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Encyclopedia > Zagros Mountains

The Zagros Mountains (Kurdish: زنجیره‌ چیاکانی زاگروس), make up Iran's and Iraq's largest mountain range. They have a total length of 1 500 km from western Iran, specifically South Kurdistan (Northern Iraq) region on the border with Iraq to the southern parts of the Persian Gulf. The mountain range ends at the Straits of Hormuz. The highest points in the Zagros Mountains are Zard Kuh (4 548 m) and Mt. Dena (4 359 m). The Kurdish language is a language spoken in the region called Kurdistan, including Kurdish populations in parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria and Turkey. ... For exotic financial options, see Mountain range (options). ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... The Strait of Hormuz (تنگه هرمز in Persian) is a relatively narrow stretch of ocean between the Gulf of Oman in the southeast and the Persian Gulf in the southwest. ... Zard Kuh, Zardkuh or Zard-e Kuh-e Bakhtiari (in Persian: زردكوه بختياري )is a perpetually snow-covered peak in central Zagros. ... Dena (in Persian: دنا) is the second highest peak (4359 m) of the Zagros Mountains which is located in Fars province of Iran. ...

The Zagros Mountains were formed by collision of two tectonic plates — the Eurasian and Arabian Plates. Stresses induced in the Earth's crust by the collision caused extensive folding of the preexisting layered sedimentary rocks. Subsequent erosion removed softer rocks, such as mudstone (rock formed by consolidated mud) and siltstone (a slightly coarser-grained mudstone) while leaving harder rocks, such as limestone (calcium-rich rock consisting of the remains of marine organisms) and dolomite (rocks similar to limestone containing calcium and magnesium). This differential erosion formed the linear ridges of the Zagros Mountains. The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ...  The Eurasian plate, shown in green The Eurasian Plate is a tectonic plate covering Eurasia (a landmass consisting of the continents Europe and Asia) except that it does not cover the Indian subcontinent, the Arabian subcontinent, and the area east of the Verkhoyansk Range in East Siberia. ... The Arabian plate is shown in bright yellow on this map The Arabian Plate is a continental tectonic plate covering the Arabian peninsula and extending northward to Turkey. ... Two types of sedimentary rock: limey shale overlaid by limestone. ... Mudstone is a fine-grained sedimentary rock whose original constituents were clays or muds. ... Siltstone Siltstone is a geological term for a sedimentary rock whose composition is intermediate in grain size between the coarser sandstone and the finer mudstone. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Dolomite crystals from Touissite, Morocco Dolomite is the name of both a carbonate rock and a mineral consisting of calcium magnesium carbonate (formula: CaMg(CO3)2) found in crystals. ... General Name, Symbol, Number calcium, Ca, 20 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 40. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... Severe soil erosion in a wheat field near Washington State University, USA. For erosion as an operation of Mathematical morphology, see Erosion (morphology) Erosion is displacement of solids (soil, mud, rock and other particles) by the agents of ocean currents, wind, water, or ice by downward or down-slope movement...

The depositional environment and tectonic history of the rocks were conducive to the formation and trapping of petroleum, and the Zagros region is an important part of Persian Gulf oil production. Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ...

Salt domes and salt glaciers are a common feature of the Zagros Mountains. Salt domes are an important target for oil exploration, as the impermeable salt frequently traps petroleum beneath other rock layers. A salt dome is formed when a thick bed of evaporite minerals (mainly salt, or halite) found at depth intrudes vertically into surrounding rock strata, forming a diapir. ... Salt domes (hills) and salt glaciers (dark areas) in the Zagros Mountains of southern Iran. ...



The name Zagros is derived from the Zagarthians/Sagarthians--and Indo-European, Iranic immigrants from Europe who once inhabited the mountains, from the shores of Lake Van to the coasts of Makran. The Zangana and Chigini tribes of the Kurds are the remnants of these ancient Sagarthians. Other explanations deriving the name from Greek Zagreus, meaning stormy, or the name Za-G'R' means 'great mountain' in the Avestan language, are invalid. Lake Van Landsat photo A number of sources report that Lake Van shelters a monster (Monster of Lake Van-Van Gölü Canavarı), and a 4-meter high statue has been erected to its honor. ... Makran is the southern region of Balochistan, in Iran and Pakistan along the coast of the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman. ... The Zangana (Kurdish: Zengene) are a branch of southern Kurds and a tribal confederation of the Shabaks of Northern Iraq. ... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ... Sagarthians are one of the better-known clans of the Indo-European-speaking Iranic Aryans who settled in Kurdistan about 2,600 years ago. ... Avestan is an Eastern Old Iranian language that was used to compose the sacred hymns and canon of the Zoroastrian Avesta. ...

Type and age of rock

The mountains are divided into many parallel sub-ranges (up to 10, or 250 km wide), and have the same age as the Alps. Iran's main oilfields lie in the western central foothills of the Zagros mountain range. The southern ranges of the Fars Province have somewhat lower summits, reaching 4000 metres. They contain some limestone rocks showing abundant marine fossils. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Drilling rig in a small oil field Near Sarnia, Ontario, 2001 An oil field is an area with an abundance of oil wells extracting petroleum (oil) from below ground. ... Fars (Persian: فارس) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ...

The Zagros Mountains from space, September 1992 [1]

The Kuhrud Mountains form one of the parallel ranges at a distance of approx. 300 km to the east. The area between these two impressive mountain chains is home to a dense human population that lives in the intermediate valleys which are quite high in altitude with a temperate climate. Their rivers, which eventually reach salt lakes, create fertile environments for agriculture and commerce. ImageMetadata File history File links Zagros_1992. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Zagros_1992. ... A salt lake or saline lake is a landlocked body of water which has a concentration of salts (mostly sodium chloride) and other minerals significantly higher than most lakes (often defined as at least 3,000 milligrams of salt per liter). ...

Zagros in history

Signs of early agriculture date back as far as 9000 BCE to the foothills of the Zagros Mountains[citation needed], in cities later named Anshan and Susa. Jarmo is one archaelogical site in this area. Shanidar , where the skeletal remains of Neanderthals have been found, is another. Winged sphinx from the palace of Darius the Great at Susa. ... Jarmo (Qalat Jarmo) is an archeological site located in northern Iraq on the foothills of Zagros Mountains east of Kirkuk city. ... The cave site of Shanidar is located at the foothills of the Zagros Mountains in north-eastern Iraq. ... For other uses, see Neanderthal (disambiguation). ...

Some of the earliest evidence of wine production has been discovered in the Zagros Mountains; both the settlements of Hajji Firuz and Godin Tepe have given evidence of wine storage dating between 3500 and 5400 BC.[2] A glass of red wine This article is about the alcoholic beverage. ... Hâjji Fîrûz or Hajji Piruz, is the traditional herald of Nouroz. ... Godin Tepe is a prehistoric settlement in western Iran, situated in the valley of Kangavar. ...

During early ancient times, the Zagros was the home of "barbarian" peoples such as the Kassites, Guti, and Mitanni, who periodically invaded the Sumerian and/or Akkadian cities of Mesopotamia. The mountains form a geographic barrier between the flatlands of Mesopotamia (Iraq) and the Iranian plateau. // The Kassites were a Near-Eastern mountain tribe which migrated to the Zagros Mountains and Mesopotamia (present Doroud) in 3000 and 4000 BC.[1] They spoke a non-Indo-European, non-Semitic language. ... Guti can refer to: José María Gutiérrez, usually known as Guti, Spanish football (soccer) player Guti, people in ancient Mesopotamia. ... Kingdom of Mitanni Mitanni (cuneiform KUR URUMi-it-ta-ni, also Mittani Mi-ta-an-ni, in Assyrian sources Hanigalbat, Khanigalbat cuneiform Ḫa-ni-gal-bat ) was a Hurrian kingdom in northern Mesopotamia from ca. ... Sumer (or Šumer) was the earliest known civilization of the ancient Near East, located in lower Mesopotamia (modern Iraq) from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in the late 3rd millennium BC. The term Sumerian applies to all speakers... For the Egyptian writer, see Abbas Al-Akkad. ... For other uses, see Mesopotamia (disambiguation). ...


  1. ^ Salt Dome in the Zagros Mountains, Iran. NASA Earth Observatory. Retrieved on 2006-04-27.
  2. ^ Phillips, Rod. A Short History of Wine. New York: Harper Collins. 2000.

This article contains material that originally came from a NASA website. According to their site usage guidelines, "NASA material is not protected by copyright unless noted". For more information, please review NASA's use guidelines. NASA Earth Observatory is an online publication of NASA where the public can access satellite imagery and scientific information about our planet for free. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... This article is about the American space agency. ... Copyright symbol Copyright is a set of exclusive rights regulating the use of a particular expression of an idea or information. ...

See also

Demirkazık Summit [IN CHINA] The Taurus Mountains (Turkish: Toros Dağları, also known as Ala-Dagh or Bulghar-Dagh) are a mountain range in the southeastern Anatolian plateau, from which the Euphrates (Turkish: Fırat) descends into Syria. ... Alborz Mountains Mount Damavand, Irans tallest mountain is located in Alborz mountain range. ...

External links

  • Iran, Timeline of Art History
  • Mesopotamia 9000 - 500 B.C.

Coordinates: 33°40′N, 47°00′E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

  Results from FactBites:
Zagros Mountains - definition of Zagros Mountains in Encyclopedia (244 words)
The Zagros Mountains are Iran's second largest range in territory.
The mountains are divided into many parallel sub-ranges (up to 10, or 250 km), and have the same age and orogenesis as the Alps.
Between these impressive mountain chains lives a dense population: the valleys are quite high with a temperate climate, and the rivers, which flow into salt lakes, create a good environment for agriculture and commerce.
  More results at FactBites »



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