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Encyclopedia > Yuan Shikai
Yuán Shìkǎi
袁世凱
Yuan Shikai

In office
March 10, 1912 – January 1, 1916
Preceded by Sun Yat-sen (provisional)
Succeeded by monarchy restored
Vice President(s) Li Yuanhong
In office
March 22, 1916 – June 6, 1916
Vice President(s) Li Yuanhong
Preceded by monarchy abolished
Succeeded by Li Yuanhong

Emperor of the Empire of China
In office
January 1, 1916 – March 22, 1916
Preceded by (none)
Succeeded by Title abolished

In office
1911 – 1912
Preceded by Yikuang
Succeeded by abolished

In office
1901 – 1908
Preceded by Li Hongzhang
Succeeded by Yang Shixiang

Born September 16, 1859(1859-09-16)
Xiangcheng, Henan, China
Died June 6, 1916 (aged 56)
Flag of Republic of China Beijing, China
Nationality Chinese
Political party Beiyang clique
Republican Party
Occupation Soldier(General)
Politician
This article contains Chinese text.
Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Chinese characters.

Yuan Shikai (Courtesy Weiting 慰亭; Pseudonym: Rong'an 容庵 Traditional Chinese: 袁世凱; Simplified Chinese: 袁世凯; Hanyu Pinyin: Yuán Shìkǎi; Wade-Giles: Yüan Shih-k'ai) (September 16, 1859[1]June 6, 1916) was a Chinese military official and politician during the late Qing Dynasty and the early Republic of China. He is reviled in Chinese culture for taking advantage of both the Qing imperial court and the Republicans. He is known in Chinese history for his authoritarian control based on military dictatorship; a presidency with sweeping powers between 1912–1915; and his proclamation by democratic process as Emperor in 1916.[2] His stupendous political might and the preeminence of his personal qualities has remained a hotly debated subject, especially after the premiere of the controversial TV series Towards the Republic. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Presidential Building is located in Zhongzheng District, Taipei City. ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Dr Sun Yat-sen (November 12, 1866 – March 12, 1925) was a Chinese revolutionary and political leader often referred to as the father of modern China. ... Li Yüan-hung Li Yuanhong Sun Yat-sen and Li Yuanhong at Wuchang, China in April 1912 Li Yuanhong (黎元洪 Pinyin: Lí Yuánhóng, courtesy Songqing 宋卿, 1864 - June 3, 1928) was a Chinese general and political figure during the Qing dynasty and the republican era. ... March 22 is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Li Yüan-hung Li Yuanhong Sun Yat-sen and Li Yuanhong at Wuchang, China in April 1912 Li Yuanhong (黎元洪 Pinyin: Lí Yuánhóng, courtesy Songqing 宋卿, 1864 - June 3, 1928) was a Chinese general and political figure during the Qing dynasty and the republican era. ... Li Yüan-hung Li Yuanhong Sun Yat-sen and Li Yuanhong at Wuchang, China in April 1912 Li Yuanhong (黎元洪 Pinyin: Lí Yuánhóng, courtesy Songqing 宋卿, 1864 - June 3, 1928) was a Chinese general and political figure during the Qing dynasty and the republican era. ... Official flag of the Empire of China Capital Beijing Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1915–1916 Hongxian History  - Established 12 December, 1915  - Disestablished 22 March, 1916 The Empire of China (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) was a short-lived attempt by statesman and general Yuan Shikai from late 1915 to early 1916... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... March 22 is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Chancellor of China 丞相 (Cheng Xiang) or 宰相 (Zai Xiang), was the highest rank in the imperial government in former China after the emperor (685 BC-6 BC, 189-1380). ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Yikuang, the Prince Qing, in Imperial Robes Yikuang, the Prince Qing (Simplified Chinese: 庆亲王奕劻, Wade-Giles:Prince Ching, February 1836 - January 1918) was a Manchu noble of the late Qing Dynasty. ... The Viceroy of Zhili (直隸總督/直隶总督), fully referred to as the Governor General of Zhili and surrounding areas; Overseeing Military Affairs, Food Production; Manager of Waterways; Director of Civil Affairs (總督直隸等處地方,提督軍務、糧餉、管理河道兼巡撫事), was one of eight viceroys of the Qing Dynasty in China. ... 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Li Hongzhang (February 15, 1823 – November 7, 1901) was a Chinese general who ended several major rebellions, and a leading statesman of the late Qing Empire. ... // 1400 - Owain Glyndŵr declared Prince of Wales by his followers. ... Year 1859 (MDCCCLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... A map of Xiangcheng Xiangcheng (Simplified Chinese: 项城; Traditional Chinese: 項城 Pinyin: Xiàngchéng) is a county-level city in eastern Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Henan (Chinese: 河南; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-nan), is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China_1912-1928. ... Beijing (Chinese: 北京; pinyin: BÄ›ijÄ«ng; IPA: ;  ), a metropolis in northern China, is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... The Beiyang Army (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) was a powerful and Western-appearing Chinese military force created by the Qing Dynasty government in the late 19th century. ... This article is about a military rank. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A politician is an individual who is a formally recognized and active member of a government, or a person who influences the way a society is governed through an understanding of political power and group dynamics. ... Image File history File links Zhongwen. ... Japanese name Kanji: Kana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quoc Ngu: Hantu: A Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, sometimes Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ... Cha can also refer to a Latin American dance, also called the Cha-cha-cha. ... Hao can have several different meanings: Used in reference to Chinese culture, hao is the word for a courtesy name. Hao is also the name of a coral atoll in the central part of the Tuamotu Archipelago. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; Traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of printed contemporary Chinese written language, simplified from traditional Chinese by the Peoples Republic of China in an attempt to promote literacy. ... Pinyin (拼音, Pīnyīn) literally means join (together) sounds (a less literal translation being phoneticize, spell or transcription) in Chinese and usually refers to Hànyǔ Pīnyīn (汉语拼音, literal meaning: Han language pinyin), which is a system of... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... // 1400 - Owain Glyndŵr declared Prince of Wales by his followers. ... Year 1859 (MDCCCLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A politician is an individual who is a formally recognized and active member of a government, or a person who influences the way a society is governed through an understanding of political power and group dynamics. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Territory of Qing China in 1892 Capital Shengjing (1636-1644) Beijing (1644-1912) Language(s) Chinese Manchu Mongolian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1636-1643 Huang Taiji  - 1908-1912 Xuantong Emperor Prime Minister  - 1911 Yikuang  - 1911-1912 Yuan Shikai History  - Establishment of the Late... Motto none Anthem National Anthem of the Republic of China Capital Taipei (formerly and de jure Nanking) Largest city Taipei Official languages Standard Mandarin (GuóyÇ”) Government Semi-presidential system  -  President Chen Shui-bian  -  Vice President Annette Lu  -  Premier Chang Chun-hsiung Establishment Xinhai Revolution   -  Independence declared October 10, 1911... Chinese Opera, one of the many aspects of traditional Chinese culture The Culture of China (Chinese: 中國文化/中国文化) is home to one of the worlds oldest and most complex civilizations covering a history of over 5,000 years. ... The history of China is told in traditional historical records that go back to the Three sovereigns and five emperors about 5,000 years ago, supplemented by archaeological records dating to the 16th century BC. China is one of the worlds oldest continuous civilizations. ... Bold text:This article applies to political ideologies. ... General Augusto Pinochet (sitting) as head of the newly established military junta in Chile, September 1973. ... Offical flag of the Empire of China Capital Beijing Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1915-1916 Hongxian History  - Established 12 December, 1915  - Disestablished 22 March, 1916 The Empire of China (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) was a short-lived attempt by statesman and general Yuan Shikai from late 1915 to early 1916... Towards the Republic (走向共和) is a 60-episode Chinese television series produced by CCTV and subsequently banned by the Chinese government for portraying certain characters (i. ...

Contents

Birthplace and Early years

Yuan Shikai was born in the village of Zhangying (張營村), Xiangcheng county (項城縣), Chenzhou prefecture (陳州府), Henan province. Xiangcheng county has now become the county-level city of Xiangcheng (項城市), under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Zhoukou (周口市). Chenzhou is now called Huaiyang (淮陽), but it is no longer the administrative center of the prefecture, having been replaced by Zhoukou. The village of Zhangying is located immediately north of downtown Xiangcheng.


The Yuan family later moved to a hilly area easier to defend, 16 kilometers southeast of downtown Xiangcheng, and there the Yuans had built a fortified village, the village of Yuanzhai (袁寨村, literally "the fortified village of the Yuan family"). The village of Yuanzhai is now located inside Wangmingkou township (王明口鄉), on the territory of the county-level city of Xiangcheng. The large countryside estate of the Yuan family in Yuanzhai was recently opened to tourism by the People's Republic of China, and people inside China generally assume that Yuan Shikai was born in Yuanzhai.


As a young man he had enjoyed riding, boxing, and entertainment with friends. Yuan had wanted to pursue a career in civil services, but had failed twice in Imperial Examinations. He decided that his entry into politics would have to be done through the Army. Using his father's connections Yuan set foot in Tengzhou, Shandong and sought a post in the Qing Brigade. Yuan married in 1876, to a woman of the Yu family, who bore him a son, Keding, in 1878.


Years in Korea

Korea in the late 1870s was in the midst of a struggle between isolationists under the king's father (Daewon-gun), and progressives, led by the queen (Empress Myeongseong), who had wanted to open trade with continued Chinese overlordship in Korea. Japan's new aggressive foreign policy had shown interest in the protectorate, and was an emerging power. Under the Ganghwa Treaty, which the Koreans signed only with reluctance in 1876, Japan was allowed to send diplomatic missions to Seoul, and opened trading posts in Inchon and Wonsan. Amidst an internal power struggle, which resulted in the queen's exile, Li Hongzhang, the Viceroy of Zhili, sent the Qing Brigade, 3,000 strong, into Korea. The Korean regent was escorted to Tianjin, where he would be kept prisoner. Korea's weakness was apparent, and the Chemulpo Treaty of 1882 gave the Japanese the right to station troops in Seoul to protect their legation. China's protection alone could not shield Korea in an imperialist and fast-developing world, and it was obvious that Korea's army could not even deal with an internal crisis. The king issued a proposal to train 500 troops in the art of modern warfare, and Yuan Shikai was appointed to lead this task and was to remain in Korea. To the emperor, Li Hongzhang also recommended Yuan's promotion, and was approved shortly with Yuan's new rank as sub-prefect. Korea (Korean: 한국 in South Korea or ì¡°ì„  in North Korea, see below) is a geographic area, civilization, and former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. ... The Daewon-gun, or properly Heungseon Daewon-gun, (1820–1898) was the regent of Joseon during much of the later 19th century. ... Empress Myeongseong (October 19, 1851 – October 8, 1895), also known as Queen Min, was one of the wives of King Gojong, the 26th king of the Joseon dynasty of Korea. ... The Treaty of Ganghwa, also called Korea-Japanese Treaty of Amity, signed in 1876, was written by Kuroda Kiyotaka, Governor of Hokkaido, and designed to open up Korea to Japanese trade. ... Seoul   is the capital of South Korea and is located on the Han River in the countrys northwest. ... Incheon Metropolitan City is a metropolitan city and major seaport on the west coast of South Korea, near Seoul. ... Wonsan is a port city and naval base in southeastern North Korea. ... Li Hongzhang (February 15, 1823 – November 7, 1901) was a Chinese general who ended several major rebellions, and a leading statesman of the late Qing Empire. ... The Viceroy of Zhili (直隸總督/直隶总督), fully referred to as the Governor General of Zhili and surrounding areas; Overseeing Military Affairs, Food Production; Manager of Waterways; Director of Civil Affairs (總督直隸等處地方,提督軍務、糧餉、管理河道兼巡撫事), was one of eight viceroys of the Qing Dynasty in China. ...


In 1885, Yuan was appointed Imperial Resident of Seoul with orders from the Imperial Throne.[3] The position had seemed on the surface to be similar to that of a Minister or ambassador. In practice, however, Yuan, being the head official from the suzerain, had become the supreme adviser on all Korean government policies. Dissatisfied with its position in Korea, Japan had wanted more influence through co-suzerainty with China. A series of forged documents aimed at angering the Chinese was sent to Yuan Shikai, attempting to make it appear as if the Korean government had changed its stance towards Chinese protection, and turned more towards Russia. Yuan was skeptical yet outraged, and asked Li Hongzhang for advice. Suzerainty refers to a situation in which a region or people is a tributary to a more powerful entity which allows the tributary some limited domestic autonomy but controls its foreign affairs. ...


In a treaty signed between Japan and China, the two parties agreed only to send troops into Korea after the other is notified. Although the Korean government was stable, it was still a protectorate of China, and forces emerged advocating modernization. Another more radicalised group, the Donghak Society, promoting an early nationalist doctrine based partly upon Confucianist and Taoist principles, rose in rebellion against the government, which Yuan longed to protect. Li Hongzhang sent troops into Korea to protect Seoul and China's interests, and Japan did the same under the pretext of protecting Japanese trading posts. Tensions boiled over between Japan and China when Japan refused to withdraw its forces and placed a blockade of sorts at the 38th Parallel. Li Hongzhang wanted at all costs to avoid a war with Japan, and attempted this by asking for international pressure for a Japanese withdrawal. Japan refused, and war began. Yuan, now in an ineffective position, was recalled to Tianjin in July 1894, at the beginning of the First Sino-Japanese War (甲午戰爭). It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Donghak Peasant Revolution. ... Wenmiao Temple, a Confucian Temple in Wuwei, Gansu, China Confucian temple in Kaohsiung, Republic of China (Taiwan). ... Taoism (Daoism) is the English name referring to a variety of related Chinese philosophical and religious traditions and concepts. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: TiānjÄ«n; Postal map spelling: Tientsin) is one of the four municipalities of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Combatants Qing Empire (China) Empire of Japan Commanders Li Hongzhang Yamagata Aritomo Strength 630,000 men Beiyang Army, Beiyang Fleet 240,000 men Imperial Japanese Army, Imperial Japanese Navy Casualties 35,000 dead or wounded 13,823 dead, 3,973 wounded The First Sino-Japanese War (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese...


Late Qing Dynasty

Yuan Shikai rose to fame by participating in the First Sino-Japanese War as the commander of the Chinese stationary forces in Korea. He fortunately avoided the humiliation of Chinese armies in the war when he was recalled to Beijing several days before the Chinese forces were attacked. Combatants Qing Empire (China) Empire of Japan Commanders Li Hongzhang Yamagata Aritomo Strength 630,000 men Beiyang Army, Beiyang Fleet 240,000 men Imperial Japanese Army, Imperial Japanese Navy Casualties 35,000 dead or wounded 13,823 dead, 3,973 wounded The First Sino-Japanese War (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese... Beijing (Chinese: 北京; pinyin: BÄ›ijÄ«ng; IPA: ;  ), a metropolis in northern China, is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ...


As an ally of Li Hongzhang, Yuan was appointed the commander of the first New army in 1895. The Qing court relied heavily on his army due to the proximity of its garrison to the capital and its effectiveness. Of the new armies that were part of the Self-Strengthening Movement, Yuan's was the best trained and most effective. Li Hongzhang (February 15, 1823 – November 7, 1901) was a Chinese general who ended several major rebellions, and a leading statesman of the late Qing Empire. ... The New Armies (Simplified Chinese: 新军) were the modernized Qing armies trained and equipped according to western standards. ...


The Qing Court at the time was divided between progressives under the leadership of the Guangxu Emperor, and conservatives under the Empress Dowager Cixi, who had temporarily retreated to the Summer Palace as a place of "retirement". After Guangxu's Hundred Days' Reform 1898, however, Cixi decided that the reforms were too drastic, and wanted to restore her own regency through a coup d'état. Plans of the coup spread early, and the Emperor was very aware of the plot. He asked reform advocates Kang Youwei, Tan Sitong and others to develop a plan to save him. Yuan's involvement in the coup continues to be a large topic of historical debate. Tan Sitong reportedly had a talk with Yuan several days before the coup, asking Yuan to assist the Emperor and rid Cixi. Yuan refused a direct answer, but insisted he was loyal to the Emperor. Meanwhile Manchu General Ronglu was planning maneuvers for his army to stage the coup. The Guangxu Emperor (August 14, 1871–November 14, 1908), born Zaitian (載湉), was the tenth emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the ninth Qing emperor to rule over China. ... Empress Dowager Cixi (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Tzu-Hsi Tai-hou) (November 29, 1835 – November 15, 1908), popularly known in China as the West Empress Dowager (Chinese: 西太后), was from the Manchu Yehe Nara Clan. ... The Summer Palace in Beijing. ... The Hundred Days Reform (Chinese: 戊戌变法, wùxÅ« biànfÇŽ, or 百日維新, bÇŽirì wéixÄ«n) was a 103-day reform from 11 June to 21 September 1898. ... // A coup dÉtat (pronounced ), or simply coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, often through illegal means by a part of the state establishment — mostly replacing just the high-level figures. ... Kang Youwei (Chinese: 康有為; March 19, 1858–March 31, 1927) was a Chinese scholar and political reformist. ... Tan Sitong (Chinese:谭嗣同, Courtesy: Fusheng 复生, Pseudonym Zhuangfei 壮飞; 1865—1898) was an eminent Chinese revolutionary in the late Qing Dynasty who was in support of liberal reform. ... Ronglu (荣禄, April 6, 1836- April 11, 1903) was a Manchu statesman during the late Qing dynasty. ...


According to many sources, including the diary of Liang Qichao and a Wen Bao (文報) article, Yuan Shikai arrived in Tianjin on September 20, 1898, by train. It was certain that by the evening, Yuan had talked to Ronglu, but what was revealed to him remains ambiguous. Most historians suggest that Yuan had told Ronglu of all details of the Reformers' plans, and asked him to take immediate action. The plot being exposed, Ronglu's troops entered the Forbidden City at dawn on September 21, forcing the Emperor into seclusion in a lake palace. Portrait of Liang Qichao (Tung Wah News, 17 April 1901) Liang Qichao (Chinese: 梁啟超, Liáng Qǐchāo; Courtesy: Zhuoru, 卓如; Pseudonym: Rengong, 任公) (February 23, 1873–January 19, 1929) was a Chinese scholar, journalist, philosopher and reformist during the Qing Dynasty (1644–1911) who inspired Chinese scholars with his writings and...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: TiānjÄ«n; Postal map spelling: Tientsin) is one of the four municipalities of the Peoples Republic of China. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Forbidden City (disambiguation). ... September 21 is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Making a political alliance with the Empress Dowager, and becoming a lasting enemy of the Guangxu Emperor, Yuan left the capital in 1899 for his new appointment as Governor of Shandong. During his three-year tenure, he ensured the suppression of Boxers (義和團) in the province. He also left the foundation for a provincial junior college in Jinan, adopting some western ideas of education.   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan-tung) is a coastal province of eastern Peoples Republic of China. ... The Righteous Harmony Society (Traditional: 義和團; Simplified: 义和团; Hanyu Pinyin: ); was a society in China that executed the unsuccessful Boxer Rebellion in the closing years of the 19th century. ... For the South Korean county of the same name, see Jinan County. ...


He was granted the position of Viceroy of Zhili (直隸總督) and Minister of Beiyang (北洋通商大臣), where the modern regions of Liaoning, Hebei, and Shandong provinces now are, on June 25, 1902. Gaining the regard of foreigners when he helped to crush the Boxer Rebellion, he successfully obtained numerous loans to expand his Beiyang Army into the most powerful army in China. He created a 1,000-strong police force to keep order in Tianjin, the first of its kind in Chinese history, after the Boxer Protocol had forbidden troops to be staged within a close proximity of Tianjin. Yuan was also involved in the transfer of Railway control from Sheng Xuanhuai (盛宣怀). Railways became a large part of his revenue. Yuan played an active role in late-Qing political reforms, including the creation of the Ministry of Education (學部) and Ministry of Police (巡警部). He further advocated for ethnic equality between Manchus and Han Chinese. The Viceroy of Zhili (直隸總督/直隶总督), fully referred to as the Governor General of Zhili and surrounding areas; Overseeing Military Affairs, Food Production; Manager of Waterways; Director of Civil Affairs (總督直隸等處地方,提督軍務、糧餉、管理河道兼巡撫事), was one of eight viceroys of the Qing Dynasty in China. ... Beiyang was a province of China. ...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Liáoníng) is a northeastern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Hebei (Chinese: 河北; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-pei; Postal System Pinyin: Hopeh) is a northern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan-tung) is a coastal province of eastern Peoples Republic of China. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... The Beiyang Army (北洋軍 bÄ›iyáng-jÅ«n) was a powerful and Western-appearing Chinese military force created by the Qing dynasty government in the late 19th century. ... The New Armies (Simplified Chinese: 新军) were the modernized Qing armies trained and equipped according to western standards. ... The Treaty of 1901, known as the Xinchou Treaty (辛丑条约) in China, and more commonly known as Boxer Protocol or Peace Agreement between the Great Powers and China, was a peace treaty signed on September 7, 1901 between the Qing Empire of China and the Eight-Nation Alliance: the United Kingdom... Shen Xuanhuai was the Minister of Transportation during the Qing Dynasty. ... Languages Chinese languages Religions Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ...


Retreat and Return

The Empress Dowager and the Guangxu Emperor died within a day of each other in November 1908.[3] Some sources indicate that the will of the Emperor had specifically ordered that Yuan be executed. Avoiding execution, in January 1909, Yuan Shikai was relieved of all his posts by the regent, the 2nd Prince Chun (醇親王). The official reason advanced was that he was returning to his home in the village of Huanshang (洹上村), located in the suburbs of Zhangde prefecture (彰德府), now called the prefecture-level city of Anyang (安陽市), Henan province, in order to treat a foot disease. Zaifeng, the 2nd Prince Chun in Qing Imperial Robes The 2nd Prince Chun (Chinese: 醇親王) (February 12, 1883 - February 3, 1951) was born Zaifeng (Chinese: 載灃; Wade-Giles: Tsai-feng), of the Manchu Aisin-Gioro clan (the Qing imperial family ruling over China). ... The zhōu (州) was a historical political division of China. ... A prefecture-level city (地级市 Pinyin: dìjí shì, literally region-level city) or prefecture-level municipality is an administrative division of the Peoples Republic of China, ranking below a province and above a county in Chinas administrative structure. ... Anyang (Simplified Chinese: 安阳, Traditional Chinese: 安陽; pinyin: Ä€nyáng) is a prefecture-level city in Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Henan (Chinese: 河南; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-nan), is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. ...


During his three years of retreat, Yuan kept contact with his close allies, including Duan Qirui, who reported to him regularly about army proceedings. The loyalty of the Beiyang Army was still undoubtedly behind him. Having this strategic military situation, Yuan actually held the balance of power between the revolutionaries and the Qing Court. Both wanted Yuan on their side. Initially deciding against the possibility of becoming President of a newly proclaimed Republic, Yuan also repeatedly declined offers from the Qing Court for his return, first as the Viceroy of Huguang, and then as Prime Minister of the Imperial Cabinet. Time was on Yuan's side, and Yuan waited, using his "foot ailment" as a pretext to his continual refusal. After further pleas by the Qing Court, Yuan agreed to accept, becoming Prime Minister on November 1, 1911. Immediately subsequent he asked that Zaifeng, the Regent, abstain from politics. Zaifeng, being forced to resign from his regency, made way for Yuan to compose a newly created, predominantly Han Chinese Cabinet of his confidants, consisting of only one Manchu, who held the position of Minister of Suzerainty. Duan Qirui. ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 2nd Prince Chun The 2nd prince Chun (醇親王) (February 12, 1883 - February 3, 1951) was born Zaifeng (Chinese: 載灃; Wade-Giles: Tsai-feng), of the Manchu Aisin-Gioro clan (the Qing imperial family ruling over China). ... Languages Chinese languages Religions Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ...


The Wuchang Uprising and the Republic

The Wuchang Uprising succeeded on October 10, 1911 in Hubei province, before Yuan's official appointment to the post of Prime Minister. The southern provinces had subsequently declared their independence from the Qing Court, but neither the northern provinces nor the Beiyang Army had a clear stance for or against the rebellion. Both the Qing court and Yuan were fully aware that the Beiyang Army was the only Qing force powerful enough to quell the revolutionaries. The court renewed offers for Yuan's return on October 27, and Yuan eventually left his village for Beijing on October 30. To further reward Yuan's loyalty to the court, the Empress Dowager Longyu offered Yuan the noble title Marquis of the First Rank (一等侯), an honour only previously given to General Zeng Guofan. While continuing his demands, ensuring temporary political stability in Beijing, his forces captured Hankou and Hanyang in November 1911 in preparation for attacking Wuchang, thus forcing the republican revolutionaries to negotiate. The Wuchang Uprising (武昌起義, pinyin: WÇ”chāng Qǐyì) of October 10, 1911, started the Xinhai Revolution, which triggered the collapse of the Qing Dynasty and establishment of the Republic of China (ROC). ... October 10 is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years). ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Hubei (Chinese: 湖北; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hu-pei; Postal System Pinyin: Hupeh) is a central province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Beijing (Chinese: 北京; pinyin: BÄ›ijÄ«ng; IPA: ;  ), a metropolis in northern China, is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... October 30 is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 62 days remaining. ... Empress Dowager Longyu Her Imperial Majesty Dowager Empress Xiaoding Jing Longyu Huangtaihou of China (private name:靜芬) of the Yehonala clan (隆裕太后) (1868 - 1913) was the Empress Consort and also a cousin of the Guangxu Emperor (r. ... General Zeng Guofan Marquess ZÄ“ng Guófán, (t. ... Hankou (漢口; pinyin: Hànkǒu; Wade-Giles: Hankow) is one of the three towns, together with Wuchang and Hanyang, which are included in modern day Wuhan, the capital of the Hubei province, in China. ... Hanyang is also a former name of Seoul, South Korea. ... Wuchang (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is one of the three towns, together with Hankou and Hanyang, which are included in modern day Wuhan, the capital of the Hubei province, in China. ...

Yuan Shikai as the Empire of China (1915-1916) Emperor.
Yuan Shikai as the Empire of China (1915-1916) Emperor.

The revolutionaries had elected Sun Yat-Sen as the first Provisional President of the Republic of China, but they were in a weak position militarily, so they reluctantly compromised with Yuan. Yuan fulfilled his promise to the revolutionaries and arranged for the abdication of the child emperor Puyi in return for being granted the position of the President of the Republic, replacing Sun.[3] Yuan would not himself be present when the Abdication edict was issued by Empress Dowager Longyu, on February 12, 1912. Sun agreed to Yuan's presidency after internal bickerings, but asked that the capital be situated in Nanjing. Yuan, however, wanted his advantage geographically. Cao Kun, one of his entrusted subordinate Beiyang military commanders, fabricated a coup d'état in Beijing and Tianjin, apparently under Yuan's orders, to provide an excuse for Yuan not to leave his sphere of influence in Zhili (present-day Hebei province). The revolutionaries compromised again, and the capital of the new republic was established in Beijing. Yuan Shikai was elected Provisional President on February 14, 1912, by the Nanjing Provisional Senate, and sworn in on March 10.[2][4] The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Offical flag of the Empire of China Capital Beijing Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1915-1916 Hongxian History  - Established 12 December, 1915  - Disestablished 22 March, 1916 The Empire of China (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) was a short-lived attempt by statesman and general Yuan Shikai from late 1915 to early 1916... Dr Sun Yat-sen (November 12, 1866 – March 12, 1925) was a Chinese revolutionary and political leader often referred to as the father of modern China. ... The Presidential Building is located in Zhongzheng District, Taipei City. ... PÇ”yí (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ) (February 7, 1906–October 17, 1967) of the Manchu Aisin-Gioro ruling family was the last Emperor of China between 1908 and 1924 (ruling emperor between 1908 and 1911, and non-ruling emperor between 1911 and 1924), the twelfth emperor of the Qing Dynasty... The Presidential Building is located in Zhongzheng District, Taipei City. ... Empress Dowager Longyu Her Imperial Majesty Dowager Empress Xiaoding Jing Longyu Huangtaihou of China (private name:靜芬) of the Yehonala clan (隆裕太后) (1868 - 1913) was the Empress Consort and also a cousin of the Guangxu Emperor (r. ... February 12 is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...   (Chinese: 南京; Romanizations: NánjÄ«ng (Pinyin), Nan-ching (Wade-Giles), Nanking (Postal map spelling)) is the capital of Chinas Jiangsu Province and a city with a prominent place in Chinese history and culture. ... Tsao Kun (曹錕 Pinyin: Cáo Kūn) (1862-1938) was a commander in the Beiyang Army and through bribery became president of the Republic of China (on Beijing) from October 1, 1923 to November 2, 1924. ... // A coup dÉtat (pronounced ), or simply coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, often through illegal means by a part of the state establishment — mostly replacing just the high-level figures. ... Beijing (Chinese: 北京; pinyin: BÄ›ijÄ«ng; IPA: ;  ), a metropolis in northern China, is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: TiānjÄ«n; Postal map spelling: Tientsin) is one of the four municipalities of the Peoples Republic of China. ... A sphere of influence (SOI) is an area or region over which an organization or state exerts some kind of indirect cultural, economic, military or political domination. ... Hebei (Chinese: 河北; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-pei; Postal System Pinyin: Hopeh) is a northern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Beijing (Chinese: 北京; pinyin: BÄ›ijÄ«ng; IPA: ;  ), a metropolis in northern China, is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... Insert non-formatted text here{| style=float:right; |- | paul is so hot sophie loves him |- | |} is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In February 1913, democratic elections were held for the National Assembly in which the Chinese Nationalist Party or the Kuomintang (KMT) scored a significant victory. Song Jiaoren, deputy in the KMT to Sun Yat-sen, zealously supported a cabinet system and was widely regarded as a candidate for Prime Minister. Yuan viewed Song as a threat to his authority and, after Song's assassination on March 20, 1913 by Ying Kuicheng, there was speculation in the media that Yuan was responsible. The National Assembly (Traditional Chinese: 國民大會; Simplified Chinese: 国民大会; Pinyin: ) refers to several parliamentary bodies that existed in the history of the Republic of China. ... The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chung1-kuo2 Kuo2-min2-tang3) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China, now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in... Sung Chiao-jen (Chinese characters: 宋教仁, Pinyin: Sòng Jiàorén) (1882–March 22, 1913) was a Chinese revolutionary and political leader. ... It has been suggested that Selective assassination be merged into this article or section. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Becoming Emperor

See also: Empire of China (1915-1916)
The Flag of Yuan Shikai's "Great Chinese Empire"
The Flag of Yuan Shikai's "Great Chinese Empire"

Tensions between the Kuomintang and Yuan continued to intensify. Yuan's crackdown of the Kuomintang began in 1913, beginning with the suppression and bribery of the KMT members in the two legislative chambers, followed by an orchestrated collapse of the KMT from local organizations. Seeing the situation worsen, Sun Yat-sen fled to Japan, and called for a Second Revolution, against Yuan. Subsequently Yuan gradually took over the government with support base from his military power. He dissolved both the national and provincial assemblies, replacing the House of Representatives and Senate with the newly formed "Council of State", with Duan Qirui, his trusted Beiyang lieutenant, as Prime Minister. The Kuomintang's "Second Revolution" against Yuan ended in disastrous failure, as Yuan's military might on all sides zeroed in on the remnants of KMT forces. Provincial governors with KMT loyalties were bribed or submitted willingly to Yuan. After his victory, Yuan reorganized the provincial governments, its head now being a Military Governor (都督), replacing the civil governorship, where each governor had control of his own army. It laid the first foundations for warlordism that crippled China for the next two decades. Offical flag of the Empire of China Capital Beijing Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1915-1916 Hongxian History  - Established 12 December, 1915  - Disestablished 22 March, 1916 The Empire of China (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) was a short-lived attempt by statesman and general Yuan Shikai from late 1915 to early 1916... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Offical flag of the Empire of China Capital Beijing Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1915-1916 Hongxian History  - Established 12 December, 1915  - Disestablished 22 March, 1916 The Empire of China (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) was a short-lived attempt by statesman and general Yuan Shikai from late 1915 to early 1916... Duan Qirui. ... A warlord is a person with power who has de facto military control of a subnational area due to armed forces loyal to the warlord and not to a central authority. ...


In 1915, Japan sent a secret ultimatum known as the Twenty-One Demands to Beijing. When word leaked out that Yuan had agreed to some of the provisions, mass protests sprang up as well as a boycott of Japanese goods. Western pressure forced Japan to back down on its demands. For other meanings, see 21 demands of MKS. For other meanings, see 21 Demands a Dublin based band. ...


With his power secure, many of Yuan's supporters, notably monarchist Yang Du, advocated for a revival of the monarchy, asking Yuan to take on the title of Emperor. Yang reasoned that the Chinese masses had long been used to autocratic rule, and a Republic had only been effective in a transitional phase to end Manchu rule. China's situation longed for stability that only a monarchy would ensure. American political scientist Frank Johnson Goodnow, as well as the Imperial Government of Japan suggested similar ideas. Yuan held a carefully selected political convention which unanimously endorsed monarchy on November 20, 1915. By December 12, he proclaimed his reign as Emperor of the Chinese Empire (中華帝國大皇帝) under the era name of Hongxian (洪憲; i.e. Constitutional Abundance) to begin on January 1, 1916.[2] But on December 25, Yunnan's military governor, Cai E, rebelled and several provinces followed. Seeing his weakness and unpopularity, foreign powers, including Japan, withdrew their support. Faced with universal opposition, Yuan repeatedly delayed the accession rite to appease his foes. Funding for the ceremony was cut on March 1 and he abandoned monarchism on March 22. This was not enough for his enemies as they called for his resignation as president. More provinces rebelled until Yuan died, humiliated, from uremia on June 5. His death was announced the following day.[2] His remains were moved to his home province and placed in a mausoleum built to resemble Grant's Tomb. He had three sons: Prince Yuan Keding, a handicapped; Prince Yuan Kewen, who was said by his father to be a 'fake scholar', and Prince Yuan Keliang, whom Yuan Shikai called a "bandit". Frank Johnson Goodnow, Ph. ... November 20 is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A Chinese era name (traditional Chinese: 年號, simplified Chinese: 年号, pinyin nían hào) is the era name, reign period, or regnal title used when traditionally numbering years in an emperors reign and naming certain Chinese rulers (see the conventions). ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... December 25 is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 6 days remaining in the year. ...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally south of the clouds) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the far southwestern corner of the country. ... Cai E (Simplified Chinese: 蔡锷; courtesy: Songpo; December 18, 1882- November 8, 1916) Chinese revolutionary leader and militarist. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Monarchism is the advocacy of the establishment, preservation, or restoration of a monarchy as a form of government in a nation. ... March 22 is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Uremia is a toxic condition resulting from renal failure, when kidney function is compromised and urea, a waste product normally excreted in the urine, is retained in the blood. ... June 5 is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Grants Tomb, circa 1909 Grants tomb 2004 Grants Tomb is a mausoleum containing the bodies of Ulysses S. Grant (1822-1885), an American Civil War General and the 18th President of the United States, and his wife, Julia Dent Grant (1826-1902). ...


Evaluation and legacy

With Yuan's death, China was left without any generally recognized central authority and the army quickly fragmented into forces of combating warlords. For this reason he is usually called the Father of the Warlords. However, it is not accurate to attribute other characteristics of warlordism as his preference, since in his career as a military reformer he had attempted to create a modern army based on the Japanese model. Throughout his lifetime, he demonstrated understanding of how staff work, military education, and regular transfers of officer personnel came together to make a modern military organisation. After his return to power in 1911, however, he seemed willing to sacrifice this ideal in his imperial ambitions, and instead ruled by a combination of violence and bribery that destroyed the idealism of the early Republican movement. Since those who opposed Yuan could do so only from a territorial military base, Yuan's career as president and emperor contributed greatly to China's subsequent political division. In the CCTV Production Towards the Republic, Yuan is portrayed through most of his early years as an able administrator, although a very skilled manipulator of political situations. His self-proclamation of Emperor was seen as largely under the influence of external forces, such as his son, prince Yuan Keding. A warlord is a person with power who has de facto military control of a subnational area due to armed forces loyal to the warlord and not to a central authority. ... Towards the Republic (走向共和) is a 60-episode Chinese television series produced by CCTV and subsequently banned by the Chinese government for portraying certain characters (i. ...


Yuan's grandson, Luke Chia-Liu Yuan, was a Chinese-American physicist. Luke C.L. Yuan, an experimental physicist at Brookhaven National Laboratory, a science educator and a benefactor of a Chinese museum honoring his wife, Chien-Shiung Wu, a noted physicist, died on Feb. ...


See also

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Image File history File links Zhongwen. ... Japanese name Kanji: Kana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quoc Ngu: Hantu: A Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, sometimes Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... The history of China is told in traditional historical records that go back to the Three sovereigns and five emperors about 5,000 years ago, supplemented by archaeological records dating to the 16th century BC. China is one of the worlds oldest continuous civilizations. ... The Republic of China (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) succeeded the Qing Dynasty in 1912, ending 2,000 years of imperial rule. ... The Beiyang Army (北洋軍 bÄ›iyáng-jÅ«n) was a powerful and Western-appearing Chinese military force created by the Qing dynasty government in the late 19th century. ... The Warlord era represents the period in the history of the Republic of China from 1916 to the mid-1930s when the country was divided by various military cliques, and this division continued until the fall of the nationalist government in mainland China in many regions, such as in Sichuan... Close Sino-German cooperation, dating back to the 1920s, was instrumental in modernising the industry and the armed forces of the Republic of China, especially in the period immediately preceding the Second Sino-Japanese War. ... The Republic of China (commonly known as Taiwan) maintains a large military establishment, which accounted for 16. ... The Chinese Military Academy emblem includes its motto, which was first proclaimed by Sun Yat-sen at the Whampoa Academys opening in 1924. ... The National Revolutionary Army (NRA) (Chinese: 國民革命軍; pinyin: guo2 min2 ge2 ming4 jun1) was the national army of the Republic of China. ... The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chung1-kuo2 Kuo2-min2-tang3) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China, now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Laing, Ellen Johnston. (2004) Selling Happiness, University of Hawaii Press. p. 92. ISBN 0-8248-2764-3.
  2. ^ a b c d Zhengyuan Fu. (1994) Autocratic Tradition and Chinese Politics, Cambridge University Press. pp. 153-154. ISBN 0-521-44228-1.
  3. ^ a b c Busky, Donald F. (2002) Communism in History and Theory, Praeger/Greenwood. ISBN 0-275-97733-1.
  4. ^ Spence, Jonathan D. (2001) The Search for Modern China, W. W. Norton & Company. pp. 277-278. ISBN 0-393-30780-8.

This article is about the University of Hawaii system. ... The University of Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world, with one of the most selective sets of entry requirements in the United Kingdom. ...

References

  • Chen, Jerome. "Yuan Shih-K'ai; 1859-1916". George Allen & Unwin Ltd: Liverpool, 1961.
  • Spence, Jonathan D. "The New Republic." In "The Search for Modern China". 282. New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Company, 1999

...

External links

  • Yuan's descendents
  • Early support for Yuan among overseas Chinese
  • The Fight for the Republic in China by Simpson, Bertram Lenox This etext first published in 1917 contains a detailed account of Yuan Shikai, his rise and fall.
Yuan Shikai
Yuán Shìkǎi
Born: September 16 1859; Died: June 6 1916
Regnal titles
New Title
Chinese monarchy restored
Emperor of the Chinese Empire
1915-1916
Succeeded by
Republic restored
Preceded by
Xuāntǒng Emperor
(Pǔyí)
Chinese Emperor
1915-1916
Succeeded by
Monarchy ultimately abolished
Political offices
Preceded by
Lǐ Hóngzhāng
Viceroy of Zhílì and Minister of Beiyang
1901-1908
Succeeded by
Yang Shixiang
Preceded by
Yikuang, the Prince Qīng
Prime Minister of China
(as Prime Minister of the Imperial Cabinet)

1911-1912
Succeeded by
Tang Shaoyi
(as provisional Prime Minister of the Republic)
Preceded by
Sūn Yìxiān
(Sūn Yat-sen)
President of the Republic of China
1912-1915
Succeeded by
Lí Yuánhóng

  Results from FactBites:
 
Yuan Shikai - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2825 words)
Yuan Shikai (Courtesy Weiting 慰亭; Pseudonym: Rong'an 容庵 Traditional Chinese: 袁世凱; Simplified Chinese: 袁世凯; Hanyu Pinyin: Yuán Shìkǎi; Wade-Giles: Yüan Shih-k'ai) (September 16, 1859 – June 5, 1916) was a Chinese military official and politician during the late Qing Dynasty and the early Republic of China.
Yuan Shikai was born in the village of Zhangying (張營村), Xiangcheng county (項城縣), Chenzhou prefecture (陳州府), Henan province.
Yuan Shikai was elected Provisional President on February 15, 1912, by the Nanjing Provisional Senate, and sworn in on March 10.
Yuan Shikai (787 words)
Yuan Shikai (袁世凱 or 袁世凯 in pinyin: yuan2 shi4 kai3) (1859 - June 6, 1916), spelled Yüan Shih-k'ai in Wade-Giles, was a Chinese military official and politician during late Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China.
Yuan fulfilled his promise to the revolutionaries and arranged for the abdication of the child emperor Pu-yi in return for being named the President of the Republic.
Yuan viewed Sung as a threat to his authoirty and was speculated by the media of instigating the later's assassination on March 20, 1913.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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