FACTOID # 8: Bookworms: Vermont has the highest number of high school teachers per capita and third highest number of librarians per capita.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Zahra Kazemi
photo:Zahra Kazemi shown before her arrest.
photo:Zahra Kazemi shown before her arrest.

Zahra "Ziba" Kazemi-Ahmadabadi (زهرا کاظمی احمدآبادی in Persian)‎ (1949July 11, 2003) was an Iranian-Canadian freelance photographer, residing in Montreal, Canada, who died in the custody of Iranian officials following her arrest. Image File history File links Zahra_Kazemi_before_arrest. ... Image File history File links Zahra_Kazemi_before_arrest. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Freelance 800F - The compact solution ABBs Freelance 800F control system combines easy engineering with an open, modern system architecture. ... A photographer at the Calgary Folk Music Festival Paparazzi at the Tribeca Film Festival A photographer is a person who takes a photograph using a camera. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - Total 365. ...


Although Iran's regime insists that her death was accidental and that she died of a stroke while being interrogated. Shahram Azam, a former military staff physician who left Iran and sought asylum in Canada in 2004, has stated that he examined Kazemi's body and observed evidence of rape and torture, including a skull fracture, broken nose, crushed toe, missing fingernails, broken fingers, and severe abdominal bruising. The Canadian government, as well as Kazemi's supporters, consider her death to be a murder.[1] Shahram Azam is an Iranian doctor famous for his testimony in the death of Zahra Kazemi. ... For other uses, see Torture (disambiguation). ... A skull fracture is a break in one or more of the bones in the skull caused by a head injury. ...


Because of the circumstances of her death, she has since become an international cause célèbre. In November 2003, Canadian Journalists for Free Expression honoured Kazemi with the Tara Singh Hayer Memorial Award in recognition of her courage in defending the right to free expression [2]. Look up cause célèbre in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Canadian Journalists for Free Expression (CJFE) is a Canadian non-governmental organization supported by Canadian journalists and advocates of free expression. ... Image:Tara Singh Hayer OBC.jpg Tara Singh Hayer, wearing his Order of British Columbia medal. ... Freedom of speech is the right to freely say what one pleases, as well as the related right to hear what others have stated. ...

Contents

Life and death

Born in Shiraz, Kazemi moved to France in 1974 to study literature and cinema at the University of Paris. With her son, Stephan Hachemi, she immigrated to Quebec, Canada in 1993, where she later gained dual citizenship as an Iranian and Canadian national. She worked in Africa, Latin-America and the Caribbean and then more frequently in various middle-eastern countries, including the Palestinian territories, Iraq and Afghanistan. She visited the latter two countries both prior and during the US occupation. Immediately prior to her travelling to Iran, Kazemi had revisited Iraq, documenting the American occupation. Recurrent themes in her work were the documentation of poverty, destitution, forced exile and oppression, but also the strength of women in these situations. Eram Garden, Shiraz most popular garden. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Old book bindings at the Merton College library. ... The Sorbonne, Paris, in a 17th century engraving The historic University of Paris (French: ) first appeared in the second half of the 12th century, but was in 1970 reorganised as 13 autonomous universities (University of Paris I–XIII). ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Multiple citizenship is simultaneous citizenship in two or more countries (whether it is recognized by all countries or not). ... ... A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows what he found. ... Destitution is an extreme state of poverty, in which a person is almost completely lacking in resources or means of support. ... Exile can be a form of punishment. ... For other uses, see Oppression (disambiguation). ...


Travelling back to her birth country using her Iranian passport, Kazemi was allowed into Iran to take photographs of the possible demonstrations that were expected to take place in Tehran in July, 2003. However, on June 23, 2003, she was arrested in front of the Evin prison where photography is prohibited. The Evin prison staff, whom the Kazemi family's lawyers consider a party in the beatings that led to Kazemi's death, say that she had been in a sensitive area, photographing parts of the prison, even though she insisted that she had not photographed any part of the prison, but only the street and the demonstrators, who were family members of activist students jailed in the prison. For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Evin Prison (زندان اوین) is a prison in Iran, located in the north of Tehran. ...


Nineteen days later, she died in Iranian custody in Baghiyyatollah al-Azam Military Hospital. It is widely believed she was beaten to death; after initial denials, Iranian government sources (including Mohammad Ali Abtahi, the Vice President of Legal Affairs and Masoud Pezeshkian, the Minister of Health and Medical Education) later admitted that she had died of a fractured skull as a result of being hit in the head. Abtahi claims that he was under a lot of pressure to take back the acknowledgement, but he resisted it. The Baghiyyatollah al-Azam Military Hospital is one of the military Iran This article is a substub, the first step on the way to becoming a full article. ... Mohammad Ali Abtahi (left) sitting with Mohammad Reza Khatami in the parliament Hojjat ol-Eslam Seyyed Mohammad Ali Abtahi (Persian: محمدعلی ابطحی) (born January 28, 1960 in Mashhad) is an Iranian politician, presently an Advisor to the President. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Her death and the subsequent burial in Iran sparked a sharp diplomatic response from Canada, which insisted that her body be returned to her Canadian son, Stephan Hachemi. The Iranian government claimed the burial had happened in Iran following the wishes of Kazemi's mother (who later claimed in court that she was pushed into it). Her death also raised concerns from international human rights and free speech groups such as Reporters Without Borders, concerned over the fate of journalists in Iran. As of August 2003, ten journalists are currently in custody in Iran, and 85 newspapers have been shut down since April, 2000. This page is about negotiations; for the board game, see Diplomacy (game). ... Freedom of speech is the right to freely say what one pleases, as well as the related right to hear what others have stated. ... Reporters Without Borders, or RWB (French: Reporters sans frontières, Spanish: Reporteros Sin Fronteras, or RSF) is a French origin international non-governmental organization that advocates freedom of the press, founded by its current general-secretary, Robert Menard. ... 2003 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December A timeline of events in the news for August, 2003. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ...


One of the two Iranian intelligence agents charged with her death was acquitted in September, 2003. The other agent, Mohammed Reza Aghdam-Ahmadi (محمدرضا اقدم احمدی), was charged with "semi-intentional murder" and his trial opened in Tehran in October, 2003. In the same month, the Iranian parliament condemned Saeed Mortazavi, a Tehran prosecutor, for announcing that Kazemi had died of a stroke. On July 25, 2004, Aghdam-Ahmadi was acquitted. Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Saeed Mortazavi (سعید مرتضوی in Persian) is as of 2003 the general prosecutor of Tehran. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Murder trial

Shirin Ebadi, an Iranian lawyer and former judge who won the Nobel Peace Prize in 2003, was the main representative of Kazemi's family at the trial, and has represented them at the second and third sessions of Aghdam-Ahmadi's trial, which took place on July 17 and July 18, 2004. In the court, Kazemi's mother mentioned that she wanted the real murderer to be prosecuted. She also mentioned that she saw Kazemi's body before the burial, upon which there were signs of torture. Shirin Ebadi at a press conference in November 2005. ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Torture (disambiguation). ...


Ebadi and the other lawyers of the family insisted in the court that they know that Kazemi was not killed by Aghdam-Ahmadi, and they need witnesses to be brought to the court in order to find the real murderer, who they guessed may be Mohammad Bakhshi, a high officer of the Evin prison. The list of witnesses they requested included Saeed Mortazavi, the general prosecutor of Tehran Mohsen Armin, reformist member of the previous parliament Hossein Ansari-Rad, Jamileh Kadivar, and Mohsen Mirdamadi, Minister of Intelligence Ali Younesi, the Vice President of Legal Affairs Mohammad Ali Abtahi, Minister of Culture and Islamic Guidance Ahmad Masjedjamei, the five judges who were present during Kazemi's interrogation, a few employees of the Evin prison, the president of the Baghiyyatollah hospital, and all of the medical staff who had signed her file. Judge Farahani denied all of the requests. The lawyers also quoted the official report of death that various of parts of Kazemi's body had been damaged and her clothes were torn and bloody, which proves that she had been tortured. Saeed Mortazavi (سعید مرتضوی in Persian) is as of 2003 the general prosecutor of Tehran. ... Mohsen Armin (Persian: محسن آرمین ) is an Iranian politician. ... Image:DSC--Majlis5323. ... Mohsen Mirdamadi is the secretary general of IIPF, since September of 2006. ... Ali Younesi was The Ministry of Intelligence and National Security in Khatami Government of Iran. ... Mohammad Ali Abtahi (left) sitting with Mohammad Reza Khatami in the parliament Hojjat ol-Eslam Seyyed Mohammad Ali Abtahi (Persian: محمدعلی ابطحی) (born January 28, 1960 in Mashhad) is an Iranian politician, presently an Advisor to the President. ...


On July 14, 2004, the Iranian government rejected requests for Canadian government observers to attend the trial, despite promises and assurances by the Iranian Foreign Minister Kamal Kharrazi and judiciary officials to the Canadian Minister of Foreign Affairs Bill Graham. The same day, Graham recalled the ambassador at Tehran, Philip MacKinnon. But later, MacKinnon, together with the Dutch ambassador (representing the European Union) and diplomats from the British and French embassies, were allowed to attend the July 17 trial, though not the July 18 one. The Judge Farahani was quoted on July 18 as saying that "(he) made a mistake yesterday. The bar is to show the world that Iran won't bow under pressure." Hamid Reza Assefi, the spokesman for the Iranian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, said "We hadn't permitted an observer from the beginning. But you should ask the reason for the ban from the court, there may had been a shortage of seats." Assefi also said that since Iran does not recognize dual nationality and Kazemi was an Iranian citizen who entered the country under an Iranian passport, never having requested her citizenship to be removed, that the case was clearly an internal affair. is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Kamal Kharrazi (Persian: کمال خرازی) (born December 1, 1944 in Tehran), is the Iranian Minister of Foreign Affairs, serving since August 20, 1997. ... Hon. ... For other uses, see Ambassador (disambiguation). ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Hamid Reza Assefi (In Persian: حمیدرضا آصفی) is the Spokesman, Vice Minister of Parliamentary and Consular Affairs and Communication, and the Special Assistant to the Minister at the Iranian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. ...


The trial sessions ended on July 18, with the lawyers of the Kazemi family insisting that the time had not been enough for proofs to be given, witnesses to be brought to court, and the murderer to be identified. They also mentioned that the court didn't pay attention to their evidence. They refused to sign the session notes. The Canadian Foreign Affairs Minister, Bill Graham, defined these events as "flagrant denial of due process".


On July 24, Judge Farahani issued his judgement, clearing Aghdam-Ahmadi of the charges. He also mentioned that since the murderer has not been found, according to the Islamic sources the blood money should be paid by the government to the family. The lawyers of Kazemi's family announced that they will definitely appeal the case, asking for a criminal court to be established to reconsider the whole case, or completing the numerous incompletenesses of the file. They also mentioned that if the family asks, they will bring the case to the international authorities, mentioning Iran's 1954 signatory to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The end of July saw Iran's judiciary adding "accidental fall" and "hunger strike" to the list of alleged causes for Kazemi's death. They claimed that Kazemi had gone on a hunger strike voluntarily, developed low blood pressure that made her dizzy, fallen, and hit her head. Detractors point out that this story does not explain her broken bones, genital injuries or skin lacerations. is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Blood money is money paid as a fine to the next of kin of somebody who was killed intentionally. ... The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (abbreviated UDHR) is an advisory declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly (A/RES/217, 10 December 1948 at Palais de Chaillot, Paris). ...


Timeline of events following her death

  • July 13, 2003 - IRNA, Iran's official news agency reports that Kazemi "suffered a stroke when she was subject to interrogation and died in hospital." The same day, under pressure from Canada, Iran's president, Mohammad Khatami, orders an assembly of five ministers to investigate into her death.
  • July 20, 2003 - IRNA reports that Kazemi died from a fractured skull caused by "a physical attack."
  • July 21, 2003 - Prosecutor General Saeed Mortazavi is appointed by Iran to head an independent investigative group to look into her death. This appointment is immediately fiercely attacked by pro-reformist Iranian MPs, as Mortazavi had himself been accused of failing to prevent Kazemi's death, and was widely believed to be behind a recent wave of arrests of writers and journalists. Given this controversy, the investigation appeared unlikely to mollify a Canada growing increasingly impatient with Iran's unwillingness to "clearly demonstrate that officials are not allowed to act with impunity" (Foreign Minister Bill Graham, news conference).
  • July 23, 2003 - Kazemi's body is buried in her hometown of Shiraz in Iran, supposedly according to the wishes of her mother (Ezzat Kazemi) and relatives in Iran, but contrary to the wishes of her son (Stephan Hachemi, who resides in Montreal), and Canadian officials. Consequently, Canada recalls its ambassador to Iran until further notice, and discusses the possibility of sanctions against Iran. (Her mother later claimed that she had been put under pressure.)
  • July 25, 2003 - Iranian Foreign Minister echos the words of Canadian officials almost word for word for Ottawa in reference to the death of an 18-year-old Iranian citizen in Vancouver, Canada, at the hands of undercover Canadian police which occurred around the same time as Ms. Kazemi's death. He demands that Canadian officials "clearly demonstrate that officials in Canada are not allowed to act with impunity, ... [and] The Islamic republic will seek through diplomatic channels clear and convincing explanations of this crime," he said.
  • July 26, 2003 - Iran announces that it has arrested five members of its security services in connection with the investigation, but gives no further details.
  • August 25, 2003 - Two Iranian intelligence agents who had interrogated Kazemi are charged with complicity in her death. The Teheran prosecutor's office releases a statement reading in part, "The charges levelled against the interrogators, who are said to be members of the Intelligence Ministry, are announced as complicity in semi-intentional murder."
  • March 31, 2005 - Dr. Shahram Azam, the Iranian doctor who examined Kazemi just prior to her death, said he was shocked by the extent of her injuries, and felt she had been tortured. He reported injuries consistent with torture, such as flogging wounds on the back and missing fingernails. A female nurse told him of "brutal" genital injuries. Azam did not give her a vaginal examination himself as it is considered inappropriate in Iran for a male physician to examine a woman in this manner. Azam fled the country, seeking political asylum in Canada in order to tell his story.

is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Islamic Republic News Agency, or IRNA, is the official news agency of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Saeed Mortazavi (سعید مرتضوی in Persian) is as of 2003 the general prosecutor of Tehran. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... Hon. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Eram Garden, Shiraz most popular garden. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - Total 365. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mohammad Ali Abtahi (left) sitting with Mohammad Reza Khatami in the parliament Hojjat ol-Eslam Seyyed Mohammad Ali Abtahi (Persian: محمدعلی ابطحی) (born January 28, 1960 in Mashhad) is an Iranian politician, presently an Advisor to the President. ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Shahram Azam is an Iranian doctor famous for his testimony in the death of Zahra Kazemi. ... For other uses, see Torture (disambiguation). ... Whipping on a post Flagellation is the act of whipping (Latin flagellum, whip) the human body. ... A sex organ, or primary sexual characteristic, narrowly defined, is any of those parts of the body (which are not always bodily organs according to the strict definition) which are involved in sexual reproduction and constitute the reproductive system in an complex organism; namely: Male: penis (notably the glans penis... Power lines leading to a trash dump hover just overhead in El Carpio, a Nicaraguan refugee camp in Costa Rica Under international law, a refugee is a person who is outside his/her country of nationality or habitual residence; has a well-founded fear of persecution because of his/her...

Aftermath

In June 2005, an exhibit of Kazemi's work at a municipal library in the Montréal borough of Côte Saint-Luc was shut down after a patron complained that several photos depicted the Palestinian intifada. It is unclear if the patron found the pictures offensive simply because they dealt with the intifada or because of a more specific reason. The library had initially removed only the contentious pictures but Kazemi's son, Stephan, insisted that either all pictures be shown or none at all, resulting in the exhibit's closure. {{Canadian City/Disable Field={{{Disable Motto Link}}}}} Motto: Concordia Salus (Salvation through harmony) Ville de Montréal, Québec, Canada Location. ... The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ... Intifada (also Intefadah or Intifadah; from shaking off) is an Arabic term for uprising. It came into common usage in English as the popularized name for two recent Palestinian campaigns directed at Israel. ... Intifada (also Intefadah or Intifadah; from shaking off) is an Arabic term for uprising. It came into common usage in English as the popularized name for two recent Palestinian campaigns directed at Israel. ...


See also

The womens movement in modern Iran is nearly 150 years old. ... Defenders of Human Rights Center Defenders of Human Rights Center (also known as the Centre for the Defence of Human Rights, Persian: کانون مدافعان حقوق بشر ) is Irans leading human rights organization. ... Mohammad-Hossein Khoshvaght was head of the press and foreign journalists department at Irans Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance, under reformist President Mohammad Khatami. ... Human rights in Iran face the issues of governmental impunity, restricted freedom of speech, torture, and other excesses. ... Zahra Bani Ameri (16 October 1980[1] - 13 October 2007) (Persian: ) was an Iranian medical doctor, who died unexpectedly in a prison in Hamedan, after she was arrested by the Moral Police. ... Akbar Mohammadi Akbar Mohammadi (in Persian: اکبر محمدی) (born 1972 - died July 30, 2006) was an Iranian student involved in 18th of Tir crisis in Tehran University. ... Dr. Ramin Jahanbegloo Dr. Ramin Jahanbegloo (Persian: رامین جهانبگلو , born 1961 in Tehran) is an Iranian political philosopher and a university professor. ... Dr. Haleh Esfandiari (Persian: هاله اسفندیاری) (b. ...

References

  1. ^ INDEPTH: ZAHRA KAZEMI Iran's changing story CBC News Online | Updated November 16, 2005 http://www.cbc.ca/news/background/kazemi/ Retrieved 25/09/07
  2. ^ Memorial Award November 2003 http://cjfe.org/releases/2003/031007-awardwinners.html

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Canada: Zahra Kazemi | Action (667 words)
In November 2005, the an Iranian Appeals Court verdict was announced upholding the acquittal of Mohammad Reza Aghdam the Iranian Ministry of Intelligence official initially accused of the crime.
Disturbing evidence regarding the nature and severity of the torture that Zahra Kazemi was subjected to before her death in custody was presented at the end of March 2005 by Dr. Shahram Azam, an Iranian doctor who examined the body of Zahra Kazemi.
According to a government enquiry, Zahra Kazemi died as a result of a blow to her skull, while under guard at the Baghiyetollah Hospital in Tehran on July 12, 2003.
Zahra Kazemi - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1781 words)
Zahra "Ziba" Kazemi-Ahmadabadi (زهرا کاظمی احمدآبادی in Persian)‎ (1949 - July 11, 2003) was an Iranian (Persian)-born freelance photographer, residing in Montreal (Canada), who died in the custody of Iranian officials following her arrest.
Born in Shiraz, Kazemi moved to France in 1974 to study literature and cinema at the University of Paris.
July 23, 2003 - Kazemi's body is buried in her hometown of Shiraz in Iran, supposedly according to the wishes of her mother (Ezzat Kazemi) and relatives in Iran, but contrary to the wishes of her son (Stephan Hachemi, who resides in Montreal), and Canadian officials.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m