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Encyclopedia > Yugoslav People's Army
Yugoslav People's Army

Components
SFR Yugoslav Ground force
SFR Yugoslav Air Force
SFR Yugoslav Navy
Ranks of the Yugoslav People's Army
Ranks and insignia
History
History of Yugoslav People's Army

The Yugoslav People's Army (YPA) (Serbo-Croatian: Jugoslovenska narodna armija or Jugoslavenska narodna armija; Serbian and Macedonian: Југословенска народна армија—JHA; Macedonian and Serbian Latin forms: Jugoslovenska narodna armija; Croatian and Bosnian: Jugoslavenska narodna armija—JNA; Slovene: Jugoslovanska ljudska armada—JLA) was the military force of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_SFR_Yugoslavia. ... The Yugoslav Peoples Army (Jugoslavenska/Jugoslovenska narodna armija, JNA, Slovene Jugoslovanska ljudska armada, JLA) was the army of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia prior to its dissolution. ... The Soko G-2 Galeb, first Yugoslav-maiden jet fighter. ... In 1990 the Yugoslav navy had 10,000 sailors (4,400 conscripts), including 2,300 in twenty-five coastal artillery batteries and 900 marines in one light naval infantry brigade. ... This table shows the rank structure in use before breakup of Yugoslavia, 1943-1991. ... Yugoslav Partisan Flag The Peoples Liberation Army also known as Partisans were the communist resistance movement engaged in the fight against the Axis forces in the Balkans during World War II. // The flag of Croato-Serbian friendship, one of the early flags used by Partisans In April 1941, Yugoslavia... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throuout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ...

Contents

Origins

The origins of JNA can be found in the Yugoslav Partisan units of World War II. In 1942 they became the People's National Liberation Army and Partisan Detachments of Yugoslavia (Narodno Oslobodilačka Vojska i Partizanski Odredi Jugoslavije—NOV i POJ). In March of 1945, the NOVJ was renamed the Yugoslav Army (Jugoslovenska Armija) and finally on December 22, 1951 received the adjective People's (i.e. Narodna). The JNA's national celebration day was on designated for December 22nd of every year. Yugoslav Partisan Flag The Yugoslav Partisans were the main resistance movement engaged in the fight against the Axis forces in the Balkans during World War II, the Yugoslav Peoples Liberation War. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... December 22 is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Organization

JNA plaque

Once considered fourth largest in Europe, JNA consisted of the ground forces, air force and navy. They were organized in four military regions. The regions were further divided into districts that were responsible for administrative tasks such as draft registration, mobilization and construction and maintenance of military facilities. The regions were: Belgrade (responsible for eastern Croatia, Serbia with Vojvodina and Bosnia and Herzegovina), Zagreb (Slovenia and northern Croatia), Skopje (Republic of Macedonia, southern Serbia and Montenegro) and Split Naval Region. Of the JNA's 180,000 soldiers, more than 100,000 were conscripts. Image File history File links Note: This image is freely available on the internet from various sources in the public domain. ... Image File history File links Note: This image is freely available on the internet from various sources in the public domain. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... An air force, in some countries called an air army, is a military or armed service that primarily conducts aerial warfare. ... The multinational Combined Task Force One Five Zero (CTF-150) The British Grand Fleet, the supreme naval force of World War I A rare occurrence of a 5-country multinational fleet, during Operation Enduring Freedom in the Oman Sea. ... Military districts are territorial entities used for the purposes of military planning and strategizing. ... “Conscript” redirects here. ... This article describes military mobilization. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 812   -  Kingdom established 1217   -  Empire established 1346   -  Independence lost to... Vojvodina (red) is one of Serbias two autonomous provinces Capital (and largest city) Novi Sad Official languages Ethnic groups  2. ... Location of Zagreb within Croatia Coordinates: , Country RC diocese 1094 Free royal city 1242 Unified 1850 Government  - Mayor Milan Bandić Area [1]  - City 641. ... Location of the city of Skopje (green) in the Republic of Macedonia Government  - Mayor Trifun Kostovski Area  - City 1,818 km²  (701. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... Anthem Oj, svijetla majska zoro Oh, Bright Dawn of May Montenegro() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Podgorica Official languages Serbian (Ijekavian dialect)1 Demonym Montenegrin Government Republic  -  President Filip Vujanović  -  Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence due to the dissolution of Serbia and Montenegro   -  Declared June 3, 2006... For other uses, see Split (disambiguation). ...


In 1990 the army had nearly completed a major overhaul of its basic force structure. It eliminated its old divisional infantry organization and established the brigade as the largest operational unit. The army converted ten of twelve infantry divisions into twenty-nine tank, mechanized, and mountain infantry brigades with integral artillery, air defense, and anti-tank regiments. One airborne brigade was organized before 1990. The shift to brigade-level organization provided greater operational flexibility, maneuverability, and tactical initiative, and it reduced the possibility that large army units would be destroyed in setpiece engagements with an aggressor. The change created many senior field command positions that would develop relatively young and talented officers. The brigade structure also was more appropriate at a time of declining manpower. Symbol of the Polish 1st Legions Infantry Division in NATO code A division is a large military unit or formation usually consisting of around ten to twenty thousand soldiers. ... In military science a brigade is a military unit that is part of a division and includes regiments (where that level exists), or (in modern armies) is composed of several battalions (typically two to four) and directly attached supporting units. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I. Infantry are soldiers who fight primarily on foot with small arms in organized military units, though they may be transported to the battlefield by horses, ships, automobiles, skis, bicycles, or other means. ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ... American troops man an anti-aircraft gun near the Algerian coastline in 1943 Anti-aircraft warfare, or air defense, is any method of combating military aircraft from the ground. ... Anti-tank, or simply AT, refers to any method of combating military armored fighting vehicles, notably tanks. ... Airborne Military parachuting form of insertion. ... Operational denotes a working method or a philosophy that focuses principally on cause and effect of specific interest to a particular domain at a particular point in time. ... Maneuver warfare, is the term used by military theorist for a concept of warfare that advocates attempting to defeat an adversary by incapacitating their decision-making through shock and disruption brought about by movement. ... Tactic could refer to: Tactic (municipality) Tactic (method) Military tactics Tactics (manga) This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ...


Infrastructure and equipment

SOKO G-2 Galeb, first Yugoslav made jet aircraft.

The arms industry took up the majority of Yugoslavia's heavy industries. With annual exports of $3 billion, it was twice as large as the second largest Yugoslav industry, tourism. It had modern infrastructure with underground air-bases and control centres in several mountains. The biggest and best known was the Bihać underground Integrated Radar Control and Surveillance Centre and Air Base also known as "Željava" in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Image File history File links Sokogaleb. ... Image File history File links Sokogaleb. ... Zeljava was the largest underground airport and military airbase in the former Yugoslavia. ...


Several companies in Yugoslavia produced airplanes and specifically combat aircraft, most notably Soko of Mostar, with the Soko J-22 Orao being the best known, as well as Utva in Serbia. Regarding ground combat, Yugoslav military-industrial complex produced tanks (most notably, the modern M-84), armored vehicles (BOV-M, BOV-1 M-83, M-80), various artillery pieces (mortars, MLRS, howitzers etc.), anti-aircraft weapons, as well as various types of infantry weapons and other equipment. The Soko J-22 Orao is a twin-engined, subsonic, close support, ground attack and tactical reconnaissance aircraft, with secondary capability as low level interceptor. ... Production History Variants BOV-VP - basic APC BOV-SN - ambulance BOV-M - police version BOV-1 / Polo M83 (Croatia) - anti-tank version 6xAT-3 missiles BOV-3 - Self-Propelled Anti-aircraft gun with 3 x 20mm cannons, 4 crew BOV-30 - Self-Propelled Anti-aircraft gun simular to BOV-3... Production History Variants BOV-VP - basic APC BOV-SN - ambulance BOV-M - police version BOV-1 / Polo M83 (Croatia) - anti-tank version 6xAT-3 missiles BOV-3 - Self-Propelled Anti-aircraft gun with 3 x 20mm cannons, 4 crew BOV-30 - Self-Propelled Anti-aircraft gun simular to BOV-3... M83 or M-83 may be: M83 (band) Southern Pinwheel Galaxy, a Messier object and barred spiral galaxy in the Hydra constellation Category: ... M-80s are a class of large firecrackers. ...


Ground forces

The ground forces led in personnel. It had about 140,000 active-duty soldiers (including 90,000 conscripts) and could mobilize over a million trained reservists in wartime. Reserve forces were organized along republics' lines into Territorial Defence Forces and in wartime they were to be subordinate to JNA Supreme Command as an integral part of defence system. Territorial Defence (reserve force) was made up of former conscripts and they were occasionally called up for war exercises. A member of the United States Military that spends one weekend a month and two weeks annually training to protect and defend the United States. ...


The ground forces comprised of infantry, armour, artillery, air defence, as well as signal, engineering and chemical defence corps. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Tank brigades

Yugoslav tank brigades comprised two or three battalions. They operated about 1000 Soviet T-54s and T-55s,70 Soviet T-72s, 300 Yugoslav M-84s, and some United States-made M-47 tanks. The army's tanks were in many respects its most obsolete forces. The T-54/-55 was a frontline model during the 1960s. Domestic production of the M-84 (an improved version of the Soviet T-72 built under license in Yugoslavia) was providing the army with a late 1970s and 1980s model. The army also had a reserve of old T-34/85 and Sherman tanks from WWII. The T-55 and T-54 main battle tanks were the Soviet Unions replacements for the World War II era T-34 tank. ... The T-54 and T-55 tank series was the Soviet Unions front-line main battle tank from 1947 until 1962, and remains in service throughout the world to this day, especially by former client states of the Soviet Union. ... The T-72 is a Soviet-designed main battle tank that entered production in 1971. ... The M-84 is a modern, 3nd generation main battle tank manufactured by Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... The M-84 is a modern, 3nd generation main battle tank manufactured by Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... The T-72 is a Soviet-designed main battle tank that entered production in 1971. ... The T-34 is a Soviet medium tank first produced in 1940, at the Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant. ... German soldiers at the Battle of Stalingrad World War II was the most extensive and costly armed conflict in the history of the world, involving the great majority of the worlds nations, being fought simultaneously in several major theatres, and costing tens of millions of lives. ...


The Yugoslav army had over 400 M-80 armored combat vehicles, 500 M-80A IFVs and 300 M-60P armored personnel carriers produced domestically. The infantry also operated more than 200 Soviet-made BTR-152, BTR-40, and BTR-50 armored personnel carriers (APCs), which had been purchased in the 1960s and 1970s. It had 100 M-3A1 half-tracked personnel carriers produced by the United States and a small number of new Romanian TAB-72 armored personnel carriers. Armored reconnaissance vehicles included a few older Soviet BTR-40s, newer BRDM-2 and BTR-60 models, and domestic BOV and M-8 vehicles. The BVP M-80 ICV/IFV is a Yugoslav built military vehicle, developed to replace the M-60P then serving in the JNA arsenal. ... The BVP M-80 ICV/IFV is a Yugoslav built military vehicle, developed to replace the M-60P then serving in the JNA arsenal. ... The BTR-40 armored personnel carrier was developed in 1950 by a team headed by V. A. Dedkov and was produced from 1950 to 1958 at Gorkovsky Avtomobilny Zavod. ... The BTR-50 was a Soviet amphibious armoured personnel carrier based on the PT-76 tank chassis. ... East German BRDMs on parade during celebrations of the 40th anniversary of East Germany in 1989 Armoured personnel carriers (APCs) are light armoured fighting vehicles for the transport of infantry. ... The Carrier, Personnel Half-track M3 was an armoured vehicle used by the United States and its allies during World War II and the Cold War. ... The BTR-40 armored personnel carrier was developed in 1950 by a team headed by V. A. Dedkov and was produced from 1950 to 1958 at Gorkovsky Avtomobilny Zavod. ... SA-9 on the BRDM-2 chassis. ... The BTR-60 is the first vehicle in a series of Soviet eight-wheeled armoured personnel carriers. ... Production History Variants BOV-VP - basic APC BOV-SN - ambulance BOV-M - police version BOV-1 / Polo M83 (Croatia) - anti-tank version 6xAT-3 missiles BOV-3 - Self-Propelled Anti-aircraft gun with 3 x 20mm cannons, 4 crew BOV-30 - Self-Propelled Anti-aircraft gun simular to BOV-3... M8 may refer to: Messier 8 (the Lagoon Nebula), a diffuse nebula and a messier object in the Sagittarius constellation M8 motorway, in Scotland M-8 (Michigan highway) in Detroit, also known as the Davison Freeway. ...

Artillery regiments

Yugoslav artillery regiments were well equipped with Soviet, U.S. and domestic systems. Soviet artillery in these units consisted of approximately 1,000 towed 122 mm howitzers, 130 mm guns, 152 mm gun/howitzers, and 155 mm howitzers. There were about 700 older United States 105 mm and 155 mm towed guns and domestically produced models such as the M-65 in the artillery regiments. Towed pieces were very important for operations in the country's mountainous terrain. For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ...


Artillery units operated Soviet 100 mm and 122 mm and Yugoslav-produced 105 mm M-7 self-propelled guns. Those units had over 6,000 82 mm and 120 mm mortars, including a self-propelled 82 mm mortar mounted on an M-60PB variant of the standard armored personnel carrier. A U.S. M109A6 Paladin self-propelled howitzer Self-propelled artillery (also called mobile artillery or locomotive artillery) vehicles are a way of giving mobility to artillery. ...


Yugoslav artillery units operated several battlefield missile systems including 160 128 mm YMRL-32 and M-63 multiple-rocket launchers. The arsenal included four launchers for Soviet FROG-7 surface-to-surface missiles. First fielded in 1967, the unguided FROG-7 had a range of 100 kilometers. FROG-7B (Luna M) FROG-7B (Luna M) FROG-7B (Luna M) FROG-7B (Luna M) The FROG-7 is the final version of the FROG family of unguided, spin-stabilized, short-range artillery rockets. ...

Anti-tank regiments

Yugoslav anti-tank regiments had towed anti-tank guns, recoilless rifles, and Soviet anti-tank guided missiles. Antitank guns included 75 mm, 90 mm, and 100 mm models. They were Soviet produced with the exception of the 90 mm M-63B2, which was manufactured domestically. An Anti-tank guided missile (ATGM) or weapon (ATGW) is a guided missile primarily designed to hit and destroy tanks and other armoured fighting vehicles. ...


The recoilless rifles were manufactured domestically and included 57 mm, 82 mm, and 105 mm models. Two self-propelled 82 mm recoilless rifles could be mounted on an M-60PB armored personnel carrier.


Anti-tank guided missiles were the Soviet AT-1 (NATO: Snapper) and AT-3 (NATO: Sagger). They were used in both anti-tank and infantry units, but because of their early vintage, effectiveness against advanced armor was uncertain. The four wheeled BOV-1 armored reconnaissance vehicle could be equipped with six AT-3 launchers to serve as a highly mobile anti-tank platform. 3M6 Shmel / AT-1 Snapper anti-tank missiles. ... AT-3A Sagger missile The AT-3 Sagger is the NATO reporting name for the 9M14 Malyutka (little or tiny baby) MCLOS wire-guided anti-tank missile of the Soviet Union. ...


Air defense

BOV 3s on parade.

Larger Yugoslav army units had considerable tactical air defense assets, designed to defend major troop concentrations against enemy air strikes. The ground forces had four surface-to-air missile regiments and eleven antiaircraft artillery regiments. The former operated large numbers of Soviet SA-6, SA-7, SA-9, SA-13, SA-14, SA-16 missiles. Short-range systems also were employed in infantry units. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Production History Variants BOV-VP - basic APC BOV-SN - ambulance BOV-M - police version BOV-1 / Polo M83 (Croatia) - anti-tank version 6xAT-3 missiles BOV-3 - Self-Propelled Anti-aircraft gun with 3 x 20mm cannons, 4 crew BOV-30 - Self-Propelled Anti-aircraft gun simular to BOV-3... A 3M9 TEL in desert camoflage. ... A soldier posing with a Strela launcher The 9K32 Strela-2 (Russian 9К32 стрела-2 - arrow, NATO reporting name SA-7 Grail) is a man-portable, shoulder-fired, low-altitude surface-to-air missile (SAM) system similar to the US Army REDEYE, with... A 9K31 transporter erector launcher. ... An SA-13 TELAR. Photo by GulfLINK. The ZRK-BD 9K35 Strela-10 (Russian 9К35 Стрела-10 - arrow, NATO reporting name SA-13 GOPHER) is a highly mobile, visually aimed, optical/infra-red guided, low-altitude, short-range surface to air missile system. ... The 9K34 Strela-3 (Russian 9К34 Стрела-3 - arrow, NATO reporting name SA-14 Gremlin) man-portable air defence missile system (MANPADS) was developed in Soviet Union as a response to the poor performance of the earlier 9K32 Strela-2 (NATO reporting name... 9K38 Igla The 9K38 Igla (Russian 9К38 Игла́ - needle) is a Russian/Soviet man-portable infra-red homing surface-to-air missile (SAM) system. ...


Yugoslav antiaircraft artillery regiments operated over 5,000 guns. Self-propelled gun systems included the Soviet-made 57 mm dual ZSU-57-2 gun systems and the domestically produced triple 20 mm BOV-3s and dual 30 mm BOV-30s. Large numbers of towed antiaircraft guns of many calibers were in the inventory. Of both domestic and foreign origin, they included pieces purchased from the United States, Czechoslovakia, Switzerland, and Sweden. A ZSU-57-2 SPAAG. Photo by GulfLINK. The ZSU-57-2 (Zenitnaya Samokhodnaya Ustanovka) is a lightly armoured, self propelled Soviet air defence cannon ( SPAAG). ... ...


Coastal artillery

The coastal artillery batteries had both surface-to-surface missiles and guns. They operated the Soviet-designed SS-C-3 and a truck-mounted, Yugoslav-produced Brom antiship missile. The latter was essentially a Yugoslav variant of the Soviet SS-N-2. Coastal guns included over 400 88 mm, 122 mm, 130 mm, and 152 mm artillery pieces obtained from the Soviet Union, the United States, postwar Germany, and Yugoslav manufacturers.


Serbia and Montenegro (i.e. Federal Republic of Yugoslavia) inherited most of Yugoslavia's military arsenal, though some of its infrastructure was destroyed or left behind in other Yugoslav republics.


Air Force

Jugoslovensko Ratno Vazduhoplovstvo (Yugoslav Air Force) Pilots on pre-flight planning.
Jugoslovensko Ratno Vazduhoplovstvo (Yugoslav Air Force) Pilots on pre-flight planning.
The MiG-29s were the newest aircraft in the Yugoslav Air Force.
The MiG-29s were the newest aircraft in the Yugoslav Air Force.
The MiG-21s were the main fighters in Yugoslav Air Force.
The MiG-21s were the main fighters in Yugoslav Air Force.
Two G-4 Super Galeb's of YuAF.

The Yugoslav Air Force had about 32,000 including 4,000 conscripts and operated over 700 aircraft and 200 helicopters. It was responsible for transport, reconnaissance, and rotary-wing aircraft as well as the national air defense system. The primary air force missions were to contest enemy efforts to establish air superiority over Yugoslavia and to support the defensive operations of the ground forces and navy. Most aircraft and missiles were produced domestically or supplied by the Soviet Union. The Soko G-2 Galeb, first Yugoslav-maiden jet fighter. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (920x645, 105 KB)Note: This image is freely available on the internet from various sources in the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (920x645, 105 KB)Note: This image is freely available on the internet from various sources in the public domain. ... The Soko G-2 Galeb, first Yugoslav-maiden jet fighter. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Galeb-g4p. ... Image File history File links Galeb-g4p. ... “Flying Machine” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Helicopter (disambiguation). ... Mixed reconnaissance patrol of the Polish Home Army and the Soviet Red Army during Operation Tempest, 1944 Reconnaissance is the military term for the active gathering of information about an enemy, or other conditions, by physical observation. ... Rotary-wing aircraft is a broad category of any aircraft with a moving wing, including helicopters and autogyros. ... Superior has various meanings: A superior is a person who has the authority to command another, as in a superior officer. See: Superior (function) In a hierarchical structure of any kind, a superior is higher in the hierarchy and thus closer to the apex than the subordinate ones. ... It has been suggested that Guided missile be merged into this article or section. ...


The Yugoslav Air Force had twelve squadrons of domestically produced ground attack fighters. The ground attack squadrons provided close air support to ground force operations. They were equipped with 165 new Orao-2, Super Galeb and Jastreb, and older P-2 Kraguj fighters. Many ground attack fighters were armed with AGM-65 Maverick air-to-surface missiles purchased from the United States. Others were armed with Soviet AS-7 and AS-9 missiles. The air force also had seventy armed Mi-8 helicopter gunships to provide added mobility and fire support for small ground units. A large number of reconnaissance aircraft were available to support ground forces operations. Four squadrons of seventy Galeb, Jastreb, and Orao-1 fighters were configured for reconnaissance missions. The Soko J-22 Orao (Eagle) is a twin-engined, subsonic, close support, ground attack and tactical reconnaissance aircraft, with secondary capability as low level interceptor. ... The G-4 Super Galeb is a tandem-seat low-wing advanced jet trainer/light attack jet of Yugoslav/Serbian origin. ... The AGM-65 Maverick is an air-to-ground tactical missile (AGM) designed for close air support. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Russian Mi-8 Hip The Mil Mi-8 (NATO reporting name Hip) is a large transport helicopter that can also act as a gunship. ...


The Yugoslav Air Force had nine squadrons of 130 Soviet-made MiG-21 interceptors for air defense. First produced in the late 1950s, the MiG-21 was largely obsolete in 1990 and represented a potential weakness in Yugoslavia's air defense. The MiG-21s were armed with Soviet AA-2 (NATO: Atol) air-to-air missiles of a similar vintage and some more modern AA-8 (NATO: Aphid) missiles as well as twin 23 mm cannons. One Yugoslav aircraft manufacturer also was developing a new domestic multirole fighter to replace the MiG-21. Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21 (NATO reporting name Fishbed) is a fighter aircraft, originally built by the Mikoyan and Gurevich Design Bureau in the Soviet Union. ... The K-13 (NATO reporting name AA-2 Atoll), was one of the worlds most proliferated air-to-air missiles. ... A US Navy VF-103 Jolly Rogers F-14 Tomcat fighter launches an AIM-54 Phoenix long-range air-to-air missile. ... The Molniya (now Vympel) R-60 (NATO reporting name AA-8 Aphid) is a lightweight air-to-air missile designed for use by Soviet fighter aircraft. ...


In 1987, Yugoslavia acquired 16 MIG-29 interceptors. It had two squadrons with over thirty Soviet-made Yak-40, Antonov An-12, and Antonov An-26 transport aircraft. It had seven helicopter transport squadrons with Soviet Mi-8 and domestic Partisan helicopters (French Aérospatiale Gazelle built under licence). The Mikoyan MiG-29 (NATO reporting name Fulcrum) is a Russian fighter aircraft used in the air superiority role. ... Yakovlev Yak-40 The Yakovlev Yak-40 is a small, three-engined regional transport aircraft. ... The Antonov An-12 (NATO reporting name: Cub) is a four-engined turboprop transport aircraft. ... Romanian Air Force Antonov An-26 The Antonov An-26 (NATO reporting name: Curl) is a 2-engined light prop transport aircraft and is a development of the An-24 passenger aircraft, with particular attention made to the potential military use. ... The Gazelle is a French-designed helicopter, created by the company Sud Aviation, that later became Aérospatiale, and later still Eurocopter. ...


The Yugoslav Air Force conducted a large pilot training program with almost 200 Galeb, Jastreb, and UTVA-75/-76 aircraft. The propeller-driven UTVA trainers had underwing pylons capable of carrying light weapons loads. A new UTVA Lasta trainer was under development in 1990. After practicing instrument and night flying, gunnery, bombing, rocket firing, and aerial maneuvers in the Lasta, student pilots progressed to the Super Galeb. Twenty Partisan helicopters were used for pilot training. Development The UTVA-75 (originally -75A21) side by side two-seat training, glider towing and utility lightplane was designed and built in partnership of UTVA-Pancevo, Prva Petoletka-Trstenik, Aeronautical Technical Institute (now Military Technical Institute) and Mechanical Engineering Faculty in Belgrade lead by Dragoslav Dimic head engineer in Utva... Utva (English wild duck) is an aircraft factory (Serbian fabrika aviona) located in Pančevo, near Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro (ex-Yugoslavia), first founded in 1937 in Zemun, known of its light sporting and training aircraft. ... Lasta is a city in the municipality of Vytina, Greece[1] ^ Lasta, Greece Page. ...


One of the most impressive structures operated by the JNA Air Force was the underground Željava air base near the town of Bihac in Bosnia. The structure was made to withstand a nuclear explosion and was destroyed by the JNA in 1992 to prevent it's capture. Željava Air Base also know as Bihać Air Base was the largest underground airport and military airbase in the former Yugoslavia. ... Bihać is a town on the Una river in the north-western part of Bosnia and Herzegovina, center of the Una-Sana Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... This article is about the country of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ...


The Air and Air Defence forces were headquartered at Zemun and had fighter and bomber aircraft, helicopters, and air defence artillery units at air bases throughout the former Yugoslavia: Batajnica (Belgrade), Niš, Priština, Golubovci (Titograd), Skopski Petrovec, Sarajevo, Mostar, Bihać, Pleso (Zagreb), Divulje (Split), Pula, Zemunik (Zadar), Cerklje ob Krki. Location in Serbia General Information Mayor or municipality president Gordana Pop-Lazić Land area 153,56km² Population (2002 census) 145,751 (152,950 municipality) Population density (2002) 996 per km² Coordinates [1] Area code +381 11 Subdivisions 4 settlements in the municipality License plate code BG Time zone UTC+1... An A-10 Thunderbolt II, F-86 Sabre, P-38 Lightning and P-51 Mustang fly in formation during an air show at Langley Air Force Base, Virginia. ... For other uses, see Bomber (disambiguation). ... A helicopter is an aircraft which is lifted and propelled by one or more large horizontal rotors (propellers). ... For other uses, see Airport (disambiguation). ... Batajnica is an urban neighborhood in Belgrade, Serbia. ... NiÅ¡ or Nish (Serbian: Ниш / NiÅ¡,  , Latin: Naissus, Greek: Ναισσός Naissos) is a city in Serbia situated at 43. ... UNMIK Head Quarters - PriÅ¡tina. ... Golubovci is a small town in Podgorica municipality in Montenegro. ... Podgorica (Подгорица) (formerly Titograd and Ribnica) is the capital of Montenegro and the judicial capital of Serbia and Montenegro, located at 42. ... Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo) Coordinates: , Country Bosnia and Herzegovina Entity Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Canton Sarajevo Canton Government  - Mayor Semiha Borovac (SDA) Area [1]  - City 141. ... Mostar (Мостар) is a city and municipality in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the center of the Herzegovina-Neretva Canton of the Federation. ... Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity {{{entity}}} Land area 900 km2 Population (est. ... Pleso is a small village near the Zagreb International airport. ... Pula (Latin Colonia Pietas Iulia Pola; Italian Pola (the city has an official Croatian-Italian bilingualism [1]); Istriot Pula, German Polei) is the largest city in Istria, situated at the southern tip of the peninsula, with a population of 62,080 (2006). ... For other uses, see Zadar (disambiguation). ... Cerklje ob Krki is small town in southern Slovenia, near the border with Croatia. ...


Navy

Main article: SFR Yugoslav Navy

Minor surface combatants operated by the Yugoslav Navy included nearly eighty frigates, corvettes, submarines, minesweepers, and missile, torpedo, and patrol boats in the Adriatic Fleet. The entire coast of Yugoslavia was part of the naval region headquartered at Split (now part of Croatia). In 1990 the Yugoslav navy had 10,000 sailors (4,400 conscripts), including 2,300 in twenty-five coastal artillery batteries and 900 marines in one light naval infantry brigade. ... In 1990 the Yugoslav navy had 10,000 sailors (4,400 conscripts), including 2,300 in twenty-five coastal artillery batteries and 900 marines in one light naval infantry brigade. ... For the bird, see Frigatebird. ... French steam corvette Dupleix (1856-1887) Canadian corvettes on antisubmarine convoy escort duty during World War II. A corvette is a small, maneuverable, lightly armed warship, smaller than a frigate but larger than a coastal patrol craft. ... For other uses, see Submarine (disambiguation). ... USS Pivot (AM 276) World War II United States Admirable Class Minesweeper shown in the Gulf of Mexico on sea trials 12 July 1944 Image:Hameln Class. ... The Adriatic Sea is an arm of the Mediterranean Sea separating the Apennine peninsula (Italy) from the Balkan peninsula, and the system of the Apennine Mountains from that of the Dinaric Alps and adjacent ranges. ... For other uses, see Split (disambiguation). ...


The Partisans had operated many small boats in raids harassing Italian convoys in the Adriatic Sea during World War II. After the war, the navy operated numerous German and Italian submarines, destroyers, minesweepers, and tank-landing craft captured during the war or received as war reparations. The United States provided eight torpedo boats in the late 1940s, but most of those units were soon obsolete. The navy was upgraded in the 1960s when it acquired ten Osa-I class missile boats and four Shershen-class torpedo boats from the Soviet Union. The Soviets granted a license to build eleven additional Shershen units in Yugoslav shipyards developed for this purpose.


In 1980 and 1982, the Yugoslav navy took delivery of two Soviet Koni class frigates. In 1988 it completed two additional units under license. The Koni frigates were armed with four Soviet SS-N-2B surface-to-surface missile launchers, twin SA-N-4 (NATO: SA-8 Gecko) surface-to-air missiles, and anti-submarine rocket launchers. Koni class frigate Rostock of the East German Navy. ... The P-15 Termit (Russian: ; English: ) was a type of missile developed by the Soviet Unions Raduga design bureau in the 1950s. ... 9K33M3 (SA-8 Gecko) TELAR. Photo by Naval Expeditionary Warfare Training. ...


The Yugoslav navy developed its own submarine-building capability during the 1960s. In 1990, the main combat units of the submarine service were three Heroj-class patrol submarines armed with 533 mm torpedoes. Two smaller Sava-class units entered service in the late 1970s. Two Sutjeska-class submarines had been relegated mainly to training missions by 1990. At that time the navy had apparently shifted to construction of versatile midget submarines. Four Una-class midgets and four Mala-class swimmer delivery vehicles were in service in the late 1980s. They were built for use by underwater demolition teams and special forces. The Una-class boats carried five crewmen, eight combat swimmers, four Mala vehicles, and limpet mines. The Mala vehicles in turn carried two swimmers and 250 kilograms of mines. River Sutjeska in Sutjeska National Park Sutjeska is Bosnia and Herzegovinas oldest National park. ...


The Yugoslav navy operated ten Osa I-class and six Rade Koncar-class missile boats. The Osa I boats were armed with four SS-N-2A surface-to-surface missile launchers. In 1990, domestic Kobra boats were scheduled to begin replacing the Osa I boats. The Kobra was to be armed with four SS-N-2C launchers or eight Swedish RBS15 anti-ship missile launchers. Armed with two SS-N-2B launchers, the Koncar-class boats were modeled after the Swedish Spica class. The navy's fifteen Topcider-class torpedo boats included four former Soviet Shershen-class and eleven Yugoslav built units. The P-15 Termit (Russian: ; English: ) was a type of missile developed by the Soviet Unions Raduga design bureau in the 1950s. ... The P-15 Termit (Russian: ; English: ) was a type of missile developed by the Soviet Unions Raduga design bureau in the 1950s. ... The RBS 15 (Robot System 15) is a long-range fire-and-forget surface-to-surface and air-to-surface anti-ship missile. ... Image:RBS-15 missile launch. ...


The Yugoslav navy's mine warfare and countermeasures capabilities were considered adequate in 1990. It operated four Vukov Klanac-class coastal minehunters built on a French design, four British Hamclass inshore minesweepers, and six 117-class inshore minesweepers built in domestic shipyards. Larger numbers of older and less capable minesweepers were mainly used in riverine operations. Other older units were used as dedicated minelayers. The navy used amphibious landing craft in support of army operations in the area of the Danube, Sava, and Drava rivers. They included both tank and assault landing craft. In 1990, there were four 501-class, ten 211-class, and twenty-five 601-class landing craft in service. Most of them were also capable of laying mines in rivers and coastal areas. This article is about the Danube River. ... Sava also Save (in Serbian: Сава; German: Save; Hungarian: Száva) is a river in Europe, a right side tributary of Danube at Belgrade. ... The Drava at Drávaszabolcs, Hungary The Drava at Vízvár, Hungary The Drava at Maribor, Slovenia Drava or Drave (German: Drau, Slovenian, Croatian and Italian: Drava, Hungarian: Dráva) is a river in southern Central Europe, a tributary of the Danube. ...


The Yugoslav Navy had 10,000 sailors (4,400 conscripts, 900 marines). This was essentially a coastal defense force with the mission of preventing enemy landings along the country's rugged 4,000-kilometer shoreline or coastal islands, and contesting an enemy blockade or control of the strategic Strait of Otranto. The entire coast of Yugoslavia was part of the naval region headquartered at Split. The naval region was divided into three smaller naval districts and a riverine flotilla with major bases located at Split, Sibenik, Pula, Ploce and Kotor on the Adriatic and Novi Sad on the Danube. The fleet was organized into missile, torpedo, and patrol boat brigades, a submarine division, and minesweeper flotillas. The naval order of battle included four frigates, three corvettes, five patrol submarines, fifty-eight missile, torpedo, and patrol boats, and twenty-eight minesweepers. One antisubmarine warfare helicopter squadron was based at Divulje on the Adriatic for coastal operations. It employed Soviet Ka-25, Ka-28, and Mi-8 helicopters, and domestic Partisan helicopters. Some air force fighter and reconnaissance squadrons supported naval operations.


Doctrine

The Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) had a unique operational doctrine for a conventional military force. Yugoslavia based its defence doctrine upon the concept of "Total National Defence" (opštenarodna odbrana), which drew upon Yugoslavia's rich partisan history during World War II. Total National Defence gave the JNA the role of defending borders against aggressors with the intention of delaying an invader long enough for Territorial Defence Forces to enter the field and start wearing the invader down with partisan tactics. The entire Yugoslav population under this concept was to be engaged in armed resistance, armaments production, and civil defence. The concept of Total National Defence was believed by the Yugoslav planners to be the best method by which a smaller nation could properly defend itself against a much stronger invader.


Dissolution

At the beginning stages of the Yugoslav Wars there was a great sense of confusion and concern as to what the Yugoslav People's Army stood for. Due to the fact that roughly 80% of the JNA's upper leadership was ethnically Serbian and that a war was raging in 2 different countries at the time - Bosnia and Croatia - lead to the absolute crippling of the JNA and it's basic fundamentals as a fighting force. Image File history File links Acap. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... This article is about the country of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ...


During the Battle of Vukovar the JNA's diverse ethnic composition of lower fighting units with no real stake or interest in the war in Croatia lead to desertions and confusion in the area. This was primarily caused by a lack of understanding as to where they stood with both the Croatian defence forces and the Serbian paramilitary units who were promoting a purely Serbian agenda in Eastern Slavonia. Combatants Yugoslav Peoples Army Serbian paramilitaries Local Serb militias Croatian National Guard Croatian police and militias Croatian Defence Forces (HOS) Commanders Mladen Bratić† Života Panić Blago Zadro† Mile Dedaković Branko Borković Strength Up to 36,000, depending on the phase of the battle Some 2,000 (in Vukovar) Casualties... Eastern Slavonia is the eastern area of Slavonia, northern Croatia. ...


Further complications arose when Republic of Macedonia and Bosnia declared their independence and an already unpopular war back home in Belgrade caused conscription levels to be only 13% of what they were required to be. Many in Macedonia or Bosnia and Herzegovina felt that the war was none of their concern and that their people should not have anything to do with the conflicts developing in the region. For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... This article is about the country of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ...


Serbia and Montenegro now being the sole union that was still considered to be Yugoslavia for legality reasons then decided that it was best to wash their hands of the conflicts which were occurring in near by nations. The decision was made to abolish the JNA. The word fry may mean: To cook in a pan (frying pan) with the optional use of fat, butter, or cooking oil by heating over a flame; to cook in boiling lard or fat; as, to fry chicken; to fry doughnuts. ...


In May 1992, the United Nations Security Council confirmed independence of the new republics and accepted them into the UN. In accordance, the Yugoslav Army was asked to withdraw from Bosnia (as it was now deemed a hostile armed intervention in another sovereign state) or face sanctions. On May 12, 1992, JNA units were split between the FR Yugoslavia army and the Army of Republika Srpska (mostly in accordance with geographical location, place of origin), along with the majority of the officer staff. In reality, this meant that many units changed nothing except their names and markings. The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ... This article discusses states as sovereign political entities. ... The word fry may mean: To cook in a pan (frying pan) with the optional use of fat, butter, or cooking oil by heating over a flame; to cook in boiling lard or fat; as, to fry chicken; to fry doughnuts. ... Bosnian Serb Army, officially Army of the Republika Srpska (Serbian Војска Републике Српске/Vojska Republike Srpske, ВРС/VRS) is the military of the Bosnian Serb political entity of Republika Srpska. ...


Some ex-JNA troops and commanders found their way to the Army of Republika Srpska Krajina while many loyalist Serbian paramilitaries remained operational in Bosnia, usually supporters of Nationalist or Radical parties in Serbia proper. These two separate satellite defence forces were formed and JNA was officially dissolved and re-formed with the new Democratic intentions overshadowing the old Socialistic fundamentals of the Yugoslav People's Army, although the changes to the Yugoslav Army (now Army Of Serbia) were very slow and moderniziation did not begin until nearly the war's end. [1] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Military of Serbia (Serbian: Војска Србије or Vojska Srbije) is the successor of the Military of Serbia and Montenegro, which ceased to exist after Montenegro voted to end the union of Serbia and Montenegro. ...


Exemplary Soldier

If a JNA recruit completes basic training with distinction, he will earn the Exemplary Soldier plaque. This means that the soldier has shown that he has gone above and beyond the call of duty. The plaque's text is addressed to soldier's parents and sent to them upon completion of training. It lists that the recruit has excellent understanding of basic military training, military doctrine and politics. The plaque also states that the recruit has shown excellent commitment to brotherhood and unity and has shown honor in defending the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x904, 118 KB)Note: This image is freely available on the internet from various sources in the public domain. ... Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throuout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ...


Modern militaries from territories of former Yugoslavia

Armed Forces of Bosnia-Herzegovina (OSBiH; Oružane snage BiH; Оружане снаге БиХ) is the official military force of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Croatian military is officially called Armed Forces of the Republic of Croatia (Oružane Snage Republike Hrvatske) and it consists of these branches: ground forces (Hrvatska kopnena vojska) naval forces (Hrvatska ratna mornarica) air and air defense forces (Hrvatsko ratno zrakoplovstvo i protuzračna obrana) Total active duty members of... The Armed Forces of the Republic of Macedonia (Macedonian: Армија на Република Македонија) were formed in 1992 after withdrawal of the Yugoslav Peoples Army which left behind only a small number of infantry weapons and four broken World War 2-era T-34 tanks to equip the new army. ... After the Montenegro separation from the Serbia and Montenegro State Union the Military of Serbia and Military of Montenegro will be separated. ... The Military of Serbia (Serbian: Војска Србије or Vojska Srbije) is the successor of the Military of Serbia and Montenegro, which ceased to exist after Montenegro voted to end the union of Serbia and Montenegro. ... The Military of Slovenia consists of the Slovenian Armed Forces (also Slovenian Army; officially Slovene Slovenska vojska; SAF/SV). ...

See also

Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in all south Slavic languages) is a term used for three separate but successive political entities that existed during most of the 20th century on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe. ... The military of Yugolavia has included the armed forces of Yugoslavia during three periods of its history: the military of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, which existed between 1918 and 1941/1945 the Royal Army of Yugoslavia the military of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, which existed between 1941/1945... Yugoslav Partisan Flag The Yugoslav Partisans were one of the two main resistance movements engaged in the fight against the Axis forces in the Balkans during World War II, alongside rival Chetniks, the Yugoslav Peoples Liberation War. ... Titoism is a term describing political ideology named after Yugoslav leader, Josip Broz Tito, primarily used to describe the schism between the Soviet Union and Socialist Yugoslavia after the Second World War (see Cominform) when the Communist Party of Yugoslavia refused to take further dictates from Moscow. ... OZNA or Organ Zaštite Naroda (Armije) (lit. ... KOS or Kontra-obaveštajna služba was the counter-intelligence service of the Yugoslav Peoples Army. ... SOKO (English falcon) is an aircraft factory situated in Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Veljko Kadijević From left: Veljko Kadijević and Blagoje Adžić. General Veljko Kadijević (Cyrillic: Вељко Кадиjевић) (born 1925 in Glavina Donja near Imotski) was the minister of defence in the Yugoslav government from 1988 to 1992,[1] which makes him de facto commander of Yugoslav Peoples Army during Ten-Day... Blagoje Adžić From left: Veljko Kadijević and Blagoje Adžić. General Blagoje Adžić (Cyrillic: Благоје Аджић) (born September 2nd, 1932 in Pridvorica, Yugoslavia) was the acting minister of defence in the Yugoslav government. ...

References

  1. ^ http://www.bosnia.org.uk/news/news_body.cfm?newsid=2122

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