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EncyclopediaZ > VM
Look up Z, z in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Basic Latin alphabet
  Aa Bb Cc Dd  
Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj
Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp
Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv
  Ww Xx Yy Zz  

Z is the twenty-sixth and final letter of the modern Latin alphabet. A Specimen of typeset fonts and languages, by William Caslon, letter founder; from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ...


In many dialects of English, the letter's name is pronounced zed /zɛd/, reflecting its derivation from the Greek zeta (see below). In American English dialects, however, its name is pronounced zee /ziː/, deriving from a late 17th-century English dialectal form. Another English dialectal form is izzard, which dates from the mid-18th century, probably deriving from the French et zède, meaning "and z," or else from "s hard." A variant izzed is the predominant form in anglophone South Asia. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Zeta (upper case Ζ, lower case ζ) is the sixth letter of the Greek alphabet. ... For other uses, see American English (disambiguation). ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700 in the Gregorian calendar. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Look up Anglophone in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ...


Other Indo-European languages pronounce the letter's name in a similar fashion, such as zet in Dutch, zède in French, zett in German, zeta in Italian and Spanish, in Portuguese, and se (ze) in Russian. The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many spoken in the Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and Central Asia. ...

Contents

History

Proto-Semitic Z Phoenician Z Etruscan Z Greek Zeta
Image:Proto-semiticZ-01.png Image:PhoenicianZ-01.png

The name of the Semitic symbol was zayin, possibly meaning "weapon", and was the seventh letter. It represented either z as in English and French, or possibly more like /dz/ (as in Italian zeta, zero). Image File history File links Proto-semiticZ-01. ... Image File history File links PhoenicianZ-01. ... Image File history File links EtruscanZ-01. ... Image File history File links Zeta_uc_lc. ... The Middle Bronze Age alphabets are two similar undeciphered scripts, dated to be from the Middle Bronze Age (2000-1500 BC), and believed to be ancestral to nearly all modern alphabets: the Proto-Sinaitic script discovered in the winter of 1904-1905 by William Flinders Petrie, and dated to 1500... Zayin or Zain is the seventh letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ...


The Greek form of Z was a close copy of the Phoenician symbol I, and the Greek inscriptional form remained in this shape throughout ancient times. The Greeks called it Zeta, a new name made in imitation of Eta (η) and Theta (θ). Zeta (upper case Ζ, lower case ζ) is the sixth letter of the Greek alphabet. ...


In earlier Greek of Athens and Northwest Greece, the letter seems to have represented /dz/; in Attic, from the 4th century BC onwards, it seems to have been either /zd/ or a /dz/, and in fact there is no consensus concerning this issue. In other dialects, as Elean and Cretan, the symbol seems to have been used for sounds resembling the English voiced and unvoiced th (IPA /ð/ and /θ/, respectively). In the common dialect (κοινη) that succeeded the older dialects, ζ became /z/, as it remains in modern Greek. Athens (Ancient Greek: αἱ Ἀθῆναι (plural), evolving into the modern Αθήναι in Greek until recently, and Αθήνα nowadays (IPA ); singular: see Origin of the name below) is both the largest and the capital city of Greece, located in the Attica periphery. ... The 4th century BC started the first day of 400 BC and ended the last day of 301 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period. ... For the famous World War II battle, see: Battle of Crete For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ...


In Etruscan, Z may have symbolized /ts/; in Latin, /dz/. In early Latin, the sound of /z/ developed into /r/ and the symbol became useless. It was therefore removed from the alphabet around 300 BC by the Censor, Appius Claudius Caecus, and a new letter, G was put in its place soon thereafter. Note: This article contains special characters. ... Appius Claudius Caecus (Appius Claudius the Blind, c. ... The letter G is the seventh letter in the Latin alphabet. ...


In the 1st century BC, it was, like Y, introduced again at the end of the Latin alphabet, in order to represent more precisely the value of the Greek zeta — previously transliterated as S at the beginning and ss in the middle of words, eg. sona = ζωνη, "belt"; trapessita = τραπεζιτης, "banker". The letter appeared only in Greek words, and Z is the only letter besides Y that the Romans took directly from the Greek, rather than Etruscan. (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 1st century BC started on January 1, 100 BC and ended on December 31, 1 BC. An alternative name for this century is the last century BC. The AD/BC notation does not use a year zero. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In Vulgar Latin, Greek Zeta seems to have represented (IPA /dj/), and later (IPA /dz/); d was for /z/ in words like baptidiare for baptizare "baptize", while conversely Z appears for /d/ in forms like zaconus, zabulus, for diaconus "deacon", diabulus, "devil". Z also is often written for the consonantal I (that is, J, IPA /j/) as in zunior for junior "younger". Vulgar Latin, as in this political graffito at Pompeii, was the speech of ordinary people of the Roman Empire — different from the classical Latin used by the Roman elite. ...


Until recent times, the English alphabets used by children terminated not with Z but with & or related typographic symbols. George Eliot refers to Z being followed by & when she makes Jacob Storey say, "He thought it [Z] had only been put to finish off th' alphabet like; though ampusand would ha' done as well, for what he could see." The modern English alphabet consists of the 26 letters[1] of the Latin alphabet: The exact shape of printed letters varies depending on the typeface. ... The roman ampersand at left is stylized, but the italic one at right reveals its origin in the Latin word An ampersand (&), also commonly called an and sign, is a logogram representing the conjunction and. ... Mary Ann Evans (22 November 1819 – 22 December 1880), better known by her pen name George Eliot, was an English novelist. ...


Blackletter Z

A glyph variant of Z originating in the medieval Gothic minuscules and the Early Modern Blackletter typefaces is the "tailed z" (German geschwänztes Z, also Z mit Unterschlinge) In some Antiqua typefaces, this letter is present as a standalone letter or in ligatures. Together with long s, it is also the origin of the ß ligature in German orthography. Page from a fourteenth century Psalter (Vulgate Ps 93:16-21), with blackletter sine pedibus text German Blackletter typefaces Blackletter, also known as Gothic script or Gothic minuscule, was a script used throughout Western Europe from approximately 1150 to 1500. ... Blackletter in a Latin Bible of AD 1407, on display in Malmesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, England. ... A facsimile of Nicholas Jensons roman type used in Venice circa 1470. ... An italicized long s used in the word Congress in the United States Bill of Rights. ... ß as the combination of Å¿s on a Pirna street sign (Waldstraße) This article is about the letter ß in the German alphabet. ...


A graphical variant of tailed Z is Ezh, as adopted into the International Phonetic Alphabet as the sign for the voiced postalveolar fricative. Ezh (capital , lowercase ) is a character in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), representing the voiced postalveolar fricative. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... The voiced palato-alveolar fricative or domed postalveolar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ...


Unicode assigns codepoints for "BLACK-LETTER CAPITAL Z" and "FRAKTUR SMALL Z" in the Letterlike Symbols and Mathematical alphanumeric symbols ranges, at U+2182 and U+1D537 𝖟, respectively. Letterlike Symbols are special characters like a regular alphabet or symbol characters but they have specific style and appearance which is known and commonly used in many different tradition and places. ... Mathematical alphanumeric symbols are modifications of Latin and Greek letters and decimal digits that enable mathematicians to denote different notions with different letter styles (one example is blackboard bold, or double-struck (in Unicode terminology)). Unicode now includes many such symbols (in the range U+1D400 . ...

Usage

In Italian, Z represents two phonemes, namely /ts/ and /dz/; in German, it stands for /ts/; in Castilian Spanish it represents /θ/ (as English th in thing), though in other dialects (Latin American, Andalusian) this sound has merged with /s/. Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Motto: Andalucía por sí, para España y la humanidad (Andalusia by herself, for Spain, and for humankind) Capital Seville Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 2nd  87,268 km²  17. ...


The International Phonetic Alphabet uses [z] for the voiced alveolar sibilant. Early English had used S alone for both the unvoiced and the voiced sibilant; the Latin sound imported through French was new and was not written with Z but with G or I. The successive changes can be well seen in the double forms from the same original, jealous and zealous. Both of these come from a late Latin zelosus, derived from the imported Greek ζηλος. Much the earlier form is jealous; its initial sound is the [dʒ] which in later French is changed to [ʒ]. It is written gelows or iclous by Wycliffe and his contemporaries; the form with I is the ancestor of the modern form. At the end of words this Z was pronounced ts as in the English assets, which comes from a late Latin ad satis through an early French assez "enough". See English plural. Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... The voiced alveolar fricatives are consonantal sounds. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


Z is also used in English to represent (IPA /ʒ/) in words like azure, seizure. But this sound appears even more frequently as s-before-u, and as si before other vowels as in measure, decision, etc., or in foreign words as G, as in rouge. The IPA character chosen for this sound in the nineteenth century is confused with another, much earlier obsolete character; for which, see Yogh. The letter yogh (Èœ ȝ; Middle English: ogh) was used in Middle English and Middle Scots, representing y (IPA: ) and various velar phonemes. ...


Few words in the Basic English vocabulary begin with Z, though it occurs in words beginning with other letters. It is also the most rarely used letter in the English language[citation needed]. Look up Appendix:Basic English word list in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


For the use of "z" in such Scottish names as Culzean, Menzies or Dalziel, see: yogh. The letter yogh (Ȝ ȝ; Middle English: ogh) was used in Middle English and Middle Scots, representing y (IPA: ) and various velar phonemes. ...


(See: IPA chart for English, for the meaning of all the above phonetic symbols.). This chart shows concisely the most common way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is applied to represent the English language. ... Phonetic (pho-NET-ic) is a nationwide voicemail-to-text messaging service available for most digital mobile phones in which a subscriber is provided a custom voice mailbox for the purpose of receiving all incoming voice messages as actual transcribed text for reading via short messaging (also known as SMS...


In (mostly humorous) comics and cartoons, Z is often used as symbolism for sleep or snoring; this has led to the American expression "getting some Zs" as a slang term of sleeping. Comics (or, less commonly, sequential art) is a form of visual art consisting of images which are commonly combined with text, often in the form of speech balloons or image captions. ... A cartoon is any of several forms of illustrations with varied meanings that evolved from its original meaning. ...


In Shakespeare's King Lear, Z is used as an insult. A character is called "Thou whoreson zed! Thou unnecessary letter!" (II.ii), intimating that Z, in Shakespearean English, was regarded as a useless letter, like the person on the receiving end of the insult. Shakespeare redirects here. ... King Lear and the Fool in the Storm by William Dyce (1806-1864) King Lear is based on the legend of King Lear, a legendary king of Britain, and is considered to be one of William Shakespeares greatest tragedies. ...


Codes for computing

In Unicode, the capital "Z" is codepoint U+005A and the lowercase "z" is U+007A. FAA radiotelephony phonetic alphabet and Morse code chart. ... 1922 Chart of the Morse Code Letters and Numerals Morse code is a method for transmitting telegraphic information, using standardized sequences of short and long elements to represent the letters, numerals, punctuation and special characters of a message. ... Image File history File links ICS_Zulu. ... Image File history File links Semaphore_Zulu. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Braille_Z.svg en: Braille letter/symbol. ... The system of international maritime signal flags is a way of representing individual letters of the alphabet in signals to or from ships. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The American Sign Language Alphabet is a manual alphabet that augments the vocabulary of American Sign Language when spelling individual letters of a word is the preferred or only option, such as with proper names or the titles of works. ... Braille code where the word (, French for first) can be read. ... Unicode is an industry standard allowing computers to consistently represent and manipulate text expressed in any of the worlds writing systems. ... Majuscules or capital letters (in the Roman alphabet: A, B, C, ...) are one type of case in a writing system. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Letter case. ...


The ASCII code for capital "Z" is 90 and for lowercase "z" is 122; [1] or in binary, 01011010 and 01111010,[1] correspondingly. Image:ASCII fullsvg There are 95 printable ASCII characters, numbered 32 to 126. ... The binary numeral system, or base-2 number system, is a numeral system that represents numeric values using two symbols, usually 0 and 1. ...


The EBCDIC code for capital "Z" is 233 and for lowercase "z" is 169 (64 less).[1] EBCDIC (Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code) is an 8-bit character encoding (code page) used on IBM mainframe operating systems, like z/OS, OS/390, VM and VSE, as well as IBM minicomputer operating systems like OS/400 and i5/OS. It is also employed on various non-IBM...


The numeric character references in HTML and XML are "Z" and "z" for upper and lower case respectively. A numeric character reference (NCR) is a common markup construct used in SGML and other SGML-based markup languages such as HTML and XML. It consists of a short sequence of characters that, in turn, represent a single character from the Universal Character Set (UCS) of Unicode. ... HTML, short for Hypertext Markup Language, is the predominant markup language for the creation of web pages. ... The Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a general-purpose markup language. ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Z

For other uses and meanings of the letter "Z", see Z (disambiguation). See also: Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Look up Z in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Look up zed in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Zee could refer to the letter Z of the English alphabet Zee TV Zuider Zee This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Caron redirects here, for the French actress, see Leslie Caron. ... The acute accent ( Â´ ) is a diacritic mark used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin script. ... When used as a diacritic mark, the term dot is usually reserved for the middle dot ·, or to the glyphs combining dot above ̇ and combining dot below Ì£ which may be combined with some letters of the extended Latin alphabets in use in Eastern European languages and Vietnamese. ... Ezh (capital , lowercase ) is a character in the IPA. Also called the tailed z, it represents a voiced postalveolar fricative (SAMPA: [Z]), appearing in e. ... Ƶ is a variant used in hand-written equations by mathematicians, scientists, and engineers for the letter Z, so as not to confuse the symbol with the numeral 2. ... Zzz may refer to: Look up zzz in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b c The code values for uppercase and lowercase Z differ by the value of a blank space, which in ASCII has a blank='20'x=32 added, and in EBCDIC, has a blank='40'x=64 subtracted to get the value of the lowercase letter.

Image:ASCII fullsvg There are 95 printable ASCII characters, numbered 32 to 126. ... EBCDIC (Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code) is an 8-bit character encoding (code page) used on IBM mainframe operating systems, like z/OS, OS/390, VM and VSE, as well as IBM minicomputer operating systems like OS/400 and i5/OS. It is also employed on various non-IBM...

External links

  • "Zee" versus "Zed" in the southern Ontario Public School System
  • The Zed formal specification notation
The ISO basic Latin alphabet
Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
Letter Z with diacritics
ŹźẐẑŽžŻżẒẓẔẕƵƶȤȥʐʑɀⱫⱬ
Two-letter combinations
Za Zb Zc Zd Ze Zf Zg Zh Zi Zj Zk Zl Zm Zn Zo Zp Zq Zr Zs Zt Zu Zv Zw Zx Zy Zz
ZA ZB ZC ZD ZE ZF ZG ZH ZI ZJ ZK ZL ZM ZN ZO ZP ZQ ZR ZS ZT ZU ZV ZW ZX ZY ZZ
Letter-digit & Digit-letter combinations
                Z0 Z1 Z2 Z3 Z4 Z5 Z6 Z7 Z8 Z9
                0Z 1Z 2Z 3Z 4Z 5Z 6Z 7Z 8Z 9Z
historypalaeographyderivationsdiacriticspunctuationnumeralsUnicodelist of letters

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