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Encyclopedia > Yugoslav wars
Yugoslav wars

Break-up of Yugoslavia.
Date 1991–2001
Location Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, Republic of Macedonia
Result New countries independent.*

*(Kosovo independence disputed; See 2008 Kosovo declaration of independence) Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost... This article is about the country in Europe. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ...

Belligerents
Flag of Slovenia Slovenia,
Flag of Croatia Croatia,
Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina,
Kosovo Liberation Army,
NATO,
UCPMB
Flag of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia SFR Yugoslavia,
Flag of Republika Srpska Republic of Srpska
Flag of the Republic of Serbian Krajina Serbian Krajina
Flag of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia FR Yugoslavia,
Flag of Serbia Paramilitary forces from Serbia
Commanders
Flag of Slovenia Milan Kučan
Flag of Slovenia Janez Janša,
Flag of Croatia Franjo Tuđman,
Flag of Croatia Mate Boban
Flag of Croatia Janko Bobetko,
Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina Alija Izetbegović,
Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina Sefer Halilović,
Hashim Thaci,
Wesley Clark,
Javier Solana
Flag of the United States Bill Clinton
Flag of the United Kingdom Tony Blair
Flag of Yugoslavia Branko Kostić,
Flag of Serbia Flag of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Slobodan Milošević,
Flag of Montenegro Momir Bulatović
Flag of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Veljko Kadijević,
Flag of Republika Srpska Radovan Karadžić,
Flag of Republika Srpska Ratko Mladić
Flag of the Republic of Serbian Krajina Milan Martić
Flag of the Republic of Serbian Krajina Milan Babić,
Flag of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Dragoljub Ojdanić,
Flag of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Nebojša Pavković,
Flag of Serbia Vojislav Šešelj
Casualties and losses
140,000+ dead; thousands missing; over 1,000,000 left homeless

The Yugoslav Wars were a series of violent conflicts in the territory of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) that took place between 1991 and 2001. They comprised two sets of successive wars affecting all of the six former Yugoslav republics, and were a result of Serbia's attempt to occupy the other Republics. Alternative terms in use include the "War in the Balkans", or "War in (the former) Yugoslavia", "Wars of Yugoslav Secession", and the "Third Balkan War" (a short-lived term coined by British journalist Misha Glenny, alluding to the Balkan Wars of 1912–1913). Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovenia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Croatia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bosnia_and_Herzegovina_(1992-1998). ... Ushtria Çlirimtare e Kosovës. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... The Liberation Army of PreÅ¡evo, MedveÄ‘a and Bujanovac (Albanian: Ushtria Çlirimtare e Preshevës, Medvegjës dhe Bujanovcit - UCPMB) was a guerrilla group fighting for independence from Serbia for the three municipalities: PreÅ¡evo, MedveÄ‘a and Bujanovac, home to most of the Albanians of inner Serbia, adjacent... Image File history File links Flag_of_SFR_Yugoslavia. ... Motto Brotherhood and Unity Anthem Hey, Slavs Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throughout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Republika_Srpska. ... Republika Srpska shaded red Official languages Serbian, Croatian, Bosniak Capital de jure Sarajevo, de facto Banja Luka Area  – Total  – % water  24,811 km²  n/a Population  – Total (2001)  – Density  1,490,993  60/km² Ethnic groups (1996) Serbs: 90% Bosniaks: 7% Others: 3% President Dragan Čavić Prime minister Pero Bukejlović... Image File history File links Flag_of_Serbian_Krajina_(1991). ... Self-proclaimed Serbian entity in Croatia Republic of Serbian Krajina show in red Capital Knin Government Republic Governors (1990-1995) Milan Babić Goran Hadžić  - Serbian zone of Croatia Milan Martić Historical era Yugoslav wars  - Breakup of Yugoslavia 1990-June 25, 1991  - Creation of SAO Krajina December 21, 1990  - Secession... Image File history File links Flag_of_FR_Yugoslavia. ... Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbian Government Republic President  - 1992 - 1993 Dobrica Ćosić  - 1993 - 1997 Zoran Lilić  - 1997 – 2000 Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević  - 2000 - 2003 Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Prime Minister  - 1992 - 1993 Milan Panić  - 1993 - 1998 Radoje Kontić  - 1998 - 2000 Momir Bulatović  - 2000 - 2001 Zoran Žižić  - 2001 - 2003 DragiÅ¡a Pe... Image File history File links Flag_of_Serbia_1991-2004. ... Paramilitary designates forces whose function and organization are similar to those of a professional military force, but which are not regarded as having the same status. ... Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovenia. ... Milan Kučan Milan Kučan (born January 14, 1941) Slovene politician and statesman. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovenia. ... Janez JanÅ¡a (born September 17, 1958 as Ivan JanÅ¡a) in Ljubljana is a Slovenian politician and head of the Slovenian Democratic Party since 1995. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Croatia. ... ‹ The template below (Foreignchar) is being considered for deletion. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Croatia. ... Mate Boban Mate Boban (1940 - July 7, 1997) was a Herzegovian Croat politician and leader of the Bosnian-Herzegovinian Croats during the Bosnian-Herzegovinian War. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Croatia. ... Janko Bobetko (1919 - 2003) was a Croatian army general and the Croatian armys Chief of the General Staff between 1992 and 1995. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bosnia_and_Herzegovina_(1992-1998). ... Alija Izetbegović (August 8, 1925 – October 19, 2003) was a Bosniak activist, lawyer, author, philosopher and politician, who, in 1990, became the first president of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bosnia_and_Herzegovina_(1992-1998). ... Sefer Halilović (born January 6, 1952) is a high-ranked general from Bosnia and Herzegovina, currently a war crimes suspect. ... Hashim Thaci Leader of KLA Hashim Thaci (Full Albanian variation: Hashim Thaçi; sometimes Hashim Thaqi, Serbo-Croat: HaÅ¡im Tači) (born 24 April 1968 in Buroje/Brocna in the municipality of Srbica (northwest of Drenica valley], Kosovo, Serbia, Yugoslavia) is a terrorist and the president of the Democratic... Wesley Kanne Clark (born December 23, 1944) is a retired four-star general of the United States Army. ... Javier Solana Madariaga, Ph. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency... Image File history File links Flag_of_SFR_Yugoslavia. ... Branko Kostić (Serbian Cyrillic: Бранко Костић), born in 1939, was a Montenegrin politician. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Serbia_1991-2004. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_FR_Yugoslavia. ... MiloÅ¡ević redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Montenegro_(1993-2004). ... Momir Bulatović (born September 21, 1956) is a former President of Montenegro and Prime Minister of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_SFR_Yugoslavia. ... Veljko Kadijević (Cyrillic: Вељко Кадиjевић) (born November 21, 1925) was the Minister of Defence in the Yugoslav government from 1988 to 1992,[1] which made him de facto commander of Yugoslav Peoples Army during the Ten-Day War and initial stages of Croatian War of Independence. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Republika_Srpska. ... Radovan Karadžić during a visit to Moscow in 1994. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Republika_Srpska. ... Ratko Mladić General Ratko Mladić during UN-mediated talks at Sarajevo airport in 1993. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Serbian_Krajina_(1991). ... Milan Martić (born 18 November 1954, near Knin, Yugoslavia) is an ethnic Serbian politician from Croatias Serbian minority. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Serbian_Krajina_(1991). ... Milan Babić (Милан Бабић; February 26, 1956 – March 5, 2006) was from 1991 to 1995 the first President of the Republic of Serbian Krajina, a largely Serb-populated region that had broken away from Croatia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_FR_Yugoslavia. ... Dragoljub Ojdanić (Serbian Cyrillic: Драгољуб Ојданић) (born Jun 1, 1941 in Užice, Kingdom of Yugoslavia) was former Chief of the General Staff and Defence minister of FRY. He is currently indicted with crimes against humanity and violations of the laws or customs of war by the ICTY.[1] 1958 he joined... Image File history File links Flag_of_FR_Yugoslavia. ... NebojÅ¡a Pavković (Serbian Cyrillic: Небојша Павковић; born in the village of Senjski Rudnik near Ćuprija in April 10, 1946) was former Chief of the General Staff of FRY. He graduated in every military school with avrage evaluation (10,00). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Serbia_1991-2004. ... A poster for the 2004 presidential elections, for which Å eÅ¡elj himself was not running, due to the fact that he was awaiting trial in The Hague. ... An animated series of maps showing the breakup of the second Yugoslavia; The different colors represent the areas of control. ... Combatants  Bosnia and Herzegovina Volunteers from Islamic countries Croatian Community of Herzeg-Bosnia  Croatia Volunteers from Western Europe  Republika Srpska  Yugoslavia Various paramilitary units from FR Yugoslavia Volunteers from Eastern Europe Commanders Alija Izetbegović (President of Bosnia and Herzegovina) Sefer Halilović (Army chief of staff 1992-1993) Rasim Delić (Army... Combatants NATO Republika Srpska Commanders Willy Claes Ratko Mladić Strength 2 F-16C, 1 Mirage aircraft 2 SAMs Casualties 1 Mirage aircraft 2 pilots POW 1 F-16C Undisclosed The 1995 NATO bombing in Bosnia and Herzegovina (code-named by NATO Operation Deliberate Force) was a sustained air campaign conducted... The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts (a civil war followed by an international war) in the southern Serbian province called Kosovo (officially Kosovo and Metohia), part of the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Combatants NATO (USAF, RAF, and other air, maritime and land forces) Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and allied Serb paramilitary and foreign volunteer forces[1] Commanders Wesley Clark (SACEUR), Javier Solana (Secretary General of NATO) Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević (Supreme Commander of the Yugoslav Army), Vojislav Å eÅ¡elj, Dragoljub Ojdanić (Chief of... Combatants  Ottoman Empire Balkan League: Bulgaria Greece Serbia Montenegro Commanders Ottoman Empire: Nizam PaÅŸa, Zeki PaÅŸa, Esat PaÅŸa, Abdullah PaÅŸa, Ali Rıza PaÅŸa Bulgaria: Vladimir Vazov, Vasil Kutinchev, Nikola Ivanov, Radko Dimitriev Greece:Crown Prince Constantine, Panagiotis Danglis, Pavlos Kountouriotis Serbia:Radomir Putnik, Petar... Motto Brotherhood and Unity Anthem Hey, Slavs Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throughout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ... Misha Glenny (born 1958) is a British journalist and specialist on Eastern and Southeastern Europe. ... Combatants  Ottoman Empire Balkan League: Bulgaria Greece Serbia Montenegro Commanders Ottoman Empire: Nizam PaÅŸa, Zeki PaÅŸa, Esat PaÅŸa, Abdullah PaÅŸa, Ali Rıza PaÅŸa Bulgaria: Vladimir Vazov, Vasil Kutinchev, Nikola Ivanov, Radko Dimitriev Greece:Crown Prince Constantine, Panagiotis Danglis, Pavlos Kountouriotis Serbia:Radomir Putnik, Petar...


They were characterised by bitter ethnic conflicts between the peoples of the former Yugoslavia, mostly between Serbs on the one side and Croats, Bosniaks or Albanians on the other; but also between Bosniaks and Croats in Bosnia and Macedonians and Albanians in the Republic of Macedonia. The conflict had its roots in various underlying political, economic and cultural problems, as well as long-standing ethnic and religious tensions[citation needed]. An ethnic war is a war between ethnic groups often as a result of ethnic nationalism. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... Languages Croatian Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Related ethnic groups Slavs South Slavs Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... Language(s) Bosnian Religion(s) Predominantly Sunni Islam Related ethnic groups Slavs (South Slavs) The Bosniaks or Bosniacs[1] (Bosnian: Bošnjaci, IPA: ) are a South Slavic people, living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia) and the Sandžak region of Serbia and Montenegro, with a smaller autochthonous population also... This article is about the country of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... An ethnic group is a group of people who identify with one another, or are so identified by others, on the basis of a boundary that distinguishes them from other groups. ... Various Religious symbols, including (first row) Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Bahai, (second row) Islamic, tribal, Taoist, Shinto (third row) Buddhist, Sikh, Hindu, Jain, (fourth row) Ayyavazhi, Triple Goddess, Maltese cross, pre-Christian Slavonic Religion is the adherence to codified beliefs and rituals that generally involve a faith in a spiritual...


The civil wars ended with much of the former Yugoslavia reduced to poverty, massive economic disruption and persistent instability across the territories where the worst fighting occurred. The wars were the bloodiest conflicts on European soil since the end of World War II. They were also the first conflicts since World War II to have been formally judged genocidal in character and many key individual participants were subsequently charged with war crimes. The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) was established by the United Nations to prosecute these crimes. For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... The Tribunal building in The Hague. ... UN redirects here. ...


The Yugoslav civil wars can be split in three groups of several distinct conflicts:

Contents

Motto Brotherhood and Unity Anthem Hey, Slavs Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throughout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ... Belligerents Slovenia Territorial Defense SFR Yugoslavia Yugoslav Peoples Army Commanders Janez Janša Veljko Kadijević Strength 16,000 Territorial Defence, 10,000 police 35,200 Yugoslav National Army personnel Casualties and losses 18 killed, 182 wounded (official casualties) 44 killed, 146 wounded 5,000 prisoners (Slovenian estimates) The Ten... Combatants Croatian military Paramilitary organisations Republic of Serb Krajina Army Yugoslav Peoples Army Bosnian Serb Army Republic of Serbia Paramilitary organisations Commanders Franjo Tuđman (President of Croatia) Anton Tus (Chief of Staff of Croatian Army 1991-1992) Janko Bobetko (Chief of Staff of Croatian Army 1992-1995) Atif... Combatants Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Predominantly Bosniak) Army of Republika Srpska, Yugoslav Peoples Army, various paramilitary units from Serbia and Montenegro (Serbian) Croatian Defence Council, Croatian Army (Croatian) Commanders Alija Izetbegović (President of Bosnia and Herzegovina) Sefer Halilović (Army chief of staff 1992-1993) Rasim... The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts (a civil war followed by an international war) in the southern Serbian province called Kosovo (officially Kosovo and Metohia), part of the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Combatants FRY army Serbian police UCPMB Commanders Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown Unknown Civilian casualties: The 2001 Southern Serbia conflict also known as the Preševo valley crisis was a struggle between the Serbian government and an Albanian separatist organisation Liberation Army of Preševo, Medveđa and Bujanovac (UCPMB), created... Combatants Republic of Macedonia National Liberation Army Commanders Boris Trajkovski Unknown Casualties 63 (Macedonian sources) 64 (NLA sources) Civilian casualties: 70 dead (60 ethnic Albanian, 10 ethnic Macedonian) The 2001 Macedonia conflict was an armed conflict which began when the ethnic Albanian NLA separatist group attacked the security forces of... Combatants NATO Republika Srpska Casualties 1 Mirage aircraft Undisclosed The NATO campaign against the Army of Republika Srpska (code-named Operation Deliberate Force, by NATO) was a sustained air campaign conducted by NATO to undermine the military capability of Bosnian Serb Army who threatened or attacked UN-designated safe areas... The NATO bombing campaign in Yugoslavia took place during the Kosovo War. ...

Background

Before World War II, major tensions arose from the first, monarchist Yugoslavia's multi-ethnic makeup and relative political and demographic domination of the Serbs. Fundamental to the tensions was the different conceptions of the new state, for the Croats envisaged a federal model where they would enjoy greater autonomy than they had as a separate crown land under Austria-Hungary. Under Austria-Hungary Croats enjoyed only formal autonomy. For example, they were not allowed to speak in the Croatian language in Sabor (the Croatian legislature). The Serbs tended to view the territories as a just reward for their support of the allies in World War I and the new state as an extension of the Serbian Kingdom. Serbs sacrificed their own state (which was in that time much larger than today's Serbia) in order to realize the ideal of a "South Slav state". This idea first gained large following in Croat intellectuals gathered around Ljudevit Gaj. These tensions often erupted into open conflict resulting in a dictatorship exercising repression through the Serb dominated security structure[1] and the assassination in federal parliament of Croat political leaders, including Stjepan Radic, who opposed the Serbian monarch's absolutism. The assassination and human rights abuses were subject of concern for the League of Nations and precipitated voices of protest from intellectuals including Albert Einstein.[citation needed] It was in this environment of repression that the radical insurgent group (later fascist dictatorship) Ustasha were formed. Motto: One nation, one king, one country Anthem: Medley of Bože pravde, Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino, and Naprej zastava slave Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croato-Slovenian (see: Serbo-Croat and Slovenian) [1] Government Value specified for government_type does not comply King  - 1918-1921 Peter I  - 1921-1934 Alexander... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Croatian language (hrvatski jezik) is a South Slavic language which is used primarily by the inhabitants of Croatia and Croats in Bosnia and Herzegovina and parts of the Croatian diaspora. ... The parliament of Croatia is called Hrvatski Sabor in Croatian - the word sabor means an assembly, a gathering, a congress. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Stjepan Radić (May 11, 1871 – August 8, 1928) was a Croatian politician and the founder of the Croatian Peasant Party (CPP, Hrvatska Seljačka Stranka) in 1905. ... The term absolutism can mean: A belief in absolute truth moral absolutism, the belief that there is some absolute standard of right and wrong political absolutism, a political system where one person holds absolute power, also called apolytarchy from Gr. ... 1939–1941 semi-official emblem Anachronous world map in 1920–1945, showing the League of Nations and the world Capital Not applicable¹ Language(s) English, French and Spanish Political structure International organization Secretary-general  - 1920–1933 Sir James Eric Drummond  - 1933–1940 Joseph Avenol  - 1940–1946 Seán Lester Historical... “Einstein” redirects here. ... The Ustaše (often spelled Ustashe in English; singular Ustaša or Ustasha) was a Croatian right-wing organisation put in charge of the Independent State of Croatia by the Axis Powers in 1941. ...


The country's tensions were exploited by the occupying Axis forces in World War II, which established a puppet-state spanning much of present day Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Axis powers installed in charge of this "Independent State of Croatia" the Ustasha, which having resolved that the Serbian minority were a Trojan horse of Serbian expansionism, pursued a genocidal policy against them. One third were to be killed, one third expelled, and one third converted to Catholicism and assimilated as Croats. The same policy was applied in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Both Croats and Muslims were recruited as soldiers by the SS (primarily in the 13th Waffen Mountain Division). At the same time, former Royalist General Milan Nedic, installed by the Axis as head of the Serb puppet state. Both quislings were confronted and eventually defeated by the communist-led anti-fascist Partisan movement composed of members of all ethnic groups in the area (Serbs comprising at least 1/2), leading to the formation of a Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. The Axis Powers is a term for the loose alliance of Germany, Italy, and Japan. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... A puppet state is a country that is nominally independent, but in reality, under the control of another power. ... Capital Zagreb Language(s) Croatian Religion Roman Catholicism Political structure Puppet-state King  - 1941-1943 Tomislav II Poglavnik  - 1941-1945 Ante Pavelić Legislature None Historical era World War II  - Established April 10, 1941  - Disestablished May 8, 1945 Population  - 1941 est. ... The Ustaše (often spelled Ustashe in English; singular Ustaša or Ustasha) was a Croatian right-wing organisation put in charge of the Independent State of Croatia by the Axis Powers in 1941. ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... SS redirects here. ... The 13th Waffen Mountain Division of the SS Handschar (1st Croatian) was one of the thirty-eight divisions fielded as part of the Waffen-SS during World War II. It was the largest of the SS divisions, with 21,065 men at its peak, composed almost entirely of non-German... Milan Nedic was born (2-9-1878) in Grocka, Serbia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Quisling, after Norwegian fascist politician Vidkun Quisling, is a term used to describe traitors and collaborationists. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... Yugoslav Partisan Flag The Partisans (lat. ... Motto Brotherhood and Unity Anthem Hey, Slavs Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throughout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ...


Despite the federal structure of the new Yugoslavia, there was still the tension between the federalists, primarily Croats and Slovenes who argued for greater autonomy, and unitarists, primarily Serbs. The to and fro of the struggle would occur in cycles of protests for greater individual and national rights (such as the Croatian Spring) and subsequent repression. The 1974 constitution was an attempt to short-circuit this pattern by entrenching the federal model and formalizing national rights. In politics, unitarisation is a process of uniting a political entity which consists of smaller regions, either by cancelling the regions completely or by transferring their power to the central government. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The Early Conflicts (1991-1995)

In the years leading up to the Yugoslav wars, relations among the republics of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia had been deteriorating. Slovenia and Croatia desired greater autonomy within a Yugoslav confederation, while Serbia sought to strengthen federal authority. As it became clearer that there was no solution agreeable to all parties, Slovenia and Croatia moved toward secession. By that time there was no effective authority at the federal level. Federal Presidency consisted of the representatives of all 6 republics and 2 provinces and JNA (Yugoslav People's Army). Communist leadership was divided along national lines. The final breakdown occurred at the 14th Congress of the Communist Party when Croat and Sloven delegates left in protest because the pro-integration majority in the Congress rejected their proposed amendments.


The first of these conflicts, known as the Ten-Day War or "The War" in Slovenia, was initiated by the secession of Slovenia from the federation on 25 June 1991. The federal government ordered the federal Yugoslav People's Army to secure border crossings in Slovenia. Slovenian police and Territorial Defense blockaded barracks and roads, leading to standoffs and limited skirmishes around the republic. After several dozen deaths, the limited conflict was stopped through negotiation at Brioni on 9 July 1991, when Slovenia and Croatia agreed to a three-month moratorium on secession. The Federal army completely withdrew from Slovenia by 26 October 1991. Belligerents Slovenia Territorial Defense SFR Yugoslavia Yugoslav Peoples Army Commanders Janez Janša Veljko Kadijević Strength 16,000 Territorial Defence, 10,000 police 35,200 Yugoslav National Army personnel Casualties and losses 18 killed, 182 wounded (official casualties) 44 killed, 146 wounded 5,000 prisoners (Slovenian estimates) The Ten... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... The Yugoslav Peoples Army (YPA) (Serbo-Croatian: Jugoslovenska narodna armija or Jugoslavenska narodna armija; Serbian and Macedonian: Југословенска народна армија—JHA; Macedonian and Serbian Latin forms: Jugoslovenska narodna armija; Croatian and Bosnian: Jugoslavenska narodna armija—JNA; Slovene: Jugoslovanska ljudska armada—JLA) was the military force of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Logo of the Territorial Defense Forces Territorial Defense Forces (Serbo-Croat: Teritorijalna odbrana, Croato-Serbian: Teritorijalna obrana, Slovenian: Teritorialna obramba, Macedonian: Територијална одбрана, abbreviation: TO) were part of the armed forces of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia which roughly corresponded to a military reserve force, an official governmental paramilitary or... Brijuni, Brioni or Brioni Islands are a group of twelve small islands in the Northern Adriatic Sea, off the west coast of the Istrian peninsula in Croatia. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ...

A destroyed Croat home covered with graffiti drawn by Serbs. Acts of ethnic violence occurred between multiple nationalities in Yugoslavia, leaving a legacy of hatred and mistrust.
A destroyed Croat home covered with graffiti drawn by Serbs. Acts of ethnic violence occurred between multiple nationalities in Yugoslavia, leaving a legacy of hatred and mistrust.

The second in this series of conflicts, the Croatian War of Independence, began when Serbs in Croatia who were opposed to Croatian independence announced their secession from Croatia. The move was in part triggered by a provision in the new Croatian Constitution that replaced the explicit reference to Serbs in Croatia as a "constituent nation" with a generic reference to all other nations, and was interpreted by Serbs as being reclassified as a "national minority". This was coupled with a history of distrust between the two ethnic groups dating back to at least both World Wars and the inter-war period. The federally-controlled Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) was ideologically unitarist, and predominantly staffed by Serbs in its officer corp, thus it also opposed Croatian independence and sided with the Croatian Serb rebels. Since the JNA had disarmed the Territorial Units of the two northernmost republics, the fledgling Croatian state had to form its military from scratch[citation needed] and was further hindered by an arms embargo imposed by the U.N. on the whole of Yugoslavia. The Croatian Serb rebels were unaffected by said embargo as they had the support of and access to supplies of the JNA. The border regions faced direct attacks from forces within Serbia and Montenegro, and saw the destruction of Vukovar and the shelling of UNESCO world heritage site Dubrovnik. Meanwhile, control over central Croatia was seized by Croatian Serb forces in conjunction with the JNA Corpus from Bosnia & Herzegovina, under the leadership of Ratko Mladic[citation needed]. These attacks were marked by the killings of captured soldiers and heavy civilian casualties (Ovcara; Škabrnja), and were the subject of war crimes indictments by the ICTY for elements of the Serb political & military leadership. In January 1992, the Vance peace plan proclaimed UN controlled (UNPA) zones for Serbs in territory claimed by the rebel Serbs as the Republic of Serbian Krajina and brought an end to major military operations, though sporadic artillery attacks on Croatian cities and occasional intrusions of Croatian forces into UNPA zones continued until 1995. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixels Full resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 255 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Croatian War of Independence Metadata... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixels Full resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 255 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Croatian War of Independence Metadata... Combatants Croatian military Paramilitary organisations Republic of Serb Krajina Army Yugoslav Peoples Army Bosnian Serb Army Republic of Serbia Paramilitary organisations Commanders Franjo TuÄ‘man (President of Croatia) Anton Tus (Chief of Staff of Croatian Army 1991-1992) Janko Bobetko (Chief of Staff of Croatian Army 1992-1995) Atif... The Serbs of Croatia are the largest national minority in Croatia today since they currently comprise around of Croatias total population. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... Motto: One nation, one king, one country Anthem: Medley of Bože pravde, Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino, and Naprej zastava slave Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croato-Slovenian (see: Serbo-Croat and Slovenian) [1] Government Value specified for government_type does not comply King  - 1918-1921 Peter I  - 1921-1934 Alexander... The Yugoslav Peoples Army (YPA) (Serbo-Croatian: Jugoslovenska narodna armija or Jugoslavenska narodna armija; Serbian and Macedonian: Југословенска народна армија—JHA; Macedonian and Serbian Latin forms: Jugoslovenska narodna armija; Croatian and Bosnian: Jugoslavenska narodna armija—JNA; Slovene: Jugoslovanska ljudska armada—JLA) was the military force of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... The Yugoslav Peoples Army (YPA) (Serbo-Croatian: Jugoslovenska narodna armija or Jugoslavenska narodna armija; Serbian and Macedonian: Југословенска народна армија—JHA; Macedonian and Serbian Latin forms: Jugoslovenska narodna armija; Croatian and Bosnian: Jugoslavenska narodna armija—JNA; Slovene: Jugoslovanska ljudska armada—JLA) was the military force of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Vukovars main street Vukovar Vukovar (Serbian: Вуковар, Croatian: Vukovar, Hungarian: Vukovár) is a city and municipality in eastern Croatia, and the biggest river port in Croatia located at the confluence of the Vuka river into the Danube. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Look up Dubrovnik in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Ratko Mladić Mladić (centre of the screen) is a fugitive from the ICTY and faces charges from prosecutor Carla del Ponte (giving the talk). ... Ovčara massacre memorial The Vukovar massacre was a war crime that took place between November 18 and November 21, 1991 near the city of Vukovar, a mixed Croat/Serb community in northeastern Croatia. ... According to the census of 1991, Å kabrnja was inhabited by 1,953 people in 397 households, and the vast majority of them were Croats, there wasnt a single Serb resident. ... The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia is a body of the United Nations established to prosecute war crimes in the former Yugoslavia. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... Self-proclaimed Serbian entity in Croatia Republic of Serbian Krajina show in red Capital Knin Government Republic Governors (1990-1995) Milan Babić Goran Hadžić  - Serbian zone of Croatia Milan Martić Historical era Yugoslav wars  - Breakup of Yugoslavia 1990-June 25, 1991  - Creation of SAO Krajina December 21, 1990  - Secession...

Manjača camp in Serbia controlled by Bosnia, holding Bosniak detainees in 1992.

In 1992, the conflict engulfed Bosnia. It was predominantly a territorial conflict between local Muslims and Croats backed by Zagreb on one side, and Serbs backed by the Yugoslav People's Army and Serbia on the other. For a short-lived period, the erstwhile Muslim & Croat allies would turn on each other in a battle for the scraps of territory left, until they reformed their alliance under US tutelage, that was formalised as the Muslim-Croat federation. The Bosnia conflict, typified by the siege of Sarajevo & Srebrenica, was by far the bloodiest and most widely covered of the Yugoslav wars. Image File history File links Manjaca_camp. ... Image File history File links Manjaca_camp. ... Bosniaks (natively: Bošnjaci) are South Slavs descended from those who converted to Islam during the Ottoman period (15th-19th century). ... This article is about the country of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a south Slavic people mostly living in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina (where theyre one of the constitutive nations). ... Location of Zagreb within Croatia Coordinates: , Country RC diocese 1094 Free royal city 1242 Unified 1850 Government  - Mayor Milan Bandić Area [1]  - Total 641. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... The Yugoslav Peoples Army (YPA) (Serbo-Croatian: Jugoslovenska narodna armija or Jugoslavenska narodna armija; Serbian and Macedonian: Југословенска народна армија—JHA; Macedonian and Serbian Latin forms: Jugoslovenska narodna armija; Croatian and Bosnian: Jugoslavenska narodna armija—JNA; Slovene: Jugoslovanska ljudska armada—JLA) was the military force of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... The location of the FBiH entity as part of the state of Bosnia and Herzegovina in Europe. ... Combatants ARBiH (1992-95)  NATO (1995) JNA (1992) VRS (1992-95) Commanders Jovan Divjak Mustafa Hajrulahović Vahid Karavelić Nedžad Ajnadžić Stanislav Galić (1992-94) Dragomir MiloÅ¡ević (1994-95) Strength 40,000 (1992) 30,000 (1992) The Siege of Sarajevo was the longest siege in the history of... Burial of 465 identified Bosniak civilians (July 11, 2007) Gravestone of a thirteen year old boy (July 11, 2007) A memorial to the victims of Srebrenica and other towns in Eastern Bosnia The Srebrenica Massacre, also known as Srebrenica Genocide,[1] was the July 1995 killing of an estimated 8...


The fighting in Croatia ended sometime in the summer of 1995, after the Croatian Army launched two rapid military operations, codenamed Operation Flash and Operation Storm, in which it managed to reclaim all of its territory except the UNPA Sector East bordering Serbia. Most of the Serbian population in these areas became refugees, and has been the subject of war crimes indictments by the ICTY for elements of the Croat military leadership. The remaining Sector East came under UN administration (UNTAES), and was reintegrated to Croatia in 1998. Croatian Ground Army (Croatian: Hrvatska kopnena vojska), commonly referred as Croatian Army (Hrvatska vojska) is a branch of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Croatia. ... Combatants Croatia Republic of Serbian Krajina Commanders Croatian Military Command Strength 7,200 soldiers 5000 soldiers Casualties 55 killed, 162 wounded 250 killed, 1,500 POW Operation Flash (Croatian: ) was a brief and successful offensive conducted in the beginning of May 1995 by the the Croatian Army, which removed Serb... This article is about a 1995 Croatian army operation. ... Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost... The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia is a body of the United Nations established to prosecute war crimes in the former Yugoslavia. ... ...


In 1994 the U.S. brokered peace between Croatian forces and the Bosniak Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina. After the successful Flash and Storm operations, the Croatian Army and the combined Bosnjiak & Croat forces of Bosnian & Herzegovina, worked together in an operation codenamed Operation Maestral to push back Bosnian Serb military gains. Together with NATO air strikes on the Bosnian Serbs, the successes on the ground put pressure on the Serbs to come to the negotiating table. Pressure was put on all sides to stick to the cease-fire and finally negotiate an end to the war in Bosnia. The war ended with the signing of the Dayton Agreement on the 14 December 1995, with the formation of Republika Srpska as an entity within Bosnia and Hercegovina being the resolution for Bosnian Serb demands. For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... Crest of Army of The Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Combatants Croatia Republic of Serbian Krajina Commanders Croatian Military Command Strength 7,200 soldiers 5000 soldiers Casualties 55 killed, 162 wounded 250 killed, 1,500 POW Operation Flash (Croatian: ) was a brief and successful offensive conducted in the beginning of May 1995 by the the Croatian Army, which removed Serb... This article is about a 1995 Croatian army operation. ... Combatants Croatia (HV, HVO) Republika Srpska (VRS) Commanders General Ante Gotovina (HV) Strength Two HV Guard Brigades (4th Motorized, 7th Mechanized) Two HVO Guard Brigades (1st, 3rd Motorized) Other units Units of the 2nd Krajina Corps of the VRS (3 motorized brigades, 5 infantry brigades, 5 light brigades and support... Combatants NATO Republika Srpska Commanders Willy Claes Ratko Mladić Strength 2 F-16C, 1 Mirage aircraft 2 SAMs Casualties 1 Mirage aircraft 2 pilots POW 1 F-16C Undisclosed The 1995 NATO bombing in Bosnia and Herzegovina (code-named by NATO Operation Deliberate Force) was a sustained air campaign conducted... Three major peace plans were offered before and during the Bosnian War by European Community (EC) and United Nations (UN) diplomats before the conflict was settled by the Dayton Agreement in 1995. ... The General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, also known as the Dayton Agreement, Dayton Accords, Paris Protocol or Dayton-Paris Agreement, is the peace agreement reached at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio in November 1995, and formally signed in Paris on December 14... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... Not to be confused with Serbia. ...


Conflicts in Albanian-populated areas (1996-2002)

In Kosovo, Macedonia, and southern Central Serbia, the conflicts were typified by ethnic and political tension between the Serbian and Macedonian governments and Albanian national minorities which sought autonomy, as was the case in the Republic of Macedonia, or independence, as was the case in Kosovo. For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... Map of Central Serbia Central Serbia (Serbian: Централна Србија or Centralna Srbija), also referred to as Serbia proper or Narrower Serbia (Serbian: Ужа Србија or Uža Srbija), is the region of Serbia that lies outside the northern autonomous province of Vojvodina and the southern UN protectorate of Kosovo (UNMIK). ...


The conflict in Kosovo (1996-1999) became a full-scale war in 1999, while the Macedonia conflict (2001-2002) and Southern Serbia conflict (2001) were characterized by armed clashes between state security forces and ethnic Albanian guerrillas. The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts (a civil war followed by an international war) in the southern Serbian province called Kosovo (officially Kosovo and Metohia), part of the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Combatants Republic of Macedonia National Liberation Army Commanders Boris Trajkovski Ljube Boškoski Ali Ahmeti Casualties 63 (Macedonian sources) 64 (NLA sources) Civilian casualties: 70 dead (60 ethnic Albanians, 10 ethnic Macedonians) Other: 2 EU monitors[1] 1 UK soldier killed[2] The 2001 Macedonia conflict was an armed conflict... Combatants FRY army Serbian police UCPMB Commanders Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown Unknown Civilian casualties: The 2001 Southern Serbia conflict also known as the Preševo valley crisis was a struggle between the Serbian government and an Albanian separatist organisation Liberation Army of Preševo, Medveđa and Bujanovac (UCPMB), created...


The war in Kosovo ended with NATO intervention against Serbian forces in 1999, with a mainly bombing but partly ground-based campaign under the command of Gen. Wesley Clark. The NATO intervention is often counted as yet another separate war. Combatants NATO (USAF, RAF, and other air, maritime and land forces) Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and allied Serb paramilitary and foreign volunteer forces[1] Commanders Wesley Clark (SACEUR), Javier Solana (Secretary General of NATO) Slobodan Milošević (Supreme Commander of the Yugoslav Army), Vojislav Šešelj, Dragoljub Ojdanić (Chief of...


The military conflicts in southern Serbia and in Republic of Macedonia ended with internationally-overseen peace agreements between the insurgents and the government. Kosovo was placed under the governmental control of the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo and the military protection of KFOR. The United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo or UNMIK is an interim civilian administration in Kosovo, under the authority of the United Nations. ... For other uses, see KFOR (disambiguation). ...


Rioting and unrest in Kosovo broke out in 2004, with minor unrest in 2008 upon Kosovo's declaration of independence from Serbia. Violent unrest in Kosovo (a United Nations-administered province of Serbia) broke out on March 17, 2004. ...

See also: Serbian-Albanian conflict

The Serbian-Albanian Conflict is a struggle between the Serbs and Albanians that lasted through the XX century and is ongoing. ...

A brief timeline of the Yugoslav Wars

1968 The Yugoslav wars were a series of violent conflicts in the territory of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia that took place between 1991 and 2001. ...

Students in Kosovo demand greater rights for the Albanian minority during the worldwide May 1968 protests.

1971 A May 1968 poster: Be young and shut up, with stereotypical silhouette of General de Gaulle. ...

Demonstrations in Croatia, known as the Croatian spring, are condemned by the communist government. Many participants were later convicted as nationalists, including Stipe Mesić and Franjo Tuđman. Government crisis follows.

1974 This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... Stjepan Mesić (born December 24, 1934) has been the President of the Republic of Croatia since 2000. ... ‹ The template below (Foreignchar) is being considered for deletion. ...

A new SFRY constitution is proclaimed, granting more power to federal units, and more power to autonomous provinces Kosovo and Vojvodina of Serbia, giving them a vote in all relevant decisions in the federal government. Muslims were recognized as a constituent "nation" of Yugoslavia and of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

1980 The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was a Balkan state that existed from 1945 to 1992. ... Vojvodina (red) is one of Serbias two autonomous provinces Capital (and largest city) Novi Sad Official languages Ethnic groups  2. ...

Yugoslav leader Josip Broz Tito dies.

1981 Tito redirects here. ...

Economic crisis in Yugoslavia has begun. Albanian nationalist demonstrations in Kosovo, demand federal unit status.

1986-1989

The controversial Memorandum of Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts claims Serbia has a weak position in Yugoslavia.
Slobodan Milošević rises to power in Serbia. Antibureaucratic revolution demonstrations bring pro-Milošević governments to Vojvodina, Kosovo and Montenegro.

1990 The Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts (Serbian: Српска академија наука и уметности) was founded in 1886 as the Serbian Royal Academy of Sciences and Arts. ... Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... MiloÅ¡ević redirects here. ...

The League of Communists of Yugoslavia dissolves on republican and ethnic lines at its 14th Congress[citation needed].
The first democratic elections are held in socialist Yugoslavia. Nationalist parties win the majority in almost all republics[citation needed].
Constitutional changes in Serbia revoke some of the powers granted to Kosovo and Vojvodina, effectively giving Serbia 3 out of 8 votes in the federal council. Along with allied Montenegro, this gives extreme power to the Serbian elite. With these votes, Serbian representatives attempt to institute martial law to stop democratic changes - their attempt fails as Bosnia's representative (an ethnic Serb) votes against in the crucial last vote.
Croatian Serbs start a rebellion against the newly elected Croatian government led by Franjo Tuđman.

1991 SKJ flag in Serbo-Croat, with Latin script SKJ flag in Albanian SKJ flag in Hungarian SKJ flag in Italian SKJ flag in Macedonian SKJ flag in Slovenian League of Communists of Yugoslavia (Savez komunista Jugoslavije), before 1952 the Communist Party of Yugoslavia (Komunistička partija Jugoslavije), was a major... Battlespace Weapons Tactics Strategy Organization Logistics Lists War Portal         For other uses, see Martial law (disambiguation). ...

Slovenia and Croatia declare independence. War in Slovenia lasts ten days.
The Yugoslav army leaves Slovenia but supports rebel Serb forces in Croatia. War begins in Croatia.
Cities of Vukovar, Dubrovnik and Osijek are devastated by constant bombardments and shelling. Flood of refugees from the war zones and ethnic cleansing overwhelm Croatia and Serbia.

1992 Vukovars main street Vukovar Vukovar (Serbian: Вуковар, Croatian: Vukovar, Hungarian: Vukovár) is a city and municipality in eastern Croatia, and the biggest river port in Croatia located at the confluence of the Vuka river into the Danube. ... Look up Dubrovnik in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Osijek (pronounced: []) is the fourth largest city in Croatia with a population of 114,616 in 2001. ...

Vance peace plan signed, creating 4 UNPA zones for Serbs and ending large scale fighting in Croatia.
Macedonia and Bosnia declare independence. Bosnian war begins.
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia proclaimed, consisting of Serbia and Montenegro, the only two remaining republics.
United Nations impose sanctions against FR Yugoslavia and accepts Slovenia, Croatia and Bosnia as members.

1993 Pocket badge of the UNPROFOR The United Nations Protection Force, UNPROFOR, were the primary UN peacekeeping troops in Croatia and in Bosnia and Herzegovina during the Yugoslav wars. ... This article is about the country of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Combatants Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Predominantly Bosniak) Army of Republika Srpska, Yugoslav Peoples Army, various paramilitary units from Serbia and Montenegro (Serbian) Croatian Defence Council, Croatian Army (Croatian) Commanders Alija Izetbegović (President of Bosnia and Herzegovina) Sefer Halilović (Army chief of staff 1992-1993) Rasim... Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbian Government Republic President  - 1992 - 1993 Dobrica Ćosić  - 1993 - 1997 Zoran Lilić  - 1997 – 2000 Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević  - 2000 - 2003 Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Prime Minister  - 1992 - 1993 Milan Panić  - 1993 - 1998 Radoje Kontić  - 1998 - 2000 Momir Bulatović  - 2000 - 2001 Zoran Žižić  - 2001 - 2003 DragiÅ¡a Pe... Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost... This article is about the country in Europe. ...

Bosniak-Croat conflict in Bosnia begins.
Fighting begins in the Bihać region between Bosnian Government and Bosniaks loyal to Fikret Abdić.
F.R. Yugoslavia, due to sanctions and isolation, is hit with, by that time, never seen hyperinflation of 3,6 million percent a year of Yugoslav dinar. This amount of inflation exceeds that experienced in the Great Depression of 1929.
The Stari Most (The Old Bridge) in Mostar, built in 1566, was destroyed by Bosnian Croat forces. It was rebuilt in 2003.

1994 Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity {{{entity}}} Land area 900 km2 Population (est. ... Fikret Abdić (born September 29, 1939) is a Bosnian politician and businessman, mainly known for his role in the Bosnian War and his opposition to the government of Alija Izetbegović in Bosnia and Herzegovina. ...

Peace treaty between Bosniaks and Croats arbitrated by the United States.
F.R. Yugoslavia stabilizes economy structure with Economic Implementation Framework.

1995

Srebrenica massacre reported, 8,000 Bosniaks killed.
Croatia launches Operation Flash and Operation Storm, reclaiming all UNPA zones except Eastern Slavonia, and resulting in exodus of 250,000 Serbs from the zones. War in Croatia ends.
NATO launches a series of air strikes on Bosnian Serb artillery and other military targets.
Dayton Agreement signed in Paris. War in Bosnia and Herzegovina ends. Aftermath of war is over 100,000 killed and missing and 2,5 million people internally displaced among the former republics. Serb defeat in Croatia and West Bosnia allows Croatian and Bosniak refugees to return to their homes, but many refugees of all nationalities are still displaced today.
After signing the Dayton Agreement, Yugoslavia is granted with looser sanctions, still affecting much of its economy (trade, tourism, industrial production and exports of final products), but allowing for its citizens to exit Yugoslavia, for a limited time.

1996 Burial of 465 identified Bosniak civilians (July 11, 2007) Gravestone of a thirteen year old boy (July 11, 2007) A memorial to the victims of Srebrenica and other towns in Eastern Bosnia The Srebrenica Massacre, also known as Srebrenica Genocide,[1] was the July 1995 killing of an estimated 8... Combatants Croatia Republic of Serbian Krajina Commanders Croatian Military Command Strength 7,200 soldiers 5000 soldiers Casualties 55 killed, 162 wounded 250 killed, 1,500 POW Operation Flash (Croatian: ) was a brief and successful offensive conducted in the beginning of May 1995 by the the Croatian Army, which removed Serb... This article is about a 1995 Croatian army operation. ... Combatants NATO Republika Srpska Commanders Willy Claes Ratko Mladić Strength 2 F-16C, 1 Mirage aircraft 2 SAMs Casualties 1 Mirage aircraft 2 pilots POW 1 F-16C Undisclosed The 1995 NATO bombing in Bosnia and Herzegovina (code-named by NATO Operation Deliberate Force) was a sustained air campaign conducted... The General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, also known as the Dayton Agreement, Dayton Accords, Paris Protocol or Dayton-Paris Agreement, is the peace agreement reached at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio in November 1995, and formally signed in Paris on December 14... This article is about the capital of France. ...

FR Yugoslavia recognizes Croatia and Bosnia & Herzegovina.
Following a fraud in local elections, hundreds of thousands of Serbs demonstrate in Belgrade against Milošević regime for three months.

1998

Fighting breaks out between Serbian forces and ethnic Albanians in Kosovo.
Eastern Slavonia peacefully reintegrated into Croatia.

1999 For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... ...

NATO starts the military campaign Operation Allied Force in Kosovo. Control of Kosovo is given to the United Nations, but still remains a part of Yugoslavia's federation.
Franjo Tuđman dies. Shortly after that, his party loses the elections.

2000 Combatants NATO (USAF, RAF, and other air, maritime and land forces) Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and allied Serb paramilitary and foreign volunteer forces[1] Commanders Wesley Clark (SACEUR), Javier Solana (Secretary General of NATO) Slobodan Milošević (Supreme Commander of the Yugoslav Army), Vojislav Šešelj, Dragoljub Ojdanić (Chief of... ‹ The template below (Foreignchar) is being considered for deletion. ...

Slobodan Milošević is voted out of office, and Vojislav Koštunica becomes the new president of Yugoslavia.
With Milošević, a major political threat eliminated, the World had no reason to keep Yugoslavia any more isolated. The political and economic sanctions are suspended in total, and F.R. Yugoslavia has been reinstated in many political and economic organizations as well as candidate for other collaborative efforts like the European union.

2001 Dr. Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica (Serbian Cyrillic: Војислав Коштуница,  ) (pronounced , born March 24, 1944, Belgrade, Yugoslavia, now Serbia) is the current Prime Minister of Serbia and President of the Democratic Party of Serbia. ...

Brief Conflict in Southern Serbia between Albanian militants and Serbian security forces.
Conflict between Albanian militants and government in Macedonia.

2002 The Liberation Army of Preševo, Medveđa and Bujanovac (Albanian: Ushtria Çlirimtare e Preshevës, Medvegjës dhe Bujanovcit - UCPMB) was a guerrilla group fighting for independence from Serbia for the three municipalities: Preševo, Medveđa and Bujanovac, home to most of the Albanians of inner Serbia, adjacent... Combatants Republic of Macedonia National Liberation Army Commanders Boris Trajkovski Ljube Boškoski Ali Ahmeti Casualties 63 (Macedonian sources) 64 (NLA sources) Civilian casualties: 70 dead (60 ethnic Albanians, 10 ethnic Macedonians) Other: 2 EU monitors[1] 1 UK soldier killed[2] The 2001 Macedonia conflict was an armed conflict...

Milošević is put on trial in The Hague on charges of war crimes in Kosovo.

2003 The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia is a body of the United Nations established to prosecute war crimes in the former Yugoslavia. ...

FR Yugoslavia becomes the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro.
Alija Izetbegović dies.

2006 Serbia and Montenegro  â€“ Serbia    â€“ Kosovo and Metohia        (UN administration)    â€“ Vojvodina  â€“ Montenegro Official language Serbian language written in Cyrillic alphabet Capital Belgrade President Svetozar Marović Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % water Ranked 105th  102,350 km²  0. ... Alija Izetbegović (August 8, 1925 – October 19, 2003) was a Bosniak activist, lawyer, author, philosopher and politician, who, in 1990, became the first president of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ...

Death of Ibrahim Rugova in Priština Kosovo Republic of Serbia, State Union of Serbia and Montenegro
Montenegro dissolves the union with Serbia becoming an independent republic.
Death of Slobodan Milošević in the Hague prison.

2007 Prof. ... The Palace of Youth building The building of the former Rilindja newspaper, also the tallest in PriÅ¡tina. ... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... Serbia and Montenegro  -Serbia    -Kosovo and Metohia    -Vojvodina  -Montenegro Official language Serbian1 Capital Belgrade Area  - Total  - % water 88,361 km² n/a Population  - Total (1998)  - Density 11,206,847 126. ... Serbia and Montenegro  â€“ Serbia    â€“ Kosovo and Metohia        (UN administration)    â€“ Vojvodina  â€“ Montenegro Official language Serbian language written in Cyrillic alphabet Capital Belgrade President Svetozar Marović Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % water Ranked 105th  102,350 km²  0. ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Wikinews has news related to: Former Yugoslavian president Slobodan Milosevic found dead in his cell The death of former Serbian and Yugoslav president Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević in The Hague, where he was being tried for war crimes at the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, caused a stir and...

The International Court of Justice (ICJ) finds Serbia not guilty of committing genocide in Bosnia, but finds that it failed to prevent the genocide in Srebrenica and orders it to hand over war criminals who are suspected to hide inside its borders.

2008 The International Court of Justice (known colloquially as the World Court) is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations. ... Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost... This article is about the country of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Location of Srebrenica within the Bosnia and Herzegovina Country Settlements 81 Government  - Mayor Abdurahman Malkić (SDA) [1] Area  - Total 527 km² (203. ...

Kosovo declares independence on 17 February 2008. The UN is still divided over the recognition of the state.

For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  1. ^ Elections, TIME Magazine, February 23, 1925

(Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Yugoslav wars

Strategic Studies Institute, 2002, ISBN 1-58487-134-2 The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Yugoslav wars - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1956 words)
The Yugoslav wars were a series of violent conflicts in the territory of the former Yugoslavia that took place between 1991 and 2001.
The Yugoslav wars were initiated by the secession of the two northernmost regions of the former Yugoslavia - Slovenia and Croatia - for a wide array of grievances including economic and political issues, among others.
The diversity in this republic causes an ethnic strain and war ensues.
Wars of Yugoslav Succession - MSN Encarta (2562 words)
Introduction; Background ; The War in Slovenia; The War in Croatia; The War in Bosnia and Herzegovina; The Kosovo War; Consequences of the Wars
The second war was fought in Croatia from July to December 1991 and in the summer of 1995.
Presidents Alija Izetbegović of Bosnia and Kiro Gligorov of Yugoslav Macedonia were equally fearful of either a violent breakup of Yugoslavia or of Serb domination of a federation with a stronger central government.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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