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Encyclopedia > York Minster

York Minster is the largest Gothic cathedral in northern Europe and is situated in the city of York in Northern England. It is the seat of the Archbishop of York (the second highest office of the Church of England), and cathedral for the Diocese of York, and is run by a Dean and Chapter under the Dean of York. Its formal title is The Cathedral and Metropolitical Church of St Peter in York. Interior of Cologne Cathedral Gothic architecture is a style of architecture, particularly associated with cathedrals and other churches, which flourished in Europe during the high and late medieval period. ... This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ... York is a city in North Yorkshire, England, at the confluence of the Rivers Ouse and Foss. ... Northern England, The North or North of England is a rather ill-defined term, with no universally accepted definition. ... Arms of the Archbishop of York The Archbishop of York, Primate of England, is the metropolitan bishop of the Province of York, and is the junior of the two archbishops of the Church of England, after the Archbishop of Canterbury. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... The Diocese of York is an administrative division of the Church of England, part of the Province of York. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


It has a very wide Decorated Gothic nave and chapter house, a Perpendicular Gothic choir and east end, and Early English north and south transepts. The nave contains the West Window, constructed in 1338, and over the Lady Chapel in the east end is the Great East Window, (finished in 1408), the largest expanse of medieval stained glass in the world. In the north transept is the Five Sisters Window, each lancet being over 16 metres high. The south transept contains the famous Rose window. The west end of Exeter Cathedral The Decorated Gothic (or simply Decorated) period is a historical division of English Gothic architecture. ... Winchester Cathedral Sherborne Abbey The Perpendicular Gothic period (or simply Perpendicular) is the third historical division of English Gothic architecture, and is so-called because it is characterised by an emphasis on vertical lines; it is also known as the Rectilinear style, or Late Gothic. ... Salisbury Cathedral, built c. ... Events Ashikaga Takauji granted title of Shogun by the emperor of Japan. ... Events December 13 - The Order of the Dragon is officially formated under King Sigismund of Hungary. ... Full descriptions of the elements of a Gothic floorplan are found at the entry Cathedral diagram. ... Lancet windows light the altar trubune in the Basilica of Mary Magdalene, Saint Maximin la Sainte Baume A lancet window is a tall narrow window with a pointed arch at its top [1] It acquired the lancet name from it resemblence to a lance [2]. Instances of this architectural motif... The rose window in Bristol Cathedral, Bristol, England, at the western end of the nave. ...

Contents

History

The cathedral's western face
The cathedral's western face

York has had a Christian presence from the 300s. The first church on the site was a wooden structure built hurriedly in 627 to provide a place to baptise Edwin, King of Northumbria. Moves toward a more substantial building began in the 630s. A stone structure was completed in 637 by Oswald and was dedicated to Saint Peter. The church soon fell into disrepair and was dilapidated by 670 when Saint Wilfrid ascended to the see of York; he put in place efforts to repair and renew the structure. The attached school and library were established and by the 8th century were some of the most substantial in northern Europe. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1200x1600, 416 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): York Minster Anglican doctrine Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1200x1600, 416 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): York Minster Anglican doctrine Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Christianity. ... Centuries: 3rd century - 4th century - 5th century Decades: 250s - 260s - 270s - 280s - 290s - 300s - 310s - 320s - 330s - 340s - 350s 290 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 Significant people Diocletian, Roman Emperor Maximian, Roman Emperor Categories: 300s ... St. ... Events April 11 - Paulinus, a Roman missionary, baptizes King Edwin of Deira December 12 - Battle of Nineveh: Byzantine Emperor Heraclius defeats the Persians Births Deaths November 10 - Justus, Archbishop of Canterbury Categories: 627 ... Baptism in early Christian art. ... Saint Edwin (alternately Eadwine or Æduini) ( 586–October 12, 632/633) was the King of Deira and Bernicia - which would later become known as Northumbria - from about 616 until his death. ... Section from Shepherds map of the British Isles about 802 AD showing the kingdom of Northumbria Northumbria is primarily the name of a petty kingdom of Angles which was formed in Great Britain at the beginning of the 7th century, from two smaller kingdoms of Bernicia and Diera, and... Centuries: 6th century 7th century 8th century Decades: 580s - 590s - 600s - 610s - 620s - 630s - 640s - 650s - 660s - 670s - 680s Years: 630 631 632 633 634 635 636 637 638 639 640 Events: 630 - Serbs and Croats settle the Balkans in the provinces of Moesia, Pannonia and Dalmatia 632 - death of... Events Arabs take Jerusalem Arabs take Aleppo Battle of al-Qadisiyah: Arabs defeat Persian army, take Persian capital of Ctesiphon Battle of Mag Rath: Dalriada influence in Ulster greatly reduced Births Deaths Categories: 637 ... Oswald (c. ... Saint Peter, also known as Simon ben Jonah/BarJonah, Simon Peter, Cephas and Kepha — original name Simon or Simeon (Acts 15:14) — was one of the Twelve Apostles whom Jesus chose as his original disciples. ... Events On the death of his brother Clotaire, Childeric II becomes king of all of the Frankish kingdoms -- Austrasia, Neustria and Burgundy. ... Wilfrid (c. ...


In 741 the church was destroyed in a fire. It was rebuilt as a more impressive structure, containing thirty altars. The church and the entire area then passed through the hands of numerous invaders, and its history is obscure until the 10th century. There was a series of Benedictine archbishops, including Saint Oswald, Wulfstan, and Aldred|Ealdred, who travelled to Westminster to crown William I of England|William in 1066. Ealdred died in 1069 and was buried in the church.



The church was damaged in 1069, but the first Normans archbishop, arriving in 1070, organised repairs. The Danes destroyed the church in 1075, but it was again rebuilt from 1080. Built in the Norman style, it was 365 feet long and rendered in white and red lines. The new structure was damaged by fire in 1137 but was soon repaired. The choir and crypt were remodelled in 1154, and a new chapel was built, all in the Norman style. Events Hereward the Wake begins a Saxon revolt in the Fens of eastern England. ... Events Revolt of the Earls. ... Events William I of England, in a letter, reminds the Bishop of Rome that the King of England owes him no allegiance. ... The nave of Durham Cathedral demonstrates the characteristic round arched style, though use of shallow pointed arches above the nave is a forerunner of the Gothic style. ... // Groups BL1137 is the (now defunct) Unix group at Bell Labs in Murray Hill, NJ where Unix and C were invented. ... King Stephen of England dies at Dover, and is succeeded by his adopted son Henry Plantagenet who becomes King Henry II of England, aged 21. ... A chapel is a private church, usually small and often attached to a larger institution such as a college, a hospital, a palace, or a prison. ...


The Gothic style in cathedrals had arrived in the mid 12th century. Walter de Gray was made archbishop in 1215 and ordered the construction of a Gothic structure to compare to Canterbury; building began in 1220. The north and south transepts were the first new structures; completed in the 1250s, both were built in the Early English Gothic style but had markedly different walls. A substantial central tower was also completed, with a wooden spire. Building continued into the 15th century. Interior of Cologne Cathedral Gothic architecture is a style of architecture, particularly associated with cathedrals and other churches, which flourished in Europe during the high and late medieval period. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Walter de Gray (died 1 May 1255), English prelate and statesman, was a nephew of John de Gray, bishop of Norwich, and was educated at Oxford. ... // Events A certified copy of the Magna Carta June 15 - King John of England forced to put his seal to the Magna Carta, outlining the rights of landowning men (nobles and knights) and restricting the kings power. ... Canterbury Cathedral is one of the oldest and most famous Christian structures in England and forms part of a World Heritage Site. ... // The world in 1220 Middle Ages in Europe Fifth Crusade (1217-1221) Events Mongols first invade Abbasid caliphate - Bukhara and Samarkand taken End of the Kara-Khitan Khanate, destroyed by Genghis Khans Mongolian cavalry Dominican Order approved by Pope Honorius III Frederick II crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope... The 1250s is the decade starting January 1, 1250 and ending December 31, 1259. ... Cathedral floor plan (crossing is shaded) A crossing, in ecclesiastical architecture, is the junction of the four arms of a cruciform (cross-shaped) church. ... A modern spire on the Lancaster University Chaplaincy Centre A spire is a tapering conical or pyramidal structure on the top of a building, particularly a church tower. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ...


The Chapter House was completed in the 1260s. The wide nave was constructed from the 1280s on the Norman foundations. The outer roof was completed in the 1330s, but the vaulting was not finished until 1360. Construction then moved on to the eastern arm and chapels, with the last Norman structure, the choir, being demolished in the 1390s. Work here finished around 1405. In 1407 the central tower collapsed; the piers were then reinforced, and a new tower was built from 1420. The western towers were added between 1433 and 1472. The cathedral was declared complete and consecrated in 1472. The 1260s is the decade starting January 1, 1260 and ending December 31, 1269. ... The 1280s is the decade starting January 1, 1280 and ending December 31, 1289. ... Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Decades: 1280s 1290s 1300s 1310s 1320s - 1330s - 1340s 1350s 1360s 1370s 1380s Years: 1330 1331 1332 1333 1334 1335 1336 1337 1338 1339 Events and Trends The poet Petrarch coins the pejorative term Dark Ages to describe the preceding 900 years in Europe... Events October 24 - The Treaty of Brétigny is ratified at Calais, marking the end of the first phase of the Hundred Years War. ... Events and Trends 1392 Korean founder of the Joseon Dynasty General Yi Seonggye led a coup détat, overthrowing the kingdom of Goryeo and founding the kingdom of Joseon End of the reign of Emperor Go-Kameyama of Japan 1394 Expulsion of Jews from France 1395 End of reign of... Events May 29 - Ralph Neville, Earl of Westmoreland, meets Archbishop Richard Scrope of York and Earl of Norfolk Thomas Mowbray in Shipton Moor, tricks them to send their rebellious army home and then imprisons them June 8 - Archbishop Richard Scrope of York and Thomas Mowbray, Earl of Norfolk, executed in... Events November 20 - A solemn truce between John, Duke of Burgundy and Louis of Valois, Duke of Orléans is agreed under the auspicies of John, Duke of Berry. ... Events May 21 - Treaty of Troyes. ... Events Births June 23 - Francis II, Duke of Brittany Kettil Karlsson Vasa, later Regent of Sweden. ... February 20 - Orkney and Shetland are returned by Norway to Scotland, due to a defaulted dowry payment Possible discovery of Bacalao (possibly Newfoundland, North America) by João Vaz Corte-Real. ... To consecrate an inanimate object is to dedicate it in a ritual to a special purpose, usually religious. ... February 20 - Orkney and Shetland are returned by Norway to Scotland, due to a defaulted dowry payment Possible discovery of Bacalao (possibly Newfoundland, North America) by João Vaz Corte-Real. ...


The Reformation led to the first Protestant archbishop, the looting of much of the cathedral's treasures, and the loss of much of the church lands. Under Elizabeth I there was a concerted effort to remove all traces of Catholicism from the cathedral; there was much destruction of tombs, windows, and altars. In the English Civil War the city was besieged and fell to the forces of Cromwell in 1644, but Thomas Fairfax prevented any further damage to the cathedral. The Reformation was a movement in the years of the 16th century to reform the Catholic Church in Western Europe. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Elizabeth I redirects here. ... The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins to the original Christian community founded by Jesus Christ and led by the Twelve Apostles, in particular Saint Peter. ... The English Civil War consisted of a series of armed conflicts and political machinations that took place between Parliamentarians (known as Roundheads) and Royalists (known as Cavaliers) between 1642 and 1651. ... Oliver Cromwell (April 25, 1599–September 3, 1658) was an English military and political leader best known for making England a republic and leading the Commonwealth of England. ... // Events February to August - Explorer Abel Tasmans second expedition for the Dutch East India Company maps the north coast of Australia. ... Thomas Fairfax, 3rd Baron Fairfax of Cameron (January 17, 1612 - November 12, 1671), parliamentary general and commander-in-chief during the English Civil War, the eldest son of Ferdinando Fairfax, 2nd Baron Fairfax of Cameron, was born at Denton, near Otley, Yorkshire. ...


Following the easing of religious tensions there was some work to restore the cathedral. From 1730 to 1736 the whole floor of the Minster was relaid in patterned marble, and from 1802 there was a major restoration. However, on 2 February 1829 an arson attack by non-conformist Jonathan Martin ([1]; [2]; [3]) inflicted heavy damage on the east arm, and an accidental fire in 1840 left the nave, south west tower, and south aisle roofless, blackened shells. The cathedral slumped deeply into debt, and in the 1850s services were suspended, but from 1858 Augustus Duncome worked successfully to revive the cathedral. Events Pope Clement XII elected September 17 - Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Ahmed III (1703-1730) to Mahmud I (1730-1754) Anna Ivanova (Anna I of Russia) became czarina Births April 16 - Henry Clinton, British general (d. ... Events January 26 - Stanislaus I of Poland abdicates his throne. ... Venus de Milo, front. ... --69. ... February 2 is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 1829 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The Skyline Parkway Motel in Afton, Virginia after an arson fire on July 9, 2004. ... In English history, a non-conformist is any member of a Protestant congregation not affiliated with the Church of England. ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... // Production of steel revolutionized by invention of the Bessemer process Benjamin Silliman fractionates petroleum by distillation for the first time First transatlantic telegraph cable laid First safety elevator installed by Elisha Otis Railroads begin to supplant canals in the United States as a primary means of transporting goods. ... 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


During the 20th century there was more concerted preservation work, especially following a 1967 survey that revealed the building, in particular the central tower, was close to collapse. £2,000,000 was raised and spent by 1972 to reinforce and strengthen the building foundations and roof. During the excavations that were carried out, remains of the north corner of the Roman Principia were found under the south transept. A fire in 1984 destroyed the roof in the south transept, and around £2.5 million was spent on repairs. Restoration work was completed in 1988, and included new roof bosses to designs which had won a competition organised by BBC Television's Blue Peter programme. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Early English roof bosses at Salisbury Cathedral, England A Green Man roof boss from Dore Abbey, Herefordshire, England, no longer in its original position The nave of St. ... BBC Television is a service of the British Broadcasting Corporation which began in 1932. ... For other uses, see Blue Peter (disambiguation). ...



For standard descriptions of Cathedral architecture and design, see Cathedral diagram York Minster is the largest Gothic cathedral of Northern Europe and clearly charts the development of English Gothic architecture from Early English through to the Perpendicular Period. The present building was begun in about 1230 and completed in 1472. It has a cruciform plan with an octagonal chapter house attached to the north transept, a central tower and two towers at the west front. The stone used for the building is magnesian limestone, a creamy-white coloured rock that was quarried in nearby Tadcaster. The Minster is 148 metres long and each of its three towers are 60 metres high. The choir, which has an interior height of 31 metres, is only surpassed in height in England by the choir of Westminster Abbey. Amiens floorplan: massive piers support the west end towers; transepts are abbreviated; seven radiating chapels form the chevet reached from the ambulatory This article discusses cathedral diagrams. ... Gothic architecture characterizes any of the styles of European architecture, particularly associated with cathedrals and other churches, in use throughout Europe during the high and late medieval period, from the 12th century onwards. ... Salisbury Cathedral, built c. ... Winchester Cathedral Sherborne Abbey The Perpendicular Gothic period (or simply Perpendicular) is the third historical division of English Gothic architecture, and is so-called because it is characterised by an emphasis on vertical lines; it is also known as the Rectilinear style, or Late Gothic. ... Events Kingdom of Leon unites with the Kingdom of Castile. ... February 20 - Orkney and Shetland are returned by Norway to Scotland, due to a defaulted dowry payment Possible discovery of Bacalao (possibly Newfoundland, North America) by João Vaz Corte-Real. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... A chapter house is a building or room attached to a cathedral or collegiate church in which meetings are held. ... Map sources for Tadcaster at grid reference SE4843 Tadcaster is a town in North Yorkshire, England, lying on the River Wharfe and the Great North Road. ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ...


The North and South transepts were the first parts of the new church to be built. They have simple lancet windows, the most famous being the Five Sisters in the north transept. These are five lancets, each 16m high and glazed with grey (grisaille) glass, rather than narrative scenes or symbolic motifs that are usually seen in medieval stained glass windows. In the south transept is the famous Rose Window whose glass dates from about 1500 and commemorates the union of the royal houses of York and Lancaster. The roofs of the transepts are of wood, that of the south transept was burnt in the fire of 1984 and was replaced in the restoration work which was completed in 1988. New designs were used for the bosses, five of which were designed by winners of a competition organised by the BBC's Blue Peter television programme. Full descriptions of the elements of a Gothic floorplan are found at the entry Cathedral diagram. ... Lancet windows light the altar trubune in the Basilica of Mary Magdalene, Saint Maximin la Sainte Baume A lancet window is a tall narrow window with a pointed arch at its top [1] It acquired the lancet name from it resemblence to a lance [2]. Instances of this architectural motif... Grisaille (Fr. ... The rose window in Bristol Cathedral, Bristol, England, at the western end of the nave. ... 1500 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The House of York was a branch of the English royal House of Plantagenet, three of whom became English kings in the late 15th century. ... The House of Lancaster is a dynasty of English kings. ... 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Early English roof bosses at Salisbury Cathedral, England A Green Man roof boss from Dore Abbey, Herefordshire, England, no longer in its original position The nave of St. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, usually known as the BBC (and also informally known as the Beeb or Auntie) is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion... For other uses, see Blue Peter (disambiguation). ...


Work began on the chapter house and its vestibule that links it to the north transept after the transepts were completed. The style of the chapter house is of the early Decorated Period where geometric patterns were used in the tracery of the windows, which were wider than those of early styles. However, the work was completed before the appearance of the ogee curve, an S-shaped double curve which was extensively used at the end of this period. The windows cover almost all of the upper wall space, filling the chapter house with light. The chapter house is octagonal, as is the case in many cathedrals, but is notable in that it has no central column supporting the roof. The wooden roof, which was of an innovative design, is light enough to be able to be supported by the buttressed walls. The chapter house has many sculptured heads above the canopies, representing some of the finest Gothic sculpture in the country. There are human heads, no two alike, and some pulling faces; angels; animals and grotesques. Unique to the transepts and chapter house is the use of Purbeck marble to adorn the piers, adding to the richness of decoration. A chapter house is a building or room attached to a cathedral or collegiate church in which meetings are held. ... The West Front of Exeter Cathedral The West Front of Lichfield Cathedral The Decorated Period, in architecture (also known as the Decorated Gothic, or simply Decorated) period is a historical division of English Gothic architecture. ... Ogee Arch Ogee is a shape consisting of a concave arc flowing into a convex arc, so forming an S-shaped curve with vertical ends. ... A buttress (and mostly concealed, a flying buttress) supporting walls at the Palace of Westminster Four different types of buttress: diagonal, on the statues plinth; an ordinary buttress supporting a flying buttress, to the right of the statue; a small ordinary buttress to the right side of the picture...


The nave was built between 1291 and c. 1350 and is also in the decorated Gothic style. It is the widest Gothic nave in England and has a wooden roof (painted so as to appear like stone) and the aisles have vaulted stone roofs. At its west end is the Great West Window, known as the 'Heart of Yorkshire' which features flowing tracery of the later decorated gothic period. Links to full descriptions of the elements of a Gothic floorplan are also found at the entry Cathedral diagram. ... For broader historical context, see 1290s and 13th century. ... Events 29 August - An English fleet personally commanded by King Edward III defeats a Spanish fleet in the battle of Les Espagnols sur Mer. ...


The East end of the Minster was built between 1361 and 1405 in the Perpendicular Gothic style. Despite the change in style, noticeable in details such as the tracery and capitals, the eastern arm preserves the pattern of the nave. The east end contains a four bay choir; a second set of transepts, projecting only above half-height; and the Lady Chapel. The transepts are in line with the high altar and serve to through light onto it. Behind the high altar is the Great East Window, the largest expanse of medieval stained glass in the world. Founding of the University of Pavia, Italy. ... Events May 29 - Ralph Neville, Earl of Westmoreland, meets Archbishop Richard Scrope of York and Earl of Norfolk Thomas Mowbray in Shipton Moor, tricks them to send their rebellious army home and then imprisons them June 8 - Archbishop Richard Scrope of York and Thomas Mowbray, Earl of Norfolk, executed in... Winchester Cathedral Sherborne Abbey The Perpendicular Gothic period (or simply Perpendicular) is the third historical division of English Gothic architecture, and is so-called because it is characterised by an emphasis on vertical lines; it is also known as the Rectilinear style, or Late Gothic. ... An ancient Roman altar An altar is any structure upon which sacrifices or other offerings are offered for religious purposes. ...


The sparsely decorated Central Tower was built between 1407 and 1472 and is also in the Perpendicular style. Below this, separating the choir from the crossing and nave is the striking fifteenth century choir screen. It contains sculptures of the kings of England from William the Conqueror to Henry VI with stone and gilded canopies set against a red background. Above the screen is the organ, which dates from 1832. The West Towers, in contrast with the central tower, are heavily decorated and are topped with battlements and eight pinnacles each, again in the Perpendicular style. Events November 20 - A solemn truce between John, Duke of Burgundy and Louis of Valois, Duke of Orléans is agreed under the auspicies of John, Duke of Berry. ... February 20 - Orkney and Shetland are returned by Norway to Scotland, due to a defaulted dowry payment Possible discovery of Bacalao (possibly Newfoundland, North America) by João Vaz Corte-Real. ... The rood screen (also choir screen or chancel screen) is a common feature in late medieval church architecture. ... William I ( 1027 – September 9, 1087), was King of England from 1066 to 1087. ... This article is about the English king. ... Gilding is the art of spreading gold, either by mechanical or by chemical means, over the surface of a body for the purpose of ornament. ... 1832 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


York as a whole and particularly the Minster have a long tradition of creating beautiful stained glass. Some of the stained glass in York Minster dates back to the twelfth century. The 76-foot tall Great East Window, created in the early fifteenth century, is the largest example of medieval stained glass in the world. Other spectacular windows in the Minster include an ornate rose window and the fifty-foot tall five sisters window. Because of the extended time periods during which the glass was installed, different types of glazing and painting techniques that evolved over hundreds of years are visible in the different windows. There are approximately 2 million individual pieces of glass that make up the cathedral's 128 stained glass windows. Much of the glass was removed and pieced back together for the first and second world wars, and the windows are constantly being cleaned and restored to keep their beauty intact. Strictly speaking, stained glass is glass that has been painted with silver stain and then fired. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... The rose window in Bristol Cathedral, Bristol, England, at the western end of the nave. ... A glaze in painting is a transparent medium. ... Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nikolay II Aleksey Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Robert Nivelle Herbert H. Asquith D. Lloyd George Sir Douglas Haig Sir John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ...


The Towers and Bells

The two west towers of the minster hold bells and clock chimes. The north-west tower contains Great Peter (216 cwt or 10.8 tons) and the six clock bells (the largest weighing just over 60 cwt or 3 tons). The south-west tower holds 14 bells (tenor 59 cwt) hung for change ringing and 11 chiming bells (tenor 23 cwt) which are rung from a clavier in the ringing chamber. A bell is a simple sound-making device. ... CWT is a three-letter abbreviation with multiple meanings, including: Continuous wavelet transform cwt – hundred weight – weight equal to 100 pounds. ... Look up ton in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... CWT is a three-letter abbreviation with multiple meanings, including: Continuous wavelet transform cwt – hundred weight – weight equal to 100 pounds. ... Look up ton in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... CWT is a three-letter abbreviation with multiple meanings, including: Continuous wavelet transform cwt – hundred weight – weight equal to 100 pounds. ... Change ringing is the art of ringing a set of tuned bells in a series of mathematical patterns called changes, without attempting to ring a conventional tune. ... CWT is a three-letter abbreviation with multiple meanings, including: Continuous wavelet transform cwt – hundred weight – weight equal to 100 pounds. ...


The clock bells ring every quarter of an hour during the daytime and Great Peter strikes the hour. The change ringing bells are rung regularly on Sundays before Church Services and at other times, the ringers practice on Tuesday evenings. The chiming bells are occasionally rung before services. Change ringing is the art of ringing a set of tuned bells in a series of mathematical patterns called changes, without attempting to ring a conventional tune. ... In Christianity, a church service is a term used to describe a formalized period of worship, often but not exclusively occurring on Sunday, or Saturday in the case of a church practicing Sabbatarianism. ...


Organ

The fire of 1829 destroyed the organ and the basis of the present organ dates from 1832, when Elliot and Hill constructed a new instrument. This organ was reconstructed in 1859 by William Hill and Sons. The case remained intact, but a large amount of new pipework was introduced. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 1829 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1832 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1859 (MDCCCLIX) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ...


In 1901, J.W. Walker and Sons undertook reconstruction. Walkers added a considerable amount of new pipework.


A small amount of work was undertaken in 1915 by Harrison & Harrison and the famous Tuba Mirabilis was added. Other minor work was undertaken in fits and starts by the same firm until 1928. 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... New organ at St Davids Cathedral built by Harrison & Harrison in 2000. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ...


In 1961 J.W. Walker rebuilt it and it was cleaned in 1982. The fire of 1984 affected the Organ but not irreparably. The damage hastened the time for a major restoration. This was begun in 1991 and finished one year later by Geoffrey Coffin who had at one time been Assistant Organist at the Minster. 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Organists

  • 1633 James Hutchinson
  • 1662 J.H.Charles
  • 1667 Thomas Preston
  • 1691 Thomas Wanless
  • 1695 J.Heath
  • 1715 Charles Burgatroyd
  • 1721 William Davies
  • 1722 Charles Quarles
  • 1734 James Nares
  • 1756 John Camidge
  • 1799 Matthew Camidge
  • 1842 John Camidge
  • 1848 Thomas Simpson Camidge
  • 1859 Edwin George Monk

Thomas Tertius Noble was a choral composer in the Anglican church music tradition. ... Sir Edward Cuthbert Bairstow was born in Huddersfield on August 22, 1874 and died in York on May 1, 1946. ... Francis Alan Jackson OBE (born October 2, 1917) is a British organist and composer. ...

Astronomical clock

The astronomical clock was installed in the North Transept of York Minster in 1955. The clock is a memorial to the airmen operating from bases in Yorkshire, Durham, and Northumberland who were killed in action during World War 2. The York Minster astronomical clock was installed in the North Transept of York Minster in 1955. ...


Christmas Illuminations

In November 2002 York Minster was illuminated in colour for the first time in its history. The occasion was televised live on BBC1 Look North and was devised by York-born Mark Brayshaw who runs an event management company. The illuminations were also covered in the national press by The Guardian and The Independent as well as locally and regionally. Similar illuminations were projected onto the western facade as part of the Christmas illuminations in November 2003 and November 2004. Look North is the BBC local television news programme that covers Yorkshire and Lincolnshire. ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... The Independent is a British compact newspaper published by Tony OReillys Independent News & Media. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
York - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1915 words)
York is a city in northern England, at the confluence of the Rivers Ouse and Foss.
Paulinus of York brought Christianity to the region in the early 7th century with the conversion of King Edwin of Northumbria and the first Minster is believed to have been built in 627, although the location of the early Minster is a matter of dispute.
York Minster is the largest mediaeval cathedral in England and one of the largest gothic churches in Europe.
York Minster (929 words)
The pagan invaders left the church alone, and one Danish king, Guthfrith, converted to Christianity and was buried in the Minster in 895.
The new Norman Archbishop of York, Thomas of Bayeux, rebuilt the Minster.
York Minster suffered heavily duriing the English Reformation and its aftermath; the chantry chapels and altars were torn down under Edward VI, and much of the cathedral plate was lost.
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