheiyo Cement Corporation ) (TYO: 5233 ) is a Japanese cement company, and is the biggest of its kind in Japan. ... Fujita (藤田) was the name of a Japanese zaibatsu based in Osaka. ... Fuji Electric Holdings Co. ... Shōwa Denkō K. K. (昭和電工) is a Japanese chemical company. ... Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd. ... The Nakajima Aircraft Company (Japanese:中島飛行機株式会社) was a prominent Japanese aircraft manufacturer throughout World War II. It was founded in 1917 by Nakajima Chikuhei and took the name Nakajima Aircraft Company in 1931. ... Chisso Corporation ) is a Japanese chemical company. ... It has been suggested that Nissan 180 Plan be merged into this article or section. ... The Nomura Group (野村グループ; Nomura gurūpu) is an international conglomerate of financial services and consulting companies, headquartered in the Nihombashi district of Tokyo, Japan. ... Taisei Corporation (大成建設株式会社, Taisei Kensetsu Kabushiki Kaisha) is a Japanese corporation which was established in 1873. ... RIKEN is the largest research institute for natural sciences in Japan. ... Statue of Shibusawa Eiichi Shibusawa Eiichi (渋沢 栄一 Shibuzawa Eiichi, March 16, 1840 - November 11, 1931) was a Japanese industrialist. ...

Bankrupt zaibatsu

Sojitz Corporation (双日株式会社, Sōjitsu) (TYO: 2768) is a trading corporation (Sogo shosha) based in Tokyo, Japan. ...

Zaibatsu in popular culture

The term has been used often in books, comics, videogames and movies, referring to large, Japanese corporations, who are often involved in shady dealings and/or have connections to the Yakuza. Examples include the Mishima Zaibatsu which is mentioned throughout the Tekken series and the 'Zaibatsu' criminal group in GTA2. The character Karin in the Street Fighter series belongs to the Kanzuki Zaibatsu. In the Tom Clancy book 'Debt of Honor', a group of zaibatsu seize control of Japan and invade the US-held Mariana Islands. In other cases zaibatsu are used simply to provide the background for a character from an influential family, such as in the case of the F4 in Hana Yori Dango who are the sons/heirs of the 4 (fictional) biggest corporations in Japan; this is an obvious reference to the Big Four. Sonoko Suzuki of Meitantei Conan is a daughter of the chairman of Suzuki Zaibatsu, and, more prominently, Kaoru Hanabishi of Hanabishi Zaibatsu and Aoi Sakuraba of Sakuraba Group in Ai Yori Aoshi; In William Gibson's Sprawl trilogy, 'Zaibatsu' is the generic term used for the mega-corporations prevalent in the futuristic world in which the plot is set. A corporation (usually known in the United Kingdom and Ireland as a company) is a legal entity (distinct from a natural person) that often has similar rights in law to those of a Civil law systems may refer to corporations as moral persons; they may also go by the name... For other uses, see Yakuza (disambiguation). ... The Mishima Zaibatsu is a Japanese Conglomerate Syndicate featured in Namcos Tekken fighting game series. ... This article is about the game series. ... See http://en. ... Street Fighter (commonly abbreviated SF) is a popular series of fighting games in which the players pit combatants from around the world, each with his or her own special moves, against one another. ... Thomas Leo Clancy Jr. ... Debt of Honor (1994) is a novel by Tom Clancy. ... Serialized in Margaret Original run October 1992 – September 2003 No. ... For other uses, see inheritance (disambiguation). ... ... Serialized in Young Animal Original run 1998 – 2005 No. ... There are a number of people who have been (or are) named William Gibson. ... The Sprawl-trilogy, of which Neuromancer is the first part. ...


See also

A keiretsu lit. ... Japanese Post-War Economic Miracle is the name given to the historical phenomenon of Japans record period of economic growth following World War II, spurred both by US investment and Japanese government economic interventionism in particular through their Ministry of International Trade and Industry. ... Chaebol is a South Korean form of business conglomerates. ... The Hongs were major business houses in Hong Kong with significant influence on patterns of consumerism, trades, manufacturing and other key areas of the economy. ... Thirteen Factories or Thirteen Hong (十三行) is an area of Canton City, China where the first foreign trade was allowed in the 18th century. ...

References and further reading

  1. ^ Watkins, Thayer. The Zaibatsu of Japan
  2. ^ Morck & Nakamura, p. 33
  3. ^ In his 1967 memoirs, Kennan wrote that aside from the Marshall Plan, setting the "reverse course" in Japan was "the most significant contribution I was ever able to make in government." George F. Kennan, Memoirs, 1925-50 (Boston, 1967), 393.
  4. ^ While chaebol is often viewed as the Korean cognate to zaibatsu, both the Korean and the Japanese words are composed of loans from Chinese, and thus are not cognates in the true sense of the word.
  • Alletzhauser, Albert J. The House of Nomura. New York: Harper Perennial, 1991. ISBN 0-06-097397-8.
  • Allinson, Gary D. Japan's Postwar History. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1997. ISBN 0-8014-3312-6.
  • Aoki, Masahiko & Hyung-Ki Kim. Corporate Governance in Transitional Economies: Insider Control and the Role of Banks. Retrieved online 28 June 2004. Print edition: Washington, D.C.: World Bank Office of the Publisher, 1995. ISBN 0-8213-2990-1.
  • Morck, Randall and Masao Nakamura. A Frog in a Well Knows Nothing of the Ocean: A History of Corporate Ownership in Japan.
  • Morikawa, Hidemasa. Zaibatsu: The Rise and Fall of Family Enterprise Groups in Japan. Tokyo, Japan: University of Tokyo Press, 1992.

Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ... Look up cognate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • The Zaibatsu of Japan
  • Japanese article about zaibatsu

  Results from FactBites:
 
Zaibatsu - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (468 words)
Zaibatsu was used in the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century to refer to large family-controlled banking and industrial combines.
Amongst the zaibatsu that were targeted by the SCAP for dissolution in 1946 were Asano, Furukawa, Nakajima, Nissan, Nomura, and Okura.
Matsushita, while not a zaibatsu, was originally targeted for breakup, but was saved by a petition organized by the union, which was signed by 15,000 of its workers and their families.
Zaibatsu at AllExperts (518 words)
Their controlling families' assets were seized; holding companies, the previous "heads" of the zaibatsu conglomorates, eliminated; and interlocking directorships, essential to the old system of inter-company coordination, were outlawed.
The ten zaibatsu that were targeted by the SCAP for dissolution in 1946 are Asano, Furukawa, Nakajima, Nissan, Nomura, and Okura.
Despite the absence of an actualized sweeping change to the existence of large industrial conglomerates in Japan, the zaibatsu's previous vertical chain of command, ending with a single family, was displaced by the horizontal relationships of association and coordination now characteristic of keiretsu—an important difference.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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