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Encyclopedia > Z machine
The Z machine at Sandia National Laboratory. Due to the extremely high voltage, the power feeding equipment is submerged in concentric chambers of 2 megalitres (2,000 m³) of transformer oil and 2.3 megalitres (2,300 m³) of deionized water, which act as insulators. Nevertheless, the electromagnetic pulse when the machine is discharged causes impressive lightning, referred to as "arcs and sparks" or "flashover", which can be seen around many of the metallic objects in the room. Courtesy, Sandia National Laboratories
The Z machine at Sandia National Laboratory. Due to the extremely high voltage, the power feeding equipment is submerged in concentric chambers of 2 megalitres (2,000 m³) of transformer oil and 2.3 megalitres (2,300 m³) of deionized water, which act as insulators. Nevertheless, the electromagnetic pulse when the machine is discharged causes impressive lightning, referred to as "arcs and sparks" or "flashover", which can be seen around many of the metallic objects in the room. Courtesy, Sandia National Laboratories

The Z machine is the largest X-ray generator in the world and is designed to test materials in conditions of extreme temperature and pressure. It is operated by Sandia National Laboratories to gather data to aid in computer modeling of nuclear weapons. The Z machine is located at Sandia's main site in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Download high resolution version (1500x991, 1785 KB)Z-pinch at Sandia National Laboratories Z machine. ... Download high resolution version (1500x991, 1785 KB)Z-pinch at Sandia National Laboratories Z machine. ... In electrical engineering High voltage refers to a voltage which is high. ... Deionized water (DI water or de-ionized water; also spelled deionised water, see spelling differences) is water that lacks ions, such as cations from sodium, calcium, iron, copper and anions such as chloride and bromide. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Example of an electromagnetic pulse, in this case caused by the electrical discharge required to fire the Z machine. ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... It has been suggested that Sandia Base be merged into this article or section. ... A computer simulation or a computer model is a computer program which attempts to simulate an abstract model of a particular system. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter. ... Nickname: The Duke City Location in the state of New Mexico Coordinates: Country United States State New Mexico County Bernalillo Founded 1706 Government  - Mayor Martin Chavez Area  - City  181. ...

Contents

Operation overview

When the Z machine fires, the energy from a 20-million-ampere electrical discharge vaporizes an array of thin, parallel tungsten wires, creating plasma. Simultaneously, the electrical current creates a powerful magnetic field that compresses and implodes the plasma by means of a z-pinch process. The imploding cylindrical plasma produces an X-ray pulse which can create a shock wave in a target structure. The powerful fluctuation in the magnetic field (an "electromagnetic pulse") also generates electric current in all of the metallic objects in the room (see picture at right). The cylinder's axis is conventionally termed the z-axis. Current can be measured by a galvanometer, via the deflection of a magnetic needle in the magnetic field created by the current. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tungsten, W, 74 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 6, d Appearance grayish white, lustrous Atomic mass 183. ... Current (I) flowing through a wire produces a magnetic field () around the wire. ... A plasma lamp, illustrating some of the more complex phenomena of a plasma, including filamentation. ... The Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. ... Introduction The shock wave is one of several different ways in which a gas in a supersonic flow can be compressed. ... Example of an electromagnetic pulse, in this case caused by the electrical discharge required to fire the Z machine. ...


Originally designed to supply 50 terawatts of power in one fast pulse, technological advances resulted in an increased output of 290 terawatts, enough to study nuclear fusion. Z releases 80 times the world's electrical power output for a few billionths of a second; however, only a moderate amount of energy is consumed in each test (roughly equal to the electrical energy consumed by 100 U.S households in two minutes). Marx generators are slowly charged with energy prior to firing. This page lists examples of the power in watts produced by various different sources of energy. ... The deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reaction is considered the most promising for producing fusion power. ... A Marx generator is a type of electrical circuit first described by Erwin Marx in 1924 whose purpose is to generate a high voltage pulse. ...


Sandia announced the fusing of deuterium in the Z machine on April 7, 2003. A 60 million dollar refurbishment program was announced in 2004 that will raise the power output to 350 terawatts. The refurbishment, which started in July of 2006, includes the installation of newly designed hardware and components and more powerful marx generators. The de-ionized water section of the machine has been reduced to about half its old size while the oil section has been expanded signifigantly in order to house larger intermediate storage lines (i-stores) and brand new laser towers, which used to sit in the water section. The refurbishment is estimated to be finished in May of 2007. The X-ray output will be 2.7 megajoules. Deuterium, also called heavy hydrogen, is a stable isotope of hydrogen with a natural abundance in the oceans of planet Earth of approximately one atom in 6500 of hydrogen (~154 PPM). ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A megajoule (abbreviation: MJ) is a unit of energy equal to 1000000 joules. ...


The Z machine is now able to propel small plates at 34 kilometers a second, faster than the 30 kilometers per second that Earth travels in its orbit around the Sun, and three times Earth's escape velocity. The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System. ... Space Shuttle Atlantis launches on mission STS-71 In physics, for a given gravitational field and a given position, the escape velocity is the minimum speed an object without propulsion, at that position, needs to have to move away indefinitely from the source of the field, as opposed to falling...


In 2006, Z produced plasmas with temperatures in excess of 2 billion kelvins (GK, 109 K) or 3.6 billion °F. It was achieved in part by replacing the tungsten wires by thicker steel wires. This temperature, which enables a 10 to 15% efficiency in converting electrical energy to soft x-rays, was much higher than anticipated. Thus far, it is currently the highest man-made temperature ever achieved. It is theorized that small-scale turbulence and viscous damping are converting magnetic energy into thermal energy of the ions, which then transfer their energy to the electrons through collisions. The Kelvin scale is a thermodynamic (absolute) temperature scale where absolute zero—the lowest possible temperature where nothing could be colder and no heat energy remains in a substance—is defined as zero kelvin (0 K). ... Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after the German physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736), who proposed it in 1724. ...


The Sandia Z-IFE project

Further information: Inertial fusion power plant

The Sandia Laboratories Z-IFE project[1] is based upon a repetitive process ensuring the implosion of a fuel capsule every 10 seconds, planned to produce around 3 GJ (3×109 joules) of fusion energy; the technique used is a z-pinch inertial confinement. An Inertial fusion power plant is intended to industrially produce electric power by use of inertial confinement fusion techniques. ... It has been suggested that Sandia Base be merged into this article or section. ... The joule (IPA pronunciation: or ) (symbol: J) is the SI unit of energy. ...

Cutaway of a planned Z-IFE reactor, with a human being (on the left) for scale.

The figure represents a cutaway of a reactor as proposed by Sandia; a production plant would be made up of several such reactors (12 in the ZP-3 demonstration plant, of which 10 would operate simultaneously). Using the analogy previously introduced, such a design is equivalent to the multiple cylinders of a gasoline engine. Image File history File links Z-IFE.png‎ Summary Z-IFE Power Plant Source : http://fire. ... Image File history File links Z-IFE.png‎ Summary Z-IFE Power Plant Source : http://fire. ...


Without going into technical details (further information is available in the links at the bottom of the article), it is possible to distinguish the following elements:

  • The red triangular device ("cartridge") corresponds to a cartridge formed by the fuel microcapsule, the "wires array" and the power transmission device; cartridges are transported to the top of the reactor chamber by an automatic loading mechanism, the rail which can be seen in the upper part of the image being a part of it.
  • The thick horizontal blue line, tangent to the reaction chamber, is the power transmission line which carries an extremely short and powerful electrical pulse to the "wires array" device[2] necessary to the z-pinch process;
  • The reactor chamber is filled by an inert gas under low pressure (20 Torr or 2.6 kPa), the normal atmospheric pressure being 760 Torr or 101 kPa).
  • The internal blanket of the reactor chamber is a thick-liquid wall of flibe (liquid mixture of lithium fluoride and beryllium difluoride) intended to protect the external wall, to absorb the fusion neutron energy, and to produce tritium[3].
  • Finally, the system is intended to recycle the cartridges' debris, collected by the flibe "pool", after their destruction at the time of the fusion.

For the standard botanical author abbreviation Torr. ... The pascal (symbol Pa) is the SI unit of pressure. ... For other uses, see LIF. Lithium fluoride is a chemical compound of lithium and fluorine. ... General Name, Symbol, Number beryllium, Be, 4 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 2, s Appearance white-gray metallic Atomic mass 9. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ An introduction to the Z-IFE project may be found here.
  2. ^ For further details, see Pulsed power article.
  3. ^ tritium is produced when neutrons created during the fusion irradiates flibe lithium.

Pulsed power is the science and technology of accumulating energy over a relatively long period of time and releasing it very quickly. ...

See also

It has been suggested that Sandia Base be merged into this article or section. ... The Sun is a natural fusion reactor. ... A Peacekeeper missile warhead is subjected to a wall of fire to determine how its aging components would react if used today. ... Pulsed power is the science and technology of accumulating energy over a relatively long period of time and releasing it very quickly. ... An Inertial fusion power plant is intended to industrially produce electric power by use of inertial confinement fusion techniques. ...

External links

  • Z machine melts diamond to puddle
  • Z Machine Home Page
  • "A machine called Z"
  • Physics News Update, February 28, 2006


Fusion power
v  d  e
Atomic nucleus | Nuclear fusion | Nuclear power | Nuclear reactor | Timeline of nuclear fusion
Plasma physics | Magnetohydrodynamics | Neutron flux | Fusion energy gain factor | Lawson criterion
Methods of fusing nuclei

Magnetic confinement: - Tokamak - Spheromak - Stellarator - Reversed field pinch - Field-Reversed Configuration - Levitated Dipole
Inertial confinement: - Laser driven - Z-pinch - Bubble fusion (acoustic confinement) - Fusor (electrostatic confinement)
Other forms of fusion: - Muon-catalyzed fusion - Pyroelectric fusion - Migma The Sun is a natural fusion reactor. ... A semi-accurate depiction of the helium atom. ... The deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reaction is considered the most promising for producing fusion power. ... A nuclear power station. ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ... Timeline of significant events in the study and use of nuclear fusion: 1929 - Atkinson and Houtermans used the measured masses of light elements and applied Einsteins discovery that E=mc² to predict that large amounts of energy could be released by fusing small nuclei together. ... A Plasma lamp In physics and chemistry, a plasma is an ionized gas, and is usually considered to be a distinct phase of matter. ... Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) (magnetofluiddynamics or hydromagnetics) is the academic discipline which studies the dynamics of electrically conducting fluids. ... neutron flux n : the rate of flow of neutrons; the number of neutrons passing through a unit area in unit time via dictionary. ... The fusion energy gain factor, usually expressed with the symbol Q, is the ratio of fusion power produced in a nuclear fusion reactor to the power required to maintain the plasma in steady state. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reaction is considered the most promising for producing fusion power. ... Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) is a sustained nuclear fusion reaction in a plasma that is contained by magnetic fields. ... A split image of the largest tokamak in the world, the JET, showing hot plasma in the right image during a shot. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Stellarator magnetic field and magnets A stellarator is a device used to confine a hot plasma with magnetic fields in order to sustain a controlled nuclear fusion reaction. ... Reversed-Field Pinch is a toroidal magnetic confinement scheme. ... A Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) is a device developed for magnetic fusion energy research that confines a plasma on closed magnetic field lines without a central penetration. ... A Levitated Dipole is a unique form of fusion reactor technology using a solid superconducting torus, magnetically levitated in the reactor chamber. ... Inertial confinement fusion using lasers rapidly progressed in the late 1970s and early 1980s from being able to deliver only a few joules of laser energy (per pulse) to a fusion target to being able to deliver tens of kilojoules to a target. ... In inertial confinement fusion (ICF), nuclear fusion reactions are initiated by heating and compressing a target – a pellet that most often contains deuterium and tritium – by the use of intense laser or ion beams. ... The Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. ... Bubble fusion or sonofusion is the common name for a nuclear fusion reaction hypothesized to occur during sonoluminescence, an extreme form of acoustic cavitation; officially, this reaction is termed acoustic inertial confinement fusion (AICF) since the inertia of the collapsing bubble wall confines the energy causing a rise in temperature. ... U.S. Patent 3,386,883 - fusor — June 4, 1968 The Farnsworth–Hirsch Fusor, or simply fusor, is an apparatus designed by Philo T. Farnsworth to create nuclear fusion. ... Inertial electrostatic confinement (often abbreviated as IEC) is a concept for retaining a plasma using an electrostatic field. ... Muon-catalyzed fusion is a process allowing nuclear fusion to take place at room temperature. ... Pyroelectric fusion is a technique for achieving nuclear fusion by using an electric field generated by pyroelectric crystals to accelerate ions of deuterium (tritium might also be used someday) into a metal hydride target also containing detuerium (or tritium) with sufficient kinetic energy to cause these ions to fuse together. ... Migma was a proposed inertial electrostatic confinement fusion reactor designed by Bogdan Maglich around 1973. ...

List of fusion experiments

Magnetic confinement devices
ITER (International) | JET (European) | JT-60 (Japan) | Large Helical Device (Japan) | KSTAR (Korea) | EAST (China) | T-15 (Russia) | DIII-D (USA) | Tore Supra (France) | ASDEX Upgrade (Germany) | TFTR (USA) | NSTX (USA) | NCSX (USA) | UCLA ET (USA) | Alcator C-Mod (USA) | LDX (USA) | H-1NF (Australia) | MAST (UK) | START (UK) | Wendelstein 7-X (Germany) | TCV (Switzerland) | DEMO (Commercial) Experiments directed toward developing fusion power are invariably done with dedicated machines which can be classified according to the principles they use to confine the plasma fuel and keep it hot. ... ITER is an international tokamak (magnetic confinement fusion) research project designed to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of a full-scale fusion power reactor. ... Split image of JET with right side showing hot plasma during a shot. ... JT-60 (JT stands for Japan Torus) is the flagship of Japans magnetic fusion program, run by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), and the Naka Fusion Research Establishment in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. ... Categories: Stub | Nuclear technology ... The KSTAR, or Korean Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Reactor is a magnetic fusion device being built at the Korea Basic Science Institute in Daejon, South Korea. ... The Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST, internally called HT-7U) is a project being undertaken to construct an experimental superconducting tokamak magnetic fusion energy reactor in Hefei, the capital city of Anhui Province, in eastern China. ... The T-15 is a Russian nuclear fusion research reactor, based on the (Russian-invented) tokamak design. ... DIII-D or D3-D is the name of a tokamak machine developed in the 1980s by General Atomics in San Diego, USA, as part of the ongoing effort to achieve magnetically confined fusion. ... Tore Supra is a tokamak français en activité après larrêt du TFR (Tokamak de Fontenay-aux-Roses) et de Petula (à Grenoble). ... The ASDEX Upgrade divertor tokamak (Axially Symmetric Divertor EXperiment) went into operation at the Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching in 1991. ... The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) was an experimental fusion test reactor built at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (in Princeton, New Jersey) circa 1980. ... The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is an innovative magnetic fusion device that was constructed by the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in collaboration with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Columbia University, and the University of Washington at Seattle. ... The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) is a plasma confinement experiment being conducted at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. ... The UCLA Electric Tokamak is a low field (0. ... Alcator C-Mod is a tokamak, a magnetically confined nuclear fusion device, at the MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center. ... The Levitated Dipole Experiment (LDX) is a project devoted to researching a type of nuclear fusion which utilizes a floating superconducting torus to provide an axisymmetric magnetic field which is used to contain plasma. ... The H-1 flexible Heliac is a three field-period helical axis stellarator located in the Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering at the Australian National University. ... The Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak, or MAST experiment is a nuclear fusion experiment in operation at Culham since December 1999. ... The Small Tight Aspect Ratio Tokamak, or START was a nuclear fusion experiment that used magnetic confinement to hold plasma. ... Magnetic coils and plasma of the Wendelstin 7-X stellarator Plasma vessel of Wendelstein 7-X Wendelstein 7-X is an experimental stellarator (nuclear fusion reactor) currently being built in Greifswald, Germany by the Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (IPP), which will be completed by 2012. ... Tokamak à Configuration Variable (TCV): inner view, with the graphite-claded torus. ... Look up demo in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Inertial confinement devices
Laser driven: - NIF (USA) | OMEGA laser (USA) | Nova laser (USA) | Novette laser (USA) | Nike laser (USA) | Shiva laser (USA) | Argus laser (USA) | Cyclops laser (USA) | Janus laser (USA) | Long path laser (USA) | 4 pi laser (USA) | LMJ (France) | Luli2000 (France) | GEKKO XII (Japan) | ISKRA lasers (Russia) | Vulcan laser (UK) | Asterix IV laser (Czech Republic) | HiPER laser (European)
Non-laser driven: - Z machine (USA) | PACER (USA)
A construction worker inside NIFs 10 meter target chamber. ... The Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) is a scientific research facility which is part of the University of Rochesters south campus, located in Rochester, New York. ... The Nova laser was a laser built at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in 1984 and which conducted advanced inertial confinement fusion experiments until its dismantling in 1999. ... The Novette target chamber with two laser chains visible in background. ... Final amplifier of the Nike laser where laser beam energy is increased from 150 J to ~5 Kj by passing through a krypton/fluorine/argon gas mixture excited by irradiation with two opposing 670,000 volt electron beams. ... The Shiva laser was an extremely powerful 20 beam infrared neodymium glass (silica glass) laser built at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in 1977 for the study of inertial confinement fusion and long-scale-length laser-plasma interactions. ... Argus laser overhead view. ... The single beam Cyclops laser at LLNL around the time of its completion in 1975. ... The Janus laser as it appeared in 1975. ... The Long Path laser was an early high energy infrared laser at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory used to study inertial confinement fusion. ... Physicist Frank Rainer (inset), who was involved in laser research and development at LLNL since 1966, holds the target chamber seen at the center of the larger picture. ... Laser Mégajoule (LMJ) is an experimental inertial confinement fusion (ICF) device being built in France by the French nuclear science directorate, CEA. Laser Mégajoule plans to deliver about 1. ... LULI2000 is a high-power laser system dedicated to scientific research. ... GEKKO XII is a high-power 12-beam neodymium doped glass laser at the Osaka Universitys Institute for Laser Engineering completed in 1983, which is used for high energy density physics and inertial confinement fusion research. ... The ISKRA-4 and ISKRA-5 lasers are lasers which were built by the Russian federation at RFNC-VNIIEF in Arzamas-16() with the ~2Kj output ISKRA-4 laser being completed in 1979 and the ~30Kj output ISKRA-5 laser which was completed in 1989. ... The Vulcan laser is an 8 beam 2. ... The Asterix IV laser in Prague (commonly reffered to by the acronym PALS for Prague Asterix Laser System) is a high power photolytically pumped iodine gas laser which is capable of producing ~300 to 500 picosecond long pulses of light at the fundamental line of 1. ... HiPER is an experimental laser-driven inertial confinement fusion (ICF) device currently undergoing preliminary design for possible construction in the European Union starting around 2010. ... The PACER project, carried out at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the mid-1970s, explored the possibility of a fusion power system that would involve exploding small hydrogen bombs (fusion bombs)—or, as stated in a later proposal, fission bombs—inside an underground cavity. ...


See also: International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility The International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility, also known as IFMIF, is an international scientific research program designed to test materials for suitability for use in a fusion reactor. ...


 
 

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