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Encyclopedia > Young's modulus

In solid mechanics, Young's modulus (E) is a measure of the stiffness of a given material. It is also known as the Young modulus, modulus of elasticity, elastic modulus or tensile modulus (the bulk modulus and shear modulus are different types of elastic modulus). It is defined as the ratio, for small strains, of the rate of change of stress with strain.[1] This can be experimentally determined from the slope of a stress-strain curve created during tensile tests conducted on a sample of the material. Young's modulus is named after Thomas Young, the 18th Century British scientist. However, the concept was developed in 1727 by Leonhard Euler and the first experiments that used the concept of Young's modulus in its current form were performed by the Italian scientist Giordano Riccati in 1782 - predating Young's work by 25 years[2]. Solid mechanics is the branch of physics and mathematics that concern the behavior of solid matter under external actions (e. ... Stiffness is the resistance of an elastic body to deflection or deformation by an applied force. ... An elastic modulus, or modulus of elasticity, is the mathematical description of an object or substances tendency to be deformed when a force is applied to it. ... The bulk modulus (K) of a substance essentially measures the substances resistance to uniform compression. ... In materials science, shear modulus, G, or sometimes S or μ, sometimes referred to as the modulus of rigidity, is defined as the ratio of shear stress to the shear strain:[1] where = shear stress; force acts on area ; = shear strain; length changes by amount . ... An elastic modulus, or modulus of elasticity, is the mathematical description of an object or substances tendency to be deformed when a force is applied to it. ... Stress is a measure of force per unit area within a body. ... This article is about the deformation of materials. ... This article is about the mathematical term. ... A stress-strain curve is a graph derived from measuring load (stress - σ) versus extension (strain - ε) for a sample of a material. ... Tensile stress (or tension) is the stress state leading to expansion (volume and/or length of a material tends to increase). ... Thomas Young, English scientist Thomas Young (June 13, 1773-May 10, 1829) was an English polymath, contributing to the scientific understanding of vision, light, solid mechanics, energy, physiology, and Egyptology. ... Leonhard Paul Euler (pronounced Oiler; IPA ) (April 15, 1707 – September 18 [O.S. September 7] 1783) was a pioneering Swiss mathematician and physicist, who spent most of his life in Russia and Germany. ... Giordano Riccati (alt. ...

Contents

Units

The SI unit of modulus of elasticity (E, or less commonly Y) is the pascal. Given the large values typical of many common materials, figures are usually quoted in megapascals or gigapascals. Some use an alternative unit form, kN/mm², which gives the same numeric value as gigapascals. Look up si, Si, SI in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Pascal. ...


The modulus of elasticity can also be measured in other units of pressure, for example pounds per square inch. A pressure gauge reading in PSI (red scale) and kPa (black scale) The pound-force per square inch (symbol: lbf/in²) is a non-SI unit of pressure based on avoirdupois units. ...


Usage

The Young's modulus allows the behavior of a material under load to be calculated. For instance, it can be used to predict the amount a wire will extend under tension, or to predict the load at which a thin column will buckle under compression. Some calculations also require the use of other material properties, such as the shear modulus, density, or Poisson's ratio. This article is about engineering. ... In materials science, shear modulus, G, or sometimes S or μ, sometimes referred to as the modulus of rigidity, is defined as the ratio of shear stress to the shear strain:[1] where = shear stress; force acts on area ; = shear strain; length changes by amount . ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... Figure 1: Rectangular specimen subject to compression, with Poissons ratio circa 0. ...


Linear vs non-linear

For many materials, Young's modulus is a constant over a range of strains. Such materials are called linear, and are said to obey Hooke's law. Examples of linear materials include steel, carbon fiber, and glass. Rubber and soils (except at very small strains) are non-linear materials. Hookes law accurately models the physical properties of common mechanical springs for small changes in length. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... Carbon fiber composite is a strong, light and very expensive material. ... This article is about the material. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... For the heavy metal band see Soil (band) Soil is the layer of minerals and organic matter, in thickness from centimetres to a metre or more, on the land surface. ... This article is about the deformation of materials. ...


Directional materials

Most metals and ceramics, along with many other materials, are isotropic: their mechanical properties are the same in all directions, but metals and ceramics can be treated to create different grain sizes and orientations. This treatment makes them anisotropic, meaning that Young's modulus will change depending on which direction the force is applied from. However, some materials, particularly those which are composites of two or more ingredients have a "grain" or similar mechanical structure. As a result, these anisotropic materials have different mechanical properties when load is applied in different directions. For example, carbon fiber is much stiffer (higher Young's modulus) when loaded parallel to the fibers (along the grain). Other such materials include wood and reinforced concrete. Engineers can use this directional phenomenon to their advantage in creating various structures in our environment. Copper is an excellent conductor of electricity and is used to transmit electricity over long distance cables, however copper has a relatively low value for Young's modulus at 130 GPa and it tends to stretch in tension. When the copper cable is bound completely in steel wire around its outside this stretching can be prevented as the steel (with a higher value of Young's modulus in tension) takes up the tension that the copper would otherwise experience. Isotropy (the opposite of anisotropy) is the property of being independent of direction. ... Look up anisotropy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Carbon fiber composite is a strong, light and very expensive material. ... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... Reinforced concrete at Sainte Jeanne dArc Church (Nice, France): architect Jacques Dror, 1926–1933 Reinforced concrete, also called ferroconcrete in some countries, is concrete in which reinforcement bars (rebars) or fibers have been incorporated to strengthen a material that would otherwise be brittle. ...


Calculation

Young's modulus, E, can be calculated by dividing the tensile stress by the tensile strain: Stress is a measure of force per unit area within a body. ... In any branch of science dealing with materials and their behaviour, strain is the geometrical expression of deformation caused by the action of stress on a physical body. ...

 E equiv frac{mbox {tensile stress}}{mbox {tensile strain}} = frac{sigma}{varepsilon}= frac{F/A_0}{Delta L/L_0} = frac{F L_0} {A_0 Delta L}

where

E is the Young's modulus (modulus of elasticity) measured in pascals;
F is the force applied to the object;
A0 is the original cross-sectional area through which the force is applied;
ΔL is the amount by which the length of the object changes;
L0 is the original length of the object.

For other uses, see Pascal. ...

Force exerted by stretched or compressed material

The Young's modulus of a material can be used to calculate the force it exerts under a specific strain.

F = frac{E A_0 Delta L} {L_0}

where F is the force exerted by the material when compressed or stretched by ΔL.


From this formula can be derived Hooke's law, which describes the stiffness of an ideal spring: Hookes law accurately models the physical properties of common mechanical springs for small changes in length. ...

F = left( frac{E A_0} {L_0} right) Delta L = k x ,

where

k = begin{matrix} frac {E A_0} {L_0} end{matrix} ,
x = Delta L ,

Elastic potential energy

The elastic potential energy stored is given by the integral of this expression with respect to L: The elastic potential energy stored in an elastic string or spring of natural length l and modulus of elasticity λ under an extension of x is given by: This equation is often used in calculations of positions of mechanical equilibrium. ...

U_e = int {frac{E A_0 Delta L} {L_0}}, dL = frac {E A_0 {Delta L}^2} {2 L_0}

where Ue is the elastic potential energy.


The elastic potential energy per unit volume is given by:

frac{U_e} {A_0 L_0} = frac {E {Delta L}^2} {2 L_0^2} = frac {1} {2} E {varepsilon}^2, where varepsilon = frac {Delta L} {L_0} is the strain in the material.

This formula can also be expressed as the integral of Hooke's law:

U_e = int {k x}, dx = frac {1} {2} k x^2

Approximate values

Young's modulus can vary somewhat due to differences in sample composition and test method. The values here are approximate.

Approximate Young's moduli of various solids
Material Young's modulus (E) in GPa Young's modulus (E) in lbf/in² (psi)
Rubber (small strain) 0.01-0.1 1,500-15,000
PTFE (Teflon) 0.5 75000
Low density polyethylene 0.2 30,000
Polypropylene 1.5-2 217,000-290,000
Bacteriophage capsids 1-3 150,000-435,000
Polyethylene terephthalate 2-2.5 290,000-360,000
Polystyrene 3-3.5 435,000-505,000
Nylon 3-7 290,000-580,000
Oak wood (along grain) 11 1,600,000
High-strength concrete (under compression) 30 4,350,000
Magnesium metal (Mg) 45 6,500,000
Aluminium alloy 69 10,000,000
Glass (see also diagram below table) 65-90 9,400,000-13,000,000
Brass and bronze 103-124 17,000,000
Titanium (Ti) 105-120 15,000,000-17,500,000
Copper (Cu) 110-130 16,000,000-19,000,000
Carbon fiber reinforced plastic (50/50 fibre/matrix, unidirectional, along grain) 125-150 18,000,000 - 22,000,000
Wrought iron and steel 91-109 30,000,000
Beryllium (Be) 287 41,500,000
Tungsten (W) 400-410 58,000,000-59,500,000
Silicon carbide (SiC) 450 65,000,000
Tungsten carbide (WC) 450-650 65,000,000-94,000,000
Single carbon nanotube [1] 1,000+ 145,000,000
Diamond (C) 1,050-1,200 150,000,000-175,000,000
Influences of selected glass component additions on Young's modulus of a specific base glass ([3]).

Look up giga- in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Pascal. ... A pressure gauge reading in PSI (red scale) and kPa (black scale) The pound-force per square inch (symbol: lbf/in²) is a non-SI unit of pressure based on avoirdupois units. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Teflon is the brand name of a polymer compound discovered by Roy J. Plunkett (1910-1994) of DuPont in 1938 and introduced as a commercial product in 1946. ... LDPE has SPI resin ID code 4 Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) is a thermoplastic made from oil. ... Polypropylene lid of a Tic Tacs box, with a living hinge and the resin identification code under its flap Micrograph of polypropylene Polypropylene or polypropene (PP) is a thermoplastic polymer, made by the chemical industry and used in a wide variety of applications, including food packaging, ropes, textiles, stationery, plastic... A capsid is the outer shell of a virus. ... Polyethylene terephthalate (aka PET, PETE or the obsolete PETP or PET-P) is a thermoplastic polymer resin of the polyester family and is used in synthetic fibers; beverage, food and other liquid containers; thermoforming applications; and engineering resins often in combination with glass fiber. ... Polystyrene (IPA: ) is a polymer made from the monomer styrene, a liquid hydrocarbon that is commercially manufactured from petroleum by the chemical industry. ... For other uses of this word, see nylon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... This article is about the construction material. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... This article is about metallic materials. ... Aluminium alloys or aluminum alloys are alloys of aluminium, often with copper, zinc, manganese, silicon, or magnesium. ... This article is about the material. ... “Brazen” redirects here. ... This article is about the metal alloy. ... General Name, symbol, number titanium, Ti, 22 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 4, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 47. ... Copper has played a significant part in the history of mankind, which has used the easily accessible uncompounded metal for nearly 10,000 years. ... Carbon fiber composite is a strong, light and very expensive material. ... A wrought iron railing in Troy, New York. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number beryllium, Be, 4 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 2, s Appearance white-gray metallic Standard atomic weight 9. ... For other uses, see Tungsten (disambiguation). ... Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Silicon carbide (SiC) is a ceramic compound of silicon and carbon that is manufactured on a large scale for use mainly as an abrasive but also occurs in... Monotungsten carbide, WC, or Ditungsten Carbide, W2C, is a chemical compound containing tungsten and carbon, similar to titanium carbide. ... 3D model of three types of single-walled carbon nanotubes. ... This article is about the mineral. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 547 pixelsFull resolution‎ (911 × 623 pixels, file size: 22 KB, MIME type: image/gif) Influences of selected glass component additions on Youngs modulus of a specific base glass I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby grant the permission... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 547 pixelsFull resolution‎ (911 × 623 pixels, file size: 22 KB, MIME type: image/gif) Influences of selected glass component additions on Youngs modulus of a specific base glass I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby grant the permission...

See also

This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... In engineering mechanics, deformation is a change in shape due to an applied force. ... Look up hardness in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Hookes law accurately models the physical properties of common mechanical springs for small changes in length. ... In materials science, shear modulus, G, or sometimes S or μ, sometimes referred to as the modulus of rigidity, is defined as the ratio of shear stress to the shear strain:[1] where = shear stress; force acts on area ; = shear strain; length changes by amount . ... // The impulse excitation technique is a nondestructive test method that uses natural frequency, dimensions and mass of a test-piece to determine Youngs modulus, Shear modulus, Poissons ratio and damping coefficient. ... This article is about the deformation of materials. ... Stress is a measure of force per unit area within a body. ... In materials science and metallurgy, toughness is the resistance to fracture of a material when stressed. ... Yield strength, or the yield point, is defined in engineering and materials science as the stress at which a material begins to plastically deform. ... This is a list of materials properties. ...

References

  1. ^ International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. "modulus of elasticity (Young's modulus), E". Compendium of Chemical Terminology Internet edition.
  2. ^ The Rational Mechanics of Flexible or Elastic Bodies, 1638-1788: Introduction to Leonhardi Euleri Opera Omnia, vol. X and XI, Seriei Secundae. Orell Fussli.
  3. ^ Glassproperties.com

IUPAC logo The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) (Pronounced as eye-you-pack) is an international non-governmental organization established in 1919 devoted to the advancement of chemistry. ... Compendium of Chemical Terminology (ISBN 0-86542-684-8) is a book published by IUPAC containing internationally accepted definitions for terms in chemistry. ...

External links



 v  d  e Elastic moduli for homogeneous isotropic materials

Bulk modulus (K) | Young's modulus (E) | Lamé's first parameter (λ) | Shear modulus (μ) | Poisson's ratio (ν) | P-wave modulus (M) An elastic modulus, or modulus of elasticity, is the mathematical description of an object or substances tendency to be deformed when a force is applied to it. ... Isotropic means independent of direction. Isotropic radiation has the same intensity regardless of the direction of measurement, and an isotropic field exerts the same action regardless of how the test particle is oriented. ... The bulk modulus (K) of a substance essentially measures the substances resistance to uniform compression. ... In linear elasticity, the Lamé parameters are the two parameters which in homogenous, isotropic materials satisfy the equation where is the stress and the strain tensor. ... In materials science, shear modulus, G, or sometimes S or μ, sometimes referred to as the modulus of rigidity, is defined as the ratio of shear stress to the shear strain:[1] where = shear stress; force acts on area ; = shear strain; length changes by amount . ... Figure 1: Rectangular specimen subject to compression, with Poissons ratio circa 0. ... In linear elasticity, the P-wave modulus is one of the elastic moduli available to describe isotropic homogeneous materials. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
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