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Encyclopedia > Younger Memnon
The Younger Memnon (Ramesses II)
Anon., about 1270 BC
Granite colossal figure
London, British Museum

The Younger Memnon statue is one of two colossal granite heads from the Ancient Egyptian mortuary temple called the Ramesseum at Thebes, depicting the pharaoh Ramesses II wearing the nemes head-dress with a cobra diadem on top. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1200x1600, 640 KB) Description: The British Museum, Room 4 - Colossal bust of Ramesses II, the Younger Memnon From the Ramesseum, Thebes, Egypt 19th Dynasty, about 1250 BC One of the largest pieces of Egyptian sculpture in the British Museum Weighing 7. ... Usermaatre-setepenre The Justice of Re is Powerful, Chosen of Re Nomen Ramesses (meryamun) Born of Re, (Beloved of Amun) Horus name Kanakht Merymaa Nebty name Mekkemetwafkhasut Golden Horus Userrenput-aanehktu Consort(s) Isetnofret, Nefertari Maathorneferure Issues Bintanath, Khaemweset, Merneptah, Amun-her-khepsef, Meritamen see also: List of children of... (Redirected from 1270 BC) Centuries: 14th century BC - 13th century BC - 12th century BC Decades: 1320s BC 1310s BC 1300s BC 1290s BC 1280s BC - 1270s BC - 1260s BC 1250s BC 1240s BC 1230s BC 1220s BC Events and Trends Significant People Categories: 1270s BC ... Quarrying granite for the Mormon Temple, Utah Territory. ... Colossus may refer to: The Colossus of Rhodes, a giant statue of Helios, one of the Seven Wonders of the World. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The British Museum in London is one of the worlds greatest museums of human history and culture. ... Khafres Pyramid (4th dynasty) and Great Sphinx of Giza (c. ... Ramesseum from the air - showing pylons and secondary buildings Ramesseum: Hypostyle hall The Ramesseum is the memorial temple (or mortuary temple) of Pharaoh Ramesses II (Ramesses the Great, also spelt Ramses and Rameses). It is located in the Theban necropolis in Upper Egypt, across the River Nile from the modern... Thebes For the ancient capital of Boeotia, see Thebes, Greece. ... Pharaoh was the ancient Egyptian name for the office of kingship. ... Usermaatre-setepenre The Justice of Re is Powerful, Chosen of Re Nomen Ramesses (meryamun) Born of Re, (Beloved of Amun) Horus name Kanakht Merymaa Nebty name Mekkemetwafkhasut Golden Horus Userrenput-aanehktu Consort(s) Isetnofret, Nefertari Maathorneferure Issues Bintanath, Khaemweset, Merneptah, Amun-her-khepsef, Meritamen see also: List of children of... The Uraeus (plural Uraei or Uraeuses) is a stylised upright cobra (or snake / serpent), used as a symbol of sovereignty, royalty, deity and divine authority in ancient Egypt. ...

Contents

Description

It is 2.7 m high by 2m wide (across the shoulders), weighs 7.25 tons and was cut from a single block of two-coloured granite, with a slight variation of normal conventions in that the eyes look down slightly more than usual and to exploit the different colours (broadly speaking, the head is in one colour, and the body another).


Acquisition

Belzoni

Napoleon's men tried and failed to dig and remove it to France during his 1798 expedition there, during which he did acquire but then lose the Rosetta Stone. It was during this attempt that the hole on the right of the torso (just above Ramesses's right nipple) is said to have been made. For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... 1798 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Rosetta Stone in the British Museum. ...

The "Younger Memnon" being hauled from Thebes

Following an idea mentioned to him by his friend Johann Ludwig Burckhardt of digging the statue and bringing it to Britain, the British Consul General Henry Salt hired the adventurer Giovanni Belzoni in Cairo in 1815 for this purpose. Using his hydraulics and engineering skills, it was pulled on wooden rollers by ropes to the bank of the Nile opposite Luxor by hundreds of workmen. However, no boat was yet available to take it up to Alexandria and so Belzoni carried out an expedition to Nubia, returning by October. With French collectors also in the area possibly looking to acquire the statue, he then sent workmen to Esneh to gain a suitable boat and in the meantime carried out further excavations in Thebes. He finally loaded the products of these digs, plus the Memnon, onto this boat and got it to Cairo by 15th December 1816. There he received and obeyed orders from Salt to unload all but the Memnon, which was then sent on to Alexandria and London without him. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Johann Ludwig (aka John Lewis) Burckhardt (November 24, 1784 - October 15, 1817), Swiss traveller and orientalist, was born in Lausanne. ... Henry Salt (June 14, 1780 – October 30, 1827) was an English artist, traveler, diplomat, and Egyptologist. ... Giovanni Battista Belzoni (1778 - December 3, 1823) was an Italian explorer of Egyptian antiquities. ... Nickname: Al Qahirah (The Triumphant City) Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... For alternative meanings of Nile, see Nile (disambiguation) The Nile in Egypt Length 6 695 km Elevation of the source 1 134 m Average discharge 2 830 m³/s Area watershed 3 400 000 km² Origin Africa Mouth the Mediterranean Basin countries Uganda - Sudan - Egypt The Nile (Arabic: ا&#1604... The River Nile at Luxor Pharaonic statue in Luxor Temple Hot-air ballooning in Luxor Luxor (Arabic: الأقصر ) is a city in Upper (southern) Egypt and the capital of the Al Uqsur governorate, population approximately 200,000. ... Alexandria (Greek: , Coptic: , Arabic: , Egyptian Arabic: Iskindireyya), (population of 3. ...

The installation of the "Younger Memnon" in the BM sculpture gallery by the Royal Engineers

Anticipated by Shelley's poem Ozymandias, the head arrived in London in 1818, where it acquired its name "The Younger Memnon", after the "Memnonianum" (the name in classical times for the Ramasseum - the two statues at the entrance of the mortuary temple of Amenhotep III were associated with Memnon in classical times - they are still known as the Colossi of Memnon - , and the BM sculpture and its pair seem to have either been mistaken for them or suffered a similar misnaming). OZYMANDIAS I met a traveller from an antique land Who said:—Two vast and trunkless legs of stone Stand in the desert. ... Amenhotep Hekawaset Amun is Satisfied, Ruler of Thebes[1] Reign 1388 BC – 1351 BC/1350 BC Praenomen Nebmaatre The Lord of Truth is Re[2] Horus name Kanakht Emkhaimaat The strong bull, appearing in truth Nebty name Semenhepusegerehtawy One establishing laws, pacifying the two lands Golden Horus Aakhepesh-husetiu Great... In Greek mythology, Memnon was an Ethiopian king and son of Tithonus and Eos. ... The Colossi of Memnon The Colossi of Memnon (known to locals as el-Colossat, or es-Salamat) are two massive stone statues of Pharaoh Amenhotep III. For the past 3400 years they have stood in the Theban necropolis, across the River Nile from the modern city of Luxor. ...


British Museum

It was later acquired from Salt in 1822 by the British Museum and was at first displayed in the old Townley Galleries (now demolished) for several years, then installed (using heavy ropes and lifting equipment and with help from the Royal Engineers) in 1834 in the new Egyptian Sculpture Gallery (now Room 4, where it now resides). The soldiers were commanded by a Waterloo veteran, Major Charles Cornwallis Dansey, lame from a wound sustained there, who therefore sat whilst commanding them. On its arrival there, it could be said to be the first piece of Egyptian sculpture to be recognized as a work of art rather than a curiosity low down in the chain of art (with ancient Greek art at the pinnacle of this chain). It is object EA 19. The British Museum in London is one of the worlds greatest museums of human history and culture. ... Much of the following text is taken from the public domain Encyclopedia Britannica 1911, as such it may contain errors and inaccuracies Charles Towneley (1737-1805), English archaeologist and collector of marbles, was born at Towneley, the family seat, near Burnley in Lancashire, on the ist of October 1737. ... The Corps of Royal Engineers, usually just called the Royal Engineers (RE), and commonly known as the Sappers, is one of the corps of the British Army. ... 1834 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants France Seventh Coalition: United Kingdom Prussia United Netherlands Hanover Nassau Brunswick Commanders Napoleon Bonaparte Michel Ney Duke of Wellington Gebhard von Blücher Strength 73,000 67,000 Coalition 60,000 Prussian (48,000 engaged by about 18:00) Casualties 25,000 dead or wounded; 7,000 Captured; 15...


Sources

  • BM Catalogue entry
  • Salt's permission to remove objects
  • Its installation in the Museum
  • T.G.H. James and W.V. Davies, Egyptian sculpture (London, The British Museum Press, 1983), p. 41
  • G. Belzoni, Narrative of the operations and recent discoveries within the pyramids, temples, tombs, and excavations in Egypt and Nubia I (London, John Murray, 1822), pp. 61-80
  • S. Quirke and A.J. Spencer, The British Museum book of ancient Egypt (London, The British Museum Press, 1992), pp. 126-7
  • Albert M. Lythgoe, 'Statues of the Goddess Sekhmet', The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin Vol. 14, No. 10, Part 2 (Oct., 1919), pp. 1+3-23
  • Encyclopaedic.net - extracts from Belzoni's account

 
 

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