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Encyclopedia > Yuri Andropov
Yuri Vladimirovich Andropov
Ю́рий Влади́мирович Андро́пов
Yuri Andropov

In office
November 12, 1982 – February 9, 1984
Preceded by Leonid Brezhnev
Succeeded by Konstantin Chernenko

9th Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR
In office
June 16, 1983 – February 9, 1984
Preceded by Vasily Kuznetsov (acting)
Succeeded by Vasily Kuznetsov (acting)

In office
1967 – 1982
Preceded by Vladimir Semichastny
Succeeded by Vitaly Fyodorchuk

Born June 15, 1914(1914-06-15)
Stavropol, then Russian Empire
Died February 9, 1984 (aged 69)
Moscow, Russian SFSR
Nationality Russian
Political party Communist Party of the Soviet Union
Spouse Tatyana Andropova (died November 1991)
Religion Atheist

Yuri Vladimirovich Andropov (Russian: Ю́рий Влади́мирович Андро́пов, Yuri Vladimirovich Andropov) (June 15 [O.S. June 2] 1914February 9, 1984) was a Soviet politician and General Secretary of the CPSU from November 12, 1982 until his death fifteen months later. Image File history File links Andropov1. ... Joseph Stalin, first General Secretary The General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (First Secretary in 1953-1966) was the title synonymous with leader of the Soviet Union after Vladimir Lenins death in 1924. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Brezhnev redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... // This position was held by four people at once. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Jimi Hendrix song, see 1983. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Vasily Vasilyevich Kuznetsov (January 31 or February 12, 1901 - June 5, 1990), Russian Soviet political figure; acting chairman of Presidium of Supreme Soviet (President of the Soviet Union) from 1982 to 1983, and for a second time in 1984. ... Vasily Vasilyevich Kuznetsov (January 31 or February 12, 1901 - June 5, 1990), Russian Soviet political figure; acting chairman of Presidium of Supreme Soviet (President of the Soviet Union) from 1982 to 1983, and for a second time in 1984. ... This article is about the KGB of the Soviet Union. ... Vladimir Yefimovich Semichastny (Russian: Владимир Ефимович Семичастный, January 15, 1924-January 12, 2001) was the head of the KGB from November 1961 to April 1967. ... Vitaly Vasilyevich Fyodorchuk (Vitaly Fedorchuk) (born 1918) was a Ukrainian Soviet administrator. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Stavropol (Russian: ) is a city located in south-western Russia. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... State motto: Russian: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Moscow Official language Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until November 7, 1917 December 30, 1922 December 12, 1991 (independence) Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 1st in the USSR 17,075,200 km² 13% Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 1st in the... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за, transliterated Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Sovetskogo Soyuza, acronym: КПСС (KPSS)) was the ruling political party in the Soviet Union. ... Atheist redirects here. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Old Style redirects here. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... CCCP redirects here. ... Joseph Stalin, first General Secretary The General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (First Secretary in 1953-1966) was the title synonymous with leader of the Soviet Union after Vladimir Lenins death in 1924. ... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за, transliterated Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Sovetskogo Soyuza, acronym: КПСС (KPSS)) was the ruling political party in the Soviet Union. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ...

Contents

Early life

Andropov was born in a secular Jewish family, the son of a railway telegraphist and a jewelry merchant. His father changed his surname from Lieberman to Andropov after the October Revolution. Both of his parents died early and he went to work at the age of 14. He was educated at the Rybinsk Water Transport Technical College before he joined Komsomol in 1930. He became a member of the Communist Party in 1939 and was First Secretary of the Central Committee of Komsomol in the Soviet Karelo-Finnish Republic from 1940 to 1944. During World War II, Andropov took part in partisan guerrilla activities. From 1944 onwards, he left Komsomol for party work. In 1947 he was elected Second Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party (Bolshevik) of the Karelo-Finnish SSR.[1] He moved to Moscow in 1951 and joined the party secretariat. In 1954, he became the Soviet Ambassador to Hungary. Telegraphist is an operator who uses the morse code in order to communicate by land or radio lines. ... For other uses, see October Revolution (disambiguation). ... Komsomol (Комсомол) is a syllabic abbreviation word, from the Russian Kommunisticheski Soyuz Molodiozhi (Коммунистический союз молодёжи), or Communist Union of Youth. The organisation served as the youth wing of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union ( CPSU), the youngest members being fourteen years old, the upper limit for an age... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за, transliterated Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Sovetskogo Soyuza, acronym: КПСС (KPSS)) was the ruling political party in the Soviet Union. ... LKSM KFSSR First Secretary Yuri Andropov speaks at the May 9, 1945, victory celebrations Leninist Communist Youth League of the Karelo-Finnish SSR (Russian: , LKSM KFSSR) was the republican branch of the All Union Leninist Communist Youth League (Komsomol) in the Karelo-Finnish SSR 1940-1956. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Belorussian guerrillas liquidated, injured and took prisoner some 1. ... Central Committee most commonly refers to the central executive unit of a communist party, whether ruling or non-ruling. ... G. N. Kupriyanov, First Secretary of the Party, speaks at the 9 May 1945 victory celebrations Communist Party of the Karelo-Finnish SSR, initially known as the Communist Party (bolshevik) of the Karelo-Finnish SSR, was the branch of the All-Union Communist Party (bolshevik)/Communist Party of the Soviet...


Controversy and later publications on the topic

Since the time he was elected General Secretary of the CPSU, there has been speculation and controversy about his past. Files of Andropov showed that he adapted his biography to the demands of the Bolshevik times. According to the files, Andropov was not accurate at first while inventing his family's proletarian past. He was questioned at least four times in the 1930s because of the discrepancies in several forms he filled.[citation needed] Each time he managed to evade commissions that checked his background. The final version of his biography stated that he was the son of a railway official and was probably born in Nagutskoye, Stavropol Guberniya, Imperial Russia. This article is about the Bolshevik faction in the RSDLP 1903-1912. ... The proletariat (from Latin proles, offspring) is a term used to identify a lower social class; a member of such a class is called a proletarian. ... Stavropol (Russian: ) is a city located in south-western Russia. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start...


Suppression of the Hungarian Revolution

In 1954, Andropov became the Soviet Ambassador in Hungary and held this position during the 1956 Hungarian Revolution. After these events, Andropov suffered from a "Hungarian complex", according to historian Christopher Andrew: "he had watched in horror from the windows of his embassy as officers of the hated Hungarian security service were strung up from lampposts. Andropov remained haunted for the rest of his life by the speed with which an apparently all-powerful Communist one-party state had begun to topple. When other Communist regimes later seemed at risk - in Prague in 1968, in Kabul in 1979, in Warsaw in 1981, he was convinced that, as in Budapest in 1956, only armed force could ensure their survival"[2] Combatants Soviet Union ÁVH Hungarian government, various nationalist militias Commanders Yuri Andropov Pál Maléter, Béla Király, Gergely Pongrátz, József Dudás Strength 150,000 troops, 6,000 tanks 100,000+ demonstrators (some later armed), unknown number of soldiers Casualties 720 killed according to official... Christopher Maurice Andrew (born 23 July 1941) is a British historian and professor with a special interest in international relations and in particular the history of intelligence services. ... A single-party state or one-party system or single-party system is a type of party system and form of government where only a single political party dominates the government and no opposition parties are allowed. ... People in a café watch Soviet tanks roll past The Prague Spring (Czech: Pražské jaro, Slovak: Pražská jar, Russian: пражская весна) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia starting January 5, 1968 when Alexander Dubček came to power, and running until August 20 of that year when the... Belligerents DRA USSR Mujahideen of Afghanistan Commanders Soviet 40th Army: Sergei Sokolov Valentin Varennikov Boris Gromov DRA: Babrak Karmal Mohammad Najibullah Abdul Rashid Dostum Abdul Haq Jalaluddin Haqqani Gulbuddin Hekmatyar Ismail Khan Ahmad Shah Massoud Strength Soviet forces: 80,000-104,000 Afghan forces: 329,000 (in 1989)[1] 45... Broadcast of Wojciech Jaruzelski declaring martial law (December 13, 1981) The period of martial law in Poland refers to the period of time from December 13, 1981 to July 22, 1983 when the government of the Peoples Republic of Poland drastically restricted normal life. ... Combatants Soviet Union ÁVH Hungarian government, various nationalist militias Commanders Yuri Andropov Pál Maléter, Béla Király, Gergely Pongrátz, József Dudás Strength 150,000 troops, 6,000 tanks 100,000+ demonstrators (some later armed), unknown number of soldiers Casualties 720 killed according to official...

Andropov, then the LKSM KFSSR First Secretary, speaks at the May 9, 1945, victory celebrations
Andropov, then the LKSM KFSSR First Secretary, speaks at the May 9, 1945, victory celebrations

Andropov played a key role in crushing the Hungarian Revolution. He convinced a reluctant Nikita Khrushchev that military intervention was necessary.[2] He deceived Imre Nagy and other Hungarian leaders that the Soviet government did not order an attack on Hungary at the very moment of this attack. The Hungarian leaders were arrested and Nagy executed. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Khrushchev redirects here. ... Imre Nagy. ...


Director of the KGB

Andropov returned to Moscow to head the Department for Liaison with Communist and Workers' Parties in Socialist Countries (1957–1967). In 1961, he was elected full member of the CPSU Central Committee and was promoted to the Secretariat of the CPSU Central Committee in 1962. In 1967, he was relieved of his work in the Central Committee apparatus and appointed head of the KGB on recommendation of Mikhail Suslov. For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... The Central Committee, abbreviated in Russian as ЦК, Tseka, was the highest body of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU). ... The Secretariat of the CPSU Central Committee was a key body within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and was responsible for the central administration of the party as opposed to drafting government policy which was usually handled by the Politburo. ... This article is about the KGB of the Soviet Union. ... Mikhail Suslov. ...


Crushing the Prague Spring

During the Prague Spring events in Czechoslovakia, Andropov was the main proponent of the "extreme measures". He ordered the fabrication of false intelligence not only for public consumption, but also for the Soviet Politburo. "The KGB whipped up the fear that Czechoslovakia could fall victim to NATO aggression or to a coup".[2] At this moment, Soviet intelligence officer Oleg Kalugin reported from Washington that he gained access to "absolutely reliable documents proving that neither the CIA nor any other agency was manipulating the Czechoslovak reform movement".[2] However his message was destroyed because it contradicted the conspiracy theory fabricated by Andropov.[2] Andropov ordered a number of active measures, collectively known as operation PROGRESS, against Czechoslovak reformers. People in a café watch Soviet tanks roll past The Prague Spring (Czech: Pražské jaro, Slovak: Pražská jar, Russian: пражская весна) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia starting January 5, 1968 when Alexander Dubček came to power, and running until August 20 of that year when the... This article is about the military alliance. ... Oleg Kalugin Oleg Danilovich Kalugin (Russian: ), (born September 6, 1934) is a former KGB spy. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... For other uses, see Conspiracy theory (disambiguation). ... Active Measures (Russian: Активные мероприятия) are a form of political warfare conducted by the Soviet security services (Cheka, OGPU, NKVD, KGB, and SVR) to influence the course of world events,[1] in addition to collecting intelligence. ...


Suppression of the Soviet dissident movement

Andropov was personally obsessed with "the destruction of dissent in all its forms" and always insisted that "the struggle for human rights was a part of a wide-ranging imperialist plot to undermine the foundation of the Soviet state".[2] In 1968 he issued a KGB Chairman's order "On the tasks of State security agencies in combating the ideological sabotage by the adversary", calling for struggle against dissidents and their imperialist masters. The brutal repression of dissidents[3][4] included plans to maim the dancer Rudolf Nureyev, who had defected in 1961. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


In 1973, Andropov was promoted to full member of the Politburo. Andropov played the dominant role in the decision to invade Afghanistan in 1979. He insisted on the invasion, although he expected that the international community would blame the USSR for this action;[5] the decision led to the Soviet war in Afghanistan(1979 - 1988). The Politburo (in Russian: Политбюро, full: Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, abbriviated Политбюро ЦК КПСС), known as the Presidium from 1952 to 1966, functioned as the central policymaking and governing body of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. ... Belligerents DRA USSR Mujahideen of Afghanistan Commanders Soviet 40th Army: Sergei Sokolov Valentin Varennikov Boris Gromov DRA: Babrak Karmal Mohammad Najibullah Abdul Rashid Dostum Abdul Haq Jalaluddin Haqqani Gulbuddin Hekmatyar Ismail Khan Ahmad Shah Massoud Strength Soviet forces: 80,000-104,000 Afghan forces: 329,000 (in 1989)[1] 45...


Andropov was the longest-serving KGB chairman and did not resign as head of the KGB until May 1982, when he was again promoted to the Secretariat to succeed Suslov as secretary responsible for ideological affairs. Two days after Brezhnev's death, on (November 12, 1982), Andropov was elected General Secretary of the CPSU being the first former head of the KGB to become General Secretary. His appointment was received in the West with apprehension, in view of his roles in the KGB and in Hungary. Mikhail Alexandrovich Suslov (November 21, 1902 - January 25, 1982) was a member of the Politburo and Secretariat of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, having joined the party in 1921. ... Brezhnev redirects here. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union ( Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за = КПСС) was the name used by the successors of the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party from 1952 to 1991, but the wording Communist Party was present in the partys name since 1918 when...


Leader of the Soviet Union

During his rule, Andropov attempted to improve the economy by raising management effectiveness without changing the principles of socialist economy. In contrast to Brezhnev's policy of avoiding conflicts and dismissals, he began to fight violations of party, state and labour discipline, which led to significant personnel changes. During 15 months in office, Andropov dismissed 18 ministers, 37 first secretaries of obkoms, kraikoms and Central Committees of Communist Parties of Soviet Republics; criminal cases on highest party and state officials were started. For the first time, the facts about economic stagnation and obstacles to scientific progress were made available to the public and criticised.[6] Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за, transliterated Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Sovetskogo Soyuza, acronym: КПСС (KPSS)) was the ruling political party in the Soviet Union. ... Criminal law (also known as penal law) is the body of law that regulates governmental sanctions (such as imprisonment and/or fines) as retaliation for crimes against the social order. ... Period of stagnation (Russian: , translitrated zastoy), also known as Brezhnevian Stagnation, the Stagnation Period, or the Era of Stagnation, or the Period of Stagnation (), refers to a period of socio-economic slowdown in the history of the Soviet Union that started when Leonid Brezhnevs become chairman of the Communist...


In foreign policy, the war continued in Afghanistan. Andropov's rule was also marked by deterioration of relations with the United States. U.S. plans to deploy Pershing missiles in Western Europe in response to the Soviet SS-20 missiles were contentious. But when Paul Nitze, the American negotiator, suggested a compromise plan for nuclear missiles in Europe in the celebrated “walk in the woods” with Soviet negotiator Yuli Kvitsinsky, the Soviets never responded.[7] Kvitsinsky would later write that, despite his own efforts, the Soviet side was not interested in compromise, instead calculating that peace movements in the West would force the Americans to capitulate.[8] In August 1983 Andropov made a sensational announcement that the country was stopping all work on space-based weapons. One of his most notable acts during his short time as leader of the Soviet Union was in response to a letter from an American child named Samantha Smith, inviting her to the Soviet Union. This resulted in Smith becoming a well-known peace activist. Meanwhile, Soviet-U.S. arms control talks on intermediate-range nuclear weapons in Europe were suspended by the Soviet Union in November 1983 and by the end of 1983, the Soviets had broken off all arms control negotiations.[9] A Soviet soldier on guard in Afghanistan in 1988. ... The Pershing II Missile during a test flight The MGM-31 Pershing was a solid-fueled two-stage inertially guided medium range ballistic missile used by the U.S. Armys Missile Command. ... The RT-21M Pioneer was a medium-range ballistic missile with a nuclear warhead deployed by the Soviet Union from 1976 to 1988. ... Paul Nitze Paul Henry Nitze (January 16, 1907 – October 19, 2004) was a high-ranking United States government official who helped shape Cold War defense policy over the course of numerous presidential administrations. ... For the English tennis player, see Samantha Smith (tennis). ...


Cold War tensions were exacerbated by the downing of a civilian jet liner, Korean Air Flight KAL-007, that had strayed over the Soviet Union on September 1, 1983 by Soviet fighters. Andropov was advised by his Defense Minister Dmitri Ustinov and by the head of the KGB Victor Chebrikov to keep secret the fact that the Soviet Union held in its possession the sought-after "Black Box" from KAL 007. Andropov was encouraged to state that the Soviet Union engage in the deception that they too were looking for KAL 007 and the Black Box. Andropov agreed to this and the ruse continued until Boris Yeltsin disclosed the secret in 1992.[10] For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Korean Air Flight 7 (KAL007, KE007) was the flight number of a civilian airliner shot down by Soviet fighters on September 1, 1983, over Soviet territorial waters just west of Sakhalin island, killing all 269 passengers and crew. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Jimi Hendrix song, see 1983. ...


Andropov's role in the shootdown of Korean Airlines Flight 007, though largely unknown, can be suggested by "working up" the Soviet hierarchical system of command: Gen. Valeri Kamensky, the Commander of the Soviet Far East Air Defence forces, for whom there is documentary evidence to his role in the shootdown [11], would have informed both General Ivan Moseivich Tretyak[12], his direct superior and Commander of the Soviet Far East Military District as his direct commander, and informed the Commander-in Chief of Air Defense Forces at the National Command Center in Kalinin. This was Gen. Alexandr Koldunov. As this was an emergency, the Commander in Chief of Soviet Air Forces (VVS), Chief Marshal of Aviation Pavel Kutakhov would have been informed. As the test of the illegal (Salt ll) SS-25 had been planned for that night with the missile coming down on the Klyuchi target range of Kamchatka [4] - where KAL 007 was to traverse in its first intrusion of Soviet territory- the head of the First Directorate of Strategic Concealment, First Deputy Chief of Staff Marshal Sergei Akhromeyev would have been present for any decision. Further, Chief of the Soviet General Staff and First Deputy Minister of Defense Nikolai Ogarkov would have been in on any decision and would have informed his superior and link with the Political echelon, Minister of Defense Dmitri Ustinov. It is then that Andropov would have been in position for decision for shootdown.


When he could no longer work in the Kremlin or attend the Politburo meetings, since September 1983, he adopted an original way of governing: he would suggest ideas to his assistants and speech writers, who would then prepare analytical 'notes' for the Politburo.


On a Saturday preceding a Tuesday plenum of the Central Committee, Arkady Volsky, an aide to Andropov, came to Andropov's room at the Central Clinical Hospital in Kuntsevo to help him draft a speech. Andropov was in no shape to attend the plenum and he would have one of his men in the Politburo deliver the speech in his name. The last lines in the speech said that Central Committee staff members should be exemplary in their behavior, uncorrupted, responsible for the life of the country. Then Andropov gave Volsky a folder with the final draft and said, "The material looks good. Make sure you pay attention to the agenda I've written". Since the doctor walked him to the car, he didn't have time to look right away at what he had written Later, he got a chance to read it and saw that at the bottom of the last page Andropov had added in ink, in a somewhat unsteady handwriting, a new paragraph. It went like this: "Members of the Central Committee know that due to certain reasons, I am unable to come to the plenum. I can neither attend the meetings of the Politburo nor the secretariat. Therefore, I believe Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev should be assigned to preside over the meetings of the Politburo and the secretariat (of the Central Committee)." Andropov was recommending that Gorbachev be his inheritor. Volsky made a Xerox copy of the document and put the copy in his safe. He delivered the original to the Party leadership and assumed that it would be read out at the plenum. But at the meeting neither Chernenko, Grishin, Tikhonov, Ustinov nor any of the other politburo members made mention of Andropov's stated wishes. Volsky thought there must have been some mistake: "I went up to Chernenko and said, 'There was an addendum in the text.' He said, 'Think nothing of any addendum.' Then I saw his aide Bogolyubov and said, 'Klavdy Mikhailovich, there was a paragraph from Andropov's speech….' He led me off to the side, and said, 'Who do you think you are, a wise guy? Do you think your life ends with this?' I said, 'In that case, I'll have to phone Andropov.' And he replied, 'Then that will be your last phone call'". Andropov was furious when he heard what had happened at the plenum, but there was little he could do The Central Clinical Hospital (Russian: Центральная клиническая больница c поликлиникой Управления делами Президента Российской Федерации) (also called Kremlin Hospital and Kremlyovka) is a heavily guarded facility seven miles northwest of the Kremlin in an exclusive, wooded suburban area known as Kuntsevo. ... Chernenko Konstantin Ustinovich Chernenko (Константи́н Усти́нович Черне́нко) (September 24, 1911 - March 10, 1985) was a Soviet politician and General Secretary of the CPSU who led the Soviet Union from February 13, 1984 until his death just eleven months later. ... Viktor Vasilyevich Grishin (Ви́ктор Васи́льевич Гри́шин) (September 5(18), 1914–May 25, 1992) was a Soviet politician. ... Nikolai Aleksandrovich Tikhonov (ru: Николай Александрович Тихонов ) (Kharkiv, May 14, 1905 – Moscow, June 1, 1997) was the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (or Premier of the Soviet Union) from 1980 to 1985. ... Dmitriy Fyodorovich Ustinov (Russian: ) (October 17, 1908–December 20, 1984) was Defense Minister of the Soviet Union from 1976 until his death. ...


In his memoirs, Mikhail Gorbachev recalled that when Andropov was the leader, he and Nikolai Ryzhkov, the chairman of Gosplan, asked Yuri Andropov for access to real budget figures. "You are asking too much," Andropov responded. "The budget is off limits to you." Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev[1] (Russian: , IPA: ; born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician. ... Nikolai Ivanovich Ryzhkov (Николай Иванович Рыжков; born September 28, 1929-) was a Soviet official and, after the breakup of the Soviet Union, a Russian politician. ... Gosplan (Госпла́н) was the committee for economic planning in the Soviet Union. ...


On December 31, 1983 Andropov celebrated the New Year for the last time. Vladimir Kryuchkov alongside with other friends visited Andropov. He was very thankful that his doctors let him drink a glass of champagne. They visited him for about an hour and a half. After they went and Andropov stayed alone with Kryuchkov, he said to him that he wished health and success to all the friends. At that moment, Kryuchkov understood that Andropov was going to die. In January, the future prime minister Nikolai Ryzhkov visited Andropov. Andropov kissed him and told him to go. is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Jimi Hendrix song, see 1983. ... Vladimir Alexandrovich Kryuchkov (Владимир Александрович Крючков in Russian) was born in Volgograd in 1924. ... This article is about Champagne, the alcoholic beverage. ... Nikolai Ivanovich Ryzhkov (Николай Иванович Рыжков; born September 28, 1929-) was a Soviet official and, after the breakup of the Soviet Union, a Russian politician. ...


Death and funeral

In February 1983, Andropov suffered total renal failure. In August 1983, he entered the Central Clinical Hospital in west Moscow on a permanent basis, where he would spend the remainder of his life. His aides would take turns visiting him in the hospital with important matters and paperwork. Renal failure or kidney failure is a situation in which the kidneys fail to function adequately. ... The Central Clinical Hospital (Russian: Центральная клиническая больница c поликлиникой Управления делами Президента Российской Федерации) (also called Kremlin Hospital and Kremlyovka) is a heavily guarded facility seven miles northwest of the Kremlin in an exclusive, wooded suburban area known as Kuntsevo. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ...


Shortly before he was due to leave the Crimea, Andropov's health severely deteriorated. The lightly dressed Andropov had become tired, and had taken a breather on a granite bench in the shade; his body became thoroughly chilled, and he soon began shivering uncontrollably.


The only ones who saw him on a regular basis were Politburo members Dmitry Ustinov, Andrey Gromyko, Konstantin Chernenko and Viktor Chebrikov. Dimitri Fyodorovich Ustinov (October 17, 1908–December 20, 1984) was Defense Minister of the Soviet Union from 1976 until his death. ... Andrei Andreyevitch Gromyko (Андре́й Андре́евич Громы́ко) (July 5, 1909 – July 2, 1989) was foreign minister and chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Viktor Mikhailovich Chebrikov (April 27, 1923 - July 2, 1999) was a Soviet Union spy and head of the KGB from 1982 to 1988. ...


For the last two months of his life Andropov did not get out of bed, except when he was lifted onto a couch while his sheets were changed. He was physically finished but his mind was clear. Throughout his last days Andropov still worked even if it meant little more than signing papers or giving his assent to his aides' proposals.


In late January 1984 the gradual decline in his health that characterized his tenure suddenly intensified, and he deteriorated sharply due to growing intoxication in his blood, as a result of which he had periods of failing consciousness. On February 9, 1984, Andropov's last day, the nurse came to Boris Klukov, one of his many bodyguards and said that he didn't want to eat. She asked him to try to convince Andropov to eat. Klukov came up to Andropov and convinced him that he must eat. Andropov finally agreed to eat and they ate together. Then, Boris Klukov left the room for some time. And after half an hour everything became nosy. Doctors ran to Andropov's room and the assistant of the security director also went there. Klukov called the assistants. He came up to Andropov's room, looked at the display and observed slowing pulse.[13] Andropov died at that day at 16:50 in his hospital room. Few of the top people, not even all the Politburo members, learned of the fact on the same day. According to the Soviet medical report, Andropov suffered from several medical conditions: interstitial nephritis, nephrosclerosis, residual hypertension and diabetes, which were worsened by chronic kidney deficiency. He was succeeded in office by Konstantin Chernenko. ... For other uses, see Blood (disambiguation). ... Interstitial nephritis (or Tubulo-interstitial nephritis) is a form of nephritis affecting the interstititum of the kidneys surrounding the tubules. ... Hypertensive nephropathy (or hypertensive nephrosclerosis, or Hypertensive renal disease) is a medical condition referring to damage to the kidney due to chronic high blood pressure. ... For other forms of hypertension, see Hypertension (disambiguation). ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


A four-day period of nationwide mourning was announced. His body was lying in state in an open coffin in House of Trade Unions in Moscow. Inside the hall, mourners shuffled up a marble staircase beneath chandeliers draped in black gauze. On the stage at the left side of the hall, amid a veritable garden of flowers, a complete symphony orchestra in black tailcoats played classical music. Andropov's embalmed body, dressed in a black suit, white shirt and black-and-red tie, laid in an open coffin banked with carnations, red roses and tulips, faced the long queue of mourners. At the right side of the hall, in the front row of seats reserved for the dead leader's family, his wife Tatyana Filipovna with her reddish- tinted hair held in place with a hairclip, sat alongside with her their two children, Igor and Irina. Lying-in-state is the term used during a major funeral procession when the coffin is placed on public view to allow members of the public to pay their respects to the deceased. ... For people named Coffin, see Coffin (surname). ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Spiral (double helix) stairway in the Vatican Museum Stairs, staircase, stairway, stairwell, and flight of stairs are all names for a construction designed to bridge a large vertical distance by dividing it into smaller vertical distances, called steps. ... Chandelier in the Vice Presidents Ceremonial Office in the White House A chandelier is a ceiling-mounted fixture with two or more arms bearing lights. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Embalming, in most modern cultures, is the art and science of temporarily preserving human remains to forestall decomposition and to make them suitable for display at a funeral. ... For people named Coffin, see Coffin (surname). ... Binomial name L. The carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) is a flowering plant native to the Near East and has been cultivated for the last 2,000 years. ... For other uses, see Rose (disambiguation). ... [[Media:Example. ... For other uses, see Red (disambiguation). ... Colour wheel with shading for colour picking. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Andropov's coffin is pulled by BRDM-2 armoured vehicle in Red Square

On February 14, the funeral parade began. Two officers led the funeral parade, carrying a large portrait of him. A sea of red floral wreaths followed, adding a brilliant touch to a procession colored mostly in drab grays and black. Then officers in tall Astrakhan hats appeared, carrying the late leader's 21 decorations and medals on small red cushions. Behind them, the coffin rested atop a gun carriage drawn by an olive-green military scout vehicle. Walking immediately behind were the members of Andropov's family. The Politburo leaders, almost indistinguishable from one another in their fur hats and look-alike overcoats with red armbands, led the last group of official mourners. As the coffin reached to the middle of the Red Square it was taken out of the carriage it was placed on, and with its lid removed, it was placed on a red-draped bier facing the Lenin Mausoleum. At exactly 12:45 p.m. Tuesday, Andropov's coffin was lowered into the ground as foghorns blared, joining with sirens, wheezing factory whistles and rolling gunfire in a mournful cacophony. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 794 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (825 × 623 pixel, file size: 101 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Andropovs coffin is taken on an armoured veichle Taken from the tv show The end of the Soviet Union, Discovery channel. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 794 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (825 × 623 pixel, file size: 101 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Andropovs coffin is taken on an armoured veichle Taken from the tv show The end of the Soviet Union, Discovery channel. ... For people named Coffin, see Coffin (surname). ... BRDM-2 is pulling Andropovs coffin in Red Square The BRDM-2 (Boyevaya Razvedyvatelnaya Dozornaya Mashina, Боевая Разведывательная Дозорная Машина, literally Combat Reconnaissance/Patrol Vehicle †) is an Armoured personnel carrier used by Russia and the former Soviet Union. ... Armoured personnel carriers (APCs) are armoured fighting vehicles developed to transport infantry on the battlefield. ... For other uses, see Red Square (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Portrait (disambiguation). ... A list of famous prizes, medals and awards including cups, trophies, bowls, badges, state decorations etc. ... A medal is a small metal object, usually engraved with insignia, that is awarded to a person for athletic, military, scientific, academic or some other kind of achievement. ... For other uses, see Red Square (disambiguation). ... LID is an abbreviation for: Light-Weight Identity, a system that allows individuals to claim and own their digital identity on the Internet League for Industrial Democracy Library Interchange Definition This is a disambiguation page — a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... A bier from Grendon church A bier is a flat frame, traditionally wooden but sometimes made of other materials, used to carry a corpse for burial in a funeral procession. ... Lenins Tomb, with wall of the Kremlin and the former Soviet Parliament building behind An entrance to Lenins Mausoleum Lenins Mausoleum, also known as Lenins Tomb, situated in Red Square in Moscow, is the mausoleum that serves as the final resting place of Vladimir Lenin. ...


His legacy

Andropov's legacy remains the subject of much debate in Russia and elsewhere, both among scholars and in the popular media. He remains the focus of television documentaries and popular non-fiction, particularly around important anniversaries. As KGB head, Andropov was ruthless against dissent, and author David Remnick, who covered the Soviet Union for the Washington Post in the 1980s, called Andropov "profoundly corrupt, a beast."[14] Alexander Yakolev, later an advisor to Mikhail Gorbachev, said "In a way I always thought Andropov was the most dangerous of all of them, simply because he was smarter than the rest."[14] David Remnick is an American journalist, writer, and magazine editor. ... ... Alexander Yakovlev (left) with Mikhail Gorbachev. ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev[1] (Russian: , IPA: ; born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician. ...


According to his former subordinate Securitate general Ion Mihai Pacepa, The Securitate (Romanian for Security; official full name Departamentul Securităţii Statului, State Security Department), was the secret police force of Communist Romania. ... Ion Mihai Pacepa Ion Mihai Pacepa (born 28 October 1928 in Bucharest, Romania) is the highest-ranking intelligence official ever to have defected from the former Eastern bloc. ...

"In the West, if Andropov is remembered at all, it is for his brutal suppression of political dissidence at home and for his role in planning the 1968 invasion of Czechoslovakia. By contrast, the leaders of the former Warsaw Pact intelligence community, when I was one of them, looked up to Andropov as the man who substituted the KGB for the Communist party in governing the Soviet Union, and who was the godfather of Russia's new era of deception operations aimed at improving the badly damaged image of Soviet rulers in the West."[15]

Despite Andropov's hard-line stance in Hungary and the numerous banishments and intrigues for which he was responsible during his long tenure as head of the KGB, he has become widely regarded by many commentators as a humane reformer, especially in comparison with the stagnation and corruption during the later years of his predecessor, Leonid Brezhnev. Andropov, "a throwback to a tradition of Leninist asceticism,"[14] was appalled by the corruption during Brezhnev's regime, and ordered investigations and arrests of the most flagrant abusers. The investigations were so frightening that several members of Brezhnev's circle "shot, gassed or otherwise did away with themselves."[14] He was certainly generally regarded as inclined to more gradual and constructive reform than was Gorbachev; most of the speculation centres around whether Andropov would have reformed the USSR in a manner which did not result in its eventual dissolution. People in a café watch Soviet tanks roll past The Prague Spring (Czech: Pražské jaro, Slovak: Pražská jar, Russian: пражская весна) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia starting January 5, 1968 when Alexander Dubček came to power, and running until August 20 of that year when the... Not to be confused with the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about airlines financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ... Combatants Soviet Union ÁVH Hungarian government, various nationalist militias Commanders Yuri Andropov Pál Maléter, Béla Király, Gergely Pongrátz, József Dudás Strength 150,000 troops, 6,000 tanks 100,000+ demonstrators (some later armed), unknown number of soldiers Casualties 720 killed according to official... This article is about the KGB of the Soviet Union. ... Leonid Brezhnev. ... Brezhnev redirects here. ... The rise of Gorbachev Although reform stalled between 1964–1982, the generational shift gave new momentum for reform. ...


The Western media favored Andropov because of his supposed passion for western music and scotch.[16]

Andropov's plaque on the FSB headquarters, Lubyanka Square, Moscow.
Andropov's plaque on the FSB headquarters, Lubyanka Square, Moscow.

The short time he spent as leader, much of it in a state of extreme ill health, leaves debaters few concrete indications as to the nature of any hypothetical extended rule. As with the shortened rule of Lenin, speculators have much room to advocate their favourite theories and to develop the minor cult of personality which has formed around him.[17] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 465 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (723 × 932 pixel, file size: 533 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Phgotographed by Nathan Jones. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 465 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (723 × 932 pixel, file size: 533 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Phgotographed by Nathan Jones. ... The Lubyanka is the popular name for the headquarters of the KGB and affiliated prison on Lubyanka Square in Moscow. ... Stalin ordered all the historic Lubyanka churches to be demolished in order to highlight the dominant position of the NKVD headquarters. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Alternate history (fiction) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) ( April 22 (April 10 ( O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a Russian revolutionary, the leader of the Bolshevik party, the first Premier of the Soviet Union, and the founder of the ideology of Leninism. ... This article is about the political institution. ...


Andropov lived in 26 Kutuzovski prospekt, on the same building of which Suslov and Brezhnev also lived in. He was first married to Nina Ivanovna. She bore him a son who died in mysterious circumstances in the late 1970's. In 1983 she was diagnosed with cancer and underwent a successful operation. His second wife, Tatyana Filipovna, he met during WW2 in the karelian front when she was Komsomol secretary. She had suffered a nervous breakdown during the Hungarian revolution. Andropov's chief guard informed Tatyana about the death of her husband. She was too grief-stricken to join in the procession and during the funeral her relatives helped her to walk. Before the lid could be closed on Andropov's coffin, she bent to kiss him. She touched his hair and then kissed him again. In 1985, a respectful 75-min. film was broadcasted in which Tatyana (not even seen in public until Andropov's funeral) reads love poems written by her husband. Tatyana was ill, and died in November 1991. Andropov had also a son, Igor (died in June 2006) and a daughter, Irina (born 1946). 26 Kutuzovski apartments building built in Stalinist architecture, and was the house of Brezhnev, Suslov and Andropov. ... Mikhail Suslov. ... Brezhnev redirects here. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Komsomol (Комсомол) is a syllabic abbreviation word, from the Russian Kommunisticheski Soyuz Molodiozhi (Коммунистический союз молодёжи), or Communist Union of Youth. The organisation served as the youth wing of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union ( CPSU), the youngest members being fourteen years old, the upper limit for an age... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... There have been a number of Hungarian Revolutions: 1848 Hungarian Revolution 1919 Hungarian Revolution 1956 Hungarian Revolution This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ...


Anecdotes

In the 1970s, H. Stuart Knight, head of the Secret Service, accompanied the President of the United States on a state visit to Moscow. One of the agents on Brezhnev's security detail was a rather attractive young lady, and Knight jokingly offered to trade one of his agents for her to Andropov, then head of the KGB. His reply, "One agent, and two Polaris missiles".[18] USSS redirects here. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Polaris A-3 on launch pad in Cape Canaveral The Polaris missile was a submarine-launched, two-stage solid-fuel nuclear-armed ballistic missile (SLBM) built during the Cold War by Lockheed for the United States Navy. ...


See Also

Korean Air Lines Flight 007 Korean Air Lines Flight 007, also known as KAL 007 or KE007, was a Korean Air Lines civilian airliner shot down by Soviet jet interceptors on September 1, 1983 just west of Sakhalin island. ...


References

  1. ^ Андропов Юрий Владимирович
  2. ^ a b c d e f Christopher Andrew and Vasili Mitrokhin, The Mitrokhin Archive: The KGB in Europe and the West, Gardners Books (2000), ISBN 0-14-028487-7
  3. ^ Letter by Andropov to the Central Committee (10 July 1970), English translation.
  4. ^ Order to leave the message by Kreisky without answer; facsimile, in Russian. (Указание оставить без ответа ходатайство канцлера Бруно Крейского (Bruno Kreisky) об освобождении Орлова,)29 июля 1983, http://psi.ece.jhu.edu/~kaplan/IRUSS/BUK/GBARC/pdfs/dis80/lett83-1.pdf
  5. ^ Protocol of the meeting of Politburo of Communist Party from 17 March 1979, http://psi.ece.jhu.edu/%7Ekaplan/IRUSS/BUK/GBARC/pdfs/afgh/afg79pb.pdf
  6. ^ Great Russian Encyclopedia (2005), Moscow: Bol'shaya Rossiyskaya Enciklopediya Publisher, vol. 1, p. 742
  7. ^ Matlock, Jack F., Jr. (2005). Reagan and Gorbachev: How the Cold War Ended. New York: Random House, 41-46. ISBN 0812974891 (paperback). 
  8. ^ Kwizinskij, Julij A. (1993). Vor dem Sturm: Erinnerungen eines Diplomaten. Berlin: Siedler Verlag. ISBN 978-3886804641. 
  9. ^ Church, George J.. "Person of the Year 1983: Ronald Reagan and Yuri Andropov", TIME Magazine, 1984-01-01. Retrieved on 2008-01-02. 
  10. ^ [1]
  11. ^ [2]
  12. ^ [3]
  13. ^ Documentary film "Кремль-9" (Kreml-9)
  14. ^ a b c d Remnick, David, Lenin's Tomb:The Last Days of the Soviet Empire. New York; Random House, 1993, p. 191
  15. ^ No Peter the Great. Vladimir Putin is in the Andropov mold, by Ion Mihai Pacepa, National Review, September 20, 2004
  16. ^ Suny, Ronald Grigor, The Soviet Experiment: Russia, the USSR, and the successor states Oxford; Oxford University Press, 1998, p. 449
  17. ^ Ilya Milstein (2006). Yury Andropov. A poet of the era of dinosaurs. New Times. Retrieved on September 26, [[2006]].
  18. ^ Related by J.R. Saroff from a discussion with Mr. Knight in the early to mid 1970s.

Christopher Maurice Andrew (born 23 July 1941) is a British historian and professor with a special interest in international relations and in particular the history of intelligence services. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The KGB sword and shield emblem appears on the covers of the three published works by Mitrokhin, co-author Christopher Andrew. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Politburo is short for Political Bureau. ... In modern usage, the term communist party is generally used to identify any political party which has adopted communist ideology. ... The Great Russian Encyclopedia (Russian: ; tr. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... // Random House is a publishing house based in New York City. ... (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ion Mihai Pacepa Ion Mihai Pacepa (born 28 October 1928 in Bucharest, Romania) is the highest-ranking intelligence official ever to have defected from the former Eastern bloc. ... National Review (NR) is a biweekly magazine of political opinion, founded by author William F. Buckley, Jr. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Yuri Andropov: A Secret Passage into the Kremlin, Vladimir & Klepikova, Elena Solovyov, MacMillan Publishing Company, 1983, 302 pages, ISBN 0-02-612290-1
  • The Andropov File: The Life and Ideas of Yuri V. Andropov, General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Martin Ebon, McGraw-Hill Companies, 1983, 284 pages, ISBN 0-07-018861-0

External links

Preceded by
Vladimir Semichastny
Chairman of KGB
1967–1982
Succeeded by
Vitaly Vasilyevich Fyodorchuk
Preceded by
Leonid Brezhnev
General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
1982–1984
Succeeded by
Konstantin Chernenko
Preceded by
Vasily Kuznetsov
Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet
1983–1984
Succeeded by
Vasily Kuznetsov
Preceded by
The Computer
Time's Men of the Year (with Ronald Reagan)
1983
Succeeded by
Peter Ueberroth
The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... Vladimir Yefimovich Semichastny (Russian: Владимир Ефимович Семичастный, January 15, 1924-January 12, 2001) was the head of the KGB from November 1961 to April 1967. ... This article is about the KGB of the Soviet Union. ... Vitaly Vasilyevich Fyodorchuk (Vitaly Fedorchuk) (born 1918) was a Ukrainian Soviet administrator. ... Brezhnev redirects here. ... An approximately chronological list of leaders of the Soviet Union (heads of the Central Committee of the Communist Party and President of the Soviet Union). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Vasily Vasilyevich Kuznetsov (January 31 or February 12, 1901 - June 5, 1990), Russian Soviet political figure; acting chairman of Presidium of Supreme Soviet (President of the Soviet Union) from 1982 to 1983, and for a second time in 1984. ... Vasily Vasilyevich Kuznetsov (January 31 or February 12, 1901 - June 5, 1990), Russian Soviet political figure; acting chairman of Presidium of Supreme Soviet (President of the Soviet Union) from 1982 to 1983, and for a second time in 1984. ... A stylised illustration of a personal computer A personal computer (PC) is a computer whose original sales price, size, and capabilities make it useful for individuals, intended to be operated directly by an end user, with no intervening computer operator. ... Person of the Year is an annual issue of United States (U.S.) newsmagazine Time that features a profile on the man, woman, couple, group, idea, place, or machine that [1] // The tradition of selecting a Man of the Year began in 1927, when Time editors contemplated what they could... Reagan redirects here. ... Ueberroth (front right) watches President Ronald Reagan throw the first pitch prior to a game. ... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за, transliterated Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Sovetskogo Soyuza, acronym: КПСС (KPSS)) was the ruling political party in the Soviet Union. ... Lenin redirects here. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... Khrushchev redirects here. ... Brezhnev redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev[1] (Russian: , IPA: ; born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician. ... Image File history File links Coat_of_arms_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... 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Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ... The Czechoslovak coup détat of 1948 (often simply the Czech coup) (Czech: , meaning February 1948; in Communist historiography known as Victorious February (Czech: )) was an event late that February in which the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, with Soviet backing, assumed undisputed control over the government of Czechoslovakia, ushering in... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Informbiro. ... Occupation zones after 1945. ... Belligerents United Nations: Republic of Korea Australia Belgium Canada Colombia Ethiopia France Greece Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South Africa Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States Naval Support and Military Servicing/Repairs: Japan Medical staff: Denmark Italy Norway India Sweden DPR Korea PR China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung... Belligerents French Union France, State of Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos Viet Minh Commanders French Expeditionary Corps Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque (1945-46) Jean-Étienne Valluy (1946-8) Roger Blaizot (1948-9) Marcel-Maurice Carpentier (1949-50) Jean de Lattre de Tassigny (1950-51) Raoul Salan (1952-3) Henri Navarre (1953-4... In the 1953 Iranian coup détat, the administration of U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower orchestrated the overthrow of the democratically-elected administration of Prime Minister Mohammed Mosaddeq and his cabinet from power. ... Former president Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán on the cover of TIME magazine in June 1954 after his overthrow Operation PBSUCCESS was a CIA-organized covert operation that overthrew the democratically-elected President of Guatemala, Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán in 1954. ... Protesters marching through the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin The Uprising of 1953 in East Germany took place in June and July 1953. ... Taiwan Strait The First Taiwan Strait Crisis (also called the 1954-1955 Taiwan Strait Crisis or the 1955 Taiwan Strait Crisis) was a short armed conflict that took place between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC) governments. ... Combatants Anti-communist labourers and other civilian protesters Communist LWP KBW and UB Commanders Unknown, probably none Gen. ... Combatants Soviet Union; ÁVH (Hungarian State Security Police) Ad hoc local Hungarian militias Commanders Ivan Konev Various independent militia leaders Strength 150,000 troops, 6,000 tanks Unknown number of militia and rebelling soldiers Casualties 722 killed, 1,251 wounded[1] 2,500 killed 13,000 wounded[2] The Hungarian... Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Hakim Amer Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA[1... Sputnik 1 The Sputnik crisis was a turn point of the Cold War that began on October 4, 1957 when the Soviet Union launched the Sputnik 1 satellite. ... Taiwan Strait The Second Taiwan Strait Crisis, also called the 1958 Taiwan Strait Crisis, was a conflict that took place between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC) governments in which the PRC was accused by Taiwan of shelling the islands of Matsu and... Belligerents 26th of July Movement Cuba Commanders Fidel Castro Che Guevara Raul Castro Fulgencio Batista The Cuban Revolution refers to the revolution that led to the overthrow of General Fulgencio Batistas regime on January 1, 1959 by the 26th of July Movement and other revolutionary elements within the country. ... Combatants Congo ONUC Cuba Belgium Katanga South Kasai CIA Commanders Patrice Lumumba Pierre Mulele Laurent-Désiré Kabila Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi Che Guevara Moise Tshombe Joseph Mobutu Mike Hoare Charles Laurent Albert Kalonji Early history Migration & states Colonization Stanley (1867–1885) Congo Free State Leopold II (1885–1908) Belgian Congo... The Sino-Soviet split was a major diplomatic conflict between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), beginning in the late 1950s, reaching a peak in 1969 and continuing in various ways until the late 1980s. ... The U–2 Crisis of 1960 occurred when an American U–2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. ... Belligerents Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces Cuban exiles trained by the United States Commanders Fidel Castro José Ramón Fernández Ernesto Che Guevara Francisco Ciutat de Miguel John F. Kennedy Grayston Lynch Pepe San Roman Erneido Oliva Strength 15,000 1,511 Cuban exiles 2 CIA agents Casualties and losses... For the video game based on the possible outcomes of this event, see Cuban Missile Crisis: The Aftermath. ... View in 1986 from the west side of graffiti art on the walls infamous death strip Walls poster in memory of the fall. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... The Brazilian military coup of 1964 was a bloodless coup détat held against left-wing President Joao Goulart by the Brazilian military on the night of 31 March 1964. ... Combatants  United States (IAPF) Inter-American Peace Force (CEFA) Dominican Armed Forces Training Center (SIM) Dominican Military Intelligence Service Dominican Armed Forces Constitutionalists PRD irregulars Commanders Lyndon B. Johnson Gen. ... Combatants Republic of Angola, Republic of Cuba, SWAPO, USSR, East Germany, Republic of Zambia Republic of South Africa, UNITA Scope of operations Operational Area: The South African Border War The South African Border War refers to the conflict that took place from 1966 to 1989 in South-West Africa (now... Indonesias Transition to the New Order occurred over 1965-67. ... ASEAN Declaration or Bangkok Declaration is the founding document of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). ... “Secret War” redirects here. ... The Greek military junta of 1967-1974, alternatively The Regime of the Colonels (Greek: ), or in Greece The Junta (Greek: ) and The Seven Years (Greek: ) are terms used to refer to a series of right-wing military governments that ruled Greece from 1967 to 1974. ... This article is about the Peoples Republic of China. ... People in a café watch Soviet tanks roll past The Prague Spring (Czech: Pražské jaro, Slovak: Pražská jar, Russian: пражская весна) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia starting January 5, 1968 when Alexander Dubček came to power, and running until August 20 of that year when the... Goulash Communism (Hungarian: gulyáskommunizmus) is a term sometimes used to denote the variety of socialism as practised in the Hungarian Peoples Republic between 1962-63 and 1989. ... Combatants People’s Republic of China Soviet Union Commanders Mao Tse-Tung Leonid Brezhnev Strength 814,000 658,000 Casualties 800 killed, 620 wounded, 1 lost [1] 58 killed, 94 wounded [2] The Sino-Soviet border conflict of 1969 was a series of armed clashes between the Soviet Union and... Détente is a French term, meaning a relaxing or easing; the term has been used in international politics since the early 1970s. ... Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ... Combatants Khmer Republic, United States, Republic of Vietnam Khmer Rouge, Democratic Republic of Vietnam, National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (NLF) Strength ~250,000 FANK troops ~100,000 (60,000) Khmer Rouge Casualties ~600,000 dead, 1,000,000+ wounded[1] The Cambodian Civil War was a conflict that pitted... Three-Time World Mens Singles Champion Zhuang Zedong (left) and U.S. team member Glenn Cowan (right) on the Chinese team bus in Nagoya, Japan, 1971. ... The Four Power Agreement on Berlin[1] was signed on 3 September 1971 by the foreign ministers of the four powers, United Kingdom, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, France, and the United States. ... Richard Nixon (right) meets with Mao Zedong in 1972. ... Prisoners outside the La Moneda Palace after their surrender during the coup (1973). ... Combatants  Israel  Egypt,  Syria,  Iraq Commanders Moshe Dayan, David Elazar, Ariel Sharon, Shmuel Gonen, Benjamin Peled, Israel Tal, Rehavam Zeevi, Aharon Yariv, Yitzhak Hofi, Rafael Eitan, Abraham Adan, Yanush Ben Gal Saad El Shazly, Ahmad Ismail Ali, Hosni Mubarak, Mohammed Aly Fahmy, Anwar Sadat, Abdel Ghani el-Gammasy, Abdul Munim... The Strategic Arms Limitation Treaties refers to two rounds of bilateral talks and corresponding international treaties between the Soviet Union and United States, the Cold War superpowers, on the issue of armament control. ... Combatants MPLA Republic of Cuba AAF Mozambique[1] UNITA FNLA South Africa Republic of Zaire Commanders José Eduardo dos Santos Jonas Savimbi Casualties Over 500,000 militants[2] and hundreds of thousands of civilians The Angolan Civil War began when Angola won its war for independence in 1975 with the... The Mozambican Civil War started in Mozambique during the 1970s following independence in 1975. ... Combatants Ethiopia Cuba South Yemen Somalia WSLF Commanders Mengistu Haile Mariam Vasily Petrov[1][2] Siad Barre Strength 217,000 Ethiopians 1,500 Soviet advisors 15,000 Cubans 2,000 South Yemenis SNA 60,000 WSLF 15,000 Casualties Unknown 20,000 killed or wounded 1/2 of the Air... Combatants Peoples Republic of China Socialist Republic of Vietnam Commanders Yang Dezhi Văn Tiến DÅ©ng Strength 300,000+[1] 100,000+ from regular army divisions and divisions of the Public Security Army Casualties Disputed. ... This article is about the 1979 revolution in Iran. ... Belligerents DRA USSR Mujahideen of Afghanistan Commanders Soviet 40th Army: Sergei Sokolov Valentin Varennikov Boris Gromov DRA: Babrak Karmal Mohammad Najibullah Abdul Rashid Dostum Abdul Haq Jalaluddin Haqqani Gulbuddin Hekmatyar Ismail Khan Ahmad Shah Massoud Strength Soviet forces: 80,000-104,000 Afghan forces: 329,000 (in 1989)[1] 45... TIME magazine cover depicting Lech WaÅ‚Ä™sa and the Solidarity movement shaking up communism shows that Solidarity received wide international recognition. ... Beginning in the late 1970s, major civil wars erupted in the Central American region, and became one of the major foreign policy crises of the 1980s. ... Able Archer 83 was a ten-day NATO exercise starting on November 2, 1983 that spanned the continent of Europe and simulated a coordinated nuclear release. ... The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was proposed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan on March 23, 1983[1] to use ground-based and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles. ... Combatants  United States  Antigua and Barbuda  Barbados  Dominica  Jamaica  Saint Lucia  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines  Grenada  Cuba Commanders Ronald Reagan Joseph Metcalf H. Norman Schwarzkopf Hudson Austin Pedro Tortolo Strength 7,300 Grenada: 1,500 regulars Cuba: about 722 (mostly military engineers)[1] Casualties 19 killed; 116 wounded[2... People on the streets of Bucharest The Romanian Revolution of 1989 was a week-long series of riots and protests in late December of 1989 that overthrew the Communist regime of Nicolae Ceauşescu. ... alternative Chinese name Traditional Chinese: Simplified Chinese: Literal meaning: Tiananmen Incident The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, widely known as the Tiananmen Square Massacre, in China referred to as the June Fourth Incident to avoid confusion with the two other Tiananmen Square protests and as an act of official censorship... Baltic Way, reflecting the peak of the Singing Revolution The Singing Revolution is the common title for events between 1987 and 1990 that led to the regaining of independence of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. ... View in 1986 from the west side of graffiti art on the walls infamous death strip Walls poster in memory of the fall. ... The Eastern Bloc prior to the political upheavals of 1989. ... An animated series of maps showing the breakup of the second Yugoslavia; The different colors represent the areas of control. ... This is a history of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. ... Senator John W. Bricker, the sponsor of the proposed constitutional amendment to limit the treaty power of the United States government. ... //   (Russian: IPA: ) is politics of maximal openness, transparency of activity of all official (governmental) institutes, and freedom of information. ... Warsaw Pact countries to the east of the Iron Curtain are shaded red; NATO members to the west of it — blue. ... A 1947 comic book published by the Catechetical Guild Educational Society warning of the dangers of a Communist takeover. ... For other uses of Operation Condor, please see Operation Condor (disambiguation) Operation Condor (Spanish: Operación Cóndor, Portuguese: Operação Condor) was a campaign of political repressions involving assassination and intelligence operations officially implemented starting in 1975 by the right-wing dictatorships that dominated the Southern Cone in South... Emblem of Gladio, Italian branch of the NATO stay-behind paramilitary organizations. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... CIA redirects here. ... A Soviet poster reading COMECON: Unity of Goals, Unity of Action The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON / Comecon / CMEA / CEMA), 1949 – 1991, was an economic organization of communist states and a kind of Eastern Bloc equivalent to—but more inclusive than—the European Economic Community. ... The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... This article is about the KGB of the Soviet Union. ... Logo of East Germanys Ministerium für Staatssicherheit (MfS or Stasi) / Ministry for State Security This article is about Stasi, the secret police of East Germany. ... The term arms race in its original usage, describes a competition between two or more parties for military supremacy. ... U.S. and USSR/Russian nuclear weapons stockpiles, 1945-2006. ... For a list of key events, see Timeline of space exploration. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... For architecture, see Stalinist architecture. ... Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. ... Ideologies Communist internationals Prominent communists Related subjects Communism Portal Maoism or Mao Zedong Thought (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ), is a variant of Communism derived from the teachings of the late Chinese leader Mao Zedong (Wade-Giles Romanization: Mao Tse-tung). Marxism consists of thousands of truths, but they all... The Brezhnev Doctrine was a Soviet policy doctrine, introduced by Leonid Brezhnev in a speech at the Fifth Congress of the Polish United Workers Party on November 13, 1968, which stated: When forces that are hostile to socialism try to turn the development of some socialist country towards capitalism, it... The Ulbricht Doctrine, named after East German leader Walter Ulbricht, was the assertion that normal diplomatic relations between East Germany and West Germany could only occur if both states fully recognised each others sovereignty. ... The Carter Doctrine was proclaimed by President Jimmy Carter in his State of the Union Address on 23 January 1980. ... This article is about foreign policy. ... The domino theory was a mid-20th century foreign policy theory, promoted by the government of the United States, that speculated that if one land in a region came under the influence of communism, then the surrounding countries would follow in a domino effect. ... The Eisenhower Doctrine, given in a message to the United States Congress on January 5, 1957, was the foreign policy of U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower. ... The Johnson Doctrine, enunciated by U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson. ... The Kennedy Doctrine refers to foreign policy initiatives of the 35th President of the United States, John Fitzgerald Kennedy, towards Latin America during his term in office between 1961 and 1963. ... The Nixon Doctrine was put forth in a press conference in Guam on July 25, 1969 by Richard Nixon. ... Ostpolitik or Eastern Politics describes the realisation of the Change through Rapprochement principle, verbalised by Egon Bahr in 1963, by the effort of Willy Brandt, Chancellor of West Germany, to normalize relations with Eastern European nations including East Germany. ... Peaceful coexistence was a theory developed during the Cold War among Communist states that they could peacefully coexist with capitalist states. ... The Reagan Doctrine was a strategy orchestrated and implemented by the United States to oppose the global influence of the Soviet Union during the final years of the Cold War. ... Rollback was a term used by American foreign policy thinkers during the Cold War. ... The Truman Doctrine was a proclamation by U.S. president Harry S. Truman on March 12, 1947. ... Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ... // At its simplest, the Cold War is said to have begun in 1947. ...

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