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Encyclopedia > Young Turks
Political Parties (Ottoman)
Foundation

Important Political Figures:
Talat Pasha · Enver Pasha · Djemal Pasha · Mehmed Cavid Bey · Halil Pasha · Nuri Pasha · Teskilati Mahsusa · Ziya Gökalp · Yusuf Akçura · Tekin Alp · Reşit Bey · Kazim Karabekir · Mustafa Kemal Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... Constitutionalism is the limitation of government by law. ... The phrase Young Turks has the following meanings: The Young Turk(s) refers to the movement which composed of Turkish people, constitutionalist, progressive, partisan which brought the modernization and second constitutional era by a Young Turk Revolution replacing the monarchy of Abdul Hamid II in the Ottoman Empire. ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Political Parties redirects here. ... Thessaloniki or Salonica (Greek: ) is Greeces second-largest city and the capital of Macedonia, the largest Region of Greece. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... Mehmed Talat Pasha (Turkish: Mehmet Tâlât PaÅŸa) (1874-1921) was one of the leaders of the Young Turks, an Ottoman statesman, grand vizier (1917) , and leading member of the Sublime Porte from 1913 until 1918. ... Ä°smail Enver (Ottoman Turkish: اسماعيل انور) , known to Europeans during his political career as Enver Pasha (Turkish: Enver PaÅŸa) or Enver Bey was a Turkish military officer and a leader of the Young Turk revolution. ... Ahmed Djemal Pasha Ahmed Djemal Pasha Ahmed Djemal Pasha (Turkish: Ahmet Cemal PaÅŸa) (May 6, 1872 - July 21, 1922) was born in Mytilene. ... Halil Kut (Turkish: Halil PaÅŸa)(1864 - 1923) was a Ottoman regional governor and military commander. ... Nuri Killigil (Nuri Pasha) (1881-1949) was a general in the Ottoman Army. ... Teskilati Mahsusa (Ottoman: TeÅŸkilat-i Mahsusa) is an Ottoman imperial government organization established under war department, which dealt with both Arab separatism and Western imperialism. ... Ziya Gökalp (1875 or March 23, 1876, Diyarbakır—October 25, 1924, Ä°stanbul) was a prominent Turkish ideologue of Pan-Turkism or Turanism. ... Yusuf Akçura(1876-1935) was a prominent Ottoman activist of the pan-Turkist or Turanism camp. ... Tekin Alp (1883-1961) born Moise Kohen to a Jewish family in Salonica under Ottoman control (now Thessaloniki,Greece) was one of the founding fathers of Turkish nationalism and an ideologue of Pan-Turkism. ... Dr. Mehmet ReÅŸit Bey was the governor of the Diyarbakır vilayet of the Ottoman Empire during World War I. He is known for his role in the Armenian Genocide. ... This article needs copyediting (checking for proper English spelling, grammar, usage, tone, style, and voice). ... Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881 – November 10, 1938), Turkish soldier and statesman, was the founder and first President of the Republic of Turkey. ...

Important Events

The Young Turks (Turkish: Jön Türkler (plural), from French: Jeunes Turcs) were a coalition of various groups favoring reforming the administration of the Ottoman Empire. Through the Young Turk Revolution, their movement brought about the second constitutional era. In 1889, starting first among military students and then extending to other sections, the movement initiated against the monarchy of Sultan Abdul Hamid II. Establishing officially, the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) in 1906, gaining most of the Young Turks, the movement built a rich tradition of dissent that shaped the intellectual, political and artistic life of the late Ottoman period (decline, dissolution). Public demonstration in the Sultanahmet district of Istanbul, 1908 The Young Turk Revolution of 1908 reversed the suspension of the Ottoman parliament by Sultan Abdul Hamid II, marking the onset of the Second Constitutional Era. ... Public Demonstration The Second Constitutional Era in the Ottoman Empire began with the 1908 Young Turk Revolution, shortly after which Sultan Abdul Hamid II restored the 1876 Constitution suspended since 1878. ... 31 March Incident (31 Mart Vakası) was a rebellion of the reactionaries in 1909 in Ä°stanbul toward the Countercoup (1909), who attempted to put an end to the nascent Second Constitutional Era in the Ottoman Empire and to the newly-established influence of the Committee of Union and Progress, in... The Countercoup (March 1909) is the famous coup against the Imperial Government of the Ottoman Empire, which was established by Young Turk Revolution of 1908, aimed to dismantle the Second Constitutional Era (Ottoman Empire) and brining the monarchy of Abdul Hamid II with a dethroned Sultans bid for a... Combatants Italy Ottoman Empire Commanders Luigi Caneva Ismail Enver Mustafa Kemal Ataturk Strength 100,000 28,000 Casualties 3,380 dead 4,220 wounded 14,000 dead 5,370 wounded The Italo-Turkish or Turco-Italian War (also known in Italy as guerra di Libia, the Libyan war, and in... Combatants  Ottoman Empire Balkan League: Bulgaria Greece Montenegro Serbia Commanders Nazim Pasha, Zekki Pasha, Essad Pasha, Abdullah Pasha, Ali Rizah Pasha Vasil Kutinchev, Nikola Ivanov, Radko Dimitriev Crown Prince Constantine, Panagiotis Danglis, Pavlos Kountouriotis King Nicholas I, Prince Danilo Petrović, Mitar Martinović, Janko Vukotić Radomir Putnik, Petar Bojović, Stepa Stepanovi... Coup of January 1913 in the Ottoman Empire replaced Kiamil Pasha. ... Combatants Bulgaria Greece Serbia Montenegro Romania Ottoman Empire Commanders Mihail Savov, Nikola Ivanov, Vasil Kutinchev, Radko Dimitriev King Constantine, Radomir Putnik, Crown Prince Ferdinand, Alexandru Averescu Strength 500,000 men Serbia 220,000 men, Romania 300,000 men, Greece 150,000 men, Montenegro 12,000 men The Second Balkan War... The Battle of Adrianople, Siege of Adrianople, Bulgarian Battle of Odrin or Serbian Battle of Jedrene during the First Balkan War began in mid-November, 1912 and ended with the capture of Adrianople by the Bulgarian 2nd Army under the command of General Vazov (brother of the famous Bulgarian writer... The Treaty of London was convened in May 1913 to deal with territorial adjustments arising out of the conclusion of the First Balkan War. ... The Ottoman-German Alliance was an alliance established between the Ottoman Empire and the German Empire on August 2nd, 1914. ... The pursuit of Goeben and Breslau was a naval action that occurred in the Mediterranean Sea at the outbreak of the First World War when elements of the British Mediterranean Fleet attempted to intercept the German Mittelmeerdivision (Mediterranean Division) comprising the battlecruiser SMS Goeben and the light cruiser SMS Breslau. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Russia Ottoman Empire Commanders General Vorontsov General Yudenich Enver Pasha Strength 100,000 90,000 (plus aprox. ... Armenian Genocide photo. ... Combatants British Empire, British India Ottoman Empire Commanders General Townshend Baron von der Goltz Strength 11,000 troops, two warships around 30,000 Casualties 4,500 9,600 British Expeditionary Force D, mostly made up of Indians and under the command of Gen. ... Combatants Britain, British India Ottoman Empire Commanders General Townshend Baron von der Goltz†, Khalil Pasha Strength 30,000 50,000 Casualties 23,000 10,000 The Siege of Kut-al-Amara (December 7, 1915 – April 29, 1916) was part of the Mesopotamian Campaign in World War I. The British Mesopotamian... Battle of Gallipoli Conflict First World War Date 19 February 1915 - 9 January 1916 Place Gallipoli peninsula, Turkey Result Ottoman victory The Battle of Gallipoli took place on the Turkish peninsula of Gallipoli in 1915 during the First World War. ... Combatants British Empire Australia British India Newfoundland New Zealand United Kingdom Egyptian labourers[1] France Senegal  Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir Ian Hamilton Lord Kitchener John de Robeck Otto von Sanders Mustafa Kemal Strength 5 divisions (initial) 16 divisions (final) 6 divisions (initial) 15 divisions (final) Casualties 252,000[2] 195... Combatants Hashemite Arabs Great Britain Ottoman Empire Commanders Faisal T.E. Lawrence Ahmed Djemal Strength 5,000 (?) 25,000 (?) This article is about the Arab Revolt of 1916. ... The Fall of Baghdad may refer to the following: Battle of Baghdad (1258), the Mongol Empires capture of Baghdad, then the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate. ... Third Battle of Gaza Conflict First World War Date 31 October–7 November 1917 Place Gaza, southern Palestine Result Allied victory The Third Battle of Gaza was fought in 1917 in southern Palestine during World War I. The British forces under the command of General Edmund Allenby successfully broke... Combatants United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Ottoman Empire Commanders Edmund Allenby Erich von Falkenhayn Strength Egyption Expeditionary Force Seventh Army Casualties 18,000 (for entire campaign) 25,000 (for entire cmpaign) {{{notes}}} The Battle of Jerusalem resulted in the city of Jerusalem falling to British forces in December 1917. ... Combatants British Empire Australia India New Zealand United Kingdom  France French Armenian Legion Arab insurgents  Ottoman Empire  German Empire Commanders Edmund Allenby Otto Liman von Sanders Strength 12,000 mounted troops, 57,000 infantry, 540 guns 3,000 mounted troops, 32,000 infantry, 402 guns Casualties 782 killed, 382 missing... The Armistice of Mudros (30 October 1918), which ended the hostilities on Middle Eastern theatre of World War I between Ottoman Empire and Allies, was signed by the Minister of Marine Affairs Rauf Bey) and the British Admiral Somerset Arthur Gough-Calthorpe), on the aboard HMS Agamemnon in Moudros port... Turkish Courts-Martial of 1919-1920 were court martials of the Ottoman Empire after the armistice of Mudros during the aftermath the World War One, which the leadership of the Committee of Union and Progress and selected former officials had court-martial with/including the charges of subversion of the... The term Administration, as used in the context of government, differs according to jurisdiction. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... Public demonstration in the Sultanahmet district of Istanbul, 1908 The Young Turk Revolution of 1908 reversed the suspension of the Ottoman parliament by Sultan Abdul Hamid II, marking the onset of the Second Constitutional Era. ... Public Demonstration The Second Constitutional Era in the Ottoman Empire began with the 1908 Young Turk Revolution, shortly after which Sultan Abdul Hamid II restored the 1876 Constitution suspended since 1878. ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... Abdülhamid II (Ottoman Turkish: عبد الحميد ثانی , Turkish: ) (September 21, 1842 – February 10, 1918) was the 34th sultan of the Ottoman Empire. ... Foundation: 1894 Dissolved: 1918, Court Martialed Head: The Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) (Turkish: ), initially a secret society established as the Committee of Ottoman Union (Ä°ttihad-ı Osmanî Cemiyeti in 1889 by the medical students Ä°brahim Temo, Abdullah Cevdet, Ä°shak Sükuti and Hüseyinzade Ali, became was a political... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Graphical timeline Decline of the Ottoman Empire covers the military and political events between 1828 to 1908. ... This article describes the process of dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, in particular its final years in the early part of the 20th century. ...


The Three Pashas of the Young Turks ruled the Ottoman Empire from the Coup of 1913 until the end of World War I. The Young Turks were responsible for orchestrating the Armenian Genocide, as well as the Assyrian Genocide.[1] The Three Pashas are the famous Pashas who enabled the Ottoman Empire to enter the WWI. Talat, along with Enver Pasha and Djemal Pasha formed a group called the three pashas. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... Coup of January 1913 in the Ottoman Empire replaced Kiamil Pasha. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Armenian Genocide photo. ... Bodies of Christians who perished during the Assyrian Genocide 40 Christians dying a day say Assyrian refugees - The Syracuse Herald, 1915. ...

Contents

Nature of Young Turks

See also: List of parties in the Ottoman Empire and Committee of Union and Progress

Sharing a thinking style, they were progressive, conflicting with the status quo. Partisan by this, they did have a common goal, initially, in reform, believing in a parliamentary system, rather than a monarchy or theocracy. The movement's activities among member's political side can be traced back to as early as 1889, however, the Young Turks were not formed from a single society, party, militia, or any other social organization solely. Although it's hard to see them as an unity, in the 1902 Young Turk Conference held in Paris, there are two main political groups "Supporters of Centralization of the Empire" (which became Committee of Union and Progress later on) and Prince Sebahattin's idea of "Decentralization of the Empire" and his followers (which became Liberal Unionlater on). Not only political, they were artists, administrators, scientists, etc. "Young Turk" since has taken to signify any groups or individuals inside an organization who are more progressive, and seek prominence and power.[2][3] List of parties in Ottoman Empire gives an overview of parties in Ottoman Empire. ... Foundation: 1894 Dissolved: 1918, Court Martialed Head: The Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) (Turkish: ), initially a secret society established as the Committee of Ottoman Union (İttihad-ı Osmanî Cemiyeti in 1889 by the medical students İbrahim Temo, Abdullah Cevdet, İshak Sükuti and Hüseyinzade Ali, became was a political... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Foundation: 1894 Dissolved: 1918, Court Martialed Head: The Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) (Turkish: ), initially a secret society established as the Committee of Ottoman Union (İttihad-ı Osmanî Cemiyeti in 1889 by the medical students İbrahim Temo, Abdullah Cevdet, İshak Sükuti and Hüseyinzade Ali, became was a political... Liberal Union is the second bigest party in the Ottoman parlement of 1909. ...


Some sources associate the Committee of Union and Progress strictly with the Turks. Yet, the Committee of Union and Progress had members from many other ethnic groups, and different world views. In 1909, the Committee of Union and Progress had 60 Arabic, 25 Albanian, 14 Armenian, 10 Slavic and 4 Jewish representatives, in addition to the Turks. Also, some Turks belonged to other groups, such as the Liberal Union and other parties that can be found under the list of parties in the Ottoman Empire. Foundation: 1894 Dissolved: 1918, Court Martialed Head: The Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) (Turkish: ), initially a secret society established as the Committee of Ottoman Union (İttihad-ı Osmanî Cemiyeti in 1889 by the medical students İbrahim Temo, Abdullah Cevdet, İshak Sükuti and Hüseyinzade Ali, became was a political... Foundation: 1894 Dissolved: 1918, Court Martialed Head: The Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) (Turkish: ), initially a secret society established as the Committee of Ottoman Union (İttihad-ı Osmanî Cemiyeti in 1889 by the medical students İbrahim Temo, Abdullah Cevdet, İshak Sükuti and Hüseyinzade Ali, became was a political... Foundation: 1894 Dissolved: 1918, Court Martialed Head: The Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) (Turkish: ), initially a secret society established as the Committee of Ottoman Union (İttihad-ı Osmanî Cemiyeti in 1889 by the medical students İbrahim Temo, Abdullah Cevdet, İshak Sükuti and Hüseyinzade Ali, became was a political... Liberal Union is the second bigest party in the Ottoman parlement of 1909. ... List of parties in Ottoman Empire gives an overview of parties in Ottoman Empire. ...


Other components of the Ottoman Empire were involved in the revolution, such as Armenians, through supporting the Armenian Revolutionary Federation. Both military and social uprising brought about the political changes which characterize the Young Turk Revolution. Foundation: 1890 Founders: Christapor Mikaelian, Stepan Zorian, Simon Zavarian Head: Hrant Markarian Ideology: Socialism,[1] Nationalism,[2] United Armenia International alignment: Socialist International[1] Colours: Red Seats: Armenia – 16 seats out of 131 Nagorno-Karabakh – 3 seats out of 33 Lebanon – 2 seats out of 128 Website: Partys Official...


Some sources further associate Young Turks to Turanism, which is also not correct as there were Young Turks who believed in Ottomanism and defended the Sultan until the Partitioning of the Ottoman Empire. Turanism, or Pan-Turanism, is a political movement for the union of all Turanian peoples. ... Ottomanism - Belief in an empire founded on comfortable footrests. ... Partitioning of the Ottoman Empire is direct consequence of the World War I with the Ottomans involvement in the Middle Eastern theatre. ...

Prominent Young Turks

The prominent leaders and ideologists included:

  • Pamphleteers and activists

History

Underground, 1889-1906

The Young Turks originated from the secret societies of progressive university students and military cadets. They were driven underground along with all other forms of political dissent after the constitution was annulled by the Sultan. Like their European forerunners such as the Carbonari, they typically formed cells, in which only one member might be connected to another cell. Abdullah Cevdet (also spelled Djewdet in some sources) (1869–1932) was an Ottoman Turkish intellectual of Kurdish origin and a medical doctor by profession. ... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ... This article is about the generally-recognized global religious community. ... Ziya Gökalp (1875 or March 23, 1876, Diyarbakır—October 25, 1924, Ä°stanbul) was a prominent Turkish ideologue of Pan-Turkism or Turanism. ... A publicist is a person whose job is to generate and manage publicity for a public figure, especially a celebrity, or for a work such as a book or movie. ... Sociology is the study of the social lives of humans, groups and societies. ... For this articles equivalent regarding the East, see Eastern culture. ... Self-portait of Osman Hamdi Bey (Source&permisson: Osman Hamdi Bey Museum, Gebze, Ä°stanbul). ... Yusuf Akçura(1876-1935) was a prominent Ottoman activist of the pan-Turkist or Turanism camp. ... For Crimean Tatar ethos see Crimean Tatars For Crimean Tatar language and alphabet see Crimean Tatar language ... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Ottomanism - Belief in an empire founded on comfortable footrests. ... Agah Efendi (1832-1885) was an Ottoman who published the first Turkish newspaper and brought the concept of postage stamps to Ottoman Empire. ... If you are looking for different meanings of this word, see Postmaster (disambiguation) A postmaster is a term used in post offices to denote the head or master of the office. ... A selection of Hong Kong postage stamps A postage stamp is evidence of pre-paying a fee for postal services. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... Tekin Alp (1883-1961) born Moise Kohen to a Jewish family in Salonica under Ottoman control (now Thessaloniki,Greece) was one of the founding fathers of Turkish nationalism and an ideologue of Pan-Turkism. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... The White Tower The Arch of Galerius Map showing the Thessaloníki prefecture Thessaloníki (Θεσσαλονίκη) is the second-largest city of Greece and is the principal city and the capital of the Greek region of Macedonia. ... Thessaloniki or Salonica (Greek: ) is Greeces second-largest city and the capital of Macedonia, the largest Region of Greece. ... Turkic peoples listed geographically. ... Donmeh (dönme) is a Turkish word for a religious convert. ... The White Tower The Arch of Galerius Map showing the Thessaloníki prefecture Thessaloníki (Θεσσαλονίκη) is the second-largest city of Greece and is the principal city and the capital of the Greek region of Macedonia. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... The finance minister is a cabinet position in a government. ... Mehmed Talat Pasha (Turkish: Mehmet Tâlât PaÅŸa) (1874-1921) was one of the leaders of the Young Turks, an Ottoman statesman, grand vizier (1917) , and leading member of the Sublime Porte from 1913 until 1918. ... Ismail Enver Ismail Enver, known to Europeans during his political career as Enver Pasha ( Istanbul, November 22, 1881 - August 4, 1922) was a military officer and a leader of the Young Turk revolution in the closing days of the Ottoman Empire. ... American Square & Compasses Freemasonry is a worldwide fraternal organization. ... This article refers to the general definition of cadet. ... Underground Resistance (commonly abbreviated to UR) are a musical collective from Detroit, Michigan, in the United States of America. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Carbonari (charcoal burners[1]) were groups of secret revolutionary societies founded in early 19th-century Italy. ... A covert cell structure is a method for organizing undercover or unconventional fighters against a large and well-established organization. ...

Revolutionary, 1906-1908

The Young Turks became a truly revolutionary movement with the CUP as an organizational umbrella. They recruited individuals prepared to sacrifice themselves for the establishment of a constitutional monarchy. In 1906, the Ottoman Freedom Society (OFS) was established in Thessalonica by Mehmed Talat. The OFS actively recruited members from the Third Army base, among them Major Ismal Enver. In September 1907, OFS announced they would be working with other organizations under the umbrella of CUP. In reality, the leadership of the OFS would exert significant control over the CUP. Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not bound by a... The White Tower The Arch of Galerius Map showing the Thessaloníki prefecture Thessaloníki (Θεσσαλονίκη) is the second-largest city of Greece and is the principal city and the capital of the Greek region of Macedonia. ... Talat Pasha Mehmed Talat Pasha (Turkish: Mehmet Talat PaÅŸa) (1872-1921) was one of leaders of the Young Turks, Ottoman statesman, grand vizier (1917) , and leading member of the Sublime Porte from 1913 until 1918. ... Ismail Enver Ä°smail Enver (اسماعيل انور) , known to Europeans during his political career as Enver Pasha (Turkish: Enver PaÅŸa) or Enver Bey was a Turkish military officer and a leader of the Young Turk revolution. ...

Congress of Ottoman Opposition

The Second congress of the Ottoman opposition took place in Paris, France in 1907. Opposition leaders including Ahmed Riza, Sabahheddin Bey, and Khachatur Maloumian of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation were in attendance. The goal was to unite all the parties, including the CUP, in order to bring about the revolution. However, varying positions on issues such as nationalism made unity among the factions impossible. Sheikh Ahmad Reda Sheikh Ahmad Reda (1872-1953) (Arabic: الشيخ أحمد رضا) was one of the foremost scholars of Arab literature and linguistics. ... Behaeddin Shakir (d. ... Khachatur Maloumian (1865) was a Dashnak; editor of Mushak and Droshak. ... Foundation: 1890 Founders: Christapor Mikaelian, Stepan Zorian, Simon Zavarian Head: Hrant Markarian Ideology: Socialism,[1] Nationalism,[2] United Armenia International alignment: Socialist International[1] Colours: Red Seats: Armenia – 16 seats out of 131 Nagorno-Karabakh – 3 seats out of 33 Lebanon – 2 seats out of 128 Website: Partys Official...

Revolt

Main article: Young Turk Revolution

The 'Macedonian Question', in 1908, was facing the Ottoman Empire. Czar Nicholas II and Franz Joseph, who were both interested in the Balkans, started implementing policies, beginning in 1897, which bring on the last stages of the balkanization process. By 1903, there were discussions on establishing administrative control by Russian and Austrian advisory boards in the Macedonian provinces. The House of Osman was forced to accept this idea although for quite a while they were able to subvert its implementation. However, eventually, signs were showing this policy game coming to an end and on May 13, 1908, the leadership of the CUP, with the scale of its organization, having had increased their power to such a point, were able to say to the Sultan that the 'Dynasty will be in danger', if he were not to bring back the constitution. The Third Army in Macedonia on June 12, 1908 begins its march to the Palace and on July 24, 1908 the constitution is restored. Public demonstration in the Sultanahmet district of Istanbul, 1908 The Young Turk Revolution of 1908 reversed the suspension of the Ottoman parliament by Sultan Abdul Hamid II, marking the onset of the Second Constitutional Era. ... Tsar Nicholas II (18 May 1868 to 17 July 1918)1 was the last crowned Emperor of Russia. ... Franz Joseph I Franz Joseph (in English also Francis Joseph) (August 18, 1830 - November 21, 1916) of the Habsburg Dynasty was Emperor of Austria and King of Bohemia from 1848 until 1916 and King of Hungary from 1867 until 1916. ... Balkanization is a geopolitical term originally used to describe the process of fragmentation or division of a region into smaller regions that are often hostile or non-cooperative with each other. ... House of Osman is the name to the administrative structure of the Ottoman Dynasty, which is part of state organization of the Ottoman Empire, however directly linked to dynasty. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

Constitutional Era

Further information: Second Constitutional Era (Ottoman Empire),Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire

With the Committee of Union and Progress coming out of the election box the unity among the Young Turks that was originated from the Young Turk Revolution replaced itself with the realities of the Ottoman Empire. The details of the political events can be found under Second Constitutional Era, while the details of the military events can be found under Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire. Public Demonstration The Second Constitutional Era in the Ottoman Empire began with the 1908 Young Turk Revolution, shortly after which Sultan Abdul Hamid II restored the 1876 Constitution suspended since 1878. ... This article describes the process of dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, in particular its final years in the early part of the 20th century. ... Foundation: 1894 Dissolved: 1918, Court Martialed Head: The Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) (Turkish: ), initially a secret society established as the Committee of Ottoman Union (İttihad-ı Osmanî Cemiyeti in 1889 by the medical students İbrahim Temo, Abdullah Cevdet, İshak Sükuti and Hüseyinzade Ali, became was a political... Public demonstration in the Sultanahmet district of Istanbul, 1908 The Young Turk Revolution of 1908 reversed the suspension of the Ottoman parliament by Sultan Abdul Hamid II, marking the onset of the Second Constitutional Era. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... Public Demonstration The Second Constitutional Era in the Ottoman Empire began with the 1908 Young Turk Revolution, shortly after which Sultan Abdul Hamid II restored the 1876 Constitution suspended since 1878. ... This article describes the process of dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, in particular its final years in the early part of the 20th century. ...

Ideology

Liberalism

See also: Socioeconomics of Reformation Era (Ottoman Empire)

The European public and many scholars commonly labeled the Young Turks as liberals. The Young Turks did adopt liberal ideas, and under the influence of the theories of Gustave Le Bon, they devalued parliaments as hazardous bodies. While the industrial revolution had swept through western Europe, the Ottoman Empire was still relying mainly on medieval technologies. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... Gustave Le Bon (May 7, 1841 – December 13, 1931) was a French social psychologist, sociologist, and amateur physicist. ...

Constitutionalism

See also: Second Constitutional Era (Ottoman Empire)

Although the European public and many scholars commonly labeled the Young Turks as constitutionalists and the Young Turks employed rhetoric promoting constitutionalism, this was merely a device to stave off any intervention by the Great Powers in the domestic politics of the Empire. The Young Turks followed the principle of developing an intellectual elite to govern the Empire, never envisioning participation of the masses in policy-making or administration. Public Demonstration The Second Constitutional Era in the Ottoman Empire began with the 1908 Young Turk Revolution, shortly after which Sultan Abdul Hamid II restored the 1876 Constitution suspended since 1878. ... Constitutionalism is the limitation of government by law. ... In the context of international relations and diplomacy, power (sometimes clarified as international power, national power, or state power) is the ability of one state to influence or control other states. ...

Materialism and Positivism

See also: Ahmed Riza, Namık Kemal, Ziya Gökalp, and Yusuf Akçura

Another guiding principle for the Young Turks was the transformation of their society into one in which religion played no consequential role. In this ultra-secular and somewhat materialistic structure, science was to replace religion. However, the Young Turks soon recognized the difficulty of spreading this idea and began suggesting that Islam itself was materialistic. As compared with later efforts by Muslim intellectuals, such as the attempt to reconcile Islam and socialism, this was an extremely difficult endeavor. Although some former members of the CUP continued to make efforts in this field after the revolution of 1908, they were severely denounced by the Ulema, who accused them of "trying to change Islam into another form and create a new religion while calling it Islam".[5] Sheikh Ahmad Reda Sheikh Ahmad Reda (1872-1953) (Arabic: الشيخ أحمد رضا) was one of the foremost scholars of Arab literature and linguistics. ... Namık Kemal (December 2, 1840 - December 2, 1888) was a Turkish nationalist poet, translator, journalist, and social reformer. ... Ziya Gökalp (1875 or March 23, 1876, Diyarbakır—October 25, 1924, İstanbul) was a prominent Turkish ideologue of Pan-Turkism or Turanism. ... Yusuf Akçura(1876-1935) was a prominent Ottoman activist of the pan-Turkist or Turanism camp. ... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ... In philosophy, materialism is that form of physicalism which holds that the only thing that can truly be said to exist is matter; that fundamentally, all things are composed of material and all phenomena are the result of material interactions; that matter is the only substance. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Socialism is a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ... Public demonstration in the Sultanahmet district of Istanbul, 1908 The Young Turk Revolution of 1908 reversed the suspension of the Ottoman parliament by Sultan Abdul Hamid II, marking the onset of the Second Constitutional Era. ... Ulema (, transliteration: , singular: , transliteration: , scholar) (The people of Islamic Knowledge) refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. ...


Positivism, with its claim of being a religion of science, deeply impressed the Young Turks, who believed it could be more easily reconciled with Islam than could popular materialistic theories. The name of the society, Union and Progress, is believed to be inspired by leading positivist Auguste Comte's motto Order and Progress. Positivism also served as a base for the desired strong government.[6] Positivism is a philosophy that states that the only authentic knowledge is scientific knowledge, and that such knowledge can only come from positive affirmation of theories through strict scientific method. ... Auguste Comte (full name: Isidore Marie Auguste François Xavier Comte; January 17, 1798 - September 5, 1857) was a French thinker who coined the term sociology. ...

Centralized government

During the late Ottoman Empire, all the intellectuals were state officials, and all Young Turks were on Empire payroll. Their participation in the government apparently had led them to value state. They were reluctant to approach theories against the state, such as Marxism or anarchism. Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... Anarchist redirects here. ...


Another result of the 1908 Young Turk Revolution was the gradual creation of a new governing elite, which had consolidated and cemented its control over the Ottoman civil and military administration by 1913. Public demonstration in the Sultanahmet district of Istanbul, 1908 The Young Turk Revolution of 1908 reversed the suspension of the Ottoman parliament by Sultan Abdul Hamid II, marking the onset of the Second Constitutional Era. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


As empire-savers the Young Turks always viewed the problems confronting the Ottoman Empire from the standpoint of the state, placing little if any emphasis on the people's will. Thus the Young Turks' inclination toward authoritarian theories was by no means a coincidence. All the theories that the Young Turks developed and took particular interest in, such as biological materialism, positivism, Social Darwinism, and Gustave Le Bon's elitism, defended an enlightenment from above and opposed the idea of a supposed equality among fellow-citizens. Positivism is a philosophy that states that the only authentic knowledge is scientific knowledge, and that such knowledge can only come from positive affirmation of theories through strict scientific method. ... Social Darwinism is the idea that Charles Darwins theory can be extended and applied to the social realm, i. ... Elitism is the belief or attitude that the people who are considered to be the elite — a selected group of persons with outstanding personal abilities, wealth, specialised training or experience, or other distinctive attributes — are the people whose views on a matter are to be taken the most seriously, or...

Nationalism

Principal centers of Armenian Holocaust
Further information: Millet, Ottomanism, Turanism, Kemalist ideology

In regards to nationalism, the Young Turks underwent a gradual transformation. Beginning with the Tanzimat with non-Turkish members participating at the outset, the Young Turks embraced the official state ideology - Ottomanism. However, Ottoman patriotism failed to strike root during the first constitutional era and the following years. Many non-Turkish Ottoman intellectuals rejected the idea because of its exclusive use of Turkish symbols. Turkish nationalists gradually gained the upper hand in politics, and following the Congress of 1902, a stronger focus on nationalism developed. It was at this time that Ahmed Riza chose to replace the term "Ottoman" with "Turk". However, it was not until 1904 that nationalism came to be based on a scientific theory, and following the Japanese victory over Russia, the Young Turks began to base their nationalism on the pseudo-scientific race theories of Europe. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Ottomanism - Belief in an empire founded on comfortable footrests. ... Turanism, or Pan-Turanism, is a political movement for the union of all Turanian peoples. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... The Tanzimat (Ottoman Turkish: تنظيمات), meaning reorganization of the Ottoman Empire, was a period of reformation that began in 1839 and ended with the First Constitutional Era in 1876. ... Ottomanism - Belief in an empire founded on comfortable footrests. ... Graphical timeline The First Constitutional Era of the Ottoman Empire was the period of constitutional monarchy from the promulgation of a Basic Law by Abdülhamid II on 23 November 1876 until 13 February 1878 when the constitution was suspended. ... Sheikh Ahmad Reda Sheikh Ahmad Reda (1872-1953) (Arabic: الشيخ أحمد رضا) was one of the foremost scholars of Arab literature and linguistics. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants Russian Empire Principality of Montenegro [1] Empire of Japan Commanders Emperor Nicholas II Aleksey Kuropatkin Stepan Makarov â€  Emperor Meiji Oyama Iwao Heihachiro Togo The Russo–Japanese War (Japanese: Nichi-Ro Sensō, Russian: Russko-Yaponskaya Voyna, Chinese: RìézhànzhÄ“ng, February 10, 1904–September 5, 1905) was a conflict...

Impact on Republic of Turkey

The Young Turk movement built a rich tradition of dissent that shaped the intellectual and political life of the late Ottoman period and laid the foundation for Atatürk's revolution. Most of their leaders believed that the state, not popular will, was the instrument by which social and political change would be achieved. They bequeathed to Atatürk the conviction that reformers should seize state power and then use it ruthlessly for their own ends, not to democratize society in ways that would weaken the centralized state. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881–November 10, 1938), Turkish army officer, revolutionary, and anti-imperialist statesman, was the founder and first President of the Republic of Turkey. ...


Except for the shift in focus on nationalism, the official ideology of the early modern Turkish state was shaped during this period. The Young Turks who lived long enough to witness the coming into being of the Republic of Turkey saw many of their ideals realized - it was a regime based on a popular materialistic-positivist ideology and nationalism. The new regime worked to be included in western culture while exerting an anti-imperialist rhetoric and convened a parliament composed not of elected politicians but of virtually selected intellectuals working on behalf of the people without cooperating in any capacity with the 'ignorant' masses. The impact of the Young Turks on shaping the official ideology of early modern Turkey went far beyond the political changes they effected. Anti-imperialism is a current within the political left advocating the collapse of imperialism. ...

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ Christopher J. Walker, "Armenia: The Survival of a Nation," 1980, p 237
  2. ^ Dictionary.com definition of "Young Turks"
  3. ^ Forum discussion of definition of "Young Turk"
  4. ^ Lord Kinross, The Ottoman Centuries
  5. ^ M. Sukru Hanioglu. The Political Ideas of the Young Turks
  6. ^ M. Sukru Hanioglu. The Political Ideas of the Young Turks

External links

Further reading


  Results from FactBites:
 
Young Turks - Promoting Turkish Culture (1688 words)
Formed in 1992 among a group of young Turks, that were dissatisfied with the misrepresentation and lack of equal coverage of Turkiye during the 92' Olympics, Young Turks first organized a protest against NBC Studios and Bob Costas.
Young Turks were regularly mentioned in the main Turkish and Turkish American newspapers and were even featured in a Ugur Dundar "Arena" special.
Sayin Turk toplumu destekleriniz sayesinde sizlere hizmet verme imkanimiz olmaktadir Desteklerinizi bekliyoruz Dernegimiz kar amacli bir dernek degildir...
Young Turks and the Armenian Genocide (1451 words)
The Young Turk Movement emerged in reaction to the absolutist rule of Sultan Abdul-Hamid (Abdulhamit) II (1876-1909).
The backbone of the movement was formed by young military officers who were especially disturbed by the continuing decline of Ottoman power and attributed the crisis to the absence of an environment for change and progress.
The Young Turks earned further public support when their intervention was required to suppress the April 1909 counter-revolution staged by the palace.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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