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Encyclopedia > Yugoslav Army in the Fatherland
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The Yugoslav Army in the Fatherland (Serbian Jugoslovenska vojska u otadžbini, Југословенска војска у отаџбини), also known as Chetniks, was a resistance movement loyal to the Kingdom of Yugoslavia's government in exile during the Second World War. The name chetniks is derived from the Serbian word četa which means "military company", and was also used for guerilla squads in wars on Balkans prior to World War II. The Yugoslav Army in the Fatherland (YAF) was founded on Ravna Gora, Serbia, by Colonel Dragoljub Mihailović on 13 May 1941 following Nazi Germany's invasion of Yugoslavia. Although most of its members were Serbs and Montenegrins, the army also included some Slovenes, Croats, and Muslims by nationality. It originated as a Serbian nationalist and royalist organization opposing Ottoman rule in the 19th century. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... It has been suggested that Yugoslav Army in the Fatherland be merged into this article or section. ... Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Shortcut: WP:NPOVD Articles that have been linked to this page are the subject of an NPOV dispute (NPOV stands for Neutral Point Of View; see below). ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... A resistance movement is a group or collection of individual groups, dedicated to fighting an invader in an occupied country or the government of a sovereign nation through either the use of physical force, or nonviolence. ... Motto: One nation, one king, one country Anthem: Medley of Bože pravde, Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino, and Naprej zastava slave Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croato-Slovenian (see: Serbo-Croat and Slovenian) [1] Government Value specified for government_type does not comply King  - 1918-1921 Peter I  - 1921-1934 Alexander... A government in exile is a political group that claims to be a countrys legitimate government, but for various reasons is unable to exercise its legal power, and instead resides in a foreign country. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... A company is a military unit, typically consisting of 100-200 soldiers. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Ravna Gora (in Serbia) is a meadow in Serbia, on which Chobans (shepheards) used to heard their sheeps. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 812   -  Kingdom established 1217   -  Empire established 1346   -  Independence lost to... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... Dragoljub Draža Mihailović (Драгољуб Дража Михаиловић, also ÄŒiča, Draža Mihailović), (April 26, 1893–July 17, 1946) was a Serbian general who became a war hero in World War I and who later led the Yugoslav Royal Army in the Fatherland, also referred to as Chetniks during World War II. After... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... “April War” redirects here. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in Croatia. ... Montenegrins (Serbian/Montenegrin: Црногорци/Crnogorci) are a South Slavic people who are primarily associated with the Republic of Montenegro. ... Languages Croatian Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Related ethnic groups Slavs South Slavs Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... Languages Serbo-Croat(Serbian, Bosnian, Croatian) Macedonian Religions Predominantly Islam Related ethnic groups South Slavs Muslims by nationality (Muslimani, Муслимани) was a term used in Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia to describe mainly native Slavic Muslims. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 812   -  Kingdom established 1217   -  Empire established 1346   -  Independence lost to... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... Look up Royalist in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Ottoman Empire, 1299]] Sultans  - 1281–1326... Look up rule in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...


After initial skirmishes with the occupying Axis forces, the YAF adopted strategy which advocated resistance movements in Western Europe: sabotage,strikes,espionage etc but avoidance of armed uprising until Allied landing. The YAF continued to fight the Communist partisan resistance, some members collaborated with German, Italian and Ustaše forces. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Yugoslav Partisan Flag The Yugoslav Partisans were one of the two main resistance movements engaged in the fight against the Axis forces in the Balkans during World War II, alongside rival Chetniks, the Yugoslav Peoples Liberation War. ... An UstaÅ¡e guard pose among the bodies of prisoners murdered in the Jasenovac concentration camp The UstaÅ¡e (also known as Ustashas or Ustashi) was a Croatian extreme nationalist movement. ...


After the war, escaped YAF members and other nationalist Serbian emigrants formed nationalist clubs in countries such as the United States, England, and Australia, and continued to support the YAF ideology, which was illegal and suppressed in the communist Yugoslavia.[citation needed] The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was a Balkan state that existed from 1945 to 1992. ...

Contents

World War II

After the surrender of the Yugoslav royal army in April 1941, some of the remaining Yugoslav soldiers organized Yugoslav Royal Army in the Fatherland in the Ravna Gora district of western Serbia under Colonel Dragoljub (Draža) Mihailović to fight the German occupation. They were mostly ethnic Serbs though there were some Slovenes and Croats and Muslims as well. Mihailović directed his units to arm themselves and await his orders for the final push. He avoided actions which he judged were of low strategic importance. The reason behind his resolve was the fact that he had been a World War I officer. Motto: One nation, one king, one country Anthem: Medley of Bože pravde, Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino, and Naprej zastava slave Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croato-Slovenian (see: Serbo-Croat and Slovenian) [1] Government Value specified for government_type does not comply King  - 1918-1921 Peter I  - 1921-1934 Alexander... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... Ravna Gora (in Serbia) is a meadow in Serbia, on which Chobans (shepheards) used to heard their sheeps. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 812   -  Kingdom established 1217   -  Empire established 1346   -  Independence lost to... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... Dragoljub Draža Mihailović (Serbian Cyrillic: Драгољуб Дража Михаиловић; Anglicised: Drazha Mihailovich ; also known as Чича or ÄŒiča) (April 27, 1893 - July 17, 1946) was a Serbian general now primarily remembered as leader of the resistance movement Yugoslav Royal Army in the Fatherland during World War II. After the war, he was tried... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in Croatia. ... Languages Croatian Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Related ethnic groups Slavs South Slavs Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


Between 1941 and 1943, the YAF had the support of the Western Allies. TIME Magazine, in 1942, featured an article which boasted the success of Mihailović's movement, and heralded him as the sole defender of freedom in Nazi-occupied Europe. However, Tito's Partisans fought the Nazis as well during this time. Both Tito and Mihailović had a bounty of 100,000 Reichsmarks offered by Germans for their heads. For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Look up ally in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A pocket watch, a device used to tell time Look up time in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... Josip Broz Tito (May 7, 1892 - May 4, 1980) was the ruler of Yugoslavia between the end of World War II and his death in 1980. ...


Throughout World War II, the YAF was faced with the two main categories of enemies: the Axis alliance on the one side and the Communist Partisans on the other. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


After the summer uprising during 1941, the guerilla activity of the YAF increased, and the forces of Nazi Germany retaliated very harshly against the civilian population. The Germans had introduced exact punitive measures against guerilla activity: 100 Yugoslavs civilians were to be executed for every killed soldier of the Wehrmacht and 50 for each wounded. The rival anti-fascist movements, Tito's Partisans and Mihailović's Chetniks, collaborated at first, but later turned against each other, and inside Serbia a bitter civil war ensued. Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Yugoslavs (Bosnian: Jugosloveni; Macedonian, Serbian Cyrillic: Југословени; Latinic: Jugosloveni; Croatian: Jugoslaveni, Slovenian: Jugoslovani) is an ethnic designation used by some people in former Yugoslavia, which continues to be used in some of its successor countries. ... Wehrmacht   (armed forces, literally defence force(s)) was the name of the armed forces of Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1945. ...


In late 1941, the Germans started a massive offensive on the areas of Ravna Gora and Užice. Mihailović offered a truce, but it was denied and the bulk of the YAF forces had to retreat for eastern Bosnia and Sandžak. There they came in direct conflict with the Ustaše, the fascist regime of Independent State of Croatia. Užice (Serbian Cyrillic: Ужице) is a town located in Serbia and Montenegro at 43. ... Motto None Anthem Intermeco Bosnia and Herzegovina() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Sarajevo Official languages Bosnian Croatian Serbian Government Parliamentary democracy  -  Presidency members Željko KomÅ¡ić1 NebojÅ¡a Radmanović2 Haris Silajdžić3  -  Chairman of the Council of Ministers Nikola Å pirić  -  High Representative 4 Independence... Map of Sandžak Sandžak (Serbian: Санџак, Sandžak, Bosnian: Sandžak, Albanian: Sanxhak or Sanxhaku, Turkish: Sancak) is a geographical region in central Balkans. ... An UstaÅ¡e guard pose among the bodies of prisoners murdered in the Jasenovac concentration camp The UstaÅ¡e (also known as Ustashas or Ustashi) was a Croatian extreme nationalist movement. ... Capital Zagreb Language(s) Croatian Religion Roman Catholicism Political structure Puppet-state King  - 1941-1943 Tomislav II Poglavnik  - 1941-1945 Ante Pavelić Legislature None Historical era World War II  - Established April 10, 1941  - Disestablished May 8, 1945 Population  - 1941 est. ...


As the forces of Fascist Italy were latently opposed to the Communists and the Ustaša regime in their southern zone of influence, the Chetniks collaborated with the Italians to be able to engage the Ustaše and Communists. The Allies frowned upon this but kept sending support for the Chetnik forces for some time. Some Chetniks also cooperated with the Nedić quisling regime in Serbia. Finally, the Chetniks started concentrating on fighting the Partisan forces. Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, refers to the right-wing authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... An UstaÅ¡e guard pose among the bodies of prisoners murdered in the Jasenovac concentration camp The UstaÅ¡e (also known as Ustashas or Ustashi) was a Croatian extreme nationalist movement. ... Look up ally in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Milan Nedić Serbian Cyrillic Милан Недић (September 2, 1878 – 1946) was a Serbian soldier and politician who was a major collaborator during World War II. Nedić was born in Grocka, Serbia. ...


The Western Allies originally supported the YAF because they were a ideologically better option for them than Communist Partisans. The Allies had planned an invasion of the Balkans, and so the Yugoslav resistance movements were strategically important, and there was a need to make a decision which of the two factions to support. A number of Special Operations Executive missions were sent to the Balkans to determine the facts on the ground. In the meantime, the Allies stopped planning an invasion of the Balkans and finally reverted their support from the YAF due to their less agressive resistance, and instead supported the Partisans[citation needed]. At the Teheran Conference of 1943 and the Yalta Conference of 1945, Stalin and Churchill decided to split their influence in Yugoslavia in half. The Special Operations Executive (SOE), sometimes referred to as the Baker Street Irregulars after Sherlock Holmess fictional group of spies, was a World War II organization initiated by Winston Churchill and Hugh Dalton in July 1940 as a mechanism for conducting warfare by means other than direct military engagement. ... From left to right, Stalin, Roosevelt, and Churchill The Tehran Conference was the meeting of Joseph Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill between November 28 and December 1, 1943 that took place in Tehran, Iran. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Big Three at the Yalta Conference, Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვი&#4314... Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC (Can) (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955. ...


On 14 August 1944, the Tito-Šubašić agreement between Partisans and the Royal Government was signed on the island of Vis. The document called on all Slovenes, Croats, Srebs to join Partisans. Partisans were recognized by the royal government as Yugoslavia's regular Army. Mihajlović and many other YAf members refused. On 29 August king Peter II dismissed general Mihailović as a Chief-of-Staff of Yugoslav army in Homeland and on 12 September apointed Tito in his place. In April and May 1945, as the victorious Yugoslav army took possession of the country's territory, the YFA retreated towards Italy and a smaller group retreated to Austria. Many were captured by partisans or returned to Yugoslavia by British forces. Some were tried for treason and either freed, sentenced to prison terms or death. Many were summarily executed, especially in the first months after the end of the war. In 1946, the last YFA units under the command of Draža Mihajlović were captured in eastern Bosnia. He was tried, found guilty of treason and executed. is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... The Tito-Å ubaÅ¡ić Agreement was an attempt by the Westerners to merge pre-war royal government of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia with the communist-lead partisans who were defending the country in Second World War and were de facto rulers on the liberated territories. ... Vis is a Croatian island in the Adriatic Sea, the furthest one from the coast that is also inhabited. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Draza Mihailovic was born in 1893. ...


During the closing years of World War II, many Chetniks defected from their units in 1944 and early 1945, when there was a general amnesty granted for royalist forces. Many Chetniks took up the offer; this treatment was also received by the Domobran fighters, but it was not extended to Ustaše. By the end of the war, the Chetniks were still important in numbers. Some retreated with German forces north to surrender to Anglo-American forces; Mihailović and his few remaining followers tried to fight their way back to the Ravna Gora, but he was captured by Tito's Partisans. In March 1946 Mihailović was brought to Belgrade, where he was tried and executed on charges of treason in July. Croatian Home Guard (Croatian: Hrvatsko domobranstvo, often abbr. ... An UstaÅ¡e guard pose among the bodies of prisoners murdered in the Jasenovac concentration camp The UstaÅ¡e (also known as Ustashas or Ustashi) was a Croatian extreme nationalist movement. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Location of Belgrade within Serbia Coordinates: Country Serbia District City of Belgrade Municipalities 17 Government  - Mayor Nenad Bogdanović (DS) (since 2004)  - Ruling parties DS/DSS/G17+ Area  - City 3,222. ...


The last remaining "World War II" Chetnik was captured in the Herzegovina-Montenegro border area in 1957. Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ...


Ideology

The members of YFA held private property and tradition in high esteem, and were thus ideologically opposed to Communists who opposed capitalism and the monarchy. Their salute was "За краља и отаџбину" ("Za kralja i otadžbinu") - For King and Fatherland. Capitalism generally refers to an economic system in which the means of production are all or mostly privately[1][2] owned and operated for profit, and in which investments, distribution, income, production and pricing of goods and services are determined through the operation of a free market. ... Look up king in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Fatherland is the nation of ones fathers or forefathers. ...


Many YFA members started to grow elaborate beards during the war, which is a traditional Orthodox Christian way to express sorrow. In this manner, they marked their sorrow for the occupied fatherland which was ravaged by war.It was said that they will keep their beards until their King returns. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Coptic Orthodox Pope · Roman Catholic Pope Archbishop of Canterbury · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Faith...


Almost all YFA members expressed Serbian nationalism, sometimes even ultra-nationalism or chauvinism. A Chetnik ideologue Stevan Moljević composed a memorandum called "Homogenous Serbia" that outlined a plan to solve Serbian problems by expanding the Serbian territory to all the lands where ethnic Serbs live, and subsequently remove its heterogeneous ethnic composition, revising the idea of Greater Serbia. Moljevic did not explain how the non-Serb population would be moved out, just that the matter had to be solved. Greater Serbia is a name for a Serbian nationalist concept. ...


Some ethnic Croats,[1] Slovenians[2][3] and Bosnian Muslims[4][5] also joined Chetniks forces. Most of them were democratically oriented Yugoslav patriots or monarchists, anti-communists and anti-fascists. In the beginning of German and Italian occupation of former Kingdom of Yugoslavia, they didn’t fight for Greater Serbia but for the liberation of their homeland, the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. But, as Chetnik movement didn't have a strong hierarchy, a number of Chetnik units had a clear serbian nationalist ideology.[citation needed] Also, during the war Dragoljub Mihailovic was changing his position from Yugoslavian unitarist to Serbian nationalist.[citation needed] Languages Croatian Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Related ethnic groups Slavs South Slavs Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... Bosniaks (natively: Bošnjaci) are South Slavs descended from those who converted to Islam during the Ottoman period (15th-19th century). ... Motto: One nation, one king, one country Anthem: Medley of Bože pravde, Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino, and Naprej zastava slave Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croato-Slovenian (see: Serbo-Croat and Slovenian) [1] Government Value specified for government_type does not comply King  - 1918-1921 Peter I  - 1921-1934 Alexander... Motto: One nation, one king, one country Anthem: Medley of Bože pravde, Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino, and Naprej zastava slave Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croato-Slovenian (see: Serbo-Croat and Slovenian) [1] Government Value specified for government_type does not comply King  - 1918-1921 Peter I  - 1921-1934 Alexander...


Collaboration and war crimes

A group of Chetniks pose with German soldiers in an unidentified village in Serbia

In occupied Serbia, Nazis had Milan Aćimović installed as leader, and later the former Minister of War, General Milan Nedić, who governed until 1944. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 812   -  Kingdom established 1217   -  Empire established 1346   -  Independence lost to... Milan Nedić Serbian Cyrillic Милан Недић (September 2, 1878 – 1946) was a Serbian soldier and politician who was a major collaborator during World War II. Nedić was born in Grocka, Serbia. ...


Chetniks were operating semi-independently. One group remained under the pre-war leader, Kosta Pećanac, and started collaborating with the Germans against the communist partisans. In NDH, Chetniks were under the command of Vojvoda Đujić (The Serbian priest and Chetnik Duke) in the Serbian Krajina region were they organized themselves in response to Ustasha's (Croatian fascists - Nazi collaborators) attacks on Serbian villages. The Independent State of Croatia (Nezavisna Država Hrvatska, NDH) was a Nazi/Fascist puppet state in World War II. It was set up in April 1941 on parts of the territory of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia after its occupation. ... Momčilo R. Đujić (Serbian: Момчило P. Ђујић) (February 27, 1907 - September 11, 1999) was the Serbian Chetnik commander of the Dinara Chetnik Division, with the title of Vojvoda (English: Duke). ...


Nevertheless, majority of Chetniks rallied behind Draža Mihailović, a 48 year-old Yugoslav Royal Army colonel who had been court-martialed in absence by general Nedić (Nazi collaborator) and was known to have close ties to Britain. Early in the war Mihailović offered some resistance to the Italian and Nazi forces. By July 22, 1941 the Yugoslav Government-in-Exile announced that continued resistance was impossible. Later in the war, with emerging stronger Communist partisan forces, Chetniks tried to avoid a multiple front lines by avoiding clashes with Nazis, and instead they focused their efforts to eliminating Communists (and civilians believed to be helping or hiding Partisans). At their peak, Mihailović's Chetniks claimed to have three hundred thousand troops. Chetniks viewed their ideological struggle against the Communists as one more important than their struggle against the Germans which they planned to fight after they defeat Communists first. Once Soviet troops occupied Belgrade, and installed Tito's communist regime, Mihailović was brought to trial and executed in 1946 for genocide. Dragoljub Draža Mihailović (Serbian Cyrillic: Драгољуб Дража Михаиловић; Anglicised: Drazha Mihailovich ; also known as Чича or ÄŒiča) (April 27, 1893 - July 17, 1946) was a Serbian general now primarily remembered as leader of the resistance movement Yugoslav Royal Army in the Fatherland during World War II. After the war, he was tried...


Nedić reluctantly supported Hitler and met with him in 1943. This new government established even harsher racial laws than Prince Paul had enacted and immediately established three concentration camps for Jews, Gypsies, and others. Nedic formed his own paramilitary storm troops known as the State Guard. The Guard was comprised of former members of the Chetniks which had existed as an all-Serbian para-military police force under King Alexander and Prince Paul to enforce loyalty from non-Serbian members of the armed forces. When Yugoslavia disintegrated, one faction of Chetniks swore allegiance to the new Serbian Nazi government. Another group remained under the pre-war leader, Kosta Pećanac, who openly collaborated with the Germans. A third Chetnik faction followed the Serbian Fascist Dimitrije Ljotić. Ljotić's units were primarily responsible for tracking down Jews, Gypsies and partisans for execution or deportation to concentration camps. By August 1942, the Serbian government would proudly announce that Belgrade was the first city in the New Order to be Judenfrei or "free of Jews." Only 1,115 of Belgrade's twelve thousand Jews would survive. Ninety-five per cent of the Jewish population of Serbia was exterminated. The Rroma people (pronounced rahma, singular Rrom) along with the closely related Sinti people are commonly known as Gypsies. ... Dimitrije Ljotić (August 12, 1891, Belgrade - April 22, 1945, Ajdovščina) was a Serbian politician and German collaborationist during World War II. Although born in Belgrade he spent most of his life in Smederevo. ... Location of Belgrade within Serbia Coordinates: Country Serbia District City of Belgrade Municipalities 17 Government  - Mayor Nenad Bogdanović (DS) (since 2004)  - Ruling parties DS/DSS/G17+ Area  - City 3,222. ...


Still most other Cetniks rallied behind Draža Mihailović, a 48 year-old Army officer who had been court-martialed by Nedic and was known to have close ties to Britain. Early in the War Mihailovic offered some resistance to the German forces while collaborating with the Italians. By July 22, 1941 the Yugoslav Government-in-Exile announced that continued resistance was impossible. Although Mihailovic and his exiled government would maintain a fierce propaganda campaign to convince the Allies that his Chetniks were inflicting great damage on the Axis. At its peak, Mihailovic's Cetniks claimed to have three hundred thousand troops. In fact they never numbered over thirty-one thousand. Chetnik advocates argue that these were tactical collaborations on a local level, with the main aim to fight their common enemy - the Partisans. Chetniks viewed their ideological struggle against the Partisans as one more important than the fight against the Germans. However this collaboration continued until the end of World War II, and the allies withdrew support from the Chetniks in 1944. Mihailovic was executed in 1946 for treason. The extent of Chetnik collaboration with the German and Italian armies as well as their vicious war against the pro-Allied Partisans is documented in dozens of books, including "The Chetniks"[citation needed].


In the areas of Independent State of Croatia, which included Bosnia and Croatia, a bitter ethnic war was fought. The ruling Ustaše regime had proclaimed as its goal to exterminate one third of the Serbs, expel the other third and convert the rest to the Catholic faith. Chetniks fought both the Ustaše and Partisans in these areas, and retaliated for the crimes against Serbs in the villages populated by Bosnian Muslims (who they saw as ones allied with the Ustashe) and Croats. The areas around Višegrad, Zvornik, Foča, Čajniče, Pljevlja were gravely impacted by this kind of ethnic cleansing until Tito's Partisans arrived at the site in large numbers in 1942. There's one report of 2,000 Muslim men killed in Foča and Muslim women mass raped, and another report of 1,200 fighters and 8,000 civilians killed in easternmost Bosnia and Sandžak during this time. According to V. Zerjavic's Tabular statement of Chetnik victims, the total number of Chetnik victims in the areas of Independent state of Croatia is aproximately 55,000 (32,000 Croatians and 33,000 Muslims). Capital Zagreb Language(s) Croatian Religion Roman Catholicism Political structure Puppet-state King  - 1941-1943 Tomislav II Poglavnik  - 1941-1945 Ante Pavelić Legislature None Historical era World War II  - Established April 10, 1941  - Disestablished May 8, 1945 Population  - 1941 est. ... An UstaÅ¡e guard pose among the bodies of prisoners murdered in the Jasenovac concentration camp The UstaÅ¡e (also known as Ustashas or Ustashi) was a Croatian extreme nationalist movement. ... Ethnic cleansing refers to various policies or practices aimed at the displacement of an ethnic group from a particular territory in order to create a supposedly ethnically pure society. ... Josip Broz Tito (May 7, 1892 - May 4, 1980) was the ruler of Yugoslavia between the end of World War II and his death in 1980. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Although the number of victims was less than that of the Ustaše government which carried out a well-coordinated and organized genocide of the Serbs and other unacceptable citizens, the Chetniks' force was smaller in size and more ineffectual. However, Serbs consistently point out that there is a major difference in the scale of the atrocities of the two groups. Even though Chetniks were guerilla fighters with many independ. Genocide is the deliberate and systematic destruction of an ethnic or national group. ...


It is also worth noting that Partisans too were involved in numerous war crimes, like the murder of thousands of Ustaše and Domobran fighters in the Bleiburg massacre, as well as many others. This includes unselective execution of large groups of people in the aftermath of the War, including native Germans from Vojvodina, Italian in northern Yugoslavia, Hungarians in Vojvodina, ideological and political opponents, as well as people whose collaboration with Germans was only suspected. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


After capture in 1946, Mihailović was tried, convicted of treason, which strained the Franco-Yugoslav relations at the time, and Charles de Gaulle refused to visit Yugoslavia or meet Tito. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Josip Broz Tito (May 7, 1892 - May 4, 1980) was the ruler of Yugoslavia between the end of World War II and his death in 1980. ...


Although the number of victims was less than that of the Ustaše government which carried out a well-coordinated and organized genocide of the Serbs and other unacceptable citizens, the Chetniks' force was smaller in size and more ineffectual. However, Serbs consistently point out that there is a major difference in the scale of the atrocities of the two groups. Even though Chetniks were guerilla fighters with many independ. Genocide is the deliberate and systematic destruction of an ethnic or national group. ...


It is also worth noting that Partisans too were involved in numerous war crimes, like the murder of thousands of Ustaše and Domobran fighters in the Bleiburg massacre, as well as many others. This includes unselective execution of large groups of people in the aftermath of the War, including native Germans from Vojvodina, Italian in northern Yugoslavia, Hungarians in Vojvodina, ideological and political opponents, as well as people whose collaboration with Germans was only suspected. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Post-World War II era

In 1946 an independent U.S. commission concluded that Mihailović did not collaborate with the Axis. U.S. President Harry S. Truman posthumously awarded him the Legion of Merit for contribution to the Allied victory. For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was the thirty-third President of the United States (1945–1953); as Vice President, he succeeded to the office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt. ... The Legion of Merit is a military decoration of the United States armed forces that is awarded for exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance of outstanding services and achievements. ... A representation of the changes in territory controlled by Allies and Axis powers over the course of the war. ...


In late 1980s new opposition parties openly supported the role of chetniks in the Second World War, claiming that the official history had been falsified. Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ...


In modern times, the YFA movement is largely rehabilitated in Serbia, notwithstanding the involvement in war crimes by some of its members. They are highly praised by Serbian nationalists, but all the political factions see them in a very different light from the one common in Tito's time. This is largely due to the impact of Serbian pro-monarchist politician Vuk Drašković, who was against Serbian ultranationalism and Milošević rule, while making a great effort to rehabilitate the YFA movement. Vuk DraÅ¡ković, Warsaw (Poland), June 28, 2006 Vuk DraÅ¡ković (Вук Драшковић) (born November 29, 1946, MeÄ‘a village near ŽitiÅ¡te, Serbia, FPR Yugoslavia), leader of the Serbian Renewal Movement is a Serbian politician who is presently the temporary Minister of Foreign Affairs of Serbia. ...


Many Serbians also support YFA due to the Yugoslav wars and a failure of the Communist idea of "brotherhood and unity of southern Slavs". On the other side, most Croats and Bosniacs see YFA as some kind of a fascist movement, no better than the Croatian Ustaše or the SS Handžar Division. This does not cite any references or sources. ... Brotherhood and unity (known locally as Bratstvo i jedinstvo or Bратство и јединство or Bratstvo in enotnost) was the catch phrase for the official policy of inter-ethnic relations in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Countries inhabited by South Slavs (in black) Distribution of Slavic peoples by language The South Slavs are a southern branch of the Slavic peoples that live in the Balkans, the southern Pannonian Plain and the eastern Alps. ... An UstaÅ¡e guard pose among the bodies of prisoners murdered in the Jasenovac concentration camp The UstaÅ¡e (also known as Ustashas or Ustashi) was a Croatian extreme nationalist movement. ... Emblem of the Handschar division Kroatische-SS-Freiwilligen-Division Kroatische SS-Freiwilligen-Gebirgs-Division 13. ...


In late 2004, the National Assembly of Serbia passed a new law that equalized the rights of the YFA members with those of the Partisans, including the right to war pensions. Rights were granted on the basis that both were anti-fascist movements that fought occupiers, and this formulation has entered the law. The vote was 176 for, 24 against and 4 abstained. The socialist party (SPS) of Slobodan Milošević was the one against the decision. Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The unicameral parliament of Serbia is known as the National Assembly of the Republic of Serbia (Serbian: Народна скупштина Републике Србије / Narodna skupÅ¡tina Republike Srbije). ... Anti-Fascism is a belief and practice of opposing all forms of Fascism. ... “MiloÅ¡ević” redirects here. ...


There have been varying reactions to the law in Serbian public opinion. Many have praised it as just and long overdue, including the Prince Alexander Karađorđević of Yugoslavia (son of the last Yugoslav king), as well as most political parties (with the most notable exception of SPS). Others protested the decision, including the Serbian Association of Former Partisans, the Serbian Helsinki Committee for Human Rights, the Croatian Anti-Fascist Movement, and the President and Prime Minister of Croatia. Crown Prince Alexander of Serbia and Yugoslavia His Royal Highness Crown Prince Alexander of Serbia and Yugoslavia, Aleksandar II KaraÄ‘orÄ‘ević (b. ... The abbreviation SPS can stand for: IATA airport code for Wichita Falls Municipal Airport St. ... Helsinki Committees for Human Rights exist in many European countries (the OSCE region) as volunteer, non-profit organizations devoted to human rights and presumably named after the Helsinki Accords. ...

Dragoljub Mihailovic posthumous awarded with Legion of Merit, by U.S. President Harry S. Truman, 1948

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Dragoljub Drazha Mihailovich (Драгољуб Дража Михаиловић, also Čiča, Draža Mihailović or Mihajlović), (April 26, 1893 - July 17, 1946) was a Serbian general who... The Legion of Merit is a military decoration of the United States armed forces that is awarded for exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance of outstanding services and achievements. ... Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was the thirty-third President of the United States (1945–1953); as Vice President, he succeeded to the office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Bibliography

  • Karchmar, Lucien. Draža Mihailović and the Rise of the Četnik Movement, 1941-1942. New York: Garland Pub., 1987.
  • Lees, Michael. The Rape of Serbia: The British Role in Tito's Grab for Power, 1943-1944. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1991.
  • Martin, David. Ally Betrayed: The Uncensored Story of Tito and Mihailović. New York: Prentice-Hall, 1946.
  • Martin, David. Patriot or Traitor: The Case of General Mihailović: Proceedings and Report of the Commission of Inquiry of the Committee for a Fair Trial for Draja Mihailović. Hoover Archival Documentaries. Hoover Institution Publication, volume 191. Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press, Stanford University, 1978.
  • Martin, David. The Web of Disinformation: Churchill’s Yugoslav Blunder. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1990.
  • Roberts, Walter R. Tito, Mihailović, and the Allies, 1941–1945. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1973.
  • Trew, Simon. Britain, Mihailović, and the Chetniks, 1941–42. Basingstoke, UK: Macmillan; New York: St. Martin’s Press in association with King’s College, London, 1998.

References

  1. ^ General Mihailovic with Zvonko Vuckovic, commandant of 1st Chetnik Corps. Mr. Vuckovic was an ethnic Croat – loyal officer of Royal Yugoslav Army.
  2. ^ Uros Sustaric, one of famous Slovenian Chetniks.
  3. ^ [ http://www.pogledi.co.yu/mhs/img/20.jpg Aleksander Bajt, the famous Yugoslav and Slovenian economist, after fifty years of silence published a book about Slovenian chetniks.]
  4. ^ Mr. Mustafa Mulalic, one of Muslim officers in Chetnik’s headquarters, together with General Mihailovic and Mr. Stevan Moljevic (only three of them are in uniforms)
  5. ^ General Mihailovic with Muslim leaders in Bijeljina.

External links

  • Rescue of 500 US Airmen by Chetniks
  • AP: Airmen revisit World War II sanctuary (2004)
  • Zdravko Dizdar: Chetnik genocidal crimes during World War II
  • History of Chetniks, both in English and Serbian
  • Chetnik movement during World War II
  • U.S. Congressional record on Chetniks and Draza Mihailovic, 1987
  • 100 Anniversary of Chetnic Movement
  • Guerrilla Warfare in the Balkans, 1941-1945: Gen. Draza Mihailovic and the Prinz Eugen SS Division
  • Последњи словеначки четник постао војвода from Politika newspaper, in Serbian

Politika/Политика is a Serbian newspaper. ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ...

See also


 
 

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