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Encyclopedia > Yuga

Yuga (Devnāgari: युग) in Hindu philosophy refers to an 'epoch' or 'era' within a cycle of four ages: the Satya Yuga (or Krita Yuga), the Treta Yuga, the Dvapara Yuga and finally the Kali Yuga. The cycles are said to repeat infinitely within a greater time-cycle of the creation and destruction of the universe. It involves stages or changes that society goes through as a whole. It is also the in-breath and out-breath of God or the phases of the galaxy around the central sun. च् + छ = च्छ Devanagari in Unicode The Unicode range for Devanagari is U+0900 . ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... The Satya Yuga, also called Sat Yuga, Krta Yuga and Krita Yuga in Hinduism, is the Yuga (Age or Era) of Truth, when humankind is governed by gods, and every manifestation or work is close to the purest ideal and mankind will allow intrinsic goodness to rule supreme. ... The Krta Yuga, also spelt Krita Yuga, is considered one of the great yugas (ages, epochs) of Hinduism. ... The Treta Yuga is the second out of four yugas, or ages of man, in the religion of Hinduism, following the Satya Yuga of perfect morality and preceding the Dvapara Yuga. ... Dvapara Yuga is the third out of four yugas, or ages, in the religion of Hinduism. ... Kali Yuga is also the title of a book by Roland Charles Wagner. ...

Contents

The spiritual states of civilization in each yuga

Part of a series on
Hinduism
History · Deities
Denominations · Mythology
Beliefs & practices
Reincarnation · Moksha
Karma · Puja · Maya
Samsara · Dharma
Vedanta ·
Yoga · Ayurveda
Yuga · Vegetarianism
Bhakti
Scriptures
Upanishads · Vedas
Brahmana · Bhagavad Gita
Ramayana · Mahabharata
Purana · Aranyaka
Shikshapatri · Vachanamrut
Related topics
Dharmic Religions ·
Hinduism by country
Leaders · Devasthana
Caste system · Mantra
Glossary · Hindu festivals
Vigraha · Criticism


Hinduism (known as in some modern Indian languages[1]) is a religion that originated on the Indian subcontinent. ... Image File history File links Aumred. ... Regions which are currently or were historically under classical Hindu rule. ... Within Smarta Hinduism, a variety of forms of God are seen as aspects of the one impersonal divine ground, (Brahma) or Aum. ... Hinduism encompasses many movements and schools fairly organized within Hindu denominations. ... Hindu mythology is a term used by modern scholarship for a large body of Indian literature that details the lives and times of legendary personalities, deities and divine incarnations on earth interspersed with often large sections of philosophical and ethical discourse. ... Hindu philosophy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Reincarnation, literally to be made flesh again, is a doctrine or mystical belief that some essential part of a living being (in some variations only human beings) survives death to be reborn in a new body. ... Moksha - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Karma is a concept in Hinduism, based on the Vedas and Upanishads, which explains causality through a system where beneficial events are derived from past beneficial actions and harmful events from past harmful actions, creating a system of actions and reactions throughout a persons reincarnated lives. ... A puja as performed in Ujjain during the Monsoon on the banks of the overflowing river Shipra. ... Maya (illusion) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The Wheel of Life as portrayed within Buddhism, showing the cycle of Samsara, or reincarnation. ...   (Sanskrit) or Dhamma (Pali) is the underlying order in nature and human life and behaviour considered to be in accord with that order. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Yoga (Devanagari: योग) is one of the six schools of Hindu philosophy, focusing on meditation as a path to self-knowledge and liberation. ... Shirodhara, one of the techniques of Ayurveda Ayurveda (Devanagari: ) or Ayurvedic medicine is a practice in use primarily in the Indian subcontinent, which advocates argue assists with health and healing. ... Vegetarianism is the practice of not consuming the flesh of any animal (including sea animals) with or without also eschewing other animal derivatives, such as dairy products or eggs. ... Bhakti - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Hindu scripture is overwhelmingly written in Sanskrit. ... The Upanishads (उपनिषद्, Upanişad) are part of the Hindu Shruti scriptures which primarily discuss meditation and philosophy and are seen as religious instructions by most schools of Hinduism. ... Veda redirects here. ... The Brahmana (Sanskrit ब्राह्मण) are part of the Hindu Shruti; They are composed in Vedic Sanskrit, and the period of their composition is sometimes referred to as the Brahmanic period or age (approximately between 900 BC and 500 BC). ... Bhagavad Gīta भगवद्गीता, composed ca the fifth - second centuries BC, is part of the epic poem Mahabharata, located in the Bhisma-Parva chapters 23–40. ... For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ... Manuscript illustration of the Battle of Kurukshetra The (Devanagari: ) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the . ... The Puranas are part of Hindu Smriti; these religious scriptures discuss devotion and mythology. ... The Aranyakas (Sanskrit आरण्यक ) are part of the Hindu Å›ruti; these religious scriptures are written in early Classical Sanskrit, and form part of either the Brahmanas or Upanishads. ... The Shikshapatri is a text of two hundred and twelve verses, and was written by Shree Swaminarayan, a reforming Hindu from the Vaishnava tradition, who lived in Gujarat from 1781-1830 and who was recognised by his followers as a deity during his lifetime. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... map showing the prevalence of Dharmic (yellow) and Abrahamic (purple) religions in each country. ... The percentage of Hindu population of each country was taken from the US State Departments International Religious Freedom Report 2004. ... These are some of the most noteworthy Gurus and Saints of Hinduism: A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada Adi Shankara Amritanandamayi Baba Lokenath Brahmachari Bhakti Vaibhava Puri Maharaj Bhagawan Nityananda Bhagwan Swaminarayan Chinmayananda Gurumayi Chidvilasananda Lahiri Mahasaya Madhvacharya Mahavatar Babaji Mother Meera Muktananda Narayana Guru Nimbarka Nisargadatta Maharaj Raghavendra Swami Ramakrishna... The Gopuram of temples, in south India, are adorned with colourful icons depicting a particular story surrounding the temples deity. ... The Indian caste system is the traditional system of social division in the Indian Subcontinent, in which social classes are defined by a number of endogamous groups often termed as jātis. ... In Tibet, many Buddhists carve mantras into rocks as a form of devotion. ... Glossary of terms in Hinduism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Bronze Chola murti depicting Shivas most famous dancing posture, the Nataraja, at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links HinduSwastika. ...

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In Hindu tradition, the world goes through a continuous cycle of these epochs. Each ascending phase of the cycle from Kali Yuga to Satya Yuga is followed by a descending phase back to Kali Yuga, then another ascending phase and so on. Alternatively, it is sometimes supposed that at the end of the descending Kali Yuga, the world will return to the Satya Yuga, and begin a new decline.


The descent from Satya to Kali is associated with a progressive deterioration of Dharma (righteousness) manifested as decrease in length of human life and quality of human moral standards. In the Vishnu Purana, for example, the Kali yuga is described thus:   (Sanskrit) or Dhamma (Pali) is the underlying order in nature and human life and behaviour considered to be in accord with that order. ... The Puranas are part of Hindu Smriti; these religious scriptures discuss devotion and mythology. ...

"In the Kali Yuga, there will be numerous rulers vying with each other. They will have no character. Violence, falsehood and wickedness will be the order of the day. Piety and good nature will dwindle slowly... Passion and lust will be the only attraction between the sexes. Women will be the objects of sensual pleasure. Dishonest will be the bottom line of subsistence. Learned people will be ridiculed and put to shame; the word of the wealthy person will be the only law."

The traditional virtues accorded highest value in the four epochs are

  1. Satya Yuga or Krita Yuga - dhyana (meditation)
  2. Treta Yuga - yajna (sacrifice)
  3. Dvapara Yuga - archana (worship)
  4. Kali Yuga - daana (alms)
  1. In the highest yuga, the great majority of the people can experience spirituality by direct intuitive realization of truth. The veil between the material and the transcendent realms becomes almost transparent. According to Natya Shastra, there is no Natya performances in the Krita Yuga because it is a period free from any kind of unhappiness or misery. Satya Yuga is also called the Golden Age.
  2. Treta Yuga is the mental age, mental power is harnessed and men are in power(Inventions are characteristic of both Dvapara and Treta yugas.)
  3. In Dvapara Yuga, science flourishes, people experience the spiritual in terms of subtle energies and rational choices, inventions are abundant, particularly those that dissolve the illusion of distance (between people and between things), and power is mostly in the hands of women. The end of this age is associated with the death of Krishna, and the events described in the Mahabharata.
  4. In the lowest phase, Kali Yuga, most people are aware only of the physical aspect of existence, the predominant emphasis of living is material survival, and power is mostly in the hands of men. People's relationship with the spiritual is governed predominantly by superstition and by authority.

Temples, wars, and writing are hallmarks of Dvapara and Kali yugas. In the higher ages (Treta and Satya), writing is unnecessary because people communicate directly by thought; temples are unnecessary because people feel the omnipresence of God; wars are rare but they do occur; one such war is described in the Ramayana. The Natya Shastra or Nātyaśāstra is the principal work of dramatic theory in the Sanskrit drama of classical India. ... ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Krishna with Radha, 18th C Rajasthani painting Krishna (कृष्ण in Devanagari, in IAST ) is a deity worshipped across many traditions of Hinduism. ... Manuscript illustration of the Battle of Kurukshetra The (Devanagari: ) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the . ... For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ...


The traditional timescale of the yugas is as follows:

  1. Satya Yuga or Krita Yuga - 1,728,000 years
  2. Treta Yuga - 1,296,000 years
  3. Dvapara Yuga - 864,000 years
  4. Kali Yuga - 432,000 years

Rishis of the yore recognized that time runs faster during night time than it is during day time. The aeon Kalpa designates a day and night for Lord Brahma - it lasts 4,320,000 years. This Kalpa consists of 10 parts of 432,000 years. The Krita Yuga lasts for 4 parts; the name has the same consonants T and R of the word Chatur (four). The Threta Yuga consists of Tri (three) parts as it is apparent in the name 'Treta'. The Dvapara Yuga lasts for Dva (two) parts as it is apparent in the name 'Dvapara'. The Kali Yuga lasts for Eka (one) part; the consonant K appears in the name Kali.


Upon conclusion of seventy-one circuits of this cycle, there is a period equally long during which the world is inundated; then the cycle begins again.


Sri Yukteswar's teachings on the yugas

An alternative view of the yuga cycle and timescale was taught by the 19th/20th-century Indian yogi Swami Sri Yukteswar Giri, guru of Paramahansa Yogananda. Yoga (Devanagari: योग) is one of the six schools of Hindu philosophy, focusing on meditation as a path to self-knowledge and liberation. ... Swami playing the Harmonium Swami is a primarily Hindu honorific, loosely akin to master. It is derived from the Sanskrit language and means owner of oneself, denoting complete mastery over instinctive and lower urges. ... Priya Nath Karar, known by his monastic name Sri Yukteswar Giri (May 10, 1855-March 9, 1936), was the guru of Paramahansa Yogananda. ... Paramahansa Yogananda (Bengali: পরমহংস যোগানন্দ Pôromôhongsho Joganondo, Hindi: परमहंस योगानन्‍द; January 5, 1893–March 7, 1952), was an Indian yogi and guru. ...


In his book, The Holy Science, Sri Yukteswar explains that the descending phase of Satya Yuga lasts 4800 years, Treta Yuga 3600 years, Dwapara Yuga 2400 years, and Kali Yuga 1200 years. The ascending phase of Kali Yuga then begins, also lasting 1200 years; and so on. The ascending phase of Kali Yuga began in September of 499 AD. Since September 1699, we have been in the ascending phase of Dwapara Yuga, according to Sri Yukteswar. The Holy Science is a book written by Swami Sri Yukteswar Giri in 1894, published in the United States by Self-Realization Fellowship, and in India by Yogoda Satsanga Society of India. ... Events March 1 - Pope Symmachus makes Antipope Laurentius bishop of Nocera in Campania. ... Events January 26 - Treaty of Karlowitz signed March 30 - the tenth Sikh Master, Guru Gobind Singh created the Khalsa. ...


In The Holy Science, Sri Yukteswar writes that the traditional view is based on a misunderstanding. He says that at the end of the last descending Dwapara Yuga (about 700 BC) "Maharaja Yudhisthira, noticing the appearance of the dark Kali Yuga, made over his throne to his grandson [and]...together with all of his wise men...retired to the Himalaya Mountains...Thus there was none in the court...who could understand the principle of correctly accounting the ages of the several Yugas." The Holy Science is a book written by Swami Sri Yukteswar Giri in 1894, published in the United States by Self-Realization Fellowship, and in India by Yogoda Satsanga Society of India. ... Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 750s BC 740s BC 730s BC 720s BC 710s BC - 700s BC - 690s BC 680s BC 670s BC 660s BC 650s BC Events and Trends 708 BC - Spartan immigrants found Taras (Tarentum, the modern Taranto) colony in southern Italy. ... In the great Hindu epic Mahabharata, Yudhisthira (Sanskrit: युधिष्ठिर, yudhiṣṭhira) was the eldest son of King Pandu and Queen Kunti, king of Hastinapura and Indraprastha, and World Emperor. ...


According to Sri Yukteswar, nobody wanted to announce the bad news of the beginning of the ascending Kali Yuga, so they just kept adding years to the Kali date (at that time 2400 Kali). As the Kali began to ascend again, scholars of the time recognized that there was a mistake in the date (then being called 3600+ Kali, although their texts said Kali had only 1200 years). "By way of reconciliation, they fancied that 1200 years, the real age of Kali, were not the ordinary years of our earth, but were so many daiva (or deva) years ("years of the gods"), consisting of 12 daiva months of 30 daiva days each, with each daiva day being equal to one ordinary solar year of our earth. Hence according to these men 1200 years of Kali Yuga must be equal to 432,000 years of our earth."


Sri Yukteswar also writes that our sun has a 'star for its dual', with an orbit around this star. As our sun moves through this orbit it takes the whole solar system closer to and then further from the "grand centre" of our solar system called 'Vishnunabhi', which is the seat of the creative power, 'Brahma', [which]...regulates...the mental virtue of the internal world." He states that the proximity to this grand centre determines which yuga it is.


References

Gateway to the gardens and headquarters in Los Angeles, California The Self-Realization Fellowship is a religious organization founded by Paramahansa Yogananda in 1920. ... Ganesha as enshrined in Shri Mangesh Temple in Priol, Goa. ...

External links

  • Vedic Time Measurement, Detailed description by Gurudev
  • Vedic Time Travel, Elaborate depiction by Vinay Mangal

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Yuga Dharma (0 words)
Yuga Dharma are limited, temporary and relative in their scope and authority.
In the other yugas, duty, ordained in the Vedas, is seen to gradually decline by a quarter in each.
It has also been heard by us that, in the succeeding yugas, the words of the Vedas, the periods of life, the blessings (uttered by Brahmanas), and the fruits of Vedic rites, all decrease gradually.
The Kali Yuga -A Theosophical Article by William Q. Judge (0 words)
Kali Yuga is in length 432,000 years according to the old Indian calculation, and we are now coming to the end of its first five thousand years, that preliminary period being reckoned from the death of Krishna.
To find out when the great Kali Yuga for the major race, including all its sub-races, began would be impossible, as there are no means, and H.P.B., the only one for the present who had access to those who held the records, said precise figures on those heads would not be given out.
For that reason it seems plain that the figures for the various Ages (or Yugas) are only such as relate to and govern the sub- or minor races.
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