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Encyclopedia > ZX Spectrum
ZX Spectrum
The original 1982 ZX Spectrum.
Type: Home computer
Released: 23 April 1982
Discontinued: December 1990
Processor: Z80 @ 3.5 MHz and equivalent
Memory: 16 KB / 48 KB / 128 KB
Operating system: Sinclair BASIC

The ZX Spectrum is an 8-bit personal home computer released in the United Kingdom in 1982 by Sinclair Research Ltd. Originally dubbed the ZX81 Colour and ZX82,[1] the machine was later renamed the ZX Spectrum by Sinclair to highlight the machine's colour display, compared to the black-and-white of its predecessor, the Sinclair ZX81.[2]. It is affectionately known as the Speccy by some of its fans.[3] Download high resolution version (2168x1593, 439 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Children playing on a Amstrad CPC 464 in the 1980s. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... The Zilog Z80 is an 8-bit microprocessor designed and manufactured by Zilog from 1976 onwards. ... A kilobyte (derived from the SI prefix kilo-, meaning 1,000) is a unit of information or computer storage equal to either 1,000 bytes or 1,024 bytes (210), depending on context. ... Sinclair BASIC (taking its name from innovator Sir Clive Sinclair) is a dialect of the BASIC programming language used in the home computers from Sinclair Research and Timex Sinclair. ... 8-bit refers to the number of bits used in the data bus of a computer. ... Children playing on a Amstrad CPC 464 in the 1980s. ... Sinclair Research Ltd is a consumer electronics company founded by Sir Clive Sinclair in Cambridge, England (originally as Sinclair Radionics in 1961) to sell hi-fi equipment, calculators, radios and other products. ... Black-and-white or black and white) can refer to a general term used in photography, film, and other media (see black-and-white). ... ZX81 logo The Sinclair ZX81 home computer, released by Sinclair Research in 1981, was the follow up to the companys ZX80. ...


The Spectrum was among the first mainstream audience home computers in the UK, similar in significance to the Commodore 64 in the USA; the C64 was the main rival to the Spectrum in the UK market during the early 1980s. The introduction of the ZX Spectrum led to a boom of companies producing software and hardware for it. The effects of this are still seen.[4] C-64 redirects here. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ...

Contents

Hardware

ZX Spectrum 48K motherboard (Issue 3B — 1983)
ZX Spectrum 48K motherboard (Issue 3B — 1983)

The Spectrum is based on a Zilog Z80A CPU running at 3.5 MHz, the original model Spectrum has 16 KB of ROM and either 16 KB or 48 KB of RAM. The hardware design is by Richard Altwasser of Sinclair Research, while the machine's outward appearance is by Sinclair's industrial designer Rick Dickinson.[5] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1222, 507 KB) Description: Sinclair 48K ZX Spectrum motherboard (Issue 3B.) Source: Bill Bertram Date: Created 29 May, 2005 Author: Bill Bertram Permission: Cc-by-2. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1222, 507 KB) Description: Sinclair 48K ZX Spectrum motherboard (Issue 3B.) Source: Bill Bertram Date: Created 29 May, 2005 Author: Bill Bertram Permission: Cc-by-2. ... One of the first Z80 microprocessors manufactured; the date stamp is from June 1976. ... “CPU” redirects here. ... MegaHertz (MHz) is the name given to one million (106) Hertz, a measure of frequency. ... A kilobyte (derived from the SI prefix kilo-, meaning 1,000) is a unit of information or computer storage equal to either 1,000 bytes or 1,024 bytes (210), depending on context. ... RAM redirects here. ... Dickinson designed the ZX81 personal computer, and holds a patent for its design. ...


Video output is through an RF modulator and is designed for use with contemporary portable television sets, for a simple colour graphic display. Text can be displayed using 32 columns × 24 rows of characters from the ZX Spectrum character set, from a palette of 15 shades: seven colours at two levels of brightness each, plus black.[6] The image resolution is 256×192 with the same colour limitations.[7] The Spectrum has an interesting method of handling colour; to save memory, colour "attributes" were held separately from the pixel bitmap in a 32×24 grid, corresponding to the character cells. An "attribute" consists of a foreground and a background colour, a brightness level (normal or bright) and a flashing "flag" which, when set, causes the two colours to swap at regular intervals.[7] Unfortunately, this scheme leads to what was dubbed colour clash or attribute clash with some bizarre effects in the animated graphics of arcade style games. This problem became a distinctive feature of the Spectrum and an in-joke among Spectrum users, as well as a point of derision by advocates of other systems. Other machines available around the same time, for example the Amstrad CPC, did not suffer from this problem. The Commodore 64 used colour attributes, but hardware sprites and scrolling were used to avoid attribute clash. An RF modulator (for radio frequency modulator) is a device that takes a baseband input signal and outputs a radio frequency-modulated signal. ... Braun HF 1, Germany, 1958 Television is a telecommunication system for broadcasting and receiving moving pictures and sound over a distance. ... The ZX Spectrum character set is the variant of ASCII used in the British Sinclair Spectrum computers. ... Image resolution describes the detail an image holds. ... This article is about the storage organization of raster images. ... Attribute clash (or colour clash) was a display artefact caused by limitations in the graphics circuitry of a number of early colour 8-bit home computers — most notably the Sinclair ZX Spectrum. ... The Amstrad CPC was a series of 8-bit home computers produced by Amstrad during the 1980s and early 1990s. ... C-64 redirects here. ... In computer graphics, a sprite (also known by other names; see Synonyms below) is a two-dimensional/three-dimensional image or animation that is integrated into a larger scene. ... This article needs cleanup. ...


Sound output is through a beeper on the machine itself. This is capable of producing one channel with 10 octaves over ten semitones. The machine also includes an expansion bus edge connector and audio in/out ports for the connection of a cassette recorder for loading and saving programs and data. In computer architecture, the expansion bus is the bus that runs to and from peripheral devices. ... An edge connector is a type of electrical connector for use with PC boards. ... A cassette deck is a player, or player/recorder, for compact audio cassettes. ...


The machine's software was written by Steve Vickers on contract from Nine Tiles Ltd, the authors of Sinclair BASIC. The Spectrum's chiclet keyboard (on top of a membrane, similar to calculator keys) is marked with Sinclair BASIC keywords, so that, for example, pressing "G" when in programming mode would insert the BASIC command GO TO.[8] Image:Steve Vickers. ... Sinclair BASIC (taking its name from innovator Sir Clive Sinclair) is a dialect of the BASIC programming language used in the home computers from Sinclair Research and Timex Sinclair. ... A chiclet keyboard is slang for a computer keyboard built with an array of small, flat rectangular or lozenge-shaped rubber or plastic keys that look like erasers or pieces of chewing gum. ... This page is about the programming command. ...


Models

Pre-production designs

An early design of the Spectrum
This image has an uncertain copyright status and is pending deletion. You can comment on the removal.
A later design showing the "flash".[9]
This image has an uncertain copyright status and is pending deletion. You can comment on the removal.

Rick Dickinson came up with a number of designs called the ZX82 before the finalised ZX Spectrum. A number of the keyboard legends changed during the design phase including ARC becoming CIRCLE, FORE becoming INK and BACK becoming PAPER. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Dickinson designed the ZX81 personal computer, and holds a patent for its design. ...


Sinclair Research models

ZX Spectrum 16K/48K (Dimensions (mm): 233x144x30 (WxHxD) @ ~552 grams).
ZX Spectrum 16K/48K (Dimensions (mm): 233x144x30 (WxHxD) @ ~552 grams).[10]

The original ZX Spectrum is remembered for its 'dead flesh' (rubber) keyboard, diminutive size and distinctive rainbow motif. It was originally released in 1982 with 16 KB of RAM for £125 Sterling or with 48 KB for £175;[11] these prices were later reduced to £99 and £129 respectively.[12] Owners of the 16 KB model could purchase an internal 32 KB RAM upgrade, which for early "Issue 1" machines consisted of a daughterboard. Later issue machines required the fitting of 8 dynamic RAM chips and a few TTL chips. Users could mail their 16K Spectrums to Sinclair to be upgraded to 48 KB versions. To reduce the price, the 32 KB extension used eight faulty 64 kilobit chips with only one half of their capacity working and/or available.[13] External 32 KB RAMpacks that mounted in the rear expansion slot were also available from third parties. Both machines had 16 KB of onboard ROM. Download high resolution version (2168x1593, 439 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2168x1593, 439 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... “GBP” redirects here. ... A daughterboard or daughtercard is a circuit board meant to be an extension or daughter of a motherboard (or mainboard), or occasionally another card. ... Dynamic random access memory (DRAM) is a type of random access memory that stores each bit of data in a separate capacitor within an integrated circuit. ... A Motorola 68000-based computer with various TTL chips. ... A kilobit is a unit of information storage, abbreviated kbit or sometimes kb. ...


Approximately 60,000 "Issue 1" ZX Spectrums were manufactured; they can be distinguished from later models by the colour of the keys (light grey for Issue 1, blue-grey for later models).[14]

ZX Spectrum+ (Dimensions (mm): 319x149x38 (WxHxD)).
ZX Spectrum+ (Dimensions (mm): 319x149x38 (WxHxD)).[10]

Planning of the ZX Spectrum+ started in June 1984,[15] and was released in October the same year.[16] This 48 KB Spectrum (development code-name TB) introduced a new QL-style case with a much needed injection-moulded keyboard and a reset button, retailing for £179.95.[17] A DIY conversion-kit for older machines was also available. Early on, the machine outsold the rubber-key model 2:1; however, some retailers reported very high failure rates. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2136x1260, 795 KB) This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2136x1260, 795 KB) This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 2. ... The Sinclair QL (for Quantum Leap), was a personal computer launched by Sinclair Research in 1984, as the successor to the ZX Spectrum. ...

ZX Spectrum 128
ZX Spectrum 128

Sinclair developed the ZX Spectrum 128 (code-named Derby) in conjunction with their Spanish distributor Investrónica.[18] Investrónica had helped adapt the ZX Spectrum+ to the Spanish market after the Spanish government introduced a special tax on all computers with 64 KB RAM or less which did not support the Spanish alphabet (including ñ) and show messages in Spanish.[19] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2211x1418, 1421 KB) This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2211x1418, 1421 KB) This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 2. ... Ñ and ñ in Arial and Times New Roman, with an example word from Panare Ñ is a letter of the modern Roman alphabet formed by an N with a diacritical tilde. ...


New features included 128 KB RAM, three-channel audio via the AY-3-8912 chip, MIDI compatibility, an RS-232 serial port, an RGB monitor port, 32 KB of ROM including an improved BASIC editor and an external keypad. The AY-3-8912 was a 3 voice sound chip designed by General Instruments. ... Musical Instrument Digital Interface, or MIDI, is a system designed to transmit information between electronic musical instruments. ... RS-232 (also referred to as EIA RS-232C or V.24) is a standard for serial binary data interchange between a DTE (Data terminal equipment) and a DCE (Data communication equipment). ... REDIRECT RGB color model ...


The machine was simultaneously presented for the first time and launched in September 1985 at the SIMO '85 trade show in Spain, with a price of 44,250 pesetas. Because of the large amount of unsold Spectrum+ models, Sinclair decided not to start selling in the UK until January 1986 at a price of £179.95.[20] No external keypad was available for the UK release, although the ROM routines to utilise it and the port itself, which was hastily renamed "AUX", remained. SIMO TCI is an International Data Processing, Multimedia and Communications Show held every autumn in Madrid, Spain. ... The peseta (₧) was the currency of Spain (and Andorra, along with the French franc) until December 31, 1998. ...


The Z80 processor used in the Spectrum has a 16-bit address bus, which means only 64 KB of memory can be directly addressed. To facilitate the extra 80 KB of RAM the designers utilised bank switching so that the new memory would be available as eight pages of 16 KB at the top of the address space. The same technique was also used to page between the new 16 KB editor ROM and the original 16 KB BASIC ROM at the bottom of the address space. Bank switching (also known as paging, but only loosely related to the ordinary meaning of paging in computing) was a technique common in 8-bit microcomputer systems, to increase the amount of addressable RAM and ROM without extending the address bus. ...


The new sound chip and MIDI out abilities were exposed to the BASIC programming language with the command PLAY and a new command SPECTRUM was added to switch the machine into 48K mode. To enable BASIC programmers to access the additional memory, a RAM disk was created where files could be stored in the additional 80 KB of RAM. The new commands took the place of two existing user-defined-character spaces causing compatibility problems with some BASIC programs. Musical Instrument Digital Interface, or MIDI, is a system designed to transmit information between electronic musical instruments. ...


The Spanish version had the "128K" logo (right, bottom of the computer) in white while the English one had the same logo in red. For other uses, see Logo (disambiguation). ...


Amstrad models

ZX Spectrum +2
ZX Spectrum +2

The ZX Spectrum +2 was Amstrad's first Spectrum, coming shortly after their purchase of the Spectrum range and "Sinclair" brand in 1986. The machine featured an all-new grey case featuring a spring-loaded keyboard, dual joystick ports, and a built-in cassette recorder dubbed the "Datacorder" (like the Amstrad CPC 464), but was (in all user-visible respects) otherwise identical to the ZX Spectrum 128. Production costs had been reduced and the retail price dropped to £139–£149.[21] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1846x708, 127 KB) Summary ZX Spectrum +2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1846x708, 127 KB) Summary ZX Spectrum +2. ... Amstrad is a manufacturer of electronics based in Brentwood in Essex, England and founded in 1968 by Sir Alan Michael Sugar in the UK. The name is a contraction of Alan Michael Sugar Trading. ... Sinclair Research Ltd was a home computer company founded by Sir Clive Sinclair in Cambridge, England. ... The Amstrad CPC 464 was an 8-bit home computer produced by Amstrad in the 1980s. ...


The new keyboard did not include the BASIC keyword markings that were found on earlier Spectrums, except for the keywords LOAD, CODE and RUN which were useful for loading software, this was not a major issue however, as the +2 boasted a little menu system where you could switch between 48k basic programming with the keywords already discussed, and 128k Basic programming which standardised Basic programming for the Spectrum. However, the layout remained identical to that of the 128.

ZX Spectrum +3
ZX Spectrum +3

The ZX Spectrum +3 looked similar to the +2 but featured a built-in 3-inch floppy disk drive (like the Amstrad CPC 6128) instead of the tape drive, and was in a black case. It was launched in 1987, initially retailed for £249[22] and then later £199[23] and was the only Spectrum capable of running the CP/M operating system without additional hardware. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2507x1020, 311 KB) Summary ZX Spectrum +3. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2507x1020, 311 KB) Summary ZX Spectrum +3. ... A floppy disk is a data storage device that is composed of a disk of thin, flexible (floppy) magnetic storage medium encased in a square or rectangular plastic shell. ... CP/M is an operating system originally created for Intel 8080/85 based microcomputers by Gary Kildall of Digital Research, Inc. ...


The +3 saw the addition of two more 16 KB ROMs, now physically implemented as two 32 KB chips. One was home to the second part of the reorganised 128 ROM and the other hosted the +3's disk operating system. This was a modified version of Amstrad's AMSDOS, called +3DOS. To facilitate the new ROMs and CP/M, the bank-switching was further improved, allowing the ROM to be paged out for another 16 KB of RAM. Disc Operatating system that worked on the 8-Bit Amstrad CPC Computer (and various clones). ...


Such core changes brought incompatibilities:

  • Removal of several lines on the expansion bus edge connector (video, power, and IORQGE); caused many external devices problems; some such as the VTX5000 modem could be used via the "FixIt" device
  • Dividing ROMCS into 2 lines, to disable both ROMs
  • Reading a non-existent I/O port no longer returned the last attribute; caused some games such as Arkanoid to be unplayable
  • Memory timing changes; some of the RAM banks were now contended causing high-speed colour-changing effects to fail
  • The keypad scanning routines from the ROM were removed
  • move 1 byte address in ROM

Some older 48K, and a few older 128K, games were incompatible with the machine. Arkanoid is an arcade game developed by Taito in 1986. ...


The +3 was the final official model of the Spectrum to be manufactured, remaining in production until December 1990. Although still accounting for one third of all home computer sales at the time, production of the model was ceased by Amstrad in an attempt to transfer customers to their CPC range.

ZX Spectrum +2A.
ZX Spectrum +2A.

The ZX Spectrum +2A was produced to homogenise Amstrad's range in 1987. Although the case reads "ZX Spectrum +2", the +2A/B is easily distinguishable from the original +2 as the case was restored to the standard Spectrum black. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 3919 KB) Summary Picture of a Sinclair ZX-Spectrum 128 +2 I own. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 3919 KB) Summary Picture of a Sinclair ZX-Spectrum 128 +2 I own. ...


The +2A was derived from Amstrad's +3 4.1 ROM model, using a new motherboard which vastly reduced the chip count, integrating many of them into a new ASIC. The +2A replaced the +3's disk drive and associated hardware with a tape drive, as in the original +2. Originally, Amstrad planned to introduce an additional disk interface, but this never appeared. If an external disk drive was added, the "+2A" on the system OS menu would change to a +3. As with the ZX Spectrum +3, some older 48K, and a few older 128K, games were incompatible with the machine. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The ZX Spectrum +2B signified a manufacturing move from Hong Kong to Taiwan later in 1987.


Some board of +2A and +2B have a full board like a +3, but without disk controller chips, in a new version, reduce this space, and lines, the board is a bit in down right corner


Clones

See also: Category:ZX Spectrum clones

Sinclair licensed the Spectrum design to Timex Corporation in the United States. An enhanced version of the Spectrum with better sound, graphics and other modifications was marketed in the USA by Timex as the Timex Sinclair 2068. Timex's derivatives were largely incompatible with Sinclair systems. However, some of the Timex innovations were later adopted by Sinclair Research. A case in point was the abortive Pandora portable Spectrum, whose ULA had the high resolution video mode pioneered in the TS2068. Pandora had a flat-screen monitor and Microdrives and was intended to be Sinclair's business portable until Alan Sugar bought the computer side of Sinclair, when he took one look at it and ditched it (a conversation with UK computer journalist Guy Kewney went thus: AS: "Have you seen it?" GK: "Yes" AS: "Well then.").[24] Timex Group B.V. is an American watch company. ... Another view of the TS 2068. ... A Gate array or Uncommitted Logic Array (ULA) is an approach to the design and manufacture of application_specific integrated circuits (ASICS). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Guy Kewney (born April 30, 1946) is a British journalist. ...


In the UK, Spectrum peripheral vendor Miles Gordon Technology (MGT) released the SAM Coupé as a potential successor with some Spectrum compatibility. However, by this point, the Commodore Amiga and Atari ST had taken hold of the market, leaving MGT in eventual receivership. Miles Gordon Technology, known as MGT was a small British company, initially specialising in high-quality add-ons for the Sinclair ZX Spectrum home computer. ... The SAM Coupé was an 8-bit British home computer that was first released in late 1989. ... Amiga is the name of a range of home/personal computers using the Motorola 68000 processor family, whose development started in 1982. ... The Atari ST is a home/personal computer that was commercially popular from 1985 to the early 1990s. ...


Many unofficial Spectrum clones were produced, especially in Eastern Bloc nations (e.g. in Romania, there were some models produced, like HC-85, HC-90/91, HC 2000 and CIP-02, CIP-03, CIP-04, Cobra, TIM-S, MicroTIM, TIM-S+; CIP-04 and TIM-S+ being clones of Spectrum +3, featuring CP/M and a 5.25"/3.5" disk. HC-2000 and Cobra had also a floppy disk interface and an adapted CP/M operating system) and South America (e.g. Microdigital TK 90X and TK 95; Czerweny CZ-2000). In Russia for example, ZX Spectrum clones were assembled by thousands of small start-ups and distributed though poster ads and street stalls. Over 50 such clone models existed.[25] Some of them are still being produced, such as the Pentagon and ATM Turbo. A map of the Eastern Bloc 1948-1989. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... TK 90X The TK90X was the first Brazilian ZX Spectrum clone made in the 1980s by Microdigital Eletronica, a company located at Sao Paulo, Brazil that manufactured some ZX81 clones before (TK82C, TK83 and TK85). ... The TK95 was the evolution of TK 90X made in the 1980s by Microdigital Eletronica, a company located at Sao Paulo, Brazil that manufactured some ZX81 clones before (TK82C, TK83 and TK85). ... The Pentagon home computer, manufactured in former Soviet Union, is a clone of the British-made Sinclair ZX Spectrum 128. ... ATM (ATM Turbo) is a ZX Spectrum clone, developed in Moscow, in 1991, by two firms, MicroArt and ATM. It has Z80 at 7 MHz, 1024k RAM, 128k ROM, AY-8910 (two ones in upgraded models), 8-bit DAC, 8-bit 8-channel ADC, RS-232, Centronics, BetaDisc interface, IDE...


In India, Decibells Electronics introduced a licensed version of the Spectrum+ in 1986. Dubbed the "db Spectrum+", it did reasonably well in the Indian market and sold quite a few thousands before the market slowly died away by 1990 or so.


Peripherals

ZX Interface 1
ZX Interface 1
ZX Interface 2
ZX Interface 2
ZX Microdrive
ZX Microdrive
Kempston joystick interface
Kempston joystick interface

Several peripherals for the Spectrum were marketed by Sinclair: the ZX Printer was already on the market,[26] as the ZX Spectrum expansion bus was backwards-compatible with that of the ZX81. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 5. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 5. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 5. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 5. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 755 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1426 × 1132 pixel, file size: 137 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 755 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1426 × 1132 pixel, file size: 137 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1740x1104, 221 KB) Summary Kempston joystick interface for ZX Spectrum. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1740x1104, 221 KB) Summary Kempston joystick interface for ZX Spectrum. ... A spark printer uses a special paper coated with a layer of aluminium over a black backing, which is printed on by using a pulsing current onto the paper via two styli that move across on a moving belt at high speed. ... In computer architecture, a bus is a subsystem that transfers data or power between computer components inside a computer or between computers and typically is controlled by device driver software. ... The term backwards compatible refers to the ability of a recent software or hardware components to be able to work with earlier versions of the same product. ...


The ZX Interface 1 add-on module included 8 KB of ROM, an RS-232 serial port, a proprietary LAN interface (called ZX Net), and an interface for the connection of up to eight ZX Microdrives — somewhat unreliable but speedy tape-loop cartridge storage devices released in July 1983.[27][28] These were later used in a revised version on the Sinclair QL, whose storage format was electrically compatible but logically incompatible with the Spectrum's. Sinclair also released the ZX Interface 2 which added two joystick ports and a ROM cartridge port.[29] A peripheral from Sinclair Research for its ZX Spectrum home computer, the ZX Interface 1 was launched in 1983. ... RS-232 (also referred to as EIA RS-232C or V.24) is a standard for serial binary data interchange between a DTE (Data terminal equipment) and a DCE (Data communication equipment). ... Lan can stand for several things: A local area network Lan (airline) formerly LanChile Lan Peru Län, a kind of administrative division used in Sweden Lan Mandragoran, a fictional character in the Wheel of Time fantasy series by Robert Jordan. ... The ZX Microdrive was a tape-loop storage system from the 1980s, used in Sinclair Researchs ZX Spectrum and Sinclair QL home computers. ... The Sinclair QL (for Quantum Leap), was a personal computer launched by Sinclair Research in 1984, as the successor to the ZX Spectrum. ... The ZX Interface 2 was a peripheral from Sinclair Research for its ZX Spectrum home computer. ...


There were also a plethora of third-party hardware addons. The better known of these included the Kempston joystick interface, the Morex Peripherals Centronics/RS-232 interface, the Currah Microspeech unit (speech synthesis),[30] Videoface Digitiser,[31] RAM pack, the Cheetah Marketing SpecDrum,[32] a drum machine, and the Multiface,[33] a snapshot and disassembly tool from Romantic Robot. Keyboards were especially popular in view of the original's notorious "dead flesh" feel[34]. The Kempston Interface plugged into a Spectrum Plus The Kempston Interface was the generic name for any interface on Sinclairs ZX Spectrum series of computers that allowed joysticks complying with the de facto Atari 2600 standard to be used with the machine. ... For other uses, see Centronics (disambiguation). ... Currah is a British computer peripheral manufacturer famous for the speech cartridges it designed for the Sinclair ZX Spectrum, Commodore 64, and other 8-bit home computers of the 1980s. ... Videoface software menu. ... Headline text Cheetah Marketing. ... The Multiface was a hardware add-on released by Romantic Robot UK Ltd. ...


There were numerous disk drive interfaces, including the Abbeydale Designers/Watford Electronics SPDOS, Abbeydale Designers/Kempston KDOS and Opus Discovery. The SPDOS and KDOS interfaces were the first to come bundled with Office productivity software (Tasword Word Processor, Masterfile database and OmniCalc spreadsheet). This bundle, together with OCP's Stock Control, Finance and Payroll systems, introduced many small businesses to a streamlined, computerised operation. The most popular floppy disk systems (except in East Europe) were the DISCiPLE and +D systems released by Miles Gordon Technology in 1987 and 1988 respectively. Both systems had the ability to store memory images onto disk snapshots could later be used to restore the Spectrum to its exact previous state. They were also both compatible with the Microdrive command syntax, which made porting existing software much simpler.[35] Abbeydale Designers Ltd was a Reading-based software company set up by Dave Farmborough and Dimitri Koveos in 1984. ... Kempston Micro Electronics was an electronics company specialising in computer joysticks and related home computer peripherals during the 1980s. ... A disciple (from the Latin discipulus, a pupil) is one who receives instruction from another; a scholar; a learner; especially, a follower who has learned to believe in the truth of the doctrine of his teacher, and implies that the pupil is under the discipline of, and understands, his teacher... The +D (or Plus D) was a floppy disk and printer interface for the Sinclair ZX Spectrum home computer, developed as a successor to Miles Gordon Technologys earlier product, the DISCiPLE. It was designed to be smaller, cheaper, simpler and thus more reliable. ... Miles Gordon Technology, known as MGT was a small British company, initially specialising in high-quality add-ons for the Sinclair ZX Spectrum home computer. ...


During the mid-1980s, the company Micronet800 launched a service allowing users to connect their ZX Spectrums via a Prism Micro Products modem to a bulletin board system known as Micronet hosted by Prestel. This service had some similarities to the Internet, but was proprietary and fee-based. The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... Some factual claims in this article or section need to be verified. ... Prism Micro Products Limited was a British company (Registered No. ... For other uses, see Modem (disambiguation). ... “BBS” redirects here. ... Micronet800 was an information provider (IP) on Prestel, aimed at the 1980’s personal computer market. ... Prestel, the brand name for the British General Post Offices Viewdata technology, was an interactive videotex system developed during the late 1970s and commercially launched in 1979. ...


Software

A screenshot from Rebelstar, a well known Spectrum game
A screenshot from Rebelstar, a well known Spectrum game
Main article: ZX Spectrum software

The Spectrum enjoys a vibrant, dedicated fan-base. Since it was cheap and simple to learn to use and program, the Spectrum was the starting point for many programmers and technophiles who remember it with nostalgia. The hardware limitations of the Spectrum imposed a special level of creativity on game designers, and for this reason, many Spectrum games are very creative and playable even by today's standards. The early Spectrum models' great success as a games platform came in spite of its lack of built-in joystick ports, primitive sound generation, and colour support that was optimised for text display. Image File history File links ZX_Rebelstar_2. ... Image File history File links ZX_Rebelstar_2. ... Rebelstar is a 1986 turn-based tactics computer game by Julian Gollop, originally released on the ZX Spectrum. ... The ZX Spectrum software library currently consists of more than 14,000 titles. ...


The Spectrum family enjoys a very large software library of more than 14,000 titles.[36] While the majority of these were games, its software library was very diverse, including programming language implementations, databases (eg VU-File[37]), word processors (eg Tasword II[38]), spreadsheets (eg VU-Calc[37]), drawing and painting tools (eg OCP Art Studio[39]), and even 3D modelling (eg VU-3D[40][41]). Screenshot of a spreadsheet under OpenOffice A spreadsheet is a rectangular table (or grid) of information, often financial information. ...


Distribution

Most Spectrum software was originally distributed on audio cassette tapes. The Spectrum was intended to work with a normal domestic cassette recorder,[42] and despite differences in audio reproduction fidelity, the software loading process was quite reliable. For the meaning of cassette in genetics, see cassette (genetics). ...


While the ZX Microdrive was initially greeted with good reviews,[43] it never took off as a distribution method due to worries about the quality of the cartridges and piracy.[44] Hence the main use became to complement tape releases, usually utilities and niche products like the Tasword word processing software and the aforementioned Trans Express. No games are known to be exclusively released on Microdrive. Word processing, in its now-usual meaning, is the use of a word processor to create documents using computers. ...


Despite the popularity of the DISCiPLE and +D systems, most software released for them took the form of utility software. The ZX Spectrum +3 enjoyed much more success when it came to commercial software releases on floppy disk. More than 700 titles were released on 3-inch disk from 1987 to 1997.[36]


Software was also distributed through print media, fan magazines and books. The prevalent language for distribution was the Spectrum's BASIC dialect Sinclair BASIC. The reader would type the software into the computer by hand, run it, and save it to tape for later use. The software distributed in this way was in general simpler and slower than its assembly language counterparts, and lacked graphics. But soon, magazines were printing long lists of checksummed hexadecimal digits with machine code games or tools. There was a vibrant scientific community built around such software, ranging from satellite dish alignment programs to school classroom scheduling programs. Sinclair BASIC (taking its name from innovator Sir Clive Sinclair) is a dialect of the BASIC programming language used in the home computers from Sinclair Research and Timex Sinclair. ... See the terminology section, below, regarding inconsistent use of the terms assembly and assembler. ... A checksum is a form of redundancy check, a simple way to protect the integrity of data by detecting errors in data that are sent through space (telecommunications) or time (storage). ... In mathematics and computer science, hexadecimal, base-16, or simply hex, is a numeral system with a radix, or base, of 16, usually written using the symbols 0–9 and A–F, or a–f. ... Sky Digital mini-dish Astros mini-dish. Special dish for up to 16 satellite positions (Ku-band) Satellite dish antenna for C-Band Satellite Dishes installed on an apartment complex A satellite dish is a type of parabolic antenna designed with the specific purpose of transmitting signals to and...


Another, unusual, software distribution method was to broadcast the audio stream from the cassette on another medium and have users record it onto an audio cassette themselves. In radio or television shows in e.g. Croatia (Radio 101 (Croatia)), Serbia (Ventilator 202), Poland, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Italy (RAI Radio3), Portugal or Brazil, the host would describe a program, instruct the audience to connect a cassette tape recorder to the radio or TV and then broadcast the program over the airwaves in audio format. Some magazines distributed 7" 33⅓ rpm flexidisc records, a variant of regular vinyl records which could be played on a standard record player. These disks were known as floppy ROMs. Radio 101 - Independent radio station, with alternative and latest music and breaking news in Croatia. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... -1... This article is about the Italian radio station Radio3. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... A gramophone record, (also phonograph record - often simply record) is an analog sound recording medium: a flat disc rotating at a constant angular velocity, with inscribed spiral grooves in which a stylus or needle rides. ... Byte Magazine March 1976 issue, with cover story Cassette Interfaces. The Kansas City standard (KCS), or Byte standard, is a digital data format for audio cassette drives. ...


Copying and backup software

Most copier software available for the Spectrum was designed for copyright infringement of software through tape duplication. Copiers were developed to copy programs from audio tape to microdrive tapes, and later on diskettes. Complex loaders with unusual speeds or encoding were the basis of the Spectrum's copy prevention schemes, although other methods were used including asking for a particular word from the documentation included with the game — often a novella — or another physical device distributed in the software box (e.g. Lenslok). As protection became more complex it was almost impossible to use copiers to copy tapes, and the loaders had to be cracked by hand, to produce unprotected versions. Special hardware such as Romantic Robot's Multiface was able to dump a copy of the ZX Spectrum RAM to disk/tape at the press of a button, entirely circumventing the copy protection systems. The copyright infringement of software refers to several practices when done without the permission of the copyright holder: Creating a copy and/or selling it. ... Copy prevention, also known as copy protection, is any technical measure designed to prevent duplication of information. ... Lenslok was a copy prevention mechanism found in some computer games on Commodore 64 and Sinclair ZX Spectrum. ... The Multiface was a hardware add-on released by Romantic Robot UK Ltd. ...


Most Spectrum software has been digitised in recent years and is available for download in digital form. One popular program for digitising Spectrum software is Taper: it allows connecting a cassette tape player to the line in port of a sound card or, through a simple home-built device, to the parallel port of a PC.[45] Once in digital form, the software can be executed on one of many existing emulators, on virtually any platform available today. Today, the largest on-line archive of ZX Spectrum software is World of Spectrum, with more than 12,000 titles. The legality of this practice is still in question and a number of authors have explicitly objected to the posting of their software, with which some Spectrum abandonware sites have usually complied. However, for the majority of the software it seems unlikely that any action will ever be taken. See Sound Card. ... A sound card (also known as an audio card) is a computer expansion card that can input and output sound under control of computer programs. ... This article is about the Centronics style port. ... World of Spectrum is a website devoted to cataloging and archiving material for the ZX Spectrum home computer pupular in the 1980s. ... Abandonware is widely thought to be computer software that is no longer current. ...


Notable Spectrum developers

A number of current leading games developers and development companies began their careers on the ZX Spectrum, including David Perry of Shiny Entertainment, and Tim and Chris Stamper (founders of Ultimate Play The Game, now known as Rare, maker of many famous titles for Nintendo and Microsoft game consoles). Other prominent games developers include Matthew Smith (Manic Miner, Jet Set Willy), Jon Ritman (Match Day, Head Over Heels), The Oliver Twins (the Dizzy series), Clive Townsend (Saboteur) and Alan Cox[46]. This article is about David Perry, the game developer. ... Shiny Entertainment is a video game developer based in Newport Beach, CA, and is the creator of several hits such as Earthworm Jim and Enter The Matrix. ... Tim and Chris Stamper (artist and programmer respectively) are the co-founders of Ashby Computers & Graphics (better known as Ultimate Play The Game) and later Rare. ... Ultimate Play The Game was the name used for the video games released by Ashby Computer Graphics (A.C.G). ... Rare, Ltd is a United Kingdom-based video game development company. ... Nintendo Company, Limited (任天堂 or ニンテンドー Nintendō; NASDAQ: NTDOY, TYO: 7974 usually referred to as simply Nintendo, or Big N ) is a multinational corporation founded on September 23, 1889[1] in Kyoto, Japan by Fusajiro Yamauchi to produce handmade hanafuda cards. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... Matthew Smith (born 1966) is a British computer game programmer. ... Manic Miner is a classic platform game originally written for the ZX Spectrum by Matthew Smith and released by Bug-Byte in 1983 (later re-released by Software Projects). ... Jet Set Willy is a computer game for the ZX Spectrum home computer. ... Bear Bovver screenshot Jon Ritman was a software developer in the 1980s, working primarily on games for the ZX Spectrum and Amstrad CPC home computer range. ... Match Day was a football simulation game, published by Ocean Software in 1984, on the ZX Spectrum, Amstrad and Commodore 64 systems. ... For the rock group Cocteau Twins album, see Head over Heels Head Over Heels is a arcade adventure, first released in 1987 for Z80-microprocessor-based home computers (ZX Spectrum, Amstrad CPC, MSX) by Jon Ritman (game design and programming) and Bernie Drummond (graphics). ... The Oliver Twins are two British brothers, Philip and Andrew Oliver, who started to develop computer games professionally while they were still at school. ... The loading screen from Fantasy World Dizzy. ... Saboteur is an action game published in 1985 for several 8-bit home computer formats by Durell Software. ... Alan Cox at FOSS.IN/2005 Alan Cox (born 1968) is a computer programmer heavily involved in the development of the Linux kernel since its early days (1991). ...


Also, Jeff Minter ported some of his Commodore VIC-20 games for the ZX Spectrum.[47] Jeff Minter at Assembly 2004 Jeff Yak Minter (born in Reading, April 22, 1962) is a British computer/video game designer and programmer. ... The VIC-20 (Germany: VC-20; Japan: VIC-1001) is an 8-bit home computer. ...


Community

The ZX Spectrum enjoyed a very strong community early on. Several dedicated magazines were released including Sinclair User (1982), Your Sinclair (1983) and CRASH (1984). Early on they were very technically oriented with type-in programs and machine code tutorials. Later on they became almost only games oriented. Several general contemporary computer magazines covered the ZX Spectrum in more or less detail. They included Computer Gamer, Computer and Video Games, Computing Today, Popular Computing Weekly, Your Computer and The Games Machine. [1] Computer magazines are about computers and related subjects, such as networking and the Internet. ... Sinclair User, often abbreviated SU, was a magazine dedicated to the Sinclair Research range of home computers, most specifically the ZX Spectrum. ... Your Sinclair magazine logo Your Sinclair Issue 1, January 1986 Your Sinclair or YS as it was affectionately known, was a British computer magazine for the Sinclair range of computers, specifically the ZX Spectrum. ... CRASH was a magazine dedicated to the ZX Spectrum home computer. ... Computer Gamer was a video game magazine published in the United Kingdom by Argus Specialist Publication, covering home gaming during the late 1980s. ... This article is about a British magazine covering computer and video games. ... Cover of Computing Today from May 1983 Computing Today was a computer magazine published by Argus Specialist Publications, it was printed in the UK from the late 1970s to the mid 1980s. ... Cover of PCW from 1989 Popular Computing Weekly was a computer magazine in the UK published from the early 1980s until the early 1990s. ... Cover of Your Computer from December 1984 Your Computer was a British computer magazine published monthly during the 1980s, and aimed at the burgeoning home computer market. ... The Games Machine was a popular videogame magazine that was published from the late 1980s until the early 1990s in Britain. ...


More than 80 electronic magazines existed, mostly in Russian. Most notable of them were AlchNews (UK), ZX-Format (Russia), and Spectrofon (Russia). Computer magazines are about computers and related subjects, such as networking and the Internet. ... Spectrofon was an electronic magazine for ZX Spectrum produced in Russia by the developer group STEP Interactive from Moscow. ...


See also

The history of computing hardware starting in the 1960s begins with the development of the integrated circuit (IC), which formed the basis of the first computer kits and home computers in the 1970s, notable examples being the MITS Altair, Apple II and Commodore PET; and which eventually powered personal and... // Hardware modes 256×192, 16 colors, standard, 32×24 attributes The original ZX Spectrum hardware allows 256×192 pixels with 16 colors (8 colors with 2 brightness levels), limited to two colors per 32×24 attributes cells 8×8 pixels each. ... This is a list of games for the ZX Spectrum video game system, organised alphabetically by name. ... The following is a list of clones of Sinclair Researchs ZX Spectrum home computer: ATM AZX-Monstrum Baltica (computer) Best III Bi Am ZX-Spectrum 48/64 Bi Am ZX-Spectrum 128 Cobra CIP-03 Composite Delta Delta S-128 Didaktik Dubna 48K Ella Ra Elwro 600 Jr Elwro... The ZX Spectrum software library currently consists of more than 14,000 titles. ... The SAM Coupé was an 8-bit British home computer that was first released in late 1989. ...

References

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  2. ^ Klooster, Erik. SINCLAIR ZX SPECTRUM : the good, old 'speccy'. Computer Museum. Retrieved on 2006-04-19.
  3. ^ (October 1991) "The YS Top 100 Speccy Games Of All Time (Ever!)". Your Sinclair (70): 31. Retrieved on 2007-06-13. 
  4. ^ How the Spectrum began a revolution. BBC (23 April 2007). Retrieved on 2007-06-05.
  5. ^ Owen, Chris. ZX Spectrum 16K/48K. Planet Sinclair. Retrieved on 2006-08-15.
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  8. ^ Vickers, Steven (1982). "Basic programming concepts", Sinclair ZX Spectrum BASIC Programming. Sinclair Research Ltd. Retrieved on 2006-09-19. 
  9. ^ Dickinson, Rick. specModel03. Sinclair Spectrum development. Retrieved on 2007-07-25.
  10. ^ a b The Machines. The Home Computers Hall of Fame. Retrieved on 2007-05-20.
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  14. ^ Owen, Chris. Spectrum 48K Versions. Planet Sinclair. Retrieved on 2006-04-24.
  15. ^ Denham, Sue (December 1984). "The Secret That Was Spectrum+". Your Spectrum (10): 104. Retrieved on 2006-08-21. 
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  20. ^ (April 1985) "Clive discovers games — at last". Sinclair User (49): 53. Retrieved on 2006-08-20. 
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  24. ^ Rupert Goodwins (2002-05-12). "Sinclair Loki Superspectrum". comp.sys.sinclair. (Google Groups). Retrieved on 2006-11-08.
  25. ^ Owen, Chris. Clones and variants. Planet Sinclair. Retrieved on 2006-10-26.
  26. ^ Owen, Chris. ZX Printer. Planet Sinclair. Retrieved on 2006-08-24.
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  28. ^ Adams, Stephen (October 1983). "Hardware World: Spectrum receives its biggest improvement". Sinclair User (19): 27–29. Retrieved on 2006-08-29. 
  29. ^ (December 1983) "Hardware World: Sinclair cartridges may be out of step". Sinclair User (21): 35. Retrieved on 2006-08-29. 
  30. ^ (December 1983) "Hardware World: Clear speech from Currah module". Sinclair User (21): 40. Retrieved on 2006-08-29. 
  31. ^ Frey, Franco (February 1987). "Tech Niche: Videoface to Face". CRASH (37): 86–87. 
  32. ^ Bates, Jon (April 1986). "Tech Niche: SpecDrum". CRASH (27): 100. Retrieved on 2007-08-09. 
  33. ^ Frey, Franco (March 1986). "Tech Niche: Multifaceted device". CRASH (36): 86. 
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  35. ^ Frey, Franco (March 1987). "Tech Niche: Pure Gospel". CRASH (38): 82–83. 
  36. ^ a b Heide, Martijn van der. Archive!. World of Spectrum. Retrieved on 2006-08-11.
  37. ^ a b Pearce, Nick (October/November 1982). "Zap! Pow! Boom!". ZX Computing: 75. 
  38. ^ Wetherill, Steven (June 1984). "Tasword Two: The Word Processor". CRASH! (5): 126. 
  39. ^ Gilbert, John (October 1985). "Art Studio". Sinclair User (43): 28. Retrieved on 2007-01-18. 
  40. ^ Carter, Alasdair (October/November 1983). "VU-3D". ZX Computing: 76–77. 
  41. ^ Psion Vu-3D. Retrieved on 2007-01-18.
  42. ^ Vickers, Steven; and Bradbeer, Robin (1982). "6. Using the cassette recorder", Sinclair ZX Spectrum: Introduction. Sinclair Research Ltd, 21. Retrieved on 2007-08-10. 
  43. ^ Frey, Franco (May 1984). "Epicventuring and Multiplayer Networking". CRASH (4): 46–47. Retrieved on 2007-08-11. 
  44. ^ Foot, Cathy (November 1985). "Microdrive revisited". CRASH (22): 8. Retrieved on 2006-08-10. 
  45. ^ Heide, Martijn van der. Taper. Retrieved on 2006-10-26.
  46. ^ Bezroukov, Nikolai. Alan Cox: and the Art of Making Beta Code Work. Portraits of Open Source Pioneers. Retrieved on 2007-01-18.
  47. ^ Minter, Jeff. Llamasoft History - Part 8 - The Dawn of Llamasoft. Retrieved on 2007-09-26.

Dickinson designed the ZX81 personal computer, and holds a patent for its design. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Dickinson designed the ZX81 personal computer, and holds a patent for its design. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Your Sinclair magazine logo Your Sinclair Issue 1, January 1986 Your Sinclair or YS as it was affectionately known, was a British computer magazine for the Sinclair range of computers, specifically the ZX Spectrum. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Sinclair Research Ltd was a home computer company founded by Sir Clive Sinclair in Cambridge, England. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Sinclair Research Ltd was a home computer company founded by Sir Clive Sinclair in Cambridge, England. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Sinclair Research Ltd was a home computer company founded by Sir Clive Sinclair in Cambridge, England. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Dickinson designed the ZX81 personal computer, and holds a patent for its design. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Sinclair User, often abbreviated SU, was a magazine dedicated to the Sinclair Research range of home computers, most specifically the ZX Spectrum. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Your Sinclair magazine logo Your Sinclair Issue 1, January 1986 Your Sinclair or YS as it was affectionately known, was a British computer magazine for the Sinclair range of computers, specifically the ZX Spectrum. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Sinclair User, often abbreviated SU, was a magazine dedicated to the Sinclair Research range of home computers, most specifically the ZX Spectrum. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Sinclair User, often abbreviated SU, was a magazine dedicated to the Sinclair Research range of home computers, most specifically the ZX Spectrum. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Micro Mart is a weekly computer magazine published in the United Kingdom by Trinity Publications Limited[1] (as subsiduary of Trinity Mirror) and features news and reviews from both the hardware and software realms of computing. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Sinclair User, often abbreviated SU, was a magazine dedicated to the Sinclair Research range of home computers, most specifically the ZX Spectrum. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Your Sinclair magazine logo Your Sinclair Issue 1, January 1986 Your Sinclair or YS as it was affectionately known, was a British computer magazine for the Sinclair range of computers, specifically the ZX Spectrum. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Your Sinclair magazine logo Your Sinclair Issue 1, January 1986 Your Sinclair or YS as it was affectionately known, was a British computer magazine for the Sinclair range of computers, specifically the ZX Spectrum. ... Amstrad is a manufacturer of electronics based in Brentwood in Essex, England and founded in 1968 by Sir Alan Michael Sugar in the UK. The name is a contraction of Alan Michael Sugar Trading. ... Sinclair User, often abbreviated SU, was a magazine dedicated to the Sinclair Research range of home computers, most specifically the ZX Spectrum. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: His legacy should be speedy deletion If you disagree with its speedy deletion, please explain why on its talk page or at Wikipedia:Speedy deletions. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Sinclair User, often abbreviated SU, was a magazine dedicated to the Sinclair Research range of home computers, most specifically the ZX Spectrum. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Sinclair User, often abbreviated SU, was a magazine dedicated to the Sinclair Research range of home computers, most specifically the ZX Spectrum. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Sinclair User, often abbreviated SU, was a magazine dedicated to the Sinclair Research range of home computers, most specifically the ZX Spectrum. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Sinclair User, often abbreviated SU, was a magazine dedicated to the Sinclair Research range of home computers, most specifically the ZX Spectrum. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... CRASH was a magazine dedicated to the ZX Spectrum home computer. ... CRASH was a magazine dedicated to the ZX Spectrum home computer. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... CRASH was a magazine dedicated to the ZX Spectrum home computer. ... Sinclair User, often abbreviated SU, was a magazine dedicated to the Sinclair Research range of home computers, most specifically the ZX Spectrum. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... CRASH was a magazine dedicated to the ZX Spectrum home computer. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image:Steve Vickers. ... Sinclair Research Ltd was a home computer company founded by Sir Clive Sinclair in Cambridge, England. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... CRASH was a magazine dedicated to the ZX Spectrum home computer. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
ZX Spectrum - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3608 words)
The Sinclair ZX Spectrum was a home computer released in the United Kingdom in 1982 by Sinclair Research.
In Russia for example, ZX Spectrum clones were assembled by thousands of small start-ups and distributed though poster ads and street stalls.
Since ZX Spectrum had only rudimentary tape interface, data was recorded using an unusually simple and very reliable modulation similar to Pulse-width modulation but without constant clock rate.
ZX Spectrum (604 words)
The Sinclair ZX Spectrum is a small home computer released in the United Kingdom in 1982 by Sinclair Research.
Several peripherals for the Spectrum were marketed by Sinclair: the printer was already on the market, as the Spectrum had retained the control code for the ZX81's printer.
A Russian clone of the ZX Spectrum is the Pentagon.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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