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Encyclopedia > Yugoslavia
General location of the political entities known as Yugoslavia. The precise borders varied over the years
General location of the political entities known as Yugoslavia. The precise borders varied over the years

Yugoslavia ("Jugoslavija" in Serbo-Croatian (Latin alphabet) and Slovenian; "Југославија" in Serbian (Cyrillic alphabet) and Macedonian; English: "South Slavia", or literally The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed successively on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. The Serbo-Croatian language or Croato-Serbian language (cрпскохрватски језик srpskohrvatski jezik), sometimes also called the Yugoslavian language or Yugoslav language (југословенски језик jugoslovenski jezik), is a South Slavic diasystem. ... The Latin alphabet used by the Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin, Serbian and Serbo-Croat languages was devised by Ljudevit Gaj, in his book 1830 Kratka osnova horvatsko-slavenskog pravopisanja (A short primer of Croatian-Slavonic orthography) (Note that there is an ongoing debate as to whether some or all of these... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The South Slavs are a southern branch of the Slavic peoples that live in the Balkans mainly in former Yugoslavia which actually translates Yugo: South - Slavia: Slavs (Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovens), which is situated in the southern Pannonian... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


The first country to be known by this name was the "Kingdom of Yugoslavia", which before 3 October 1929 was known as the "Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes". It was established on 1 December 1918 by the union of the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs and the Kingdom of Serbia. It was invaded by the Axis powers in 1941, and because of the events that followed, was officially abolished in 1945. Motto: One nation, one king, one country Anthem: Medley of Bože pravde, Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino, and Naprej zastava slave Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croato-Slovenian (see: Serbo-Croat and Slovenian) [1] Government Value specified for government_type does not comply King  - 1918-1921 Peter I  - 1921-1934 Alexander... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Flag Capital Zagreb Language(s) Slovenian and Serbo-Croatian Government Republic President¹ Anton KoroÅ¡ec Vice presidents¹ Ante Pavelić Svetozar Pribićević Historical era World War I  - Independence 29 October, 1918  - Joined Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes 1 December, 1918 ¹ President and vice presidents of the National Council. ... Anthem: Bože Pravde [[Image:|250px|center|Location of the Kingdom of Serbia]] Capital Belgrade Largest city Belgrade Serbian Government Monarchy  - King Milan (1882-1889)  - King Aleksandar (1889-1903)  - King Peter I (1903-1918) Proclamation March 6, 1882 Area  - Total  km² ([[List of countries and outlying territories by area|]])  sq... Black: Zenith of the Axis Powers Capital Not applicable Political structure Military alliance Historical era World War II  - Tripartite Pact September 27, 1940  - Anti-Comintern Pact November 25, 1936  - Pact of Steel May 22, 1939  - Dissolved 1945 This article is about the independent countries (states) that comprised the Axis powers. ...


The country with this name was "Democratic Federal Yugoslavia", proclaimed in 1943 by the communist resistance movement in World War II. It was renamed to the "Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia" in 1946, when a communist government was established. In 1963, it was renamed again to the "Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia" (SFRY). The constituent Socialist Republics that made up the country, from north to south, were: SR Slovenia, SR Croatia, SR Bosnia and Herzegovina, SR Montenegro, SR Serbia (including the autonomous provinces of Vojvodina and Kosovo and Metohija, later simply Kosovo) and SR Macedonia. Starting in 1991, the SFRY disintegrated in the Yugoslav Wars which followed the secession of most of the republic's constituent entities. This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Motto Brotherhood and Unity Anthem Hey, Slavs Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throughout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ... Flag of Socialist Republic of Slovenia Coat of arms of the Socialist Republic of Slovenia Socialist Republic of Slovenia was the official name of Slovenia as a federal unit in the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Flag of Socialist Republic of Croatia Coat of arms of Socialist Republic of Croatia Socialist Republic of Croatia was the official name of Croatia as a federal unit in the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Flag of Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina Coat of arms of Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Serbo-Croat: Socijalistička Republika Bosna i Hercegovina/Социјалистичка Pепублика Босна и Херцеговина) was one of the 6 republics which made up the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Flag of Socialist Republic of Montenegro Coat of arms of the Socialist Republic of Montenegro Socialist Republic of Montenegro (Serbo-Croat: Социјалистичка република Црна Гора, Socijalistička republika Crna Gora) or SR Montenegro in short was the official name of Montenegro as a socialist state, a federal unit (constitutive republic) in the former Socialist... Socialist Republic of Serbia within SFRY (numbers 5, 5a, and 5b) Flag of Socialist Republic of Serbia Coat of arms of the Socialist Republic of Serbia Socialist Republic of Serbia (Serbo-Croatian: Социјалистичка Република Србија, Socijalistička Republika Srbija) was one of the 6 republics of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... For other uses, see Autonomy (disambiguation). ... Vojvodina (red) is one of Serbias two autonomous provinces Capital (and largest city) Novi Sad Official languages Ethnic groups  2. ... Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo within SFRY (number 5a) Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo (Serbo-Croatian: Социјалистичка Аутономна Покрајина Косово, Socijalistička Autonomna Pokrajina Kosovo, Albanian: Krahina Socialiste Autonome e Kosovës) was one of the two socialist autonomous provinces of the Socialist Republic of Serbia and one of the federal units of the... Flag of Socialist Republic of Macedonia Coat of arms of the Socialist Republic of Macedonia The Socialist Republic of Macedonia (Macedonian: Социјалистичка Република Македонија), formerly the Peoples Republic of Macedonia (Народна Република Македонија) was the name of todays Republic of Macedonia while it was a federal state in the former Socialist Federal Republic of... Belligerents Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo Liberation Army, NATO, UCPMB SFR Yugoslavia, Republic of Srpska Serbian Krajina FR Yugoslavia, Paramilitary forces from Serbia Commanders Milan Kučan Janez JanÅ¡a, Franjo TuÄ‘man, Mate Boban Janko Bobetko, Alija Izetbegović, Sefer Halilović, Hashim Thaci, Wesley Clark, Javier Solana Bill Clinton... For other uses, see Secession (disambiguation). ...


The last country to bear the name was the "Federal Republic of Yugoslavia" (FRY) established on March 27, 1992. It was a federation on the territory of the two remaining (non-secessionist) republics of Serbia (including the autonomous provinces of Vojvodina and Kosovo) and Montenegro. On February 4, 2003, it was renamed to the "State Union of Serbia and Montenegro", and officially abolished the name "Yugoslavia." On June 3 and June 5, 2006, Montenegro and Serbia respectively declared their independences, thereby ending the last remnants of a Yugoslav state. Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbian Government Republic President  - 1992 - 1993 Dobrica Ćosić  - 1993 - 1997 Zoran Lilić  - 1997 – 2000 Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević  - 2000 - 2003 Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Prime Minister  - 1992 - 1993 Milan Panić  - 1993 - 1998 Radoje Kontić  - 1998 - 2000 Momir Bulatović  - 2000 - 2001 Zoran Žižić  - 2001 - 2003 DragiÅ¡a Pe... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about federal states. ... Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost... Vojvodina (red) is one of Serbias two autonomous provinces Capital (and largest city) Novi Sad Official languages Ethnic groups  2. ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Serbia and Montenegro  â€“ Serbia    â€“ Kosovo and Metohia        (UN administration)    â€“ Vojvodina  â€“ Montenegro Official language Serbian language written in Cyrillic alphabet Capital Belgrade President Svetozar Marović Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % water Ranked 105th  102,350 km²  0. ... -1... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost...

Contents

Background

The idea for a single state for all South Slavs emerged in the late 17th century and gained prominence in the 19th century Illyrian Movement but never came to culmination. The formation of Yugoslavia, a state meant to unify South Slavs initially known as the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, was an extended process that began as a vague intellectual concept from the 17th to early 20th centuries and culminated in the realization of the ideal with the 1918...  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The South Slavs are a southern branch of the Slavic peoples that live in the Balkans mainly in former Yugoslavia which actually translates Yugo: South - Slavia: Slavs (Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovens), which is situated in the southern Pannonian... Vlaho Bukovac: Hrvatski narodni preporod, Zastor u HNK Zagreb Illyrian movement (Croatian/Serbian: Ilirski pokret), also Croatian national revival (Hrvatski narodni preporod), was a nationalistic campaign initiated by a group of young Croatian intellectuals during the first half of 19th century, around the years of 1835-1849 (there is some...


During the early period of World War I, a number of prominent political figures from South Slavic lands under the Habsburg Austro-Hungarian Empire fled to London, where they began work on forming the Yugoslav Committee to represent the Southern Slavs of Austria-Hungary. These "Yugoslavs" were Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes who identified themselves with the movement toward a single Yugoslav or South Slavic state and the committee's basic aim was the unification of the South Slav lands with the Kingdom of Serbia (which was independent although occupied at the time). “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... Official languages Latin, German, Hungarian Established church Roman Catholic Capital & Largest City Vienna pop. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Yugoslav Committee (Jugoslavenski odbor) was a political interest group formed by south Slavs from Austria-Hungary during World War I aimed at joining the existing south Slavic nations in an independent state. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... Languages Croatian Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Related ethnic groups Slavs South Slavs Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... Anthem: Bože Pravde [[Image:|250px|center|Location of the Kingdom of Serbia]] Capital Belgrade Largest city Belgrade Serbian Government Monarchy  - King Milan (1882-1889)  - King Aleksandar (1889-1903)  - King Peter I (1903-1918) Proclamation March 6, 1882 Area  - Total  km² ([[List of countries and outlying territories by area|]])  sq...


With the defeat of the Central Powers in World War I and the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, various South Slavic territories were quickly grouped together to form the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes which was proclaimed on 1 December 1918 in Belgrade . Red: Central Powers at their zenith. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ...


The new kingdom was made up of the formerly independent kingdoms of Serbia and Montenegro (which had unified in the previous month), as well as a substantial amount of territory that was formerly part of Austria-Hungary, the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs. The lands previously in Austria-Hungary that formed the new state included Croatia, Slavonia and Vojvodina from the Hungarian part of the Empire, Carniola, part of Styria and most of Dalmatia from the Austrian part, and the crown province of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Flag Anthem: Ubavoj nam Crnoj Gori, Onamo, namo! The Kingdom of Montenegro in 1913 Capital Cetinje Language(s) Serbian Religion Eastern Orthodox Government Monarchy King Nicholas I Historical era World War I  - Established 28 August, 1910  - Disestablished 26 November, 1918 Currency Montenegrin perper The Kingdom of Montenegro (Serbian: Краљевина Црнe Горe... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Flag Capital Zagreb Language(s) Slovenian and Serbo-Croatian Government Republic President¹ Anton KoroÅ¡ec Vice presidents¹ Ante Pavelić Svetozar Pribićević Historical era World War I  - Independence 29 October, 1918  - Joined Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes 1 December, 1918 ¹ President and vice presidents of the National Council. ... Coat of arms Slavonia (Croatian: Slavonija) is a geographical and historical region in eastern Croatia. ... Vojvodina (red) is one of Serbias two autonomous provinces Capital (and largest city) Novi Sad Official languages Ethnic groups  2. ... Carniola English and Latin; (Slovenian Kranjska, German Krain) is a name for a region in Slovenia. ... Coat of arms of the Dukes of Styria, crowned with the ducal hat, today state coat The Duchy of Styria (German: Herzogtum Steiermark, Slovenian Å tajerska) was a duchy of the Holy Roman Empire until its dissolution in 1806, and a crownland of Austria-Hungary until its dissolution in 1918. ... Dalmatia, highlighted, on a map of Croatia. ...


Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes

Main article: Kingdom of Yugoslavia

Motto: One nation, one king, one country Anthem: Medley of Bože pravde, Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino, and Naprej zastava slave Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croato-Slovenian (see: Serbo-Croat and Slovenian) [1] Government Value specified for government_type does not comply King  - 1918-1921 Peter I  - 1921-1934 Alexander...

1918-1928

Map of Yugoslavia in 1919 showing the provisional borders in the aftermath of World War I before the treaties of Neuilly, Trianon and Rapallo
Map of Yugoslavia in 1919 showing the provisional borders in the aftermath of World War I before the treaties of Neuilly, Trianon and Rapallo
Map showing banovinas in 1929
Map showing banovinas in 1929
Yugoslavia 1936, physical
Yugoslavia 1936, physical

Woodrow Wilson and the American peace commissioners during the negotiations on the Treaty of Versailles. ... The Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine, dealing with Bulgaria for its role as one of the Central Powers in World War I, was signed on the November 27, 1919 at Neuilly-sur-Seine, France. ... The negotiations on June 4, 1920. ... Following World War I there were two Treaties of Rapallo, both named after Rapallo, a resort on the Ligurian coast of Italy: The Treaty of Rapallo, 1920 was an agreement between Italy and the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (the later Yugoslavia) for the independence of the state... The Treaty of Rapallo was a treaty between Italy and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes by which the latter was forced to give up parts of its Slovenian and Croatian territory. ... SKJ flag in Serbo-Croat, with Cyrillic script SKJ flag in Serbo-Croat, with Latin script SKJ flag in Albanian SKJ flag in Hungarian SKJ flag in Italian SKJ flag in Macedonian SKJ flag in Slovenian The Communist Party of Yugoslavia (after 1952 the League of Communists of Yugoslavia) was... The 1923 election in the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes for the National Assembly took place on March 18, 1923. ... The Treaty of Rome of January 27, 1924 was an agreement by which Italy and the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (the later Yugoslavia) assigned the city of Fiume (now Rijeka in Croatia) to Italian and its eastern neighbour Sušak to Yugoslav administration, with joint port administration, superseding... Face of Stjepan Radić on Croatias 200 kn bill Stjepan Radić (June 11, 1871 – August 8, 1928) was a Croatian politician and the founder of the Croatian Peasant Party (CPP, Hrvatska Seljačka Stranka) in 1905. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Scan of a map of the banovinas of the kingdom of Yugoslavia from http://pubwww. ... Scan of a map of the banovinas of the kingdom of Yugoslavia from http://pubwww. ... Motto: One nation, one king, one country Anthem: Medley of Bože pravde, Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino, and Naprej zastava slave Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croato-Slovenian (see: Serbo-Croat and Slovenian) [1] Government Value specified for government_type does not comply King  - 1918-1921 Peter I  - 1921-1934 Alexander...

King Alexander's Period

King Alexander I banned national political parties in 1929, assumed executive power and renamed the country Yugoslavia. He hoped to curb separatist tendencies and mitigate nationalist passions. However, Alexander's policies soon ran into the obstacle of opposition from other European powers stemming from developments in Italy and Germany, where Fascists and Nazis rose to power, and the Soviet Union, where Stalin became absolute ruler. None of these three regimes favored the policy pursued by Alexander I. In fact, Italy and Germany wanted to revise the international treaties signed after World War I, and the Soviets were determined to regain their positions in Europe and pursue a more active international policy. Alexander I of Yugoslavia also called King Alexander Unificator (Serbo-Croatian: Kralj Aleksandar I KaraÄ‘orÄ‘ević/Краљ Александар I Карађорђевић) (Cetinje, Principality of Montenegro, 16 December 1888 – Marseille, France, 9 October 1934) of the Royal House of KaraÄ‘orÄ‘ević was the first king of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1929–34) and... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Fascism is a term used to describe authoritarian nationalist political ideologies or mass movements that are concerned with notions of cultural decline or decadence. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from...


Alexander attempted to create a genuine Yugoslavia. He decided to abolish Yugoslavia's historic regions, and new internal boundaries were drawn for provinces or banovinas. The banovinas were named after rivers. Many politicians were jailed or kept under tight police surveillance. The effect of Alexander's dictatorship was to further alienate the non-Serbs from the idea of unity.


The king was assassinated in Marseille during an official visit to France in 1934 by an experienced marksman from Ivan Mihailov's Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization in the cooperation of the Ustaše, a Croatian separatist organization. Alexsandar was succeeded by his eleven year old son Peter II and a regency council headed by his cousin Prince Paul. City flag Coat of arms Motto: By her great deeds, the city of Massilia shines The Old Port of Marseille Location Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Coordinates Administration Country Region Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Department Bouches-du-Rhône (13) Subdivisions 16 arrondissements (in 8 secteurs) Intercommunality Urban... Vlado Chernozemski Vlado Chernozemski (Bulgarian: ) (October 19, 1897 - October 9, 1934), born Velichko Dimitrov Kerin (Bulgarian: ), was a Bulgarian revolutionary and assassin . ... Ivan Mihailov (Bulgarian: Иван Михайлов), also known as Vanche Mihailov (Bulgarian: Ванче Михайлов), (August 26, 1896, Novo Selo, present-day Republic of Macedonia – September 5, 1990, Rome, Italy) was a Bulgarian revolutionary, leader of the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization after 1924. ... For a novel by a similar name, see Imaro (novel). ... An UstaÅ¡e guard pose among the bodies of prisoners murdered in the Jasenovac concentration camp The UstaÅ¡e (also known as Ustashas or Ustashi) was a Croatian extreme nationalist movement. ... Peter II of Yugoslavia, locally known as Kralj Petar II KaraÄ‘orÄ‘ević (Serbian Cyrillic: Краљ Петар II Карађорђевић) (6 September 1923 – 3 November 1970), was the second, as well as the last, King of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. ... Image:Prince Pavle of Yugoslavia. ...


The 1930s in Yugoslavia

The international political scene in the late 1930s was marked by growing intolerance between the principal figures, by the aggressive attitude of the totalitarian regimes and by the certainty that the order set up after World War I was losing its strongholds and its sponsors were losing their strength. Supported and pressured by Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany, Croatian leader Vlatko Maček and his party managed the creation of the Croatian banovina (administrative province) in 1939. The agreement specified that Croatia was to remain part of Yugoslavia, but it was hurriedly building an independent political identity in international relations. Totalitarianism is a term employed by some political scientists, especially those in the field of comparative politics, to describe modern regimes in which the state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior. ... Italian fascism (in Italian, fascismo) was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Vladko Maček (June 20, 1879 – May 15, 1964) was a Croatian politician from the first half of the 20th century. ... The Banovina of Croatia (1939-1941). ...


Prince Paul submitted to the fascist pressure and signed the Tripartite Treaty in Vienna on March 25, 1941, hoping to still keep Yugoslavia out of the war. But this was at the expense of popular support for Paul's regency. Senior military officers were also opposed to the treaty and launched a coup d'état when the king returned on March 27. Army General Dušan Simović seized power, arrested the Vienna delegation, exiled Paul, and ended the regency, giving 17 year old King Peter full powers. The Tripartite Pact, also called the Three-Power Pact, was signed in Berlin on September 27, 1940 by representatives of Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy and Japan. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Coup redirects here. ... Peter II of Yugoslavia, locally known as Kralj Petar II KaraÄ‘orÄ‘ević (Serbian Cyrillic: Краљ Петар II Карађорђевић) (6 September 1923 – 3 November 1970), was the second, as well as the last, King of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. ...


The beginning of World War II in Yugoslavia

Hitler then decided to attack Yugoslavia on April 6, 1941, followed immediately by an invasion of Greece where Mussolini had previously been repelled. (As a result, the launch of Operation Barbarossa was delayed by four weeks, which proved to be a costly decision.)[citation needed] Hitler redirects here. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Mussolini redirects here. ... Belligerents Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia Croatia Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Franz Halder Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Ernst Busch Erich Hoepner Alfred Keller Georg von Küchler Günther von Kluge Heinz Guderian Hermann Hoth Albrecht Kesselring Adolf Strauss Carl-Heinrich von...


Yugoslavia during World War II

See also: Participants in World War II#Yugoslavia

Map of the World with the Participants in World War II. The western allies are shown in blue, the eastern allies in red, the Axis Powers in black, and neutral countries in grey. ...

The invasion of Yugoslavia

At 5:12 a.m. on April 6, 1941, German, Italian, Hungarian, and Bulgarian forces attacked Yugoslavia. The German Air Force (Luftwaffe) bombed Belgrade and other major Yugoslav cities. On April 17, representatives of Yugoslavia's various regions signed an armistice with Germany at Belgrade, ending eleven days of resistance against the invading German Army (Wehrmacht Heer). More than three hundred thousand Yugoslav officers and soldiers were taken prisoner. “April War” redirects here. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ...   (German IPA: ) is a generic German term for an air force. ... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ...


The Axis Powers occupied Yugoslavia and split it up. The Independent State of Croatia was established as a Nazi puppet state, ruled by the fascist militia known as the Ustaše that came into existence in 1929, but was relatively limited in its activities until 1941. German troops occupied Bosnia and Herzegovina as well as part of Serbia and Slovenia, while other parts of the country were occupied by Bulgaria, Hungary, and Italy. During this time the Independent State of Croatia created concentration camps for anti-fascists, communists, Serbs, Gypsies and Jews. One such camp was Jasenovac. A large number of men, women and children, mostly Serbs, were executed in these camps.[1] Capital Zagreb Language(s) Croatian Religion Roman Catholicism Political structure Puppet-state King  - 1941-1943 Tomislav II Poglavnik  - 1941-1945 Ante Pavelić Legislature None Historical era World War II  - Established April 10, 1941  - Disestablished May 8, 1945 Population  - 1941 est. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ... Fascism is a term used to describe authoritarian nationalist political ideologies or mass movements that are concerned with notions of cultural decline or decadence. ... An UstaÅ¡e guard pose among the bodies of prisoners murdered in the Jasenovac concentration camp The UstaÅ¡e (also known as Ustashas or Ustashi) was a Croatian extreme nationalist movement. ... This article is about a geographic region of Bosnia. ... This article is about the geographic area of Herzegovina. ... Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... The Rroma people (pronounced rahma, singular Rrom) along with the closely related Sinti people are commonly known as Gypsies. ... Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ... “Jasenovac” redirects here. ...


Resistance movements

Main article: Yugoslav People's Liberation War

Yugoslavs opposing the Nazis organized a resistance movement. Those inclined towards supporting the old Kingdom of Yugoslavia joined the Yugoslav Army in the Fatherland, also known as the Chetniks, Serb royalist guerrilla army led by Dragoljub "Draža" Mihailović. Those inclined towards supporting the Communist Party (Komunistička partija), and were against the King, joined the Yugoslav National Liberation Army (Narodno Oslobodilačka Vojska or NOV), led by Josip Broz Tito, a Croatian national. Chetniks were allies of United States in Europe and they saved over 150 American pilots during operation : "Vazdušni Most". Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Chetniks. ... Draza Mihailovic was born in 1893. ... SKJ flag in Serbo-Croat, with Cyrillic script SKJ flag in Serbo-Croat, with Latin script SKJ flag in Albanian SKJ flag in Hungarian SKJ flag in Italian SKJ flag in Macedonian SKJ flag in Slovenian The Communist Party of Yugoslavia (after 1952 the League of Communists of Yugoslavia) was... Yugoslav Partisan Flag The Partisans (lat. ... Tito redirects here. ...


The NOV initiated a guerrilla campaign which was developed into the largest resistance army in occupied Western and Central Europe. The Chetniks initially made notable incursions and were supported by the exiled royal government as well as the Allies, but were soon restrained from taking wider actions because of German reprisals against the Serb civilian population. Guerrilla redirects here. ... Look up ally in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


For every killed soldier, the Germans executed 100 civilians, and for each wounded, they killed 50. Regarding the human cost as too high, the Chetniks terminated war activities against the Germans, and the Allies eventually switched to support the NOV.


However, NOV carried on its guerrilla warfare. The demographic loss is estimated at 1,027,000 individuals by Vladimir Zerjavic and Bogoljub Kočović, an estimate accepted by the United Nations, while the official Yugoslav authorities claimed 1,700,000 casualties. Very high losses were among Serbs who lived in Bosnia and Croatia, as well as Jewish and Roma minorities, high also among all other non-collaborating population. Map of countries by population Population growth showing projections for later this century Demography is the statistical study of all populations. ... Vladimir Žerjavić (August 2, 1912 - September 5, 2001) was a Croatian economist and a United Nations specialist who published a series of articles and books during the 1980s and 1990s in which he argued that the scope of the Holocaust in World War II-era Croatia was exaggerated. ... Bogoljub Kočović (1920) is a Serbian statistician. ... UN redirects here. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... Languages Romany, languages of native region Religions Romanipen, combined with assimilations from local religions Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) This article is about the Indo-Aryan ethnic group. ... Collaborationism, as a pejorative term, can describe the treason of cooperating with enemy forces occupying ones country. ...

ca. 70,000 Soviet and Allied personnel were awarded the medal for the liberation of Belgrade from 21st June 1961.
ca. 70,000 Soviet and Allied personnel were awarded the medal for the liberation of Belgrade from 21st June 1961.

During the war, the communist-led partisans were de facto rulers on the liberated territories, and the NOV organized people's committees to act as civilian government. In Autumn of 1941, the partisans established the Republic of Užice in the liberated territory of western Serbia. In November 1941, the German troops occupied this territory again, while the majority of partisan forces escaped towards Bosnia. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... Yugoslav Partisan Flag The Partisans (lat. ... The Republic of Užice (Serbo-Croatian: Užička Republika) was a short-lived military mini-state that existed in Autumn 1941 in the western part of Nazi-occupied Serbia. ... Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost...


On November 25, 1942, the Anti-Fascist Council of National Liberation of Yugoslavia (Antifašističko Vijeće Narodnog Oslobođenja Jugoslavije) was convened in Bihać, Bosnia. The council reconvened on November 29, 1943, in Jajce, also in Bosnia and established the basis for post-war organisation of the country, establishing a federation (this date was celebrated as Republic Day after the war). is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... AVNOJ (AntifaÅ¡ističko V(ij)eće Narodnog OsloboÄ‘enja Jugoslavije), standing for Anti-Fascist Council of National Liberation of Yugoslavia, was the political umbrella organization for the peoples liberation committees that was established on November 26, 1942 to administer terrorities under their control. ... Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity {{{entity}}} Land area 900 km2 Population (est. ... This article is about the country of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity {{{entity}}} Land area Population (1991 census) 45,007 Population density Area code +387 30 Mayor Nisvet Hrnjić (SDA) Website http://www. ... This article is about the country of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ...


The liberation of Yugoslavia

The NOV was able to expel the Axis from Serbia in 1944 and the rest of Yugoslavia in 1945. The Red Army aided in liberating Belgrade as well as some other territories, but withdrew after the war was over. In May 1945, NOV met with allied forces outside former Yugoslav borders, after taking over also Trieste and parts of Austrian southern provinces Styria and Carinthia. This was territory populated predominantly by Italians and Slovenes. However, the NOV withdrew from Trieste in June of the same year. For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Trieste (disambiguation). ... “Styria” redirects here. ... Carinthia (German: Kärnten, Slovenian: Koroška) is the southernmost Austrian state or Land; it is chiefly famous for its mountains and lakes. ...


Western attempts to reunite the partisans, who denied supremacy of the old government of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, and the emigration loyal to the king, led to the Tito-Šubašić Agreement in June 1944, however Tito was seen as a national hero by the citizens, so he gained the power in post-war independent communist state, starting as a prime minister. Motto: One nation, one king, one country Anthem: Medley of Bože pravde, Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino, and Naprej zastava slave Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croato-Slovenian (see: Serbo-Croat and Slovenian) [1] Government Value specified for government_type does not comply King  - 1918-1921 Peter I  - 1921-1934 Alexander... The Tito-Å ubaÅ¡ić Agreement was an attempt by the Westerners to merge pre-war royal government of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia with the communist-lead partisans who were defending the country in Second World War and were de facto rulers on the liberated territories. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ...


The Second Yugoslavia

Numbered map of Yugoslav republics and provinces.
Numbered map of Yugoslav republics and provinces.

On January 31, 1946, the new constitution of Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia, modeling the Soviet Union, established six Socialist Republics, a Socialist Autonomous Province, and a Socialist Autonomous District that were part of SR Serbia. The federal capital was Belgrade. Republics and provinces were (in alphabetical order): Motto Brotherhood and Unity Anthem Hey, Slavs Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throughout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ... Download high resolution version (928x824, 12 KB)numbered map of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia File links The following pages link to this file: Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Categories: GFDL images | Yugoslavia maps ... Download high resolution version (928x824, 12 KB)numbered map of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia File links The following pages link to this file: Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Categories: GFDL images | Yugoslavia maps ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was a Balkan state that existed from 1945 to 1992. ... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ...

  1. Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, with the capital in Sarajevo,
  2. Socialist Republic of Croatia, with the capital in Zagreb,
  3. Socialist Republic of Macedonia, with the capital in Skopje,
  4. Socialist Republic of Montenegro, with the capital in Titograd (now Podgorica),
  5. Socialist Republic of Serbia, with the capital in Belgrade, which also contained:
    5a. Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija, with the capital in Priština
    5b. Socialist Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, with the capital in Novi Sad
  6. Socialist Republic of Slovenia, with the capital in Ljubljana.

In 1974, the two provinces of Vojvodina and Kosovo-Metohija (for the latter had by then been upgraded to the status of a province), as well as the republics of Bosnia & Herzegovina and Montenegro, were granted greater autonomy to the point that Albanian and Hungarian became nationally recognised minority languages and the Serbo-Croat of Bosnia and Montenegro altered to a form based on the speech of the local people and not on the standards of Zagreb and Belgrade. Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Serbo-Croat: Socijalistička Republika Bosna i Hercegovina/Социјалистичка Pепублика Босна и Херцеговина) was a republic in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo) Coordinates: , Country Entity Canton Sarajevo Canton Government  - Mayor Semiha Borovac (SDA) Area [1]  - City 141. ... Capital Zagreb Official language Croatian language (1963-1971), (1989-) Croatian or Serbian (1971-1989) Established In the SFRY:  - Since  - Until April 7, 1963 April 7, 1963 June 25, 1991 Area  - Total  - Water Ranked 2nd in the SFRY 56,524 km² 0. ... Location of Zagreb within Croatia Coordinates: , Country RC diocese 1094 Free royal city 1242 Unified 1850 Government  - Mayor Milan Bandić Area [1]  - Total 641. ... National motto: None Official languages Macedonian2 Capital Skopje President Branko Crvenkovski Prime Minister Vlado Buckovski Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 145th 25,713 km² 1. ... Location of the city of Skopje (green) in Macedonia Country Macedonia Municipality Government  - Mayor Trifun Kostovski Area  - Total 1,854 km² (715. ... Motto: None Anthem: Oj, svijetla majska zoro Capital Podgorica Largest city Podgorica Official language(s) Serbian of the Ijekavian dialect1 Government Republic  - President Filip Vujanović  - Prime Minister Milo Đukanović Independence Dissolution of Serbia and Montenegro   - Referendum May 21, 2006   - Declared June 3, 2006   - Recognized June 8, 2006  Area    - Total 13... Coordinates Mayor Dr. Miomir MugoÅ¡a (DPS) Municipality area 1,441 km² Population (2003 census)  - city  - municipality  - density 136,473 169,132 117. ... Anthem: Bože pravde (English: God of Justice) Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Serbian written with the Cyrillic alphabet1 Government Republic  - Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica  - President Boris Tadić Establishment    - Formation 814   - First Serbian Uprising 1804   - Internationally recognized July 13, 1878   - Kingdom of SCS created December 1, 1918   - SCG dissolved... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ... Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo within SFRY (number 5a) Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo (Serbo-Croatian: Социјалистичка Аутономна Покрајина Косово, Socijalistička Autonomna Pokrajina Kosovo, Albanian: Krahina Socialiste Autonome e Kosovës) was one of the two socialist autonomous provinces of the Socialist Republic of Serbia and one of the federal units of the... The Palace of Youth building The building of the former Rilindja newspaper, also the tallest in PriÅ¡tina. ... Socialist Autonomous Province of Vojvodina within SFRY (number 5b) Socialist Autonomous Province of Vojvodina (Serbo-Croatian: Социјалистичка Аутономна Покрајина Војводина, Socijalistička Autonomna Pokrajina Vojvodina), also known shortly as SAP Vojvodina (Cyrillic: САП Војводина), was one of the two socialist autonomous provinces of the Socialist Republic of Serbia and one of the federal units of the... For other uses, see Novi Sad (disambiguation). ... Flag of Socialist Republic of Slovenia Coat of arms of the Socialist Republic of Slovenia Socialist Republic of Slovenia was the official name of Slovenia as a federal unit in the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Location in Slovenia Coordinates: , Country Founded AD 15 (as Colonia Iulia Aemona) Government  - Mayor and governor Zoran Janković (Lista Zorana Jankovića) Area  - Total 275. ...


Vojvodina and Kosovo-Metohija form a part of the Republic of Serbia. The country distanced itself from the Soviets in 1948 (cf. Cominform and Informbiro) and started to build its own way to socialism under the strong political leadership of Josip Broz Tito. The country criticized both Eastern bloc and NATO nations and, together with other countries, started the Non-Aligned Movement in 1961, which remained the official affiliation of the country until it dissolved. Vojvodina (red) is one of Serbias two autonomous provinces Capital (and largest city) Novi Sad Official languages Ethnic groups  2. ... Kosovo (known in Albanian as Kosova, in Serbian as Косово и Метохија / Kosovo i Metohija, and in English simply as Kosovo) is a province in southern Serbia. ... Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost... The Cominform (from Communist Information Bureau) is the common name for what was officially referred to as the Information Bureau of the Communist and Workers Parties. It was the first official forum of the international communist movement since the dissolution of the Comintern, and confirmed the new realities after World... It has been suggested that Tito-Stalin Split be merged into this article or section. ... Socialism refers to the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... Tito redirects here. ... A map of the Eastern Bloc 1948-1989. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ...


Demographics

The population of Yugoslavia according to the 1981 census was 22.4 million. // Demographics This is data from two Yugoslav censa (1971 and 1981). ...


Changes in Yugoslavian Religious Demographics Separate nations that comprised Yugoslavia. ...


The government

On 7 April 1963 the nation changed its official name to Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Tito was named President for Life. April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... Motto Brotherhood and Unity Anthem Hey, Slavs Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throughout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ... Tito redirects here. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


In SFRY, each republic and province had its own constitution, supreme court, parliament, president and prime minister. At the top of the Yugoslav government were the President (Tito), the federal Prime Minister, and the federal Parliament (a collective Presidency was formed after Tito's death in 1980).


Also important were the Communist Party general secretaries for each republic and province, and the general secretary of Central Committee of the Communist Party. SKJ flag in Serbo-Croat, with Cyrillic script SKJ flag in Serbo-Croat, with Latin script SKJ flag in Albanian SKJ flag in Hungarian SKJ flag in Italian SKJ flag in Macedonian SKJ flag in Slovenian The Communist Party of Yugoslavia (after 1952 the League of Communists of Yugoslavia) was...


Josip Broz Tito was the most powerful person in the country, followed by republican and provincial premiers and presidents, and Communist Party presidents. A wide variety of people suffered from his disfavor. Slobodan Penezić Krcun, Tito's chief of secret police in Serbia, fell victim to a dubious traffic incident after he started to complain about Tito's politics. The Interior Minister Aleksandar Ranković lost all of his titles and rights after a major disagreement with Tito regarding state politics. Sometimes ministers in government, such as Edvard Kardelj or Stane Dolanc, were more important than the Prime Minister. Marko Ranković Ranković, Tito and Đilas Aleksandar Leka Ranković (Serbian: Александар Лека Ранковић) (1909-1983) was a leading Yugoslav Communist of Serbian origin. ... Edvard Kardelj - Sperans (January 27, 1910 - February 10, 1979) was a Slovene prewar communist, politician, statesman and publicist. ... Stane Dolanc (born 16 november, 1925 in Hrastnik, Slovenia, then Yugoslavia) was a Yugoslav politician and Titos closest man. ...


The suppression of national identities escalated with the so-called Croatian Spring of 1970-1971, when students in Zagreb organized demonstrations for greater civil liberties and greater Croatian autonomy. The regime stifled the public protest and incarcerated the leaders, but many key Croatian representatives in the Party silently supported this cause, so a new Constitution was ratified in 1974 that gave more rights to the individual republics in Yugoslavia and provinces in Serbia. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Location of Zagreb within Croatia Coordinates: , Country RC diocese 1094 Free royal city 1242 Unified 1850 Government  - Mayor Milan Bandić Area [1]  - Total 641. ...


Ethnic tensions and the economic crisis

The post-World War II Yugoslavia was in many respects a model of how to build a multinational state. The Federation was constructed against a double background: an inter-war Yugoslavia which had been dominated by the Serbian ruling class; and a war-time division of the country, as Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany split the country apart and endorsed an extreme Croatian nationalist faction called the Ustashe which committed genocide against Serbs. Some Bosniak nationalists joined the Axis forces and attacked Serbs. In response extreme Serb nationalists engaged in revenge attacks on Bosniaks and Croats. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, refers to the right-wing authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... The Ustaše (often spelled Ustashe in English; singular Ustaša or Ustasha) was a Croatian right-wing organisation put in charge of the Independent State of Croatia by the Axis Powers in 1941. ...


The ethnic violence was only ended when the multiethnic Yugoslav Partisans took over the country at the end of the war and banned nationalism from being publicly promoted. Overall relative peace was retained under Tito's rule, though nationalist protests did occur, but these were usually repressed and nationalist leaders were arrested and some were executed by Yugoslav officials. However one protest in Croatia in the 1970s, called the "Croatian Spring" was backed by large numbers of Croats who claimed that Yugoslavia remained a Serb hegemony and demanded that Serbia's powers be reduced. Tito whose home republic was Croatia was concerned over the stability of the country and responded in a manner to appease both Croats and Serbs, he ordered the arrest of the Croat protestors, while at the same time conceding to some of their demands. In 1974, Serbia's influence in the country was significantly reduced as autonomous provinces were created in ethnic Albanian-majority populated Kosovo and the mixed-populated Vojvodina. These autonomous provinces held the same voting power as the republics but unlike the republics, they could not legally separate from Yugoslavia. This concession satisfied Croatia and Slovenia, but in Serbia and in the new autonomous province of Kosovo, reaction was different. Serbs saw the new constitution as conceding to Croat and ethnic Albanian nationalists. Ethnic Albanians in Kosovo saw the creation of an autonomous province as not being enough, and demanded that Kosovo become a constituent republic with the right to separate from Yugoslavia. This created tensions within the Communist leadership, particularly amongst Communist Serb officials who resented the 1974 constitution as weakening Serbia's influence and jeoprodizing the unity of the country by allowing the republics the right to separate. The Rebellion The Yugoslav Partisans were the main resistance movement engaged in the fight against the Axis forces in the Balkans during World War II. // Origins The Yugoslav Partisans went under the official name of Peoples Liberation Army and Partisan Detachments of Yugoslavia (Narodno-oslobodilačka vojska i partizanski... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... Vojvodina (red) is one of Serbias two autonomous provinces Capital (and largest city) Novi Sad Official languages Ethnic groups  2. ...


An economic crisis erupted in the 1970s was the product of disastrous errors by Yugoslav governments, such as borrowing vast amounts of Western capital in order to fund growth through exports. Western economies then entered recession, blocked Yugoslav exports and created a huge debt problem. The Yugoslav government then accepted the IMF's conditionalities which shifted the burden of the crisis onto the Yugoslav working class. Simultaneously, strong social groups emerged within the Yugoslav Communist Party, allied to Western business, banking and state interests and began pushing towards neoliberalism, to the delight of the US. It was the Reagan administration which, in 1984, had adopted a "Shock Therapy" proposal to push Yugoslavia towards a capitalist restoration. IMF redirects here. ... SKJ flag in Serbo-Croat, with Latin script SKJ flag in Albanian SKJ flag in Hungarian SKJ flag in Italian SKJ flag in Macedonian SKJ flag in Slovenian League of Communists of Yugoslavia (Savez komunista Jugoslavije), before 1952 the Communist Party of Yugoslavia (Komunistička partija Jugoslavije), was a major... For the school of international relations, see Neoliberalism in international relations. ... Reagan redirects here. ... In economics, shock therapy refers to the sudden release of price and currency controls, withdrawal of state subsidies, and immediate trade liberalization within a country. ...



In 1989 Jeffrey Sachs was in Yugoslavia helping the Federal government under Ante Marković prepare the IMF/World Bank "Shock Therapy" package, which was then introduced in 1990 just at the time when the crucial parliamentary elections were being held in the various republics. Jeffrey Sachs Jeffrey David Sachs (born November 5, 1954, in Detroit, Michigan) is an American economist known for his work as an economic advisor to governments in Latin America, Eastern Europe, the former Yugoslavia, the former Soviet Union, Asia, and Africa. ... Ante Marković (born November 25, 1924 in Konjic, Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (now Bosnia and Herzegovina) was the last prime minister of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... World Bank Group logo The World Bank Group (WBG) is a family of five international organizations responsible for providing finance and advice to countries for the purposes of economic development and eliminating poverty. ... In economics, shock therapy refers to the sudden release of price and currency controls, withdrawal of state subsidies, and immediate trade liberalization within a country. ...


One aspect of Yugoslavia's "Shock Therapy" programme was both unique within the region and of great political importance in 1989-90. The bankruptcy law to liquidate state enterprises was enacted in the 1989 Financial Operations Act which required that if an enterprise was insolvent for 30 days running, or for 30 days within a 45 day period, it had to settle with its creditors either by giving them ownership or by being liquidated, in which case workers would be sacked, normally without severance payments. In economics, shock therapy refers to the sudden release of price and currency controls, withdrawal of state subsidies, and immediate trade liberalization within a country. ...


In 1989, according to official sources, 248 firms were declared bankrupt or were liquidated and 89,400 workers were laid off. During the first nine months of 1990 directly following the adoption of the IMF programme, another 889 enterprises with a combined work-force of 525,000 workers suffered the same fate. In other words, in less than two years "the trigger mechanism" (under the Financial Operations Act) had led to the lay off of more than 600,000 workers out of a total industrial workforce of the order of 2.7 million. A further 20% of the work force, or half a million people, were not paid wages during the early months of 1990 as enterprises sought to avoid bankruptcy. The largest concentrations of bankrupt firms and lay-offs were in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia and Kosovo. Real earnings were in a free fall, social programmes had collapsed creating within the population an atmosphere of social despair and hopelessness. This was a critical turning point in the events to follow. Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ...


In the spring of 1990, Marković was by far the most popular politician, not only in Yugoslavia as a whole, but in each of its constituent republics. He should have been able to rally the population for Yugoslavism against the particularist nationalisms of Milošević in Serbia or Tuđman in Croatia and he should have been able to count on the obedience of the armed forces. He was supported by 83% of the population in Croatia, by 81% in Serbia and by 59% in Slovenia and by 79% in Yugoslavia as a whole. This level of support showed how much of the Yugoslav population remained strongly committed to the state's preservation. MiloÅ¡ević redirects here. ... Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost... ‹ The template below (Foreignchar) is being considered for deletion. ...


But Marković had coupled his Yugoslavism with the IMF "Shock Therapy" programme and EC conditionality and it was this which gave the separatists in the North West and the nationalists in Serbia their opening. The appeal of the separatists in Slovenia and Croatia to their electorates involved offering to repudiate the Marković-IMF austerity and by doing so help their republics prepare to leave Yugoslavia altogether and "join Europe". The appeal of Milošević in Serbia was based around the idea that the West was acting against the Serbian people's interests. These nationalist appeals were ultimately successful: in every republic, beginning with Slovenia and Croatia in the spring, governments ignored the monetary restrictions of Marković's stabilisation programme in order to win votes. In economics, shock therapy refers to the sudden release of price and currency controls, withdrawal of state subsidies, and immediate trade liberalization within a country. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolizing French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ...


The newly elected regional government then turned their efforts to the break-up of the country. They were aided by the US government's stance of sidelining Yugoslav cohesion in favour of pushing ahead with the "Shock Therapy" programme. The few European states with strategic interests in the Yugoslav theatre tended to favor fragmentation. In economics, shock therapy refers to the sudden release of price and currency controls, withdrawal of state subsidies, and immediate trade liberalization within a country. ...


There were also other specifically Yugoslav, structural flaws which helped to generate the collapse. For instance, many would argue[citation needed] that the decentralized Market Socialism was a disastrous experiment for a state in Yugoslavia's geopolitical situation. The 1974 Constitution, though better for the Kosovar Albanians, had given increased power to the republics, whilst dampening the institutional and material power of the federal government. Tito's authority substituted for this weakness until his death in 1980, after which the state and Communist Party became increasingly paralyzed and thrown into crisis. SKJ flag in Serbo-Croat, with Latin script SKJ flag in Albanian SKJ flag in Hungarian SKJ flag in Italian SKJ flag in Macedonian SKJ flag in Slovenian League of Communists of Yugoslavia (Savez komunista Jugoslavije), before 1952 the Communist Party of Yugoslavia (Komunistička partija Jugoslavije), was a major...


Breakup

After Tito's death on 4 May 1980, ethnic tensions grew in Yugoslavia. The legacy of the Constitution of 1974 was used to throw the system of decision-making into a state of paralysis, made all the more hopeless as the conflict of interests had become irreconcilable. The constitutional crisis that inevitably followed resulted in a rise of nationalism in all republics: Slovenia and Croatia made demands for looser ties within the Federation, the Albanian majority in Kosovo demanded the status of a republic, Serbia sought absolute, not only relative dominion over Yugoslavia. Added to this, the Croat quest for independence led to large Serb communities within Croatia rebelling and trying to secede from the Croat republic. Image File history File links Breakup_of_Yugoslavia. ... Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Yugoslavia was a south-eastern European country in the Balkans, a region with a long history of sectarian and ethnic conflict. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... The term Ethnicity redirects here. ... Tension may mean: In physics, tension is a force related to the stretching of a string or a similar object. ...


In 1986, the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts drafted a memorandum addressing some burning issues concerning position of Serbs as the most numerous people in Yugoslavia. The largest Yugoslav republic in territory and population, Serbia's influence over the regions of Kosovo and Vojvodina was reduced by the 1974 Constitution. Because its two autonomous provinces had de facto prerogatives of full-fledged republics, Serbia found that its hands were tied, for the republican government was restricted in making and carrying out decisions that would apply to the provinces. Since the provinces had a vote in the Federal Presidency Council (an eight member council composed of representatives from six republics and two autonomous provinces), they sometimes even entered into coalition with other republics, thus outvoting Serbia. Serbia's political impotence made it possible for others to exert pressure on the 2 million Serbs (20% of total Serbian population) living outside Serbia. The Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts (Serbian: Српска академија наука и уметности) was founded in 1886 as the Serbian Royal Academy of Sciences and Arts. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in...

Serbian communist leader Slobodan Milošević sought to restore pre-1974 Serbian sovereignty. Other republics, especially Slovenia and Croatia, denounced this move as a revival of great Serbian hegemonism. Milošević succeeded in reducing the autonomy of Vojvodina and of Kosovo and Metohija, but both entities retained a vote in the Yugoslav Presidency Council. The very instrument that reduced Serbian influence before was now used to increase it: in the eight member Council, Serbia could now count on four votes minimum - Serbia proper, then-loyal Montenegro, and Vojvodina and Kosovo. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... MiloÅ¡ević redirects here. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... MiloÅ¡ević redirects here. ... Look up hegemony in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Vojvodina (red) is one of Serbias two autonomous provinces Capital (and largest city) Novi Sad Official languages Ethnic groups  2. ... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ...


As a result of these events, the ethnic Albanian miners in Kosovo organized strikes, which dovetailed into ethnic conflict between the Albanians and the non-Albanians in the province. At 87% of the population of Kosovo in the 1980s, ethnic-Albanians were the majority. The number of Slavs in Kosovo (mainly Serbs) was quickly declining for several reasons, among them the ever increasing ethnic tensions and subsequent emigration from the area. By 1999 the Slavs formed as little as 10% of the total population in Kosovo. This article is about Albanians as an ethnic group. ... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... // Ottoman Rule 14th century The Dečani Charter from 1330[citation needed] contained detailed list of households and chartered villages in Metohija and northwestern Albania: 3 of 89 settlements were Albanian, the other being non-Albanian. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ...


Meanwhile Slovenia, under the presidency of Milan Kučan, and Croatia supported Albanian miners and their struggle for formal recognition[citation needed]. Initial strikes turned into widespread demonstrations demanding a Kosovan republic. This angered Serbia's leadership which proceeded to use police force, and later even the Federal Army was sent to the province by the order of the Serbia-held majority in the Yugoslav Presidency Council. Milan Kučan Milan Kučan (born January 14, 1941) Slovene politician and statesman. ... The Yugoslav Peoples Army (YPA) (Serbo-Croatian: Jugoslovenska narodna armija or Jugoslavenska narodna armija; Serbian and Macedonian: Југословенска народна армија—JHA; Macedonian and Serbian Latin forms: Jugoslovenska narodna armija; Croatian and Bosnian: Jugoslavenska narodna armija—JNA; Slovene: Jugoslovanska ljudska armada—JLA) was the military force of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ...


In January 1990, the extraordinary 14th Congress of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia was convened. For most of the time, the Slovenian and Serbian delegations were arguing over the future of the League of Communists and Yugoslavia. The Serbian delegation, led by Milošević, insisted on a policy of "one person, one vote", which would empower the majority population, the Serbs. In turn, the Slovenes, supported by Croats, sought to reform Yugoslavia by devolving even more power to republics, but were voted down. As a result, the Slovenian, and eventually Croatian delegation left the Congress, and the all-Yugoslav Communist party was dissolved. SKJ flag in Serbo-Croat, with Latin script SKJ flag in Albanian SKJ flag in Hungarian SKJ flag in Italian SKJ flag in Macedonian SKJ flag in Slovenian League of Communists of Yugoslavia (Savez komunista Jugoslavije), before 1952 the Communist Party of Yugoslavia (Komunistička partija Jugoslavije), was a major... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in...


Following the fall of communism in the rest of Eastern Europe, each of the republics held multi-party elections in 1990. Slovenia and Croatia held the elections in April since their communist parties chose to secede from power peacefully. Other Yugoslav republics - especially Serbia - were more or less dissatisfied with the democratization in two of the republics and proposed different sanctions (e.g. Serbian "customs tax" for Slovenian products) against the two of the union but as the year passed other republics communist parties saw the inevitability of the democratization process and in December as the last member of the federation - Serbia held parliamentary elections which confirmed (former) communists rule in this republic. The unresolved issues however remained. In particular, Slovenia and Croatia elected governments oriented towards greater authonomy of the republics (under Milan Kučan and Franjo Tuđman, respectively), since it became clear that Serbian domination attempts and increasingly different levels of democratic standards are becoming increasingly incompatible. Serbia and Montenegro elected candidates who favoured Yugoslav unity. Serbs in Croatia wouldn't accept a status of a national minority in a sovereign Croatia, since they would be demoted from a constituent nation of Croatia and this would consequently diminish their rights. This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... Eastern Europe is a concept that lacks one precise definition. ... Milan Kučan Milan Kučan (born January 14, 1941) Slovene politician and statesman. ... ‹ The template below (Foreignchar) is being considered for deletion. ... Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost... This article is about the country in Europe. ...


The War

The war broke out when the new regimes tried to replace Yugoslav civilian and military forces by the secessionist forces. When in August 1990 Croatia attempted to replace police in the Serb populated Croat Krajina by force, the population first looked for refuge in the JNA caserns, while the army remained passive. The civilians then organised armed resistance. These armed conflicts between the Croatian armed forces (“police”) and civilians mark the beginning of the Yugoslav war that inflamed the region. Similarly, the attempt to replace Yugoslav frontier police by the Slovenian police provoked regional armed conflicts which finished with a minimal number of victims. A similar attempt in Bosnia and Herzegovina led to a war that lasted more than 3 years (see below). The results of all these conflicts are almost complete emigration of the Serbs from all three regions, massive displacement of the populations in Bosnia and Herzegovina and establishment of the 3 new independent states. The separation of the Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia was peaceful.


Serbian uprisings in Croatia began in August 1990 by blocking roads leading from the Dalmatian coast towards the inland almost a year before Croatian leadership made any move towards independence. These uprisings were more or less discretely backed up by the Serbian dominated federal army (JNA). The Serbs proclaimed the emergence of Serbian Autonomous Areas (known later as Republic of Serb Krajina) in Croatia. Federal army tried to disarm the Territorial defence forces of Slovenia (republics had their local defence forces similar to Home guard ) in 1990 but wasn't completely successful. Still Slovenia began to covertly import arms to replenish its armed forces. Croatia also embarked upon the illegal importation of arms, (following the disaramament of the republics armed forces by the federal JNA) mainly from Hungary, and were caught when Yugoslav Counter Intelligence (KOS, Kontra-obavještajna Služba) showed a video of a secret meeting between Croatian Defence Minister Martin Špegelj and two men. Špegelj announced that they were at war with the army and gave instructions about arms smuggling as well as methods of dealing with the Yugoslav Army's officers stationed in Croatian cities. Serbia and JNA used this discovery of Croatian rearmament for propaganda purposes. The borders of the RSK c. ... A Home Guard is a part-time civilian reserve military force similar to a militia. ... Å pegelj Tapes were audio and video recordings of conversations of Martin Å pegelj and Josip Boljkovac, which were secretly taken by the Yugoslav Army counter-intelligence service KOS, then turned into a documentary film by Zastava military film centre, and aired in January 1991 to the larger Yugoslav public. ...


In March 1990, during the demonstrations in Split, Croatia, a young Yugoslav conscript was pushed off a tank after driving it through a crowd of people.[citation needed] Also, guns were fired from army bases through Croatia. Elsewhere, tensions were running high. For other uses, see Split (disambiguation). ... Yugoslavs (Bosnian: Jugosloveni; Macedonian, Serbian Cyrillic: Југословени; Latinic: Jugosloveni; Croatian: Jugoslaveni, Slovenian: Jugoslovani) is an ethnic designation used by some people in former Yugoslavia, which continues to be used in some of its successor countries. ...


In the same month, the Yugoslav People's Army (Jugoslovenska Narodna Armija, JNA) met with the Presidency of Yugoslavia in an attempt to get them to declare a state of emergency which would allow for the army to take control of the country. The army was seen as a Serbian service by that time so the consequence feared by the other republics was to be total Serbian domination of the union. The representatives of Serbia, Montenegro, Kosovo and Metohija, and Vojvodina voted for the decision, while all other republics, Croatia (Stipe Mesić), Slovenia (Janez Drnovšek), Macedonia (Vasil Tupurkovski) and Bosnia and Hercegovina (Bogić Bogićević), voted against. The tie delayed an escalation of conflicts, but not for long. The Yugoslav Peoples Army (YPA) (Serbo-Croatian: Jugoslovenska narodna armija or Jugoslavenska narodna armija; Serbian and Macedonian: Југословенска народна армија—JHA; Macedonian and Serbian Latin forms: Jugoslovenska narodna armija; Croatian and Bosnian: Jugoslavenska narodna armija—JNA; Slovene: Jugoslovanska ljudska armada—JLA) was the military force of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... For other uses, see State of emergency (disambiguation). ... Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost... This article is about the country in Europe. ... Kosovo (known in Albanian as Kosova, in Serbian as Косово и Метохија / Kosovo i Metohija, and in English simply as Kosovo) is a province in southern Serbia. ... Vojvodina (red) is one of Serbias two autonomous provinces Capital (and largest city) Novi Sad Official languages Ethnic groups  2. ... Stjepan Stipe Mesić (born December 24, 1934) is a Croatian politician. ... Janez DrnovÅ¡ek (pronounced: IPA,  ) (born May 17, 1950) is the current President of Slovenia and the former president of Yugoslavia. ... Vasil Tupurkovski (Cyrillic: Васил Тупурковски) was born on April 8, 1951 in Skopje, Yugoslavia (Macedonia). ...


Following the first multi-party election results, in the autumn of 1990, the republics of Slovenia and Croatia proposed transforming Yugoslavia into a loose confederation of six republics. By this proposal republics would have right to self-determination. However Milošević rejected all such proposals, arguing that like Slovenes and Croats, the Serbs (having in mind Croatian Serbs) should also have a right to self-determination. The monarchs of the member states of the German Confederation meet at Frankfurt in 1863. ... MiloÅ¡ević redirects here. ...


On March 9, 1991, demonstrations were held against Slobodan Milošević in Belgrade, but the police and the military were deployed in the streets to restore order, killing two people. In late March 1991, the Plitvice Lakes incident was one of the first sparks of open war in Croatia. The Yugoslav People's Army (JNA), whose superior officers were mainly of Serbian ethnicity, maintained an impression of being neutral, but as time went on, they got more and more involved in the state politics. is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ... The Plitvice Lakes incident of March 1991 (known in Croatian as Plitvice Bloody Easter, Krvavi Uskrs na Plitvicama / Plitvički Krvavi Uskrs) was a clash between security forces of the Republic of Croatia and armed Serb separatists. ... The Yugoslav Peoples Army (YPA) (Serbo-Croatian: Jugoslovenska narodna armija or Jugoslavenska narodna armija; Serbian and Macedonian: Југословенска народна армија—JHA; Macedonian and Serbian Latin forms: Jugoslovenska narodna armija; Croatian and Bosnian: Jugoslavenska narodna armija—JNA; Slovene: Jugoslovanska ljudska armada—JLA) was the military force of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ...


On June 25, 1991, Slovenia and Croatia became the first republics to declare independence from Yugoslavia. The federal customs officers in Slovenia on the border crossings with Italy, Austria and Hungary mainly just changed uniforms since most of them were local Slovenes. The border police was already Slovenian before declaring independence. The following day (June 26), the Federal Executive Council specifically ordered the army to take control of the "internationally recognized borders". See Ten-Day War . is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Belligerents Slovenia Territorial Defense SFR Yugoslavia Yugoslav Peoples Army Commanders Janez Janša Veljko Kadijević Strength 16,000 Territorial Defence, 10,000 police 35,200 Yugoslav National Army personnel Casualties and losses 18 killed, 182 wounded (official casualties) 44 killed, 146 wounded 5,000 prisoners (Slovenian estimates) The Ten...


The Yugoslav People's Army forces, based in barracks in Slovenia and Croatia, attempted to carry out the task within next 48 hours. However, because of the misinformation given to the Yugoslav Army conscripts that the Federation is under attack by foreign forces, and the fact that the majority of them did not wish to engage in a war on the ground where they served their conscription, the Slovene territorial defence forces retook most of the posts within several days with only minimal loss of life on both sides. There was a suspected incident of a war crime, as the Austrian ORF TV station showed footage of three Yugoslav Army soldiers surrendering to the Territorial defense, before gunfire was heard and the troops were seen falling down. However, none were killed in the incident. There were however numerous cases of destruction of civilian property and civilian life by the Yugoslav Peoples Army - houses, a church, civilian airport was bombarded and civilian hangar and airliners inside it, truck drivers on the road Ljubljana - Zagreb and Austrian journalists on Ljubljana Airport were killed. Ceasefire was agreed upon. According to the Brioni Agreement, recognized by representatives of all republics, the international community pressured Slovenia and Croatia to place a three-month moratorium on their independence. During these three months, the Yugoslav Army completed its pull-out from Slovenia, but in Croatia, a bloody war broke out in the autumn of 1991. Ethnic Serbs, who had created their own state Republic of Serbian Krajina in heavily Serb-populated regions resisted the police forces of the Republic of Croatia who were trying to bring that breakaway region back under Croatian jurisdiction. In some strategic places, the Yugoslav Army acted as a buffer zone, in most others it was protecting or aiding Serbs with resources and even manpower in their confrontation with the new Croatian army and their police force. The Yugoslav Peoples Army (YPA) (Serbo-Croatian: Jugoslovenska narodna armija or Jugoslavenska narodna armija; Serbian and Macedonian: Југословенска народна армија—JHA; Macedonian and Serbian Latin forms: Jugoslovenska narodna armija; Croatian and Bosnian: Jugoslavenska narodna armija—JNA; Slovene: Jugoslovanska ljudska armada—JLA) was the military force of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... ORF (Österreichischer Rundfunk, literally Austrian Broadcasting) is the national Austrian public service broadcaster. ... Belligerents Slovenia Territorial Defense SFR Yugoslavia Yugoslav Peoples Army Commanders Janez JanÅ¡a Veljko Kadijević Strength 16,000 Territorial Defence, 10,000 police 35,200 Yugoslav National Army personnel Casualties and losses 18 killed, 182 wounded (official casualties) 44 killed, 146 wounded 5,000 prisoners (Slovenian estimates) The Ten... The Brioni Agreement is a document signed on the Brioni (Brijuni) islands (near Pula, Croatia) on July 7th 1991 by representatives of the Republic of Slovenia and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia under the political sponsorship of the European Community. ... Look up Moratorium in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The modern period in Croatian history begins in 1990 with the countrys change of political and economic system as well as achieving independence from Yugoslavia in 1991. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... Self-proclaimed Serbian entity in Croatia Republic of Serbian Krajina show in red Capital Knin Government Republic Governors (1990-1995) Milan Babić Goran Hadžić  - Serbian zone of Croatia Milan Martić Historical era Yugoslav wars  - Breakup of Yugoslavia 1990-June 25, 1991  - Creation of SAO Krajina December 21, 1990  - Secession...

War in former Yugoslavia
War in former Yugoslavia
Countries of former Yugoslavia
Countries of former Yugoslavia

In September 1991, the Republic of Macedonia also declared independence, becoming the only former republic to gain sovereignty without resistance from the Belgrade-based Yugoslav authorities. Five hundred U.S. soldiers were then deployed under the U.N. banner to monitor Macedonia's northern borders with the Republic of Serbia, Yugoslavia. Macedonia's first president, Kiro Gligorov, maintained good relations with Belgrade and the other breakaway republics and there have to date been no problems between Macedonian and Serbian border police even though small pockets of Kosovo and the Preševo valley complete the northern reaches of the historical region known as Macedonia, which would otherwise create a border dispute if ever Macedonian romantic nationalism should resurface (see IMORO). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1887x1192, 61 KB) Summary Map of former Yugoslavia during last wars. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1887x1192, 61 KB) Summary Map of former Yugoslavia during last wars. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... Kiro Gligorov Kiro Gligorov (Киро Глигоров in Macedonian/Bulgarian, also known as Kiril Blagoev Gligorov/Кирил Благоев Глигоров), born May 3, 1917 in Å tip was the first democraticaly elected president of the Republic of Macedonia. ... PreÅ¡evo (Serbian: Прешево or PreÅ¡evo; Albanian: Preshevë or Presheva) is a town and municipality in Pčinja District of Serbia, bordering the Republic of Macedonia, with Kosovos mountainous frontier in the visible western distance. ... For a novel by a similar name, see Imaro (novel). ...


As a result of the conflict, the United Nations Security Council unanimously adopted UN Security Council Resolution 721 on November 27, 1991, which paved the way to the establishment of peacekeeping operations in Yugoslavia.[2] “Security Council” redirects here. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ...


In Bosnia and Herzegovina in November 1991, the Bosnian Serbs held a referendum which resulted in an overwhelming vote in favour of forming Serbian republic in borders of Bosnia and Herzegovina and staying in a common state with Serbia and Montenegro. On January 9, 1992, the self-proclaimed Bosnian Serb assembly proclaimed a separate "Republic of the Serb people of Bosnia and Herzegovina". The referendum and creation of SARs were proclaimed unconstitutional by the government of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and declared illegal and invalid. However, in February-March 1992 the government held a national referendum on Bosnian independence from Yugoslavia. That referendum was in turn declared contrary to the BiH and Federal constitution by the federal Constitution court in Belgrade and the newly established Bosnian Serb government. The referendum was largely boycotted by the Bosnian Serbs. It is interesting that the Federal court in Belgrade did not decide on the matter of the referendum of the Bosnian Serbs. The turnout was somewhere between 64-67% and 98% of the voters voted for independence. It was unclear what the two-thirds majority requirement actually meant and whether it was satisfied[citation needed]. The republic's government declared its independence on 5 April, and the Serbs immediately declared the independence of Republika Srpska. The war in Bosnia followed shortly thereafter. Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost... This article is about the country in Europe. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Constitutionality is the status of a law, a procedure, or an acts accordance with the laws or guidelines set forth in the applicable constitution. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Predominantly Bosniak) Army of Republika Srpska, Yugoslav Peoples Army, various paramilitary units from Serbia and Montenegro (Serbian) Croatian Defence Council, Croatian Army (Croatian) Commanders Alija Izetbegović (President of Bosnia and Herzegovina) Sefer Halilović (Army chief of staff 1992-1993) Rasim...


The end of the Second Yugoslavia

Various dates are considered as the end of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia:

  • June 25, 1991, when Croatia and Slovenia declared independence
  • September 8, 1991, following a referendum the Republic of Macedonia declared Independence
  • October 8, 1991, when the July 9 moratorium on Slovenian and Croatian secession was ended and Croatia restated its independence in Croatian Parliament (that day is celebrated as Independence Day in Croatia)
  • January 15, 1992, when Slovenia and Croatia were internationally recognized by most European countries
  • April 6, 1992, full recognition of Bosnia and Herzegovina’s independence by the United States and most European countries
  • April 28, 1992, the formation of FRY (see below)
  • November 1995, peace signed in Dayton by leaders of Yugoslavia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia
  • Agreement on Sub-Regional Arms Control
  • 1996-1999, Clashes between Yugoslav army and KLA
  • March 24-June 10, 1999, NATO bombing of FR Yugoslavia
  • June 1999, UN and NATO administration arrived in Kosovo
  • February 5, 2003, State Union of Serbia and Montenegro announced
  • June 5, 2006, After referendum in Montenegro, Serbia and Montenegro declared their independences
  • February 17, 2008, when Kosovo unilaterally declared independence from Serbia

is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Ushtria Çlirimtare e Kosovës. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost...

Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia consisted of Serbia and Montenegro
The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia consisted of Serbia and Montenegro

The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) was formed on April 28, 1992, and it consisted of the former Socialist Republic of Serbia and Socialist Republic of Montenegro. The new constitution of Yugoslavia was voted by the rest of MPs, elected on federal one-party elections in 1986. Map of Serbia and Montenegro, from CIA World Factbook. ... Map of Serbia and Montenegro, from CIA World Factbook. ... Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbian Government Republic President  - 1992 - 1993 Dobrica Ćosić  - 1993 - 1997 Zoran Lilić  - 1997 – 2000 Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević  - 2000 - 2003 Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Prime Minister  - 1992 - 1993 Milan Panić  - 1993 - 1998 Radoje Kontić  - 1998 - 2000 Momir Bulatović  - 2000 - 2001 Zoran Žižić  - 2001 - 2003 DragiÅ¡a Pe... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ...


The war in the western parts of former Yugoslavia ended in 1995 with U.S.-sponsored peace talks in Dayton, Ohio, which resulted in the so-called Dayton Agreement. For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... : Gem City : Birthplace of Aviation United States Ohio Montgomery 56. ... The General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, also known as the Dayton Agreement, Dayton Accords, Paris Protocol or Dayton-Paris Agreement, is the peace agreement reached at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio in November 1995, and formally signed in Paris on December 14...


In Kosovo, throughout the 1990s, the leadership of the Albanian population had been pursuing tactics of non-violent resistance in order to achieve independence for the province. In 1996, Albanians formed Kosovo Liberation Army. The Yugoslav reaction involved the indiscriminate use of force against civilian populations, and caused many ethnic-Albanians to flee their homes. Following the Racak incident and unsuccessful Rambouillet Agreement in the early months of 1999, NATO proceeded to bombard Serbia and Montenegro for more than two months, until an agreement was brokered between NATO and Milošević's government, with Russia acting as intermediary. Yugoslavia withdrew its forces from Kosovo, in return for NATO retracting their pre-war demand for NATO forces to enter Serbia, resulting in 250 000 Serbian and other non-Albanian refugees. See Kosovo War for more information. Since June 1999, the province has been governed by peace-keeping forces from NATO and Russia, although all parties continue to recognize it as a part of Serbia. For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... Ushtria Çlirimtare e Kosovës. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Rambouillet Agreement is the name of a proposed peace agreement between Yugoslavia and the Kosovo Albanian delegation. ... The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts (a civil war followed by an international war) in the southern Serbian province called Kosovo (officially Kosovo and Metohia), part of the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ...


Milošević's rejection of claims of a first-round opposition victory in new elections for the Federal presidency in September 2000 led to mass demonstrations in Belgrade on October 5 and the collapse of the regime's authority. The opposition's candidate, Vojislav Koštunica took office as Yugoslav president on October 6, 2000. On Saturday, March 31, 2001, Milošević surrendered to Yugoslav security forces from his home in Belgrade, following a recent warrant for his arrest on charges of abuse of power and corruption. On June 28 he was driven to the Yugoslav-Bosnian border where shortly after he was placed in the custody of SFOR officials, soon to be extradited to the United Nations International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia. His trial on charges of genocide in Bosnia and war crimes in Croatia and in Kosovo and Metohija began at The Hague on February 12, 2002, and he died there on 11 March 2006, while his trial was still ongoing. On April 11, 2002, the Yugoslav parliament passed a law allowing extradition of all persons charged with war crimes by the International Criminal Tribunal. Dr. Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica (Serbian Cyrillic: Војислав Коштуница,  ) (pronounced , born March 24, 1944, Belgrade, Yugoslavia, now Serbia) is the current Prime Minister of Serbia and President of the Democratic Party of Serbia. ... is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Members of the Dutch, French, German and U.S. military watch as an Italian honour guard hoists the new Stabilisation Force flag during the Stabilisation Force (SFOR) activation ceremony in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, on the 20 of December 1996. ... UN redirects here. ... The Tribunal building in The Hague. ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... Hague redirects here. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ...


In March 2002, the Governments of Serbia and Montenegro agreed to reform the FRY in favour of a new, much weaker form of cooperation called Serbia and Montenegro. By order of the Yugoslav Federal Parliament on February 4, 2003, Yugoslavia, at least nominally, ceased to exist. A federal government remained in place in Belgrade but assumed largely ceremonial powers. The individual governments of Serbia and of Montenegro conducted their respective affairs almost as though the two republics were independent. Furthermore, customs were established along the traditional border crossings between the two republics. is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On May 21, 2006, 86 percent of eligible Montenegrin voters turned out for a special referendum on the independence of Montenegro from the state union with Serbia. They voted 55.5% in favor of independence, recognised as above the 55% threshold set by the European Union for formal recognition of the independence of Montenegro. On June 3, 2006, Montenegro officially declared its independence, with Serbia following suit two days later, effectively dissolving the last vestige of the former Yugoslavia. is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... -1... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Kosovo declared independence in February 2008, but is not yet a member of the United Nations and is only recognised by 41 governments.


Legacy

New states

The present-day countries created from the former parts of Yugoslavia are:


The first former Yugoslav republic to join the European Union was Slovenia, which applied in 1996 and became a member in 2004. Croatia applied for membership in 2003, and could join before 2010. FYR of Macedonia applied in 2004, and will probably join by 2010–2015. The remaining four republics have yet to apply so their acceptance generally is not expected before 2015. These states are signatories of various partnership agreements with the European Union. Since January 1, 2007, they have been encircled by member-states of EU (and Albania, which is encircled with them). See also: Enlargement of the European Union. This article is about the country in Europe. ... Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The European Union (EU) was created by six founding states in 1957 (following the earlier establishment by the same six states of the European Coal and Steel Community in 1952) and has grown to 27 member states. ...

Remaining cultural and ethnic ties

The similarity of the languages and the long history of common life have left many ties among the peoples of the new states, even though the individual state policies of the new states favour differentiation, particularly in language. The Serbo-Croatian language is linguistically a unique language, with several literary and spoken variants and also was the imposed means of communication used where other languages dominated (Slovenia, Macedonia). Now, separate sociolinguistic standards exist for Bosnian language, Croatian language and the Serbian language. SFRY technically had three official languages, along with minority languages official where minorities lived, but in all federal organs only Serbo-Croatian was used and others were expected to use it as well. The Serbo-Croatian language or Croato-Serbian language (cрпскохрватски језик srpskohrvatski jezik), sometimes also called the Yugoslavian language or Yugoslav language (југословенски језик jugoslovenski jezik), is a South Slavic diasystem. ... Bosnian language (Latin script: bosanski jezik) is a South Slavic language native to the Bosniak people and Ethnic Bosnians. ... Croatian language (hrvatski jezik) is a South Slavic language which is used primarily by the inhabitants of Croatia and Croats in Bosnia and Herzegovina and parts of the Croatian diaspora. ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ...


Remembrance of the time of the joint state and its perceived positive attributes is referred to as Yugonostalgy (Jugonostalgija). A lot of aspects of Yugonostalgia refer to the socialist system and the sense of social security it provided and inertness it allowed. Yugo-nostalgia, translated from jugonostalgija, is a cultural and psychological phenomenon which has occurred among many citizens of the former Yugoslavia but specifically toward Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia - a nostalgia towards the former country, its customs and traditions, and generally an emotional attachedness to all the positive aspects of...


Miscellaneous

For other uses, see Asteroid (disambiguation). ... 1554 Yugoslavia is a minor planet or asteroid. ... Milorad B. Protitch (Милорад Б. Протић, Milorad B. Protić) (August 6, 1910, Belgrade - October 29, 2001, Belgrade) was a Serbian astronomer. ...

See also

Current political map of the Balkans. ... The Treaty of Rome signing ceremony From prehistoric to modern times, the human History of Europe has been turbulent, cultured, and much-documented. ... Music of Yugoslavia can mean: Music of Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1929-1941). ... The Yugoslav wars were a series of violent conflicts in the territory of the former Yugoslavia that took place between 1991-2001. ...

References

  1. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jasenovac#Victim_counts
  2. ^ Resolution 721. N.A.T.O. (1991-09-25). Retrieved on 2006-07-21.

Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress ( USA), freely available for use by researchers. ... The U.S. Constitution, adopted in 1789 by a constitutional convention, sets down the basic framework of American government in its seven articles. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

Further reading

  • Allcock, John B.: Explaining Yugoslavia. New York: Columbia University Press, 2000
  • Anne Marie du Preez Bezdrob: Sarajevo Roses: War Memoirs of a Peacekeeper. Oshun, 2002. ISBN 177007031
  • Chan, Adrian: Free to Choose: A Teacher's Resource and Activity Guide to Revolution and Reform in Eastern Europe. Stanford, CA: SPICE, 1991. ED 351 248
  • Cigar, Norman, : Genocide in Bosina: The Policy of Ethnic-Cleansing. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1995
  • Cohen, Lenard J.: Broken Bonds: The Disintegration of Yugoslavia. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1993
  • Conversi, Daniele: German -Bashing and the Breakup of Yugoslavia, The Donald W. Treadgold Papers in Russian, East European and Central Asian Studies, no. 16, March 1998 (University of Washington: HMJ School of International Studies) http://easyweb.easynet.co.uk/conversi/german.html
  • Dragnich, Alex N.: Serbs and Croats. The Struggle in Yugoslavia. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1992
  • Fisher, Sharon: Political Change in Post-Communist Slovakia and Croatia: From Nationalist to Europeanist. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006 ISBN 1 4039 7286 9
  • Glenny, Mischa: The Balkans: Nationalism, War and the Great Powers, 1804-1999 (London: Penguin Books Ltd, 2000)
  • Glenny, Mischa: The fall of Yugoslavia: The Third Balkan War, ISBN 0-14-026101-X
  • Gutman, Roy.: A Witness to Genocide. The 1993 Pulitzer Prize-winning Dispatches on the "Ethnic Cleansing" of Bosnia. New York: Macmillan, 1993
  • Hall, Brian: The Impossible Country: A Journey Through the Last Days of Yugoslavia. Penguin Books. New York, 1994
  • Harris, Judy J.: Yugoslavia Today. Southern Social Studies Journal 16 (Fall 1990): 78-101. EJ 430 520
  • Hayden, Robert M.: Blueprints for a House Divided: The Constitutional Logic of the Yugoslav Conflicts. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2000
  • Hoare, Marko A., A History of Bosnia: From the Middle Ages to the Present Day. London: Saqi, 2007
  • Jelavich, Barbara: History of the Balkans: Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries, Volume 1. New York: American Council of Learned Societies, 1983 ED 236 093
  • Jelavich, Barbara: History of the Balkans: Twentieth Century, Volume 2. New York: American Council of Learned Societies, 1983. ED 236 094
  • Kohlmann, Evan F.: Al-Qaida's Jihad in Europe: The Afghan-Bosnian Network Berg, New York 2004, ISBN 1-85973-802-8; ISBN 1-85973-807-9
  • Lampe, John R: Yugoslavia As History: Twice There Was a Country Great Britain, Cambridge, 1996, ISBN 0 521 46705 5
  • Owen, David: Balkan Odyssey Harcourt (Harvest Book), 1997
  • Ramet, Sabrina: The Three Yugoslavias: State-building and Legitimation, 1918-2003. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2006
  • Sacco, Joe: Safe Area Gorazde: The War in Eastern Bosnia 1992-1995. Fantagraphics Books, January 2002
  • Silber, Laura and Allan Little:Yugoslavia: Death of a Nation. New York: Penguin Books, 1997
  • West, Rebecca: Black Lamb and Gray Falcon: A Journey Through Yugoslavia. Viking, 1941
  • White, T.: Another fool in the Balkans - in the footsteps of Rebbecca West. Cadogan Guides, London , 2006
  • Time homepage: New Power

Misha Glenny (born 1958) is a British journalist and specialist on Eastern and Southeastern Europe. ... Misha Glenny (born 1958) is a British journalist and specialist on Eastern and Southeastern Europe. ... John R. Lampe is a professor of history at the University of Maryland. ... Dame Rebecca West, DBE (December 21, 1892–March 15, 1983), whose real name was Cicely (she later changed it to Cicily) Isabel Fairfield, was a British-Irish feminist and writer famous for her novels and for her relationship with H. G. Wells. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Yugoslavia
  • The First Yugoslavia: Search for a Viable Political System, by Alex N. Dragnich
  • The Official Website of the Royal Family of Serbia
  • Timeline: Break-up of Yugoslavia at BBC News
  • "Where the West went wrong": an article in the TLS by Charles King about the dissolution of Yugoslavia.
  • "Yugoslavia: the outworn structure" (CIA) Report from November 1970

Yugoslavia (1929 - 1941; 1945 - 2003) The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Vojvodina, and Boka Kotorska were part of Austria-Hungary
(until 1918)
See State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs and Banat, Bačka and Baranja





Free State of Fiume
(Rijeka)
(1920-1924)
Annexed by Italy in 1924, became part of Yugoslavia in 1947
Vojvodina (red) is one of Serbias two autonomous provinces Capital (and largest city) Novi Sad Official languages Ethnic groups  2. ... Historic mpap of the Bay, 16th century Boka Kotorska (Bay of Kotor, Bocche di Cattaro) in western Montenegro is a winding bay on the Adriatic sea. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Year 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Flag Capital Zagreb Language(s) Slovenian and Serbo-Croatian Government Republic President¹ Anton KoroÅ¡ec Vice presidents¹ Ante Pavelić Svetozar Pribićević Historical era World War I  - Independence 29 October, 1918  - Joined Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes 1 December, 1918 ¹ President and vice presidents of the National Council. ... Banat, Bačka and Baranja map The Banat, Bačka and Baranja was a de facto existing province of the Kingdom of Serbia and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes between October 1918 and March 1919. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Free state of rijeka. ... Rijeka (in local Croatian dialects Rika and Reka; Fiume in Italian and Hungarian. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes
(1918-1929) Motto: One nation, one king, one country Anthem: Medley of Bože pravde, Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino, and Naprej zastava slave Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croato-Slovenian (see: Serbo-Croat and Slovenian) [1] Government Value specified for government_type does not comply King  - 1918-1921 Peter I  - 1921-1934 Alexander... Year 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Kingdom of Yugoslavia
(1929-1941)


Motto: One nation, one king, one country Anthem: Medley of Bože pravde, Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino, and Naprej zastava slave Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croato-Slovenian (see: Serbo-Croat and Slovenian) [1] Government Value specified for government_type does not comply King  - 1918-1921 Peter I  - 1921-1934 Alexander... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ...

Nazi Germany annexed parts of Slovenia
(1941-1945)
Fascist Italy annexed parts of Slovenia, Croatia and Montenegro
(1941-1943) Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Anthem Marcia Reale dOrdinanza (Royal March of Ordinance)¹ The Kingdom of Italy at the height of its power in 1940. ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Democratic Federal Yugoslavia
(1943-1946) Motto Brotherhood and Unity Anthem Hey, Slavs Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throughout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia
(1946-1963) Motto Brotherhood and Unity Anthem Hey, Slavs Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throughout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ...

Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
(1963-1992) Motto Brotherhood and Unity Anthem Hey, Slavs Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throughout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ...

Slovenia
(since 1991) Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ...

Independent State of Croatia
(1941-1945) Capital Zagreb Language(s) Croatian Religion Roman Catholicism Political structure Puppet-state King  - 1941-1943 Tomislav II Poglavnik  - 1941-1945 Ante Pavelić Legislature None Historical era World War II  - Established April 10, 1941  - Disestablished May 8, 1945 Population  - 1941 est. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...

Croatia
(since 1991)
Also, Republic of Serbian Krajina (1991-1995) Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... Self-proclaimed Serbian entity in Croatia Republic of Serbian Krajina show in red Capital Knin Government Republic Governors (1990-1995) Milan Babić Goran Hadžić  - Serbian zone of Croatia Milan Martić Historical era Yugoslav wars  - Breakup of Yugoslavia 1990-June 25, 1991  - Creation of SAO Krajina December 21, 1990  - Secession... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ...

Bosnia and Herzegovina
(since 1992)
Composed of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republika Srpska since 1995, and of the Brčko District since 2000 Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... The location of the FBiH entity as part of the state of Bosnia and Herzegovina in Europe. ... Not to be confused with Serbia. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... Official language Serbian, Bosnian (Serbo-Croation) and Croatian Official script Cyrillic alphabet, Latin alphabet Capital Brčko Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % water  208 km²  n/a Population  â€“ Total  â€“ Density  80,000  ? Ethnic groups (current est. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ...

Hungary annexed Bačka, Baranja, Međimurje, and Prekmurje
(1941-1944/1945) Map of Hungary before after the Vienna Awards and the invasion of Yugoslavia in World War II. Capital Budapest Language(s) Hungarian Religion Roman Catholic Government Constitutional monarchy King Vacant ¹ Regent Miklós Horthy Prime Minister  - 1920 Sándor Simonyi-Semadam (first)  - 1944 Géza Lakatos (last) Legislature National Assembly... Bačka (Serbian: Бачка or Bačka, Hungarian: Bácska, Croatian: Bačka, Slovak: Báčka, German: Batschka) is an area of the Pannonian plain lying between the rivers Danube and Tisa. ... Baranya (Hungarian, in Croatian and Serbian: Baranja) is the name of an administrative county (comitatus or megye) in present Hungary, and also in the former Kingdom of Hungary. ... MeÄ‘imurje (MeÄ‘imurska županija, Muraköz in Hungarian) is a triangle-shaped county in the northernmost part of Croatia. ... The municipalities of Slovenia in Prekmurje Prekmurje is the easternmost region of Slovenia. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...

Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
(1992-2003)
Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbian Government Republic President  - 1992 - 1993 Dobrica Ćosić  - 1993 - 1997 Zoran Lilić  - 1997 – 2000 Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević  - 2000 - 2003 Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Prime Minister  - 1992 - 1993 Milan Panić  - 1993 - 1998 Radoje Kontić  - 1998 - 2000 Momir Bulatović  - 2000 - 2001 Zoran Žižić  - 2001 - 2003 DragiÅ¡a Pe... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Serbia and Montenegro
(2003-2006) Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Serbia
(2006-2008) *Kosovo was an autonomous province of Serbia under UN administration from 1999-2008 Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... An autonomous (subnational) entity is a subnational entity that has a certain amount of autonomy. ... The United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo or UNMIK is an interim civilian administration in Kosovo, under the authority of the United Nations. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ...

Serbia
(Since 2008) Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ...

Autonomous Banat (1941-1944) Banat region, 1941-1944 The Banat was an autonomous region within German-occupied Serbia between 1941 and 1944. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Kosovo
(Since 2008) For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ...

Kingdom of Serbia
(until 1918) Anthem: Bože Pravde [[Image:|250px|center|Location of the Kingdom of Serbia]] Capital Belgrade Largest city Belgrade Serbian Government Monarchy  - King Milan (1882-1889)  - King Aleksandar (1889-1903)  - King Peter I (1903-1918) Proclamation March 6, 1882 Area  - Total  km² ([[List of countries and outlying territories by area|]])  sq... Year 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

Nedić's Serbia (1941-1944)

Republic of Užice (1941) Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbian, German (in Banat) Political structure Military administration Military Commander  - 1941 Franz Böhme  - 1941-1944 (?) (Unknown) Serbian government leader  - 1941 Milan Aćimović  - 1941-1944 Milan Nedić Historical era World War II  - Invasion of Yugoslavia April 1, 1941  - Military defeat May, 1944 Currency Serbian Dinar... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Republic of Užice (Serbo-Croatian: Užička Republika) was a short-lived military mini-state that existed in Autumn 1941 in the western part of Nazi-occupied Serbia. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ...

Albania annexed most of Kosovo, western Macedonia and south-eastern parts of Montenegro
(1941-1944) For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Montenegro
(since 2006) This article is about the country in Europe. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Kingdom of Montenegro
(until 1918) Flag Anthem: Ubavoj nam Crnoj Gori, Onamo, namo! The Kingdom of Montenegro in 1913 Capital Cetinje Language(s) Serbian Religion Eastern Orthodox Government Monarchy King Nicholas I Historical era World War I  - Established 28 August, 1910  - Disestablished 26 November, 1918 Currency Montenegrin perper The Kingdom of Montenegro (Serbian: Краљевина Црнe Горe... Year 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

Montenegro (occupied by Italy)
(1941-1945) This article is about the country in Europe. ... Flag Capital Cetinje Language(s) Serbian Organizational structure Client state President  - 1941 Serafino Mazzolini  - 1941 - 1943 Alessandro Pirzio Biroli  - 1943 Curio Barbasetti di Prun  - 1943 - 1944 Theodor Geib  - 1944 Wilhelm Keiper Historical era World War II  - Invasion of Yugoslavia 1941  - Disestablished 1944 Currency Italian lira Montenegro existed as a separate... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...

Modern Republic of Macedonia was part of Kingdom of Serbia
(until 1918) Anthem: Bože Pravde [[Image:|250px|center|Location of the Kingdom of Serbia]] Capital Belgrade Largest city Belgrade Serbian Government Monarchy  - King Milan (1882-1889)  - King Aleksandar (1889-1903)  - King Peter I (1903-1918) Proclamation March 6, 1882 Area  - Total  km² ([[List of countries and outlying territories by area|]])  sq... Year 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

Bulgaria annexed most of modern Republic of Macedonia and south-eastern parts of Serbia
(1941-1944) For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Republic of Macedonia
(since 1991)
International: The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
(since 1993) For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... Official languages Macedonian2 Capital Skopje President Branko Crvenkovski Prime Minister Vlado Buckovski Area  – Total  – % water Ranked 145th  25,713 km²  1. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Yugoslavia (1992-2003) (395 words)
On 4 February 2003, the Parliament of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia adopted "The Constitutional Charter of the State Community of Serbia and Montenegro", together with the law on its implementation.
The law on the coat of arms and the anthem of the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro shall be passed by the end of the year 2003.
Since Serbia and Montenegro kept using the flags formerly used in Yugoslavia from 1992 to 2003, we present those flags on pages dedicated to Serbia and Montenegro, this in order to avoid unnecessary duplication of information.
Timeline: The Former Yugoslavia (791 words)
Serbia and Montenegro form the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, with Slobodan Milosevic as its leader.
This new government, however, is not recognized by the United States as the successor state to the former Yugoslavia.
The UN Security Council lifts its arms embargo against Yugoslavia, abolishing the last remaining sanction by the international community.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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