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Encyclopedia > Yuan Dynasty
大元
Great Yuan
(khanate of the Mongol Empire)
Flag
1271 – 1368 Flag
Capital Dadu
Language(s) Mongolian
Chinese
Government Monarchy
Emperor
 - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan
 - 1333-1370 (Cont.) Ukhaatu Khan
History
 - establishing the Yuan Dynasty 1271
 - Fall of Dadu September 14, 1368
Population
 - 1330 est. 85,000,000 
Currency Paper Currency
Yuan Dynasty continued to rule Mongolia after 1368, when it was known as the "Northern Yuan".

The Yuan Dynasty (Chinese: 元朝; pinyin: Yuáncháo; Classical Mongolian: Dai Ön Yeke Mongghul Ulus) was a khanate of the Mongol Empire, one of the four major divisions of the empire, lasting officially from 1271 to 1368, followed the Song Dynasty and preceded the Ming Dynasty in the historiography of China. The dynasty was established by ethnic Mongols under Kublai Khan (the last Great Khan), and he controlled the Mongol Empire (stretching from Eastern Asia to the fertile crescent to Russia) because of his title of Khagan. Later successors did not even attempt to stake claim over the Khagan title and saw themselves as Emperor of China, as the Yuan Dynasty grew from being an imperial Mongol administration under Kublai Khan to becoming a basically Chinese institution under his successors. At its height, the Yuan Dynasty had a population of 80 million people.[citation needed] For the Star Trek character see Khan Noonien Singh. ... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Historical map of the Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: , Mongolyn Ezent Güren; 1206–1405) was the largest contiguous empire in history, covering over 33 million km²[1] (12 million square miles) at its zenith, with an estimated population of over 100 million people. ... Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Kaifeng (960–1127) Linan (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960-976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou... Image File history File links blank picture File links The following pages link to this file: Antioquia Boyacá Cundinamarca Bolívar Department Santander Department Atlántico Magdalena Department Amazonas Department, Colombia Arauca Caquetá Casanare Cauca Cesar Chocó Córdoba Department Guainía Guaviare Huila Department Guajira Department Meta Department Nari... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... Events Timur ascends throne of Samarkand. ... Image File history File links blank picture File links The following pages link to this file: Antioquia Boyacá Cundinamarca Bolívar Department Santander Department Atlántico Magdalena Department Amazonas Department, Colombia Arauca Caquetá Casanare Cauca Cesar Chocó Córdoba Department Guainía Guaviare Huila Department Guajira Department Meta Department Nari... For other uses, see Ming. ... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... “Peking” redirects here. ... For the comic series, see Monarchy (comics). ... The following is a list of Emperors of the Mongol Yuan Dynasty. ... The magnificent Cathedral of Chartres was dedicated in 1260. ... For broader historical context, see 1290s and 13th century. ... For other uses, see Kublai Khan (disambiguation). ... Events End of the Kamakura period and beginning of the Kemmu restoration in Japan. ... Events Beginning of the rule of Poland by Capet-Anjou family. ... Ukhaatu Khan (Classical Mongolian: Uqaɤatu qaɤan; Khalkha Mongolian: Ухаант хаан Uhaant haan), born Toghun Temür, was the fifteenth grand-khan of the Mongol Empire (Dai-ön Ulus/Yuan Dynasty). ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... “Peking” redirects here. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Timur ascends throne of Samarkand. ... Events Timur ascends throne of Samarkand. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... The Mongolian language (, mongol khel) is the best-known member of the Mongolic language family and the primary language of most of the residents of Mongolia, where it is officially written with the Cyrillic alphabet. ... For the Star Trek character see Khan Noonien Singh. ... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Historical map of the Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: , Mongolyn Ezent Güren; 1206–1405) was the largest contiguous empire in history, covering over 33 million km²[1] (12 million square miles) at its zenith, with an estimated population of over 100 million people. ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... Events Timur ascends throne of Samarkand. ... Alternative meaning: Song Dynasty (420-479) The Song dynasty (Chinese: 宋朝) was a ruling dynasty in China from 960-1279. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... Chinese historiography refers to the study of methods and assumptions made in studying Chinese history. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... For other uses, see Kublai Khan (disambiguation). ... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Historical map of the Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: , Mongolyn Ezent Güren; 1206–1405) was the largest contiguous empire in history, covering over 33 million km²[1] (12 million square miles) at its zenith, with an estimated population of over 100 million people. ... East Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... This map shows the extent of the Fertile Crescent. ... Khagan or Great Khan (Old Turkic , alternatively spelled Chagan, Khaghan, Kagan, Qagan, Qaghan), is a title of imperial rank in the Mongolian and Turkic languages equal to the status of emperor and someone who rules a Khaganate (empire, greater than an ordinary Khan, but often referred to as such in... For the volcano in Indonesia, see Emperor of China (volcano). ... For other uses, see Kublai Khan (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Yuan Dynasty

Kublai Khan and Ariq Boke

Kublai Khan, Genghis Khan's grandson and founder of the Yuan Dynasty
Kublai Khan, Genghis Khan's grandson and founder of the Yuan Dynasty

In 1259 the Great Khan Möngke died while Kublai Khan, his brother, was campaigning against Song empire and Ariq Boke, his other brother commanded the Mongol homelands. After Möngke's demise, Ariq Boke decided to attempt to make himself Khan. Hearing of this, Kublai aborted his Chinese expedition and had himself elected as Khan in April of 1260. Still, Ariq Boke had his supporters and was elected as a rival khan to Kublai at Karakorum. The brothers then engaged in a series of battles, ending with Ariq Boke's capture in 1264. Kublai held him prisoner until he died two years later. The khans of the Golden Horde and of the Chagatai Khanate did not recognize Kublai khan as the great khan. Hulego, another brother of Kublai khan, ruled his il-Khanate and paid homage to the Great khan but actually established a separate khanate. The four major successor khanates never came again under one rule. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... For other uses, see Kublai Khan (disambiguation). ... Möngke Khan (1208-1259, also transliterated as Mongke, Mongka, Möngka, Mangu) was the fourth khan of the Mongol Empire. ... For other uses, see Kublai Khan (disambiguation). ... Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Kaifeng (960–1127) Linan (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960-976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou... Ariq Boke or Arigh Bukha (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; died 1266), the youngest son of Tolui, was a grandson of Genghis Khan and a claimant to the Mongol Empire. ... Harhorin (Хархорин), or Khara Khorum in Classical Mongolian, is a town in Övörhangay aymag, Mongolia. ... The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire: Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde, Il-Khanate and Chagatai Khanate The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Ordyn Uls; Turkish: ; Tatar: ; Russian: ) was a Mongol[1][2][3][4] — later Turkicized[3] — khanate established in parts of present-day Russia... The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire: Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde, Il-Khanate and Chagatai Khanate Chagatai Khan (alternative spellings Chagata, Chugta, Chagta, Djagatai, Jagatai), a son of Genghis Khan (1206–1227), controlled the part of the Mongol Empire which extended from the Ili...


Rule of Kublai Khan

Hand Cannon from the Yuan dynasty.
Hand Cannon from the Yuan dynasty.

After winning the war against Ariq Boke, Kublai Khan began his reign over his khanate with great aspirations and self-confidence — in 1266 he ordered the construction of a capital near the modern city of Beijing. The city was originally called Zhongdu ("Central Capital") by the Chinese during the Jin Dynasty, and in 1272 it came to be known as Dadu or Tatu ("Great Capital") in Chinese, Daidu to the Mongols, and Khanbalikh ("City of the Khans") to the Turks.[1] He began his drive against the Southern Song, establishing, in 1271 — eight years prior to Southern conquest — the first non-Han dynasty to rule all of China: the Yuan Dynasty. In 1272, Dadu officially became the capital of the Yuan Dynasty. In 1279, Guangzhou was conquered by the Yuan army, which marks the end of the Southern Song and the onset of China under the Yuan. During Kublai Khan's reign he was put under pressure by many of his advisers to further expand the territory of the Yuan through the traditional Sino-centric tributary system. However, they were rebuffed and expeditions to Japan (twice), Myanmar, Vietnam (thrice), and Java, all would later fail (see Mongol invasions of Japan). Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2288 × 1712 pixel, file size: 875 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2288 × 1712 pixel, file size: 875 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Hand cannon from the Chinese Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368). ... For the Star Trek character see Khan Noonien Singh. ... For broader historical context, see 1260s and 13th century. ... Jin may refer to: Jin Dynasty (265-420) Jin Dynasty (1115-1234) (Jinn) Jin, a state in China during the Spring and Autumn Period Later Jin Dynasty, founded in 1616 by Nurhaci Jin, a ruler of the Xia dynasty The Jin state of late Bronze Age Korea Jin, Chinese American... Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Kaifeng (960–1127) Linan (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960-976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... Guangzhou is the capital and the sub-provincial city of Guangdong Province in the southern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ... This article is about the Java island. ... Combatants Mongol Empire Japan Commanders Kublai Khan Hōjō Tokimune Strength 35,000 Mongol & Chinese soldiers and 18,000 Korean warriors 10,000 Casualties 16,000 killed before landed minimal Defensive wall at Hakata. ...


Kublai Khan's early rule involved widespread plunder. As if expecting to lose the country, the Mongols attempted to remove as much money and resources as was possible. The Mongol conquest never affected China's trade with other countries. In fact the Yuan Dynasty strongly supported the Silk Road trade network, allowing the transfer of Chinese technologies to the west. Though many reforms were made during Kublai Khan's life, and despite his notable warming to the populace, the Yuan was a relatively short lived dynasty.

A Yuan Dynasty jade belt plaque featuring carved designs of a dragon.
A Yuan Dynasty jade belt plaque featuring carved designs of a dragon.

Kublai Khan began to serve as a true emperor, reforming much of China and its institutions, a process that would take decades to complete. He, for example, consolidated Mongol rule by centralizing the government of China — making himself (unlike his predecessors) an absolutist monarch. He reformed many other governmental and economic institutions, especially the tax system. Although the Mongols sought to govern China through traditional institutions, using Han Chinese bureaucrats, they were not up to the task initially. The Hans were discriminated against politically. Almost all important central posts were monopolized by Mongols, who also preferred employing non-Hans from other parts of the Mongol domain in those positions for which no Mongol could be found. Hans were more often employed in non-Chinese regions of the empire. In essence, the society was divided into four classes in order of privilege: Mongols, "Color-eyed" (Central Asians, mostly Uyghurs and Tibetans), Han (Han Chinese in northern China, Manchus, and Jurchens), and Southerners (Han Chinese within Southern Song and other ethnic groups). During his lifetime, Kublai Khan developed the new capital of the Yuan, Dadu, and built a second capital in present-day Beijing. He also improved the agriculture of China, extending the Grand Canal, highways and public granaries. Marco Polo described his rule as benevolent: relieving the populace of taxes in times of hardship; building hospitals and orphanages; distributing food among the abjectly poor. He also promoted science and religion. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 593 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Belt plaque with dragon design, Yuan Dynasty, by Mountain at Shanghai Museum File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 593 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Belt plaque with dragon design, Yuan Dynasty, by Mountain at Shanghai Museum File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared... A selection of antique, hand-crafted Chinese jade (jadeite) buttons Unworked Jade Jade is used as an ornamental stone, the term jade is applied to two different rocks that are made up of different silicate minerals. ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Thai name Thai: Vietnamese name Quoc Ngu: Han Tu: The Chinese dragon is a mythical Chinese creature that also appears in other East Asian cultures, and is also sometimes called the Oriental (or Eastern) dragon. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Languages Chinese languages Religions Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ... Khanbaliq or Cambuluc (great residence of the Khan) is the ancient Mongol name[1] for the city at the present location of Beijing, the current capital of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Marco Polo (September 15, 1254 – January 8, 1324) was a Venetian trader and explorer who gained fame for his worldwide travels, recorded in the book Il Milione (The Million or The Travels of Marco Polo). ...


Like other emperors of non-Han dynasties, Kublai Khan considered himself a legitimate Chinese emperor. While he had nominal rule over the rest of the Mongol Empire, his interest was clearly in China. By the time of Kublai Khan’s death in 1294, the Mongol Empire had broken up into a number of independent Khanates. For broader historical context, see 1290s and 13th century. ...


Early rule

Succession was a problem for the Yuan Dynasty, later causing much strife and internal struggle. This emerged as early as the end of Kublai's reign. His original choice was his son, Zhenjin — but he died before Kublai in 1285. Thus, Zhenjin's son ruled as Emperor Chengzong for approximately 10 years following Kublai's death (between 1294 and 1307). Chengzong decided to maintain and continue much of the work begun by his grandfather. However, the corruption in the Yuan Dynasty began during the reign of Chengzong. For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... Emperor Chengzong of Yuan China was the second leader of the Yuan Dynasty to rule as Emperor of China and did so between 1294 and 1307. ... For broader historical context, see 1290s and 13th century. ... January 18 - German king Albrecht I makes his son Rudolf king of Bohemia. ... Emperor Chengzong of Yuan China was the second leader of the Yuan Dynasty to rule as Emperor of China and did so between 1294 and 1307. ...


Wuzong became Emperor of China after the death of Chengzong. Unlike his predecessor, he did not continue Kublai's work, but largely rejected it. During his short reign (1307 to 1311), China fell into financial difficulties, partly due to bad decisions made by Wuzong. By the time he died, China was in severe debt and the Yuan Dynasty faced popular discontent. Emperor Wuzong of Yuan China was the 3rd leader of the Yuan Dynasty to rule as Emperor of China and did so between 1308 and 1311. ... For the volcano in Indonesia, see Emperor of China (volcano). ... January 18 - German king Albrecht I makes his son Rudolf king of Bohemia. ... Events Bolingbroke Castle passes to the House of Lancaster. ...


The fourth Yuan emperor, Renzong is seen as the last competent emperor. He stood out among the Mongol rulers of China as an adopter of mainstream Chinese culture, to the discontent of some Mongol elite. He had been mentored by Li Meng, a Confucian academic. He made many reforms, including the liquidation of the Department of State Affairs (resulting in the execution of 5 of the highest ranking officials). Starting in 1313 examinations were introduced for prospective officials, testing their knowledge on significant historical works. Also, he codified much of the law. Emperor Renzong of Yuan China was the 4th leader of the Yuan Dynasty to rule as Emperor of China and did so between 1311 and 1320. ... For contemporary culture after 1949, see Culture of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Li Meng (李蒙) was an officer who served under Dong Zhuo during the Three Kingdoms period of China. ... Confucianism (儒家 Pinyin: rújiā The School of the Scholars), sometimes translated as the School of Literati, is an East Asian ethical, religious and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of Confucius. ... Events Siege of Rostock ends Foundation year of the Order of the Rose Cross (Rosicrucian Order), according to the Rosicrucian Fellowship. ...


Impact

A Yuan Dynasty blue-and-white porcelain dish with fish and flowing water design, mid 14th century, Freer Gallery of Art.
A Yuan Dynasty blue-and-white porcelain dish with fish and flowing water design, mid 14th century, Freer Gallery of Art.

A rich cultural diversity developed during the Yuan dynasty. The major cultural achievements were the development of drama and the novel and the increased use of the written vernacular. The political unity of China and much of central Asia promoted trade between East and West. The Mongols' extensive West Asian and European contacts produced a fair amount of cultural exchange. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... “Fine China” redirects here. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... The entrance to the Freer Gallery. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the literary concept. ... Vernacular Chinese (pinyin: báihuà; Wade-Giles: paihua) is a style or register of the written Chinese language essentially modeled after the spoken language and associated with Standard Mandarin. ...


Western musical instruments were introduced to enrich the Chinese performing arts. From this period dates the conversion to Islam, by Muslims of Central Asia, of growing numbers of Chinese in the northwest and southwest. Nestorianism and Roman Catholicism also enjoyed a period of toleration. Tibetan Buddhism flourished, although native Taoism endured Mongol persecutions. Confucian governmental practices and examinations based on the Classics, which had fallen into disuse in north China during the period of disunity, were reinstated by the Mongols in the hope of maintaining order over Han society. Advances were realized in the fields of travel literature, cartography, geography, and scientific education. For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Nestorianism is the doctrine that Jesus exists as two persons, the man Jesus and the divine Son of God, or Logos, rather than as a unified person. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Tibetan Buddhism is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, the Himalayan region (including northern Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim and Ladakh), Mongolia, Buryatia, Tuva and Kalmykia (Russia), and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ... Taoism (Daoism) is the English name referring to a variety of related Chinese philosophical and religious traditions and concepts. ... Confucianism (儒家 Pinyin: rújiā The School of the Scholars), sometimes translated as the School of Literati, is an East Asian ethical, religious and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of Confucius. ... Chinese classic texts or Chinese canonical texts are the classical literature in Chinese culture that are considered to be the best or the most valuable. ... Cartography or mapmaking (in Greek chartis = map and graphein = write) is the study and practice of making maps or globes. ...


Certain Chinese innovations and products, such as purified saltpetre, printing techniques, porcelain, playing cards and medical literature, were exported to Europe and Western Asia, while the production of thin glass and cloisonne became popular in China. Saltpeter is variously: potassium nitrate (niter); or sodium nitrate (soda niter) ... “Fine China” redirects here. ... Some typical modern playing cards. ... This article is about the material. ... Cloisonn is a multi-step enamel process used to produce jewelry, vases, and other decorative items. ...


The first recorded travels by Europeans to China and back date from this time. The most famous traveler of the period was the Venetian Marco Polo, whose account of his trip to "Cambaluc," the Great Khan's capital, and of life there astounded the people of Europe. The account of his travels, Il milione (or, The Million, known in English as the Travels of Marco Polo), appeared about the year 1299. The works of John of Plano Carpini and William of Rubruck also provided early descriptions of the Mongol people to the West. Venetian could mean of Venice of the venetia territory of the Republic of Venice of the venet nation the Venetian language The Venetian, a hotel and casino in Las Vegas, Nevada A venetian blind - a horizontally slatted window blind. ... Marco Polo (September 15, 1254 – January 8, 1324) was a Venetian trader and explorer who gained fame for his worldwide travels, recorded in the book Il Milione (The Million or The Travels of Marco Polo). ... Giovanni da Pian del Carpini, or John of Plano Carpini or Joannes de Plano (??-1252) was one of the first Europeans to enter the court of the Great Khan of Mongol Empire and the author of the earliest important Western work on northern and central Asia, Russian Europe, and other... William of Rubruck (also William of Rubruk, Willem van Ruysbroeck, Guillaume de Rubrouck, Willielmus de Rubruquis, born c. ...


The Mongols undertook extensive public works. Road and water communications were reorganized and improved. To provide against possible famines, granaries were ordered built throughout the empire. The city of Beijing was rebuilt with new palace grounds that included artificial lakes, hills and mountains, and parks. During the Yuan period, Beijing became the terminus of the Grand Canal, which was completely renovated. These commercially oriented improvements encouraged overland and maritime commerce throughout Asia and facilitated direct Chinese contacts with Europe. Chinese travelers to the West were able to provide assistance in such areas as hydraulic engineering. Contacts with the West also brought the introduction to China of a major food crop, sorghum, along with other foreign food products and methods of preparation. Granary at Thiruparaithurai, Kumbakonam (old temple town), built around 1600-1634 A granary is a storehouse for threshed grain or animal feed. ... The Grand Canal of China connects a series of rivers in China. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Species About 30 species, see text Sorghum is a genus of numerous species of grasses, some of which are raised for grain and many of which are utilised as fodder plants either cultivated or as part of pasture. ...


Downfall

Civil unrest

The Bailin Temple Pagoda of Zhaoxian County, Hebei Province, built in 1330 during the Yuan Dynasty.
The Bailin Temple Pagoda of Zhaoxian County, Hebei Province, built in 1330 during the Yuan Dynasty.

The last years of the Yuan Dynasty were marked by struggle, famine, and bitterness among the populace. The dynasty was, significantly, one of the shortest-lived dynasties in the history of China, covering just a century, 1271 to 1368. In time, Kublai Khan's successors became sinicized, then lost all influence on other Mongol lands across Asia, while the Mongols beyond the Middle Kingdom saw them as too Chinese. Gradually, they lost influence in China as well. The reigns of the later Yuan emperors were short and were marked by intrigues and rivalries. Uninterested in administration, they were separated from both the army and the populace. China was torn by dissension and unrest; bandits ravaged the country without interference from the weakening Yuan armies. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1920 × 2560 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1920 × 2560 pixel, file size: 3. ... Hebei (Chinese: 河北; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-pei; Postal System Pinyin: Hopeh) is a northern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The history of China is told in traditional historical records that refer as far back as the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors about 5,000 years ago, supplemented by archaeological records dating to the 16th century BC. China is one of the worlds oldest continuous civilizations. ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... Events Timur ascends throne of Samarkand. ... Sinicization, or less commonly Sinification, is to make things Chinese. ... Butch Cassidy, a famous outlaw An outlaw, a person living the lifestyle of outlawry, is most familiar to contemporary readers as a stock character in Western movies. ...


Emperor Yingzong ruled for just two years (1321 to 1323); his rule ended in a coup at the hands of five princes. They placed Taidingdi on the throne, and, after an unsuccessful attempt to calm the princes, he also succumbed to regicide. The last of the nine successors of Kublai Khan was expelled from Dadu (present-day Beijing) in 1368 by Zhu Yuanzhang, the founder of the Míng Dynasty (1368–1644). Gegeen Khan (Classical Mongolian: Gegegen qaɤan; Khalkha Mongolian: Гэгээн хаан gegeen haan), born Shidibala (from Sanskrit Siddhipāla) and served as Emperor Yingzong of Yuan China, was the ninth grand-khan of the Mongol Empire (Dai-ön Ulus/Yuan... Events Births September 29 - John of Artois, Count of Eu, French soldier (d. ... August 12 - The Treaty of Nöteborg between Sweden and Novgorod (Russia) is signed, regulating the border for the first time Canonization of Saint Thomas Aquinas Lithuania: in Letters of Gediminas, Vilnius is named as the capital city Pharos of Alexandria Lighthouse (one of the Seven Wonders of the world... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... Yesün Temür Khan (Classical Mongolian: Yesün temür qaɤan; Khalkha Mongolian: Есѳнтѳмѳр хаан Yösöntömör haan) was the tenth grand-khan of the Mongol Empire (Dai-ön Ulus/Yuan Dynasty) who... For other uses, see Regicide (disambiguation). ... The Hongwu Emperor (October 21, 1328 - June 24, 1398), personal name Zhu Yuanzhang, was the founder of the Ming Dynasty of China, and the first emperor of this dynasty from 1368 to 1398. ... The Míng Dynasty (Chinese: 明朝; Hanyu Pinyin: ) was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644. ...


Basalawarmi established a separate pocket of resistance to the Ming in Yunnan and Guizhou, but his forces were decisively defeated by the Ming in 1381. Basalawarmi (died January 6, 1382), commonly known as the Prince of Liang, was a descendant of Kublai Khan and a Yuan Dynasty loyalist who fought against the ascendant Ming Dynasty. ... Yunan redirects here. ... (Simplified Chinese: 贵州; Traditional Chinese: 貴州; pinyin: Gùizhōu; Wade-Giles: Kuei-chou; also spelled Kweichow) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China located in the southwestern part of the country. ...


Northern Yuan

The Mongols retreated to Mongolia, where the Yuan Dynasty was formally carried on. It is now called the Northern Yuan by modern historians. According to Chinese political orthodoxy, there could be only one legitimate empire, and so the Ming and the Yuan denied each other's legitimacy. (The Ming did consider the previous Yuan which it had succeeded a legitimate dynasty, however). Historians generally regard the Míng Dynasty as the legitimate dynasty. The Míng Dynasty (Chinese: 明朝; Hanyu Pinyin: ) was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644. ...


The Ming army invaded Mongolia in 1380 and won a decisive victory in 1388. About 70,000 Mongols were taken prisoners, and Karakorum (the Northern Yuan capital) was destroyed. Eight years later, the Northern Yuan throne was taken over by Yesüder, a descendant of Arigh Bugha. He restored the throne to descendants of Kublai Khan. The following centuries saw a succession of Chinggisid rulers, many of whom were mere figureheads put on the throne by those warlords who happened to be the most powerful. Periods of conflict with the Ming empire intermingled with periods of peaceful relations with border trade. The Karakorum palace (also Ka-la-kun-lun, Khara-khorin, Kharakhorum, Khara Khorum in Classical Mongolian) was an ancient capital of the Mongol Empire in the 13th century, although for only about 30 years. ... Ariq Boke or Arigh Bukha (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; died 1266), the youngest son of Tolui, was a grandson of Genghis Khan and a claimant to the Mongol Empire. ... For other uses, see Kublai Khan (disambiguation). ...


In the 17th century, the Mongols came under the influence of the Manchu. In 1634, Ligdan Khan, the last Great Khan of the Mongols, died on his way to Tibet. His son, Ejei Khan, surrendered to the Manchu and gave the great seal of the Yuan Emperor to its ruler, Hong Taiji. As a result, Hong Taiji established the Qing Dynasty as the successor of the Yuan Dynasty in 1636. (Some sources such as Encyclopædia Britannica give the year as 1637). The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... Lingdan Khutaghtu Khan, also Ligdan, Legdan or Likdan (ruled 1604-1634), was the last in the Chakhar dynasty of Mongol Khans. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... Ejei Khongghor or Ejei Khan was the son of Lingdan Khan, the last in the line of Mongol Khans, who ruled over China as the Yuan Dynasty. ... Huang Taiji (Manchu: ; Chinese: 皇太極 huáng tài jí; also known as 洪太極 hóng tài jí or 黃台吉 huáng tái jí; sometimes referred erroneously to as Abahai in Western literature), (November 28, 1592-September 21, 1643), was first Khan of the Later Jin and then Emperor of the... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Territory of Qing China in 1892 Capital Shengjing (1636-1644) Beijing (1644-1912) Language(s) Chinese Manchu Mongolian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1636-1643 Huang Taiji  - 1908-1912 Xuantong Emperor Prime Minister  - 1911 Yikuang  - 1911-1912 Yuan Shikai History  - Establishment of the Late... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ...

Preceded by
Song Dynasty
Yuan Dynasty
1279-1368
Succeeded by
Ming Dynasty

Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Kaifeng (960–1127) Linan (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960-976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou... For other uses, see Ming. ...

Other notes

  • During the reign of the Yuan the world population grew from about 330 million to approximately 360 million, a difference of 30 million.

References

  1. ^ Rossabi, M., Khubilai Khan, p131
  • J. J. Saunders, The History of the Mongol Conquests (1971)
  • Ahmad Y. al-Hassan and Donald R. Hill, Islamic Technology (1988)

See also

The following is a list of Emperors of the Mongol Yuan Dynasty. ... The following is the Yuan dynasty family tree. ... The JÄ«n Dynasty (Jurchen: Anchu; Chinese: 金朝; Pinyin: ; 1115-1234), also known as the Jurchen dynasty, was founded by the Wanyan (完顏 Wányán) clan of the Jurchen, the ancestors of the Manchus who established the Qing Dynasty some 500 years later. ... Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Kaifeng (960–1127) Linan (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960-976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou... For other uses, see Ming. ... The Yuan Dynasty of China, continued to maintain excellent relationship with other nomadic tribes of Mongolia. ... Location of Western Xia in 1142 Capital Xingqing Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1038-1048 Emperor Jingzong  - 1226-1227 Emperor Modi History  - Established 1038  - Surrendered to the Mongol Empire 1227 Population  - peak est. ... Chinese sovereign is the ruler of a particular period in ancient China. ... Although people have inhabited Mongolia since the Stone Age, Mongolia only became politically important after iron weapons entered the area in the 3rd century B.C. In general, Mongolia at this point had a similar history to the rest of the nomadic steppe that lies between Siberia Northern Russia to... This is the list of Mongol Khans and Khagans. ... The following is a list of tributaries of Imperial China. ... Jun ware is a type of pottery created in Junzhou (now named Yuzhao) in the Chinese province of Henan during the Northern Song dynasty (960-1126). ... Statue of Timur in Shahrisabz, Uzbekistan TÄ«mÅ«r bin Taraghay Barlas (Chagatai Turkic: تیمور - TÄ“mōr, iron) (1336 – February 1405), known in the West as Tamerlane, was a 14th century warlord of Turco-Mongol descent,[1][2][3][4] conqueror of much of western and central Asia, and founder...

External links

  • Yuan Dynasty Earthen City Wall Park, Beijing
This article contains Chinese text.
Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Chinese characters.

Yam is a supply point route messenger system developed by Genghis Khan. ... The Pax Mongolica or Mongol Peace is a phrase coined by Western scholars to describe the effect of the conquest of the Mongol Empire on the social, cultural and economic life of the inhabitants in the 13th and 14th centuries. ... Yassa, alternatively Yasa or Yasaq, is a written code of laws created by Genghis Khan. ... Kurultai (Tatar: Qorıltay, Azerbaijani: Qurultay; Kurulmak meaning to assemble in Turkish, also Khural meaning meeting in Mongolian) is a political and military council of ancient Mongol and Turkic chiefs and khans. ... A nerge is a Mongolian military tactic that originated as a hunting technique. ... A type of horse archer in Age of Kings available only to the Mongols. ... Tumen was the part of decimal system used by Turkic, Proto-Turkic (such as the Huns) and by Mongol peoples for their army. ... Image File history File links Zhongwen. ... Japanese name Kanji: Kana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quoc Ngu: Hantu: A Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, sometimes Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ...


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