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Encyclopedia > Yuezhi
Yuezhi
The migrations of the Yuezhi through Central Asia, from around 176 BCE to 30 CE.
Total population

Some 100,000 to 200,000 horse archers, according to the Shiji, Chapter 123.[1] The Hanshu Chapter 96A records: 100,000 households, 400,000 people with 100,000 people able to bear arms.[2] Image File history File links Map of Yuezhi migrations. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC - 170s BC - 150s BC140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 181 BC 180 BC 179 BC 178 BC 177 BC - 176 BC - 175 BC 174 BC 173... Events The Sermon on the Mount (according to proponents of the 33 theory) April 7 - Crucifixion of Jesus (suggested date, but it is also suggested that he died on April 3, AD 33) Births Quintus Petillius Cerialis, brother-in-law of Vespasian Deaths April 7 - Judas Iscariot, disciple of Jesus...

Regions with significant populations
Western China (6th-2nd century BCE)[citation needed]
Central Asia (2nd century BCE-1st century CE)
Northern India (1st century CE-4th century CE)
Languages
Unknown, although the epigraphy ranges from Greek language to Bactrian, and often considered to have spoken a Tocharian language.[3]
Religions
Iranian deities (Nana), Buddhism, Hinduism.
Related ethnic groups
Kushans

Yuezhi (Chinese: 月氏, also 月支, Wade-Giles: Yüeh-Chih) or Da Yuezhi (Chinese:大月氏, also 大月支, "Great Yuezhi") "The Great Clan of Yue", is the Chinese name for an ancient Central Asian people. They are believed to have been the same as or closely related to the Indo-European people named Tocharians (Τοχάριοι) by ancient Greeks. They were originally settled in the arid grasslands of the eastern Tarim Basin area, in what is today Xinjiang and western Gansu, in China, before they migrated to Transoxiana, Bactria and then northern South Asia, where they formed the Kushan Empire. Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Greek ( IPA: or IPA: — Hellenic) is an Indo-European language with a documented history of 3,500 years, the longest of any single language in that language family. ... Bactria (Bactriana) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush (Caucasus Indicus) and the Amu Darya (Oxus), with the capital Bactra (now Balkh). ... Tocharian refers to an Indo-European culture that inhabited the Tarim basin in what is now Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwestern Peoples Republic of China. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Hinduism (known as in some modern Indian languages[1]) is a religion that originated on the Indian subcontinent. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... For the language group see Indo-European languages; for other uses see Indo-European (disambiguation) Indo-Europeans are speakers of Indo-European languages. ... The Tocharians or Tusharas as known in Indian literature were the easternmost speakers of an Indo-European language in antiquity, inhabiting the Tarim basin in what is now Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwestern Peoples Republic of China. ... Taklamakan Desert in the Tarim Basin. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... Gansu (Simplified Chinese: 甘肃; Traditional Chinese: 甘肅; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kan-su, Kansu, or Kan-suh) is a province located in the northwest of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Map showing modern Transoxiana. ... Bactria, about 320 BC Bactria (Bactriana, Bākhtar in Persian, also Bhalika in Arabic and Indian languages, and Ta-Hia in Chinese) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra or Balhika or Bokhdi (now... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ...

Contents

Origins

The first known reference to the Yuezhi was made in 645 BC by the Chinese Guan Zhong in his Guanzi 管子(Guanzi Essays: 73: 78: 80: 81) . He described the Yuzhi 禺氏, or Niuzhi 牛氏, as a people from the north-west who supplied jade to the Chinese from the nearby mountains of Yuzhi 禺氏 at Gansu.[4] The supply of jade from the Tarim Basin from ancient times is indeed well documented archaeologically: "It is well known that ancient Chinese rulers had a strong attachment to jade. All of the jade items excavated from the tomb of Fuhao of the Shang dynasty, more than 750 pieces, were from Khotan in modern Xinjiang. As early as the mid-first millennium BCE the Yuezhi engaged in the jade trade, of which the major consumers were the rulers of agricultural China." (Liu (2001), pp. 267-268) Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 690s BC 680s BC 670s BC 660s BC 650s BC - 640s BC - 630s BC 620s BC 610s BC 600s BC 590s BC Events and Trends Assyrian king Ashurbanipal founds library, which includes our earliest complete copy of the Epic... Guan Zhong (管仲) (died in 645 BC) was a politician in the Spring and Autumn Period. ... guanzi, see Guan (instrument). ... A selection of antique, hand-crafted Chinese jade (jadeite) buttons Unworked Jade Jade is used as an ornamental stone, the term jade is applied to two different rocks that are made up of different silicate minerals. ... Gansu (Simplified Chinese: 甘肃; Traditional Chinese: 甘肅; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kan-su, Kansu, or Kan-suh) is a province located in the northwest of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Remnants of advanced, stratified societies dating back to the Shang period have been found in the Yellow River Valley. ... Mosque in Khotan. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ...

Yuezhi (lit. "Moon People") was the name used continuously by ancient Chinese historians to designate the tribe throughout its migrations, from the time it was in the eastern Tarim Basin/ Gansu area (7th to 2nd century BCE[citation needed]) to the time it ruled the Kushan Empire in India (1st-3th century CE).
Yuezhi (lit. "Moon People") was the name used continuously by ancient Chinese historians to designate the tribe throughout its migrations, from the time it was in the eastern Tarim Basin/ Gansu area (7th to 2nd century BCE[citation needed]) to the time it ruled the Kushan Empire in India (1st-3th century CE).

The Yuezhi are also documented in detail in Chinese historical accounts, in particular the 2nd-1st century BCE "Records of the Great Historian", or Shiji, by Sima Qian. According to these accounts: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (448x720, 16 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (448x720, 16 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Taklamakan Desert in the Tarim Basin. ... Gansu (Simplified Chinese: 甘肃; Traditional Chinese: 甘肅; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kan-su, Kansu, or Kan-suh) is a province located in the northwest of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... (Redirected from 1st century BCE) (2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century - other centuries) The 1st century BC starts on January 1, 100 BC and ends on December 31, 1 BC. An alternative name for this century is the last century BC. (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st... The Records of the Grand Historian or the Records of the Grand Historian of China was the magnum opus of Sima Qian, in which he recounted Chinese history from the time of the mythical Yellow Emperor until his own time. ... Sima Qian Si Ma Qian (司馬遷) (c. ...

"The Yuezhi originally lived in the area between the Qilian or Heavenly Mountains (Tian Shan) and Dunhuang, but after they were defeated by the Xiongnu they moved far away to the west, beyond Dayuan, where they attacked and conquered the people of Daxia and set up the court of their king on the northern bank of the Gui [= Oxus] River. A small number of their people who were unable to make the journey west sought refuge among the Qiang barbarians in the Southern Mountains, where they are known as the Lesser Yuezhi.",[5]

The Qilian and Dunhuang original homeland of the Yuezhi have recently been argued not to refer to the current locations in Gansu, but to the Tian Shan range and the Turfan region, 1,000 km to the west, Dunhuang identified with a mountain named Dunhong listed in the Shanhaijing.[6] The Qilian mountain range is located in the south of the Gansu area of western China. ... The Tian Shan (Chinese: 天山; Pinyin: Tiān Shān; celestial mountains) mountain range is located in Central Asia, in the border region of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of western China. ... Location of Dunhuang Dunhuang (Chinese: 敦煌, also written as 燉煌 till early Qing Dynasty; pinyin: DÅ«nhuáng; ) is a city in Jiuquan, Gansu province, China. ... A Xiongnu belt buckle. ... The Ta-Yuan (in Ferghana) was one of the three advanced civilizations of Central Asia around 130 BCE, together with Parthia and Greco-Bactria (Han Shu, Former Han Chinese Chronicles). ... Ideograms for Ta-Hia. ... The Amu Darya (in Persian آمودریا; Darya means river in Persian) rises in the Pamirs and flows mainly north-west through the Hindu Kush, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan to join the Aral Sea in a large river delta. ... The Qiang people (羌族; Pinyin: qiāng zú) are an ethnic group. ... The Qilian mountain range is located in the south of the Gansu area of western China. ... Location of Dunhuang Dunhuang (Chinese: 敦煌, also written as 燉煌 till early Qing Dynasty; pinyin: DÅ«nhuáng; ) is a city in Jiuquan, Gansu province, China. ... Gansu (Simplified Chinese: 甘肃; Traditional Chinese: 甘肅; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kan-su, Kansu, or Kan-suh) is a province located in the northwest of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Tian Shan (Chinese: 天山; Pinyin: Tiān Shān; celestial mountains) mountain range is located in Central Asia, in the border region of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of western China. ... position in China Street of Turfan View of the Flaming mountains Emin minaret, Turfan Turfan (Uyghur: تۇرپان; Uyghur latin: Turpan; Modern Chinese 吐魯番, Pinyin: TÇ”lÇ”fán; ) is an oasis city in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Yuezhi#Origins. ... The Classic of the Seas and Mountains (Chinese: ; pinyin: ShānhÇŽi JÄ«ng) is an ancient Chinese book. ...


The Yuezhi may have been a Caucasoid people, as indicated by the portraits of their kings on the coins they struck following their exodus to Transoxiana (2nd-1st century BCE), and especially the coins they struck in India as Kushans (1st-3rd century CE). However, no direct records for the name of Yuezhi rulers are known to exist, and the portraits on their first coins may not be accurate. Typical Caucasoid skull Caucasoid is a racial classification usually used as part of a phenotypal system, also including other classifications such as Australoid, Mongoloid, Negroid, and sometimes others such as Capoid. ... Map showing modern Transoxiana. ...


Ancient Chinese sources do describe the existence of "white people with long hair" (The Bai people of the Shan Hai Jing) beyond their northwestern border, and the very well preserved Tarim mummies with Caucasian features, often with reddish or blond hair, today displayed at the Ürümqi Museum and dated to the 3rd century BCE, have been found in precisely the same area of the Tarim Basin. Shanhaijing illustration of Nüwa Shanhaijing illustration of Nine-tailed Fox, companion of Xi Wangmu The Shan Hai Jing (Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan Hai Ching; literally Classic of the Mountains and Seas) is a Chinese classic text that is at least 2,000 years old. ... A Tarim Basin mummy photographed by Aurel Stein circa 1910. ... Ãœrümqi Ãœrümqi (Uyghur: ئۈرۈمچی; Uyghur Latin script: Ãœrümqi; Simplified Chinese: 乌鲁木齐; Traditional Chinese: 烏魯木齊; pinyin: ), with a population about 1. ... (4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events The first two Punic Wars between Carthage and Rome over dominance in western Mediterranean Rome conquers Spain Great Wall of China begun Indian traders regularly visited Arabia Scythians occupy...


The Indo-European Tocharian languages also have been attested in the same geographical area, and although the first known epigraphic evidence dates to the 6th century CE, the degree of differentiation between Tocharian A and Tocharian B, and the absence of Tocharian language remains beyond that area, tends to indicate that a common Tocharian language existed in the same area of Yuezhi settlement during the second half of the 1st millennium BC. The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many spoken in the Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and Central Asia. ... Tocharian is one of the most obscure branches of the group of Indo-European languages. ... The 1st millennium BC encompasses the Iron Age and sees the rise of successive empires. ...


According to one theory, the Yuezhi were probably part of the large migration of Indo-European speaking peoples who were settled in eastern Central Asia (possibly as far as Gansu) at that time. Another example is that of the Caucasian mummies of Pazyryk, probably Scythian in origin, located around 1,500 kilometers north-west of the Yuezhi, and dated also to around the 3rd century BCE. Gansu (Simplified Chinese: 甘肃; Traditional Chinese: 甘肅; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kan-su, Kansu, or Kan-suh) is a province located in the northwest of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Horseman, Pazyryk felt artifact, c. ... Scythia was an area in Eurasia inhabited in ancient times by an Indo-Aryans known as the Scythians. ...


According to Han accounts, the Yuezhi "were flourishing" during the time of the first great Chinese Qin emperor, but were regularly in conflict with the neighbouring tribe of the Xiongnu to the northeast. The monarch known now as Qin Shi Huang (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Shih-huang) (November / December 260 BCE – September 10, 210 BCE), personal name Ying Zheng, was king of the Chinese State of Qin from 247 BCE to 221 BCE (officially still under the Zhou Dynasty), and then... A Xiongnu belt buckle. ...


The Yuezhi exodus

A Scythian horseman from the area invaded by the Yuezhi, Pazyryk, c.300 BCE.
A Scythian horseman from the area invaded by the Yuezhi, Pazyryk, c.300 BCE.

The Yuezhi sometimes practiced the exchange of hostages with the Xiongnu, and at one time were hosts to Modu Shanyu (Ch:冒頓), son of the Xiongnu leader. Modu stole a horse and escaped when the Yuezhi tried to kill him in retaliation for an attack by his father. Modu subsequently became ruler of the Xiongnu after killing his father. Download high resolution version (480x640, 148 KB)Pazyrik horseman. ... Download high resolution version (480x640, 148 KB)Pazyrik horseman. ... Horseman, Pazyryk felt artifact, c. ... A Xiongnu belt buckle. ... Modu Shanyu (born in BC) was a military leader Shanyu and emperor of Khunnu Empire located in modern-day Mongolia. ...


Around 177 BCE, led by one of Modu's tribal chiefs, the Xiongnu invaded Yuezhi territory in the Gansu region and achieved a crushing victory. Modu boasted in a letter to the Han emperor that due to "the excellence of his fighting men, and the strength of his horses, he has succeeded in wiping out the Yuezhi, slaughtering or forcing to submission every number of the tribe". The son of Modu, Jizhu, subsequently killed the king of the Yuezhi and, in accordance with nomadic traditions, "made a drinking cup out of his skull"(Shiji 123. Watson1961:231). (Redirected from 177 BCE) Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC - 170s BC - 150s BC140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 182 BC 181 BC 180 BC 179 BC 178 BC - 177 BC - 176... Gansu (Simplified Chinese: 甘肃; Traditional Chinese: 甘肅; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kan-su, Kansu, or Kan-suh) is a province located in the northwest of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Following Chinese sources, a large part of the Yuezhi people therefore fell under the domination of the Xiongnu, and these may have been the ancestors of the Tocharian speakers attested in the 6th century CE. A very small group of Yuezhi fled south to the territory of the Proto-Tibetan Qiang, and came to be known to the Chinese as the "Small Yuezhi". According to the Hanshu, they only numbered around 150 families. Tibet (older spelling Thibet; Tibetan: བོད་; Wylie: Bod; Lhasa dialect IPA: [; Simplified and Traditional Chinese: 西藏, Hanyu Pinyin: XÄ«zàng; also referred to as 藏区 (Simplified Chinese), 藏區 (Traditional Chinese), ZàngqÅ« (Hanyu Pinyin), see Name section below) is a plateau region in Central Asia and the indigenous home to the Tibetan people. ... The Qiang people (羌族; Pinyin: qiāng zú) are an ethnic group. ...


Finally, a large group of the Yuezhi fled from the Tarim Basin/ Gansu area towards the northwest, first settling in the Ili valley, immediately north of the Tian Shan mountains, where they confronted and defeated the Sai (Sakas or Scythians): "The Yuezhi attacked the king of the Sai who moved a considerable distance to the south and the Yuezhi then occupied his lands" (Han Shu 61 4B). The Sai undetook their own migration, which was to lead them as far as Kashmir, after travelling through a "Suspended Crossing' (probably the Khunjerab Pass between present-day Xinjiang and northern Pakistan). The Sakas ultimately established an Indo-Scythian kingdom in northern India. The Ili River is a river in Kazakhstan and in the western part of the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region, in northwestern China. ... The Tian Shan (Chinese: 天山; Pinyin: Tiān Shān; celestial mountains) mountain range is located in Central Asia, in the border region of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of western China. ... Saka is also the name of a town in Hiroshima, Japan; for information on this town, see Saka, Hiroshima. ... Scythian warriors, drawn after figures on an electrum cup from the KulOba kurgan burial near Kerch. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... Khunjerab Pass from Pakistani side Snow leopard, an endangered species, is found in the Khunjerab National Park The Khunjerab Pass is a high mountain pass on the northern border of Pakistan with the Peoples Republic of China. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... The Indo-Scythian King of Kings Azes II (c. ...


After 155 BCE, the Wusun, in alliance with the Xiongnu and out of revenge from an earlier conflict, managed to disloge the Yuezhi, forcing them to move south. The Yuezhi crossed the neighbouring urban civilization of the Dayuan in Ferghana, and settled on the northern bank of the Oxus, in the region of Transoxiana, in modern-day Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, just north of the Hellenistic Greco-Bactrian kingdom. The Greek city of Alexandria on the Oxus was apparently burnt to the ground by the Yuezhi around 145 BCE. (Redirected from 155 BCE) Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC - 150s BC - 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC Years: 160 BC 159 BC 158 BC 157 BC 156 BC - 155 BC... Wusun (烏孫) --- information about this historic people can be found in Chinese historical annals. ... The Ta-Yuan (in Ferghana) was one of the three advanced civilizations of Central Asia around 130 BCE, together with Parthia and Greco-Bactria (Han Shu, Former Han Chinese Chronicles). ... Fergana is a city in the Fergana Valley, capital of the Fargona Viloyati of Uzbekistan. ... The Amu Darya (in Persian آمودریا; Darya means river in Persian) rises in the Pamirs and flows mainly north-west through the Hindu Kush, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan to join the Aral Sea in a large river delta. ... Map showing modern Transoxiana. ... The Greco-Bactrian Kingdom (or Graeco-Bactrian Kingdom) covered the areas of Bactria and Sogdiana, comprising todays northern Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia, the easternmost area of the Hellenistic world, from 250 to 125 BCE. The expansion of the Greco-Bactrians into northern India from 180 BCE established... Ai-Khanoum (lit. ... (Redirected from 145 BCE) Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC - 140s BC - 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC Years: 150 BC 149 BC 148 BC 147 BC 146 BC - 145 BC...


Settlement in Transoxiana

The Chinese mission of Zhang Qian to the Yuezhi in 126 BCE, Mogao Caves, 618-712 CE mural painting.
The Chinese mission of Zhang Qian to the Yuezhi in 126 BCE, Mogao Caves, 618-712 CE mural painting.

The Yuezhi were visited by a Chinese mission, led by Zhang Qian in 126 BCE[citation needed], that was seeking an offensive alliance with the Yuezhi to counter the Xiongnu threat to the north. Although the request for an alliance was denied by the son of the slain Yuezhi king, who preferred to maintain peace in Transoxiana rather than to seek revenge, Zhang Qian made a detailed account, reported in the Shiji, that gives a lot of insight into the situation in Central Asia at that time.[citation needed] Zhang Qian leaving emperor Han Wudi around 130 BCE, for his expedition to Central Asia. ... Zhang Qian leaving emperor Han Wudi around 130 BCE, for his expedition to Central Asia. ... Zhang Qian taking leave from emperor Han Wudi, for his expedition to Central Asia from 138 to 126 BCE, Mogao Caves mural, 618-712 CE. Zhang Qian was an imperial envoy in the 2nd century BCE, during the time of the Han Dynasty. ... (Redirected from 126 BCE) Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC - 120s BC - 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC Years: 131 BC 130 BC 129 BC 128 BC 127 BC - 126 BC... The Mogao Caves, or Mogao Grottoes (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) form a system of 492 temples near Dunhuang, in Gansu province, China. ... Zhang Qian taking leave from emperor Han Wudi, for his expedition to Central Asia from 138 to 126 BCE, Mogao Caves mural, 618-712 CE. Zhang Qian was an imperial envoy in the 2nd century BCE, during the time of the Han Dynasty. ... (Redirected from 126 BCE) Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC - 120s BC - 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC Years: 131 BC 130 BC 129 BC 128 BC 127 BC - 126 BC... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ...


Zhang Qian, who spent a year with the Yuezhi and in Bactria, relates that "the Great Yuezhi live 2,000 or 3,000 li (832-1,247 kilometers) west of Dayuan (Ferghana), north of the Gui (Oxus) river. They are bordered on the south by Daxia (Bactria), on the west by Anxi (Parthia), and on the north by Kangju (beyond the middle Jaxartes). They are a nation of nomads, moving from place to place with their herds, and their customs are like those of the Xiongnu. They have some 100,000 or 200,000 archer warriors." (Shiji 123, trans. Burton Watson). Bactria, about 320 BC Bactria (Bactriana, Bākhtar in Persian, also Bhalika in Arabic and Indian languages, and Ta-Hia in Chinese) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra or Balhika or Bokhdi (now... The Ta-Yuan (in Ferghana) was one of the three advanced civilizations of Central Asia around 130 BCE, together with Parthia and Greco-Bactria (Han Shu, Former Han Chinese Chronicles). ... Fergana is a city in the Fergana Valley, capital of the Fargona Viloyati of Uzbekistan. ... The Amu Darya (in Persian آمودریا; Darya means river in Persian) rises in the Pamirs and flows mainly north-west through the Hindu Kush, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan to join the Aral Sea in a large river delta. ... Ideograms for Ta-Hia. ... Bactria, about 320 BC Bactria (Bactriana, Bākhtar in Persian, also Bhalika in Arabic and Indian languages, and Ta-Hia in Chinese) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra or Balhika or Bokhdi (now... Parthia[1] (Middle Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân) was a civilization situated in the northeast of modern Iran, but at its height covering all of Iran proper, as well as regions of the modern countries of Armenia, Iraq, Georgia, eastern Turkey, eastern Syria, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Kuwait, the Persian Gulf... The Mazar of Shaikh Ahmad Yasavi in the town of Turkestan. ... Syr Darya (also known as Syrdarya or Sirdaryo) is a river in Central Asia. ... Kazakh nomads in the steppes of the Russian Empire, ca. ... Burton Watson (born 1925) is one of the worlds best-known translators of the Chinese and Japanese literary works. ...


Although they remained north of the Oxus for a while, they apparently obtained the submission of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom to the south of the Oxus. The Yuezhi were organized into five major tribes, each led by a yabgu, or tribal chief, and known to the Chinese as Xiūmì (Ch:休密) in Western Wakhān and Zibak, Guishang (Ch:貴霜) in Badakhshan and the adjoining territories north of the Oxus, Shuangmi (Ch:雙靡) in the region of Shughnan, Xidun (Ch:肸頓) in the region of Balk, and Dūmì (Ch:都密) in the region of Termez [7] The Greco-Bactrian Kingdom (or Graeco-Bactrian Kingdom) covered the areas of Bactria and Sogdiana, comprising todays northern Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia, the easternmost area of the Hellenistic world, from 250 to 125 BCE. The expansion of the Greco-Bactrians into northern India from 180 BCE established... Badakhshan is a region comprising parts of northeastern Afghanistan and of Tajikistan. ... The Amu Darya (in Persian آمودریا; Darya means river in Persian) rises in the Pamirs and flows mainly north-west through the Hindu Kush, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan to join the Aral Sea in a large river delta. ... In baseball, a pitcher may commit a number of illegal motions or actions which constitute a balk. ... Termez (Termiz in Uzbek; Termes in German) is a city in southern Uzbekistan near the border with Afghanistan. ...


A description of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom was made by Zhang Qian after the conquest by Yuezhi: Zhang Qian taking leave from emperor Han Wudi, for his expedition to Central Asia from 138 to 126 BCE, Mogao Caves mural, 618-712 CE. Zhang Qian was an imperial envoy in the 2nd century BCE, during the time of the Han Dynasty. ...

"Ta-Hsia (Greco-Bactria) is located over 2,000 li southwest of Ta-Yuan, south of the Gui (Oxus) river. Its people cultivate the land and have cities and houses. Their customs are like those of Ta-Yuan. It has no great ruler but only a number of petty chiefs ruling the various cities. The people are poor in the use of arms and afraid of battle, but they are clever at commerce. After the Great Yuezhi moved west and attacked the lands, the entire country came under their sway. The population of the country is large, numbering some 1,000,000 or more persons. The capital is called the city of Lanshi (Bactra) (modern Balkh) and has a market where all sorts of goods are bought and sold." ("Records of the Great Historian" by Sima Qian, quoting Zhang Qian, trans. Burton Watson)

In a sweeping analysis of the physical types and cultures of Central Asia that he visited in 126 BCE, Zhang Qian reports that "although the states from Dayuan west to Anxi (Parthia), speak rather different languages, their customs are generally similar and their languages mutually intelligible. The men have deep-set eyes and profuse beards and whiskers." (Shiji 123, trans. Burton Watson). Characters for Ta-Hsia. ... Approximate extent of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom circa 220 BCE. The Greco-Bactrians were a dynasty of Greek kings who controlled Bactria and Sogdiana, an area comprising todays northern Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia, the easternmost area of the Hellenistic world, from 250 to 125 BCE. Their expansion... Li: A Chinese unit of distance, 里 (Lǐ), a li is equal to 500 metres, or about 1/3 mile. ... The Ta-Yuan (in Ferghana) was one of the three advanced civilizations of Central Asia around 130 BCE, together with Parthia and Greco-Bactria (Han Shu, Former Han Chinese Chronicles). ... The Amu Darya (in Persian آمودریا; Darya means river in Persian) rises in the Pamirs and flows mainly north-west through the Hindu Kush, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan to join the Aral Sea in a large river delta. ... The Ta-Yuan (in Ferghana) was one of the three advanced civilizations of Central Asia around 130 BCE, together with Parthia and Greco-Bactria (Han Shu, Former Han Chinese Chronicles). ... Bactria (Bactriana) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush (Caucasus Indicus) and the Amu Darya (Oxus), with the capital Bactra (now Balkh). ... Today Balkh (Persian: بلخ) is a small town in the Province of Balkh, Afghanistan, about 20 kilometers northwest of the provincial capital, Mazari Sharif, and some 74 km (46 miles) south of the Amu Darya, the Oxus River of antiquity, of which a tributary formerly flowed past Balkh. ... (Redirected from 126 BCE) Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC - 120s BC - 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC Years: 131 BC 130 BC 129 BC 128 BC 127 BC - 126 BC... The Ta-Yuan (in Ferghana) was one of the three advanced civilizations of Central Asia around 130 BCE, together with Parthia and Greco-Bactria (Han Shu, Former Han Chinese Chronicles). ...


Invasion of Bactria

One of the first Yuezhi coins, imitative, in crude style, of the coins of the Greco-Bactrian king Heliocles, circa 120 BCE.Obv: Presumed bust of a Yuezhi chief with Greek royal headband.Rev: Zeus with thunderbolt and sceptre. Misspelled Greek legend BASILEO HELIOLEEU "(of) King Heliocles".
One of the first Yuezhi coins, imitative, in crude style, of the coins of the Greco-Bactrian king Heliocles, circa 120 BCE.
Obv: Presumed bust of a Yuezhi chief with Greek royal headband.
Rev: Zeus with thunderbolt and sceptre. Misspelled Greek legend BASILEO HELIOLEEU "(of) King Heliocles".

In 124 BCE the Yuezhi were apparently involved in a war against the Parthians, in which the Parthian king Artabanus I of Parthia was wounded and died: Image File history File links Yuezhi coin, imitative of the coins of the Greco-Bactrian king Heliocles, circa 120 BCE. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Yuezhi coin, imitative of the coins of the Greco-Bactrian king Heliocles, circa 120 BCE. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Approximate extent of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom circa 220 BCE. The Greco-Bactrians were a dynasty of Greek kings who controlled Bactria and Sogdiana, an area comprising todays northern Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia, the easternmost area of the Hellenistic world, from 250 to 125 BCE. Their expansion... Silver coin of Heliocles (145-125 BCE) Obv: Bust of Heliocles Rev: Zeus standing, with thunderbolt and sceptre. ... (Redirected from 120 BCE) Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC - 120s BC - 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC Years: 125 BC 124 BC 123 BC 122 BC 121 BC - 120 BC... The Statue of Zeus at Olympia Phidias created the 12-m (40-ft) tall statue of Zeus at Olympia about 435 BC. The statue was perhaps the most famous sculpture in Ancient Greece, imagined here in a 16th century engraving Zeus (in Greek: nominative: Zeús, genitive: Diós), is... (Redirected from 124 BCE) Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC - 120s BC - 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC Years: 129 BC 128 BC 127 BC 126 BC 125 BC - 124 BC... Coin of Artabanus I. Reverse shows a seated goddess (perhaps Demeter) holding Nike and a cornucopia. ...

"During the war against the Tokharians, he (Artabanus) was wounded in the arm and died immediately" (Justin, Epitomes, XLII,2,2: "Bello Tochariis inlato, in bracchio vulneratus statim decedit").

Some time after 124 BCE, possibly disturbed by further incursions of rivals from the north, and apparently vanquished by the Parthian king Mithridates II, successor to Artabanus, the Yuezhi moved south to Bactria. Bactria had been conquered by the Macedonians under Alexander the Great in 330 BCE, and since settled by the Hellenistic civilization of the Seleucids and the Greco-Bactrians for two centuries. (Redirected from 124 BCE) Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC - 120s BC - 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC Years: 129 BC 128 BC 127 BC 126 BC 125 BC - 124 BC... Coin of Mithridates II from the mint at Seleucia. ... Bactria, about 320 BC Bactria (Bactriana, Bākhtar in Persian, also Bhalika in Arabic and Indian languages, and Ta-Hia in Chinese) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra or Balhika or Bokhdi (now... Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC–June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of the most successful military commanders in history. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC - 330s BC - 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 335 BC 334 BC 333 BC 332 BC 331 BC - 330 BC - 329 BC 328 BC 327... The term Hellenistic (derived from HéllÄ“n, the Greeks traditional self-described ethnic name) was established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen to refer to the spreading of Greek culture over the non-Greek people that were conquered by Alexander the Great. ... Seleucus I Nicator (Nicator, the Victor) (around 358–281 BC) was one of Alexander the Greats generals who, after Alexanders death in 323 BC, founded the Seleucid Empire. ... Approximate extent of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom circa 220 BCE. The Greco-Bactrians were a dynasty of Greek kings who controlled Bactria and Sogdiana, an area comprising todays northern Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia, the easternmost area of the Hellenistic world, from 250 to 125 BCE. Their expansion...


This event is recorded in Classical Greek sources, when Strabo presented them as a Scythian tribe, and explained that the Tokharians -- together with the Assianis, Passianis and Sakaraulis -- took part in the destruction of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom in the second half of the 2nd century BCE: The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Scythia was an area in Eurasia inhabited in ancient times by an Indo-Aryans known as the Scythians. ... The Greco-Bactrian Kingdom (or Graeco-Bactrian Kingdom) covered the areas of Bactria and Sogdiana, comprising todays northern Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia, the easternmost area of the Hellenistic world, from 250 to 125 BCE. The expansion of the Greco-Bactrians into northern India from 180 BCE established... (3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events BC 168 Battle of Pydna -- Macedonian phalanx defeated by Romans BC 148 Rome conquers Macedonia BC 146 Rome destroys Carthage in the Third Punic War BC 146 Rome conquers...

"Most of the Scythians, beginning from the Caspian Sea, are called Dahae Scythae, and those situated more towards the east Massagetae and Sacae; the rest have the common appellation of Scythians, but each separate tribe has its peculiar name. All, or the greatest part of them, are nomads. The best known tribes are those who deprived the Greeks of Bactriana, the Asii, Pasiani, Tochari, and Sacarauli, who came from the country on the other side of the Jaxartes, opposite the Sacae and Sogdiani." (Strabo, 11-8-1)

The last Greco-Bactrian king Heliocles I retreated and moved his capital to the Kabul Valley. The eastern part of Bactria was occupied by Pashtun people. Scythian warriors, drawn after figures on an electrum cup from the KulOba kurgan burial near Kerch. ... The Caspian Sea (Russian: Каспийское море; Kazakh: Каспий теңізі; Turkmen: Hazar deňizi; Azeri: XÉ™zÉ™r dÉ™nizi; Persian: دریای خزر Daryā-ye Khazar) is the largest lake on Earth by area[2], with a surface area of 371,000 square kilometers (143,244 sq mi) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometers (18... Ideograms for Ta-Hsia. ... The Massagetae were an Iranian people[1][2][3][4] of antiquity known primarily from the writings of Herodotus. ... A cataphract-style parade armour from gold scales of Sakas King found in Issyk in Kazakhstan in 1970[1] The Sakas were Iranian people stock who lived in what is now Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan and parts of Iran, Ukraine, and Altay Mountains and Siberia in Russia, in the... Bactria, about 320 BC Bactria (Bactriana, Bākhtar in Persian, also Bhalika in Arabic and Indian languages, and Ta-Hia in Chinese) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra or Balhika or Bokhdi (now... Syr Darya (also known as Syrdarya or Sirdaryo) is a river in Central Asia. ... The Sogdians were an ancient people of Central Asia, who inhabited the region known to the West as Sogdiana. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Silver coin of Heliocles (145-125 BCE) Obv: Bust of Heliocles Rev: Zeus standing, with thunderbolt and sceptre. ... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun, ethnic Afghan, or Pathan) are an ethno-linguistic group consisting mainly of eastern Iranian stock living primarily in eastern and southern Afghanistan, and the North West Frontier Province, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan. ...


As they settled in Bactria from around 125 BCE, the Yuezhi became Hellenized to some degree, as suggested by their adoption of the Greek alphabet and by some remaining coins, minted in the style of the Greco-Bactrian kings, with the text in Greek. The area of Bactria they settled came to be known as Tokharistan, since the Yuezhi were called "Tocharians" by the Greeks. (Redirected from 125 BCE) Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC - 120s BC - 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC Years: 130 BC 129 BC 128 BC 127 BC 126 BC - 125 BC... Approximate extent of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom circa 220 BCE. The Greco-Bactrians were a dynasty of Greek kings who controlled Bactria and Sogdiana, an area comprising todays northern Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia, the easternmost area of the Hellenistic world, from 250 to 125 BCE. Their expansion... Tokharistan is a name which was given to Bactria, following its settlement by various Central Asian people in the 2nd century BCE. The first literary mentions of Thokaristan appear at the end of the 4th century CE in Chinese Buddhist sources (the Vibhasa-sastra). ... The Tocharians or Tusharas as known in Indian literature were the easternmost speakers of an Indo-European language in antiquity, inhabiting the Tarim basin in what is now Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwestern Peoples Republic of China. ...


Commercial relations with China also flourished, as many Chinese missions were sent throughout the 1st century BCE: "The largest of these embassies to foreign states numbered several hundred persons, while even the smaller parties included over 100 members... In the course of one year anywhere from five to six to over ten parties would be sent out." (Shiji, trans. Burton Watson). (Redirected from 1st century BCE) (2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century - other centuries) The 1st century BC starts on January 1, 100 BC and ends on December 31, 1 BC. An alternative name for this century is the last century BC. (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st...


The Hou Hanshu also records the visit of Yuezhi envoys to the Chinese capital in 2 BCE, who gave oral teachings on Buddhist sutras to a student, suggesting that some Yuezhi already followed the Buddhist faith during the 1st century BCE (Baldev Kumar (1973)). The Book of Later Han (Chinese: 後漢書; pinyin: ) is a history of the Chinese Empire which was compiled by Fan Yeh (范晔; 398-445), using a number of earlier histories as sources. ... (Redirected from 2 BCE) Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC - 0s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s 7 BC 6 BC 5 BC 4 BC 3 BC 2 BC 1 BC 1 2 3 4 Events... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by...


A later Chinese annotation of the 7th-century by Zhang Shoujie, quoted from the Nanzhouzhi (a now-lost text from the 3rd-century) describes the Kushans as living in the same general area north of India, in cities of Greco-Roman style, and with sophisticated handicraft. The Chinese never adopted the term "Kushans", and continued to call them "Yuezhi": The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... // Overview Events 212: Constitutio Antoniniana grants citizenship to all free Roman men 212-216: Baths of Caracalla 230-232: Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east 235-284: Crisis of the Third Century shakes Roman Empire 250-538: Kofun era, the first... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ...

"The Great Yuezhi is located about seven thousand li (about 3000 km) north of India. Their land is at a high altitude; the climate is dry; the region is remote. The king of the state calls himself "son of heaven". There are so many riding horses in that country that the number often reaches several hundred thousand. City layouts and palaces are quite similar to those of Daqin (the Roman empire). The skin of the people there is reddish white. People are skilful at horse archery. Local products, rarities, treasures, clothing, and upholstery are very good, and even India cannot compare with it." [8]

Daqin (Ch:大秦) is the ancient Chinese name for the Roman Empire. ...

Expansion into the Hindu-Kush

A posthumus, slightly barbarized, coin of Hermaeus, minted in the Paropamisadae between 50 BCE and 25 BCE.Obv: Bust of Hermaeus. Greek legend BASILEOS SOTIROS ERMAIOU "Saviour King Hermaeus".Rev: Zeus, non-radiating, making a benediction gesture. Kharoshti legend: MAHARAJASA TRATARASA HERAYAMASA "Saviour King Hermaeus".
A posthumus, slightly barbarized, coin of Hermaeus, minted in the Paropamisadae between 50 BCE and 25 BCE.
Obv: Bust of Hermaeus. Greek legend BASILEOS SOTIROS ERMAIOU "Saviour King Hermaeus".
Rev: Zeus, non-radiating, making a benediction gesture. Kharoshti legend: MAHARAJASA TRATARASA HERAYAMASA "Saviour King Hermaeus".

The area of the Hindu-Kush (Paropamisadae) was ruled by the western Indo-Greek king until the reign of Hermaeus (reigned c. 90 BCE70 BCE). After that date, no Indo-Greek kings are known in the area, which was probably overtaken by the neighbouring Yuezhi, who had been in relation with the Greeks for a long time. According to Bopearachchi, no trace of Indo-Scythians occupation (nor coins of major Indo-Scythian rulers such as Maues or Azes I) have been found in the Paropamisadae and western Gandhara. Image File history File links Posthumous coin of King Hermaeus. ... Image File history File links Posthumous coin of King Hermaeus. ... Silver drachm of king Hermaeus (90-70 BCE). ... The Paropamisadae is an ancient area of the Hindu-Kush, in the Eastern part of Afghanistan. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 55 BC 54 BC 53 BC 52 BC 51 BC 50 BC 49 BC 48 BC 47... (Redirected from 25 BCE) Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC - 20s BC - 10s BC 0s 10s 20s 30s Years: 30 BC 29 BC 28 BC 27 BC 26 BC 25 BC 24 BC 23 BC 22... The Statue of Zeus at Olympia Phidias created the 12-m (40-ft) tall statue of Zeus at Olympia about 435 BC. The statue was perhaps the most famous sculpture in Ancient Greece, imagined here in a 16th century engraving Zeus (in Greek: nominative: Zeús, genitive: Diós), is... The Kharoṣṭhī script, also known as the Gāndhārī script, is an ancient alphabetic script used by the Gandhara culture of historic northwest India to write the Gandhari and Sanskrit languages (the Gandhara kingdom was located along the present-day border... The Hindu Kush, HindÅ« KÅ«sh, Hindoo Koosh or Hindukush (Persian: هندوکش, Hindi: हिन्दु कुश) is a mountain range in Afghanistan as well as in the North-West Frontier Province and Northern Areas of Pakistan. ... The Paropamisadae is an ancient area of the Hindu-Kush, in the Eastern part of Afghanistan. ... Maximum extent of Indo-Greek territory circa 175 BCE. The Indo-Greeks (or sometimes Greco-Indians) designate a series of Greek kings, who invaded and controlled parts of northwest and northern India from 180 BCE to around 10 BCE. They are the continuation of the Greco-Bactrian dynasty of Greek... Silver drachm of king Hermaeus (90-70 BCE). ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC - 90s BC - 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC Years: 95 BC 94 BC 93 BC 92 BC 91 BC - 90 BC - 89 BC 88 BC 87... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC - 70s BC - 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 74 BC 74 BC 73 BC 72 BC 71 BC 70 BC 69 BC 68 BC 67 BC... Monnaies Gréco-Bactriennes et Indo-Grecques, by Osmund Bopearachchi, 1991. ... The Indo-Scythian King of Kings Azes II (c. ... Silver tetradrachm of Maues. ... Coin of Azes I (57-35 BCE). ... The Paropamisadae is an ancient area of the Hindu-Kush, in the Eastern part of Afghanistan. ... Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ...


As they had done in Bactria with their copying of Greco-Bactrian coinage, the Yuezhi copied the coinage of Hermeaus on a vast scale, up to around 40 CE, when the design blends into the coinage of the Kushan king Kujula Kadphises. Approximate extent of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom circa 220 BCE. The Greco-Bactrians were a dynasty of Greek kings who controlled Bactria and Sogdiana, an area comprising todays northern Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia, the easternmost area of the Hellenistic world, from 250 to 125 BCE. Their expansion... Silver drachm of king Hermaeus (90-70 BCE). ... Events Roman Empire Caligula embarks on a campaign to conquer Britain, and fails miserably. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... Tetradrachm of Kujula Kadphises (30-80 CE) in the style of Hermaeus. ...

Coin of Sapadbizes:
Obv: Bust of Sapadbizes (c 20 BC). Greek legend CAΠAΛBIZHC "Sapallizes".
Rev: Lion with Greek legend NANAIA repeated left and right (name of a goddess). Tamgha of hill & crescent. Qunduz mint, in Afghanistan.

The first presumed, and documented, Yuezhi prince is Sapadbizes (probably a yabgu's prince of Yuezhi confederation), who ruled around 20 BCE, and minted in Greek and in the same style as the western Indo-Greek kings. Yuezhi prince Sapalbizes (c. ... Yuezhi prince Sapalbizes (c. ... Coin of the first identifiable Yuezhi prince, Sapadbizes (c. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC - 20s BC - 10s BC 0s 10s 20s 30s Years: 25 BC 24 BC 23 BC 22 BC 21 BC 20 BC 19 BC 18 BC 17 BC 16 BC 15... The Kunduz province is a province around the city of Kunduz in Afghanistan, with an area of 7,827 km square, and a population of about 583,000. ... Coin of the first identifiable Yuezhi prince, Sapadbizes (c. ...


Foundation of the Kushan empire

By the end of the 1st century BCE, one of the five tribes of the Yuezhi, the Guishuang (Ch: 貴霜, origin of name Kushan adopted in the West), managed to take control of the Yuezhi confederation. According to some theories[citation needed], the Guishuang may have been distinct from the Yuezhi, possibly of Saka origins. From that point, the Yuezhi extended their control over the northwestern area of the Indian subcontinent, founding the Kushan Empire, which was to rule the region for several centuries. The Yuezhi came to be known as Kushan among Western civilizations, however the Chinese kept calling them Yuezhi throughout their historical records over a period of several centuries. (Redirected from 1st century BCE) (2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century - other centuries) The 1st century BC starts on January 1, 100 BC and ends on December 31, 1 BC. An alternative name for this century is the last century BC. (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st... A cataphract-style parade armour from gold scales of Sakas King found in Issyk in Kazakhstan in 1970[1] The Sakas were Iranian people stock who lived in what is now Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan and parts of Iran, Ukraine, and Altay Mountains and Siberia in Russia, in the... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ...


The Yuezhi/ Kushans expanded to the east during the 1st century AD, to found the Kushan Empire. The first Kushan emperor Kujula Kadphises ostensibly associated himself with Hermaeus on his coins, suggesting that he may have been one of his descendants by alliance, or at least wanted to claim his legacy. Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... Tetradrachm of Kujula Kadphises (30-80 CE) in the style of Hermaeus. ... Silver drachm of king Hermaeus (90-70 BCE). ...

The first self-declared Kushan ruler Heraios (1-30 CE) in Greco-Bactrian style.
Obv: Bust of Heraios, with Greek royal headband.
Rev: Horse-mounted King, crowned with a wreath by the Greek goddess of victory Nike. Greek legend: TVPANNOVOTOΣ HΛOV - ΣΛNΛB - KOÞÞANOY "The Tyrant Heraios, Sanav (meaning unknown), of the Kushans".

The unification of the Yuezhi tribes and the rise of the Kushan is documented in the Chinese Historical chronicle Hou Hanshu: Coin from the COIN INDIA site [1]. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Coin from the COIN INDIA site [1]. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Silver tetradrachm of Kushan king Heraios (1-30 CE) in Greco-Bactrian style. ... This article is about the year 1. ... Events The Sermon on the Mount (according to proponents of the 33 theory) April 7 - Crucifixion of Jesus (suggested date, but it is also suggested that he died on April 3, AD 33) Births Quintus Petillius Cerialis, brother-in-law of Vespasian Deaths April 7 - Judas Iscariot, disciple of Jesus... Approximate extent of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom circa 220 BCE. The Greco-Bactrians were a dynasty of Greek kings who controlled Bactria and Sogdiana, an area comprising todays northern Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia, the easternmost area of the Hellenistic world, from 250 to 125 BCE. Their expansion... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Book of Later Han (Chinese: 後漢書; pinyin: ) is a history of the Chinese Empire which was compiled by Fan Yeh (范晔; 398-445), using a number of earlier histories as sources. ...

"More than a hundred years later, the xihou (Ch:翖侯, "Allied Prince") of Guishuang (Badakhshan and the adjoining territories north of the Oxus), named Qiujiu Que (Ch: 丘就卻, Kujula Kadphises) attacked and exterminated the four other xihou ("Allied Princes"). He set himself up as king of a kingdom called Guishuang (Kushan). He invaded Anxi (Parthia) and took the Gaofu (Ch:高附, Kabul) region. He also defeated the whole of the kingdoms of Puda and Jibin (Ch: 罽賓, Kapiśa-Gandhāra). Qiujiu Que (Kujula Kadphises) was more than eighty years old when he died.
His son, Yan Gaozhen (Ch:閻高珍) (Vima Takto), became king in his place. He returned and defeated Tianzhu (Northwestern India) and installed a General to supervise and lead it. The Yuezhi then became extremely rich. All the kingdoms call [their king] the Guishuang (Kushan) king, but the Han call them by their original name, Da Yuezhi." (Hou Hanshu, trans. John Hill, [9]).

The Yuezhi/Kushan integrated Buddhism into a pantheon of many deities, became great promoters of Mahayana Buddhism, and their interactions with Greek civilization helped the Gandharan culture and Greco-Buddhism flourish. Badakhshan is a region comprising parts of northeastern Afghanistan and of Tajikistan. ... Tetradrachm of Kujula Kadphises (30-80 CE) in the style of Hermaeus. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... Parthia empire at its greatest extent The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BC, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BC and 224 AD. Parthia was the arch-enemy of the Roman Empire in the East and it limited... Parthia[1] (Middle Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân) was a civilization situated in the northeast of modern Iran, but at its height covering all of Iran proper, as well as regions of the modern countries of Armenia, Iraq, Georgia, eastern Turkey, eastern Syria, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Kuwait, the Persian Gulf... For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ... Gandhāra (also Ghandara, Ghandahra, Chandahara, and Persian Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Mahajanapada in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ... Bronze coin of Vima Takto, alias Soter Megas (r. ... Han Dynasty commanderies and kingdoms, AD 2 Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 AD - 24 AD... The Book of Later Han (Chinese: 後漢書; pinyin: ) is a history of the Chinese Empire which was compiled by Fan Yeh (范晔; 398-445), using a number of earlier histories as sources. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Relief image of the bodhisattva Guan Yin from Mt. ... Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ... The Buddha, in Greco-Buddhist style, 1st-2nd century CE, Gandhara. ...


During the 1st and 2nd century, the Kushan Empire expanded militarily to the north and occupied parts of the Tarim Basin, their original grounds, putting them at the center of the lucrative Central Asian commerce with the Roman Empire. They are related to have collaborated militarily with the Chinese against nomadic incursion, particularly when they collaborated with the Chinese general Ban Chao against the Sogdians in 84 CE, when the latter were trying to support a revolt by the king of Kashgar. Around 85 CE[citation needed], they also assisted the Chinese general in an attack on Turfan, east of the Tarim Basin. Taklamakan Desert in the Tarim Basin. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire. ... Ban Chao (班超, 32-102 CE) was a Chinese general and cavalry commander in charge of the administration of the Western Regions (Central Asia) during the Eastern Han dynasty. ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 0s BC - 0s - 10s - 20s - 30s - 40s - 50s - 60s - 70s - 80s - 90s - 100s Years: 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 Events Possible date of Battle of Mons Graupius (83 or 84) Pliny the Younger was sevir... Location of Kashgar Kashgars Sunday market Kashgar (also spelled Cascar[1]) (Uyghur: /; Chinese: ; pinyin: , ), is an oasis city in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Events Roman Empire Dacians under Decebalus engaged in two wars against the Romans from this year to AD 88 or 89. ... position in China Street of Turfan View of the Flaming mountains Emin minaret, Turfan Turfan (Uyghur: تۇرپان; Uyghur latin: Turpan; Modern Chinese 吐魯番, Pinyin: Tǔlǔfán; ) is an oasis city in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


In recognition for their support to the Chinese, the Kushans requested, but were denied, a Han princess, even after they had sent presents to the Chinese court. In retaliation, they marched on Ban Chao in 86 CE with a force of 70,000, but, exhausted by the expedition, were finally defeated by the smaller Chinese force. The Kushans retreated and paid tribute to the Chinese Empire during the reign of the Chinese emperor Han He (89-106). Languages Chinese languages, Indian languages, Hebrew Religions Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ... Events Roman Empire Domitian introduces the Capitoline Games. ... Format of naming convention in English is under discussion at Wikipedia talk:Naming conventions (Chinese). ...


Later, the Yuezhi/Kushans established a kingdom centered on Kashgar around 120 CE[citation needed], and introduced the Brahmi script, the Indian Prakrit language for administration, and Greco-Buddhist art which developed into Serindian art. Location of Kashgar Kashgars Sunday market Kashgar (also spelled Cascar[1]) (Uyghur: /; Chinese: ; pinyin: , ), is an oasis city in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... For other uses, see number 120. ... Brāhmī refers to the pre-modern members of the Brahmic family of scripts, attested from the 3rd century BC. The best known and earliest dated inscriptions in Brahmi are the rock-cut edicts of Ashoka. ... Prakrit (also spelt Pracrit) (Sanskrit: , original, natural, artless, normal, ordinary, usual, i. ... Gandhara Buddha, 1st-2nd century CE. Greco-Buddhist art is the artistic manifestation of Greco-Buddhism, a cultural syncretism between the Classical Greek culture and Buddhism, which developed over a period of close to 1000 years in Central Asia, between the conquests of Alexander the Great in the 4th century... Categories: Asian art | Stub ...


Benefiting from this territorial expansion, the Yuezhi/Kushans were among the first to introduce Buddhism to northern and northeastern Asia, by direct missionary efforts and the translation of Buddhist scriptures into Chinese. Major Yuezhi missionary and translators included Lokaksema and Dharmaraksa, who went to China and established translation bureaus, thereby being at the center of the Silk Road transmission of Buddhism.[citation needed] This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Lokaksema (Ch: 支谶, Zhi Chan). ... Dharmaraksa (Ch: 竺法护, Zhu Fahu) was one of the greatest translators of Mahayana Buddhist scriptures into Chinese. ... Blue-eyed Central Asian and East-Asian Buddhist monks, Bezaklik, Eastern Tarim Basin, 9th-10th century. ...


The Chinese kept referring to the Kushans as Da Yuezhi throughout the centuries. In the Sanguozhi (三國志, chap 3), it is recorded that in 229 CE "The king of the Da Yuezhi, Bodiao 波調 (Vasudeva I), sent his envoy to present tribute, and His Majesty (Emperor Cao Rui) granted him the title of "King of the Da Yuezhi Intimate with the Wei (魏)." The Sānguó Zhì (Chinese 三國志, or 三國誌), variously translated as Chronicle of the Three Kingdoms, Records of the Three States and Records of the Three Kingdoms was the official and authoritative historical text compiled by Chen Shou during the Chinese Jin Dynasty (265-420... Events Foundation of Jiankang (Nanjing) Sun Quan formally declares himself Emperor of Wu Births Deaths Dio Cassius (approximate date) Categories: 229 ... Vasudeva I was a Kushan emperor around 164-200 AD (See: Vasudeva coin) External links: Coins of late Kushan emperors Categories: Stub | Kushan empire ... Cao Rui, ch. ... The Kingdom of Wei (ch. ...


Presumed Yuezhi rulers

Coin of the first identifiable Yuezhi prince, Sapadbizes (c. ... (Redirected from 20 BCE) Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC - 20s BC - 10s BC 0s 10s 20s 30s Years: 25 BC 24 BC 23 BC 22 BC 21 BC 20 BC 19 BC 18 BC 17... Coin of Yuezhi ruler Agesiles (20-1BC). ... (Redirected from 20 BCE) Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC - 20s BC - 10s BC 0s 10s 20s 30s Years: 25 BC 24 BC 23 BC 22 BC 21 BC 20 BC 19 BC 18 BC 17...

Notes

  1. ^ Watson, Burton. Trans. 1993. Records of the Grand Historian of China: Han Dynasty II. Translated from the Shiji of Sima Qian. Chapter 123: "The Account of Dayuan," Columbia University Press. Revised Edition. ISBN 0-231-08166-9; ISBN 0-231-08167-7 (pbk.), p. 234.
  2. ^ Hulsewé, A.F.P. and Loewe, M.A.N. China in Central Asia: The Early Stage: 125 B.C.-A.D. 23: An Annotated Translation of Chapters 61 and 96 of the History of the Former Han Dynasty. Leiden. E. J. Birll. 1979. ISBN 90-04-05884-2, pp. 119-120.
  3. ^ Mallory, J.P. and Victor H. Mair,The Tarim Mummies. Ancient China and the Mystery of the Earliest Peoples from the West. Thames & Hudson, London 2000. ISBN 0-500-05101-1, pp. 280-284,
  4. ^ "Les Saces", Iaroslav Lebedynsky, ISBN 2877723372, p59
  5. ^ Watson, Burton. Trans. 1993. Records of the Grand Historian of China: Han Dynasty II. Translated from the Shiji of Sima Qian. Chapter 123: "The Account of Dayuan," Columbia University Press. Revised Edition. ISBN 0-231-08166-9; ISBN 0-231-08167-7 (pbk.), p. 234.
  6. ^ Liu Xinru, “Migration and Settlement of the Yuezhi-Kushan: Interaction and Interdependence of Nomadic and Sedentary Societies,” Journal of World History 12, no. 2, p. 268 [1]
  7. ^ Hill, John E. 2004. The Western Regions according to the Hou Hanshu. Draft annotated English translation.[2]
  8. ^ References and quote (Note 36)
  9. ^ 后百余岁,贵霜翕候丘就却攻灭四翕候,自立为王,国号贵霜王。侵安息,取高附地。又灭濮达、罽宾,悉有其国。丘就却年八十余死,子阎膏珍代为王。复灭天竺,置将一人监领之。月氏自此之后,最为富盛,诸国称之皆曰贵霜王。汉本其故号,言大月氏云。Hanshu, 96 [3]

The Records of the Grand Historian or the Records of the Grand Historian of China was the magnum opus of Sima Qian, in which he recounted Chinese history from the time of the mythical Yellow Emperor until his own time. ... Sima Qian Si Ma Qian (司馬遷) (c. ... The Ta-Yuan (in Ferghana) was one of the three advanced civilizations of Central Asia around 130 BCE, together with Parthia and Greco-Bactria (Han Shu, Former Han Chinese Chronicles). ... The Records of the Grand Historian or the Records of the Grand Historian of China was the magnum opus of Sima Qian, in which he recounted Chinese history from the time of the mythical Yellow Emperor until his own time. ... Sima Qian Si Ma Qian (司馬遷) (c. ... The Ta-Yuan (in Ferghana) was one of the three advanced civilizations of Central Asia around 130 BCE, together with Parthia and Greco-Bactria (Han Shu, Former Han Chinese Chronicles). ...

References

  • Hill, John E. 2004. The Western Regions according to the Hou Hanshu. Draft annotated English translation.[4]
  • Hill, John E. 2004. The Peoples of the West from the Weilüe 魏略 by Yu Huan 魚豢: A Third Century Chinese Account Composed between 239 and 265 CE. Draft annotated English translation. [5]
  • Liu, Xinru: Migration and Settlement of the Yuezhi-Kushan. Interaction and Interdependence of Nomadic and Sedentary Societies in: Journal of World History, 12 (No. 2) 2001, p. 261-292. See [6]
  • "Records of the Great Historian, Han Dynasty II", Sima Qian, translated by Burton Watson, Columbia University Press, ISBN 0-231-08167-7
  • RICKET,W.A.(1998) Guanzi -Political, Economic, and Philosophic Essays from Early China. Vol.II. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

See also

  • Kushan Empire
  • Pre-Islamic period of Afghanistan
  • Greco-Bactrian Kingdom
  • Indo-Greek Kingdom
  • Indo-Scythians
  • Indo-Parthian Kingdom
  • Indo-Sassanid
  • Greco-Buddhism
  • Hephthalite

Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... Archaeological exploration began in Afghanistan in earnest after World War II and proceeded until the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan disrupted it in December of 1979. ... The Greco-Bactrian Kingdom (or Graeco-Bactrian Kingdom) covered the areas of Bactria and Sogdiana, comprising todays northern Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia, the easternmost area of the Hellenistic world, from 250 to 125 BCE. The expansion of the Greco-Bactrians into northern India from 180 BCE established... The Indo-Greek Kingdom (or sometimes Graeco-Indian Kingdom[1]) covered various parts of the northwest and northern Indian subcontinent from 180 BCE to around 10 CE, and was ruled by a succession of more than thirty Hellenistic kings,[2] often in conflict with each other. ... The Indo-Scythians are a branch of the Indo-Iranian Sakas (Scythians), who migrated from southern Siberia into Bactria, Sogdiana, Arachosia, Gandhara, Kashmir, Punjab, and into parts of Western and Central India, Gujarat and Rajasthan, from the middle of the 2nd century BCE to the 1st century BCE. The first... Coin of Gondophares (20-50 CE), first and greatest king of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom. ... Coin of the Indo-Sassanid kushansha Varhran I (early 4th century). ... The Buddha, in Greco-Buddhist style, 1st-2nd century CE, Gandhara. ... Common Era (CE)  Modern (SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic) Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Hephthalites (425 - 557 CE) (Persian: ‎ or هپتالیان) were a people of obscure origin who at certain periods played an important role in the history of Persia and India. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Yuezhi - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography (3178 words)
The Yuezhi are also documented in detail in Chinese historical accounts, in particular the 2nd-1st century BCE "Records of the Great Historian", or Shiji, by Sima Qian.
A very small group of Yuezhi fled south to the territory of the Proto-Tibetan Qiang, and came to be known to the Chinese as the "Small Yuezhi".
The Yuezhi crossed the neighbouring urban civilization of the Dayuan in Ferghana, and settled on the northern bank of the Oxus, in the region of Transoxiana, in modern-day Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, just north of the Hellenistic Greco-Bactrian kingdom.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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