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Encyclopedia > Yongle Emperor
Yongle Emperor
Birth and death: May 2, 136012 August 1424
Family name: Zhu (朱)
Given name: Di (棣)
Dates of reign: 17 July 140212 August 1424
Dynasty: Ming (明)
Era name: Yongle (永樂)
Era dates: 23 January 140319 January 1425
Temple name: Chéngzǔ¹ (成祖)
Posthumous name:
(short) 
Emperor Wen (文皇帝)
Posthumous name:
(full) 
Emperor Qitian Hongdao
Gaoming Zhaoyun Shengwu
Shengong Chunren Zhixiao Wen
啓天弘道高明肇運聖武神功純仁
至孝文皇帝
General note: Dates given here are in the Julian calendar.
They are not in the proleptic Gregorian calendar.
———
1. The original temple name was Taizong (
太宗), but it was
changed in 1538 into Chengzu.

The Yongle Emperor (May 2, 1360August 12, 1424), born Zhu Di (Chu Ti) , was the third emperor of the Ming Dynasty of China from 1402 to 1424. His era name "Yongle" means "Perpetually Jubilant". He is generally considered one of the greatest emperors of the Ming Dynasty, and to be among the greatest Chinese emperors. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (591x791, 378 KB) ÄŒesky | Deutsch | English | Ελληνικά | Español | فارسی | Français | עברית | Indonesian | Italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | Magyar | Nederlands | Polski | Português | RomânÇŽ | Русский | Slovenščina | Српски | Sunda | 简体中文 | 正體中文 | Türkçe | Русский | Українська +/- File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other... Events October 24 - The Treaty of Brétigny is ratified at Calais, marking the end of the first phase of the Hundred Years War. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... August 17 - Battle of Verneuil - An English force under John, Duke of Bedford defeats a larger French army under the Duke of Alençon, John Stewart, and Earl Archibald of Douglas. ... A Chinese surname, also called a clan name or family name (姓, pinyin: x ng; or 氏, shi), is one of the over seven hundred family names used by Han Chinese and Sinicized Chinese ethnic groups. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events September 14 - Battle of Homildon Hill. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... August 17 - Battle of Verneuil - An English force under John, Duke of Bedford defeats a larger French army under the Duke of Alençon, John Stewart, and Earl Archibald of Douglas. ... The following is a table of the Dynasties in Chinese history. ... Ming is a common personal name in China, It may also mean: Ming Dynasty, the ruling dynasty in China from 1368 to 1644 Ming class submarine, a class of diesel-electric submarines built by China Motorola MING, a smartphone released by Motorola Ming library, a C library with PHP bindings... A Chinese era name (traditional Chinese: 年號, simplified Chinese: 年号, pinyin nían hào) is the era name, reign period, or regnal title used when traditionally numbering years in an emperors reign and naming certain Chinese rulers (see the conventions). ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events July 21 - Battle of Shrewsbury. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Foundation of the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium Births John II, Duke of Lorraine (died 1470) Edmund Sutton, English nobleman (died 1483) Deaths January 18 - Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March, English politician (born 1391) March 17 - Ashikaga Yoshikazu, Japanese shogun (born 1407) May 24 - Murdoch Stewart, 2nd Duke of... Temple names (Traditional Chinese: 廟號 Simplified Chinese: 庙号 Pinyin: miào hào;), are commonly used when naming most Chinese, Vietnamese (such dynasties as Tran,Anterior Lê and Nguyen Dynasty) and most Korean rulers of the Goryeo and Joseon Dynasties. ... A posthumous name (Traditional Chinese: 諡號/謚號 Simplified Chinese: 谥号; Pinyin: shì hào; Romaji: shigō/tsuigō; Revised Romanization of Korean: siho) is a honorary name given to royalty in some cultures posthumously, that is, after the persons death. ... A posthumous name (Traditional Chinese: 諡號/謚號 Simplified Chinese: 谥号; Pinyin: shì hào; Romaji: shigō/tsuigō; Revised Romanization of Korean: siho) is a honorary name given to royalty in some cultures posthumously, that is, after the persons death. ... The Julian calendar was a reform of the Roman calendar which was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... The proleptic Gregorian calendar is produced by extending the Gregorian Calendar to dates preceding its official introduction in 1582. ... Events Treaty of Nagyvarad. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... Events October 24 - The Treaty of Brétigny is ratified at Calais, marking the end of the first phase of the Hundred Years War. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... August 17 - Battle of Verneuil - An English force under John, Duke of Bedford defeats a larger French army under the Duke of Alençon, John Stewart, and Earl Archibald of Douglas. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... Events September 14 - Battle of Homildon Hill. ... August 17 - Battle of Verneuil - An English force under John, Duke of Bedford defeats a larger French army under the Duke of Alençon, John Stewart, and Earl Archibald of Douglas. ... An era name was assigned as the name of each year by the leader (emperor or king) of the East Asian countries of China, Korea, Japan, and Vietnam during some portion of their history. ...


He was the Prince of Yan (燕王), possessing a heavy military base in Beijing. He became known as Chengzu of Ming Dynasty (明成祖 also written Cheng Zu, or Ch'eng Tsu (Cheng Tsu) in Wade-Giles) after becoming emperor following a civil war. His usurpation of the throne is now sometimes called the "Second Founding" of the Ming. Peking redirects here. ... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... A civil war is a war in which parties within the same culture, society or nationality fight against each other for the control of political power. ...


He moved the capital from Nanjing to Beijing, and constructed the Forbidden City there. He commissioned most of the exploratory sea voyages of Zheng He. During his reign the monumental Yongle Encyclopedia was completed. For other uses, see Nanjing (disambiguation). ... Peking redirects here. ... For other uses, see Forbidden City (disambiguation). ... A modern illustration of Zheng He, by an unidentified artist. ... The Yongle Encyclopedia or Yongle Dadian (永樂大典) was commissioned by the Chinese Ming Dynasty emperor Yongle in 1403. ...


The Yongle Emperor is buried in the Changling (長陵) tomb, the central and largest mausoleum of the Ming Dynasty Tombs. Standing in the Spirit Way at the Ming Tombs looking back towards the entry gate. ...

Contents

Early years

Emperor Yongle was born Zhu Di on May 2, 1360 as son of the monk Zhu Yuanzhang, who would later rise to become the Hongwu Emperor, the first emperor of the Ming Dynasty. Zhu Di grew up as a prince in a loving, caring environment. His father supplied nothing but the best education for his sons and eventually entitled them their own princedoms. Zhu Di was entitled as the Prince of Yan, the area around Beijing. izzy lewis loves the weewee in her pooter. ...


When Zhu Di moved to Beijing, the city had been devastated by famine and disease and was under threat of invasion from Mongolians from the north. Zhu Di, with help from his father-in-law, General Xu Da, secured the northern borders. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Zhu Di had been very successful against the Mongols and impressed his father with his energy, risk taking ability, and leadership. Even Zhu Di's troops praised his effectiveness, especially when Emperor Hongwu rewarded them for their service. But Zhu Di was not the oldest brother, forcing his father to name the Prince of Jin the crown prince. When the Prince of Jin died of illness in 1392, worries of imperial succession ensued.


Journey to power

The Yongle Emperor observing court eunuchs playing cuju, an ancient Chinese game similar to soccer.
The Yongle Emperor observing court eunuchs playing cuju, an ancient Chinese game similar to soccer.

Hongwu died on June 24, 1398, and Zhu Yunwen (the son of the Prince of Biao) was crowned as Emperor Jianwen. Almost immediately Zhu Di and Jianwen began their deadly feud. When Zhu Di traveled with his guard unit to pay tribute to his father, Jianwen took his actions as a threat and sent forces to turn him around. Zhu Di was forced to leave in humiliation. Jianwen persisted in refusing to let Zhu Di see his father's tomb and Zhu Di challenged the emperor's judgment. Zhu Di quickly became the biggest threat to the imperial court. Jianwen's policy tried to avoid direct contact as much as possible. To achieve this, he abolished the lesser princedoms to undermine Zhu Di's power and create room in which to plant his own loyal generals. Zhu Di was soon surrounded by Jianwen's generals, and cautiously reacted to the political gridlock in which he found himself. His rebellion slowly began to take shape. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Cuju (Chinese: ) is an ancient sport similar to footbal (soccer), played in China as well as Korea and Japan. ... Soccer redirects here. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Glendalough monastery, Wicklow Ireland destroyed. ... The Jianwen Emperor (December 5, 1377–July 13, 1402), with the personal name Zhu Yunwen, reigned as the second Emperor of the Ming dynasty. ... The Jianwen Emperor (December 5, 1377–July 13, 1402), with the personal name Zhu Yunwen, reigned as the second Emperor of the Ming dynasty. ... Look up rebellion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Zhu Di's leading rebellion slogan was self defense and was enough to earn him strong support from the populace and many supporting generals. He was a great military commander and studied Sun Tzu's Art of War extensively. He used surprise, deception, and caution and even questionable tactics such as enlisting several Mongolian regiments to aid him in fighting Jianwen. He defeated Li Jinglong, a loyalist general, several times, deceiving him and overwhelming him in many decisive battles. On January 15, 1402 Zhu Di made the bold decision to march his army straight to Nanjing, encountering stiff resistance. But his decision proved successful, forcing an imperial retreat to defend the defenseless residence of Jianwen. When Zhu Di reached the capital city, the frustrated and disgraced General Li Jinglong opened the doors and permitted Zhu Di's army to freely enter. In the wide spread panic caused by the sudden entry, the emperor's palace caught fire and Jianwen and his wife disappeared, most likely falling victim to the fire. Sun Tzu (孫子 also commonly written in pinyin: Sūn Zǐ) was the author of The Art of War, an influential ancient Chinese book on military strategy (for the most part not dealing directly with tactics). ... For other uses, see The Art of War (disambiguation). ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events September 14 - Battle of Homildon Hill. ... For other uses, see Nanjing (disambiguation). ...


Zhu Di had ended Jianwen's reign. Zhu Di and his administration spent the latter part of 1402 brutally purging China of Jianwen's supporters. Such an action was believed to be required to pacify China and maintain his rule. He ordered all records of the four-year-reign of Jianwen Emperor to be dated as year 32 through year 35 of the Hongwu Emperor, in order to establish himself as the legitimate successor of the Hongwu Emperor. Events September 14 - Battle of Homildon Hill. ... izzy lewis loves the weewee in her pooter. ...


Zhu Di has been credited with ordering perhaps the only case of "extermination of the ten agnates" (誅十族) in the history of China. For nearly 1500 years of feudal China, the "extermination of nine agnates" (誅九族) is considered one of the most severe punishments found in traditional Chinese law enforced until the end of Qing. The practice of exterminating the kins had been established since Qin when Emperor Qin Shi Huang (reigned 247 BC221 BC) declared "Those who criticize the present with that of the past: Zu" (以古非今者族). Zu (族) referred to the "extermination of three agnates" (三族): father, son and grandson. The extermination was to ensure the elimination of challenges to the throne and political enemies. Emperor Yang (reigned 604617) extended it to the nine agnates. The nine agnates are the four senior generations to the great-great-grandfather and four junior generations to the great-great-grandson. The definition also included siblings and cousins related to each of the nine agnates. Traditional Chinese law refers to the laws, regulations and rules used in China up to 1911, when the last imperial dynasty fell. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... Qin empire in 210 BC Capital Xianyang Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism Government Monarchy History  - Unification of China 221 BC  - Death of Qin Shi Huangdi 210 BC  - Surrender to Liu Bang 206 BC The Qin Dynasty (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Chao) (221 BC - 206 BC) was preceded... The monarch known now as Qin Shi Huang (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Shih-huang) (November / December 260 BCE – September 10, 210 BCE), personal name Yíng Zhèng, was king of the Chinese State of Qin from 247 BCE to 221 BCE (officially still under the Zhou Dynasty... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC - 240s BC - 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC Years: 252 BC 251 BC 250 BC 249 BC 248 BC - 247 BC - 246 BC 245 BC... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC - 220s BC - 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC Years: 226 BC 225 BC 224 BC 223 BC 222 BC - 221 BC - 220 BC 219 BC... Emperor Yang of Sui China (569 - March 11, 618), or Yangdi was the son and heir of Emperor Wen of Sui, and then the second emperor of Chinas Sui Dynasty. ... Events April 13 - Sabinianus becomes Pope, succeeding Gregory I. September 13 - Pope Sabinianus is consecrated. ... Events Sui Gong Di succeeds Sui Yang Di as emperor of China. ...


Just before the accession of Emperor Yongle, prominent historian Fāng Xìao-rú (方孝孺) elicited the offense worthy of the "extermination of nine agnates" for refusing to write the inaugural address and for insulting the Emperor. He was recorded as saying in defiance to the would-be Emperor: "莫說九族,十族何妨!" ("Nevermind nine agnates, go ahead with ten!"). Thus he was granted his wish with perhaps the only and infamous case of "extermination of ten agnates" in the history of China. In addition to the blood relations from his nine-agnates family hierarchy, his students and peers were added to be the 10th group. Altogether 873 people are said to have been executed. Before Fāng Xìao-rú's death, he was forced to watch his brother's execution. Fāng Xìao-rú himself was executed by severing-waist technique(腰斬). Prior to his death, Fāng Xìao-rú used his blood as ink and wrote on the ground the Chinese character "篡", which means "usurping the throne through illegal means". An inauguration is a ceremony of formal investiture whereby an individual assumes an office or position of authority or power. ...


Regardless, on July 17, 1402, after a brief visit to his father's tomb, Zhu Di was crowned Emperor Yongle at the age of 42. He would spend most of his early years suppressing rumors, stopping bandits, and healing the wounds of the land scarred by rebellion. is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events September 14 - Battle of Homildon Hill. ...


Reign

Bronze statue of the Yongle Emperor
Bronze statue of the Yongle Emperor

Yongle followed traditional rituals closely and remained superstitious. He did not overindulge in the luxuries of palace life, but still used Buddhism and Buddhist festivals to overcome some of the backwardness of the Chinese frontier and to help calm civil unrest. He stopped the warring between the various Chinese tribes and reorganized the provinces to best provide peace within China. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (639x781, 1279 KB) Emperor Yongle, third emperor of the Ming dynasty. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (639x781, 1279 KB) Emperor Yongle, third emperor of the Ming dynasty. ... A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ...


Due to the stress and overwhelming amount of thinking involved in running a post-rebellion empire, Yongle searched for scholars to join his staff. He had many of the best scholars chosen as candidates and took great care in choosing them, even creating terms by which he hired people. He was also concerned about the degeneration of Buddhism in China.


Yongle invited Deshin Shekpa, the fifth Gyalwa Karmapa, head of the Kagyu school of Tibetan Buddhism, to visit China - apparently after having a vision of Avalokitesvara. After a journey of over two years, Deshin Shekpa arrived in Nanjing on 17th May, 1408 CE riding on an elephant, at the imperial palace, where tens of thousands of monks greeted him. Deshin Shekpa (1384-1415), also Deshin Shegpa, was the fifth Gyalwa Karmapa, head of the Kagyu school of Tibetan Buddhism. ... The Karmapa is the title given to the head of the Karma Kagyu (Bka rgyud), one of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism. ... The Kagyu (Tibetan: བཀའ་བརྒྱུད་; Wylie: Bka-brgyud) school, also known as the Oral Lineage and the Spotless Practice Lineage school, is one of four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism, the other three being Nyingma (Rnying-ma), Sakya (Sa-skya), and Gelug (Dge-lugs). ... Tibetan Buddhism is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, the Himalayan region (including northern Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim and Ladakh), Mongolia, Buryatia, Tuva and Kalmykia (Russia), and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ... Avalokitesvara with a 1,000 arms, part of the Dazu Stone Carvings at Mount Baoding, Dazu County, Chongqing, China. ... For other uses, see Nanjing (disambiguation). ...


He convinced the emperor that there are different religions for different people and that does not mean that one is better than the other. The Karmapa was very well received in China and a number of miraculous occurrences are reported he also performed ceremonies for the emperor's family. The emperor presented him with 700 measures of silver objects and bestowed the title of 'Precious Religious King, Great Loving One of the West, Mighty Buddha of Peace'.[1]


Aside from the religious matters, the Emperor wished to establish an alliance with the Karmapa similar to the one the Yuan (1277-1367 CE) rulers had established with the Sakyapa.[2] He apparently offered to send armies to unify Tibet under the Karmapa but Deshin Shekpa refused this rather un-Buddhist offer.[3] The name of the Sakya (lit. ...


Deshin left Nanjing on 17th May, 1408 CE.[4] In 1410 he returned to Tsurphu where he had his monastery rebuilt which had been severely damaged by an earthquake. March 29 - The Aragonese capture Oristano, capital of the giudicato di Arborea in Sardinia July 15 – Battle of Grunwald (also known as Tannenberg or Zalgiris). ... Tsurphu (mTshur phu)is the seat of the Karmapas in the Tolung area of Central Tibet in the Dowo Lung valley,70 km from Lhasa. ...


When it was time for him to choose an heir, Yongle very much wanted to choose his second son, Gaoxu. Gaoxu was an athletic warrior type that contrasted sharply with his older brother's intellectual and humanitarian nature. Despite much counsel from his advisors, Yongle chose his older son, Gaozhi (the future Hongxi Emperor), as his heir apparent mainly due to advising from Xie Jin. As a result, Gaoxu became infuriated and refused to give up jockeying for his father's favor and refusing to move to Yunnan province (of which he was prince). He even went so far as to undermine Xie Jin's council and eventually killed him. The Hongxi Emperor (August 16, 1378–May 29, 1425) was an Emperor of the Ming Dynasty in China. ... Yunan redirects here. ...


After Yongle's overthrow of Jianwen, China's countryside was devastated. The fragile new economy had to deal with low production and depopulation. Yongle laid out a long and extensive plan to strengthen and stabilize the new economy, but first he had to silence dissension. He created an elaborate system of censors to remove corrupt officials from office that spread such rumors. Yongle dispatched some of his most trusted officers to reveal or destroy secret societies, Jianwen loyalists, and even bandits. To strengthen the economy, he was forced to fight population decline by reclaiming land, utilizing the most he could from the Chinese people, and maximizing textile and agricultural production. He also worked to reclaim production rich regions such as the Lower Yangtze Delta and called for a massive rebuilding of the Grand Canal of China. The Grand Canals were almost completely rebuilt and were eventually moving goods from all over the world. The Jianwen Emperor (December 5, 1377–July 13, 1402), with the personal name Zhu Yunwen, reigned as the second Emperor of the Ming dynasty. ... Yangtze River Delta The Yangtze River Delta (Chinese 长江三角洲/長江三角洲 chángjiāng sānjiÇŽozhōu) or Yangtze Delta, generally comprises the triangular-shaped territory of Shanghai, southern Jiangsu province and northern Zhejiang province. ... Grand Canal of China The Grand Canal of China (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), also known as the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is the longest ancient canal or artificial river in the world. ...


Yongle ambitiously planned to move China's capital to Beijing. According to a popular legend, the capital was moved when the emperor's advisors brought the emperor to the hills surrounding Nanjing and pointed out the emperor's palace showing the vulnerablity of the palace to artillery attack. He planned to build a massive network of structures in Beijing in which government offices, officials, and the imperial family itself resided. After a painfully long construction time, the Forbidden City was finally completed and became the political capital of China for the next 500 years. Peking redirects here. ... For other uses, see Forbidden City (disambiguation). ...


Yongle sponsored and created many cultural traditions in China. He promoted Confucianism and kept traditional ritual ceremonies with a rich cultural theme. His respect for Chinese culture was apparent. He commissioned his grand secretary, Xie Jin, to write a compilation of every subject and every known book of the Chinese. The massive project's goal was to preserve Chinese culture and literature in writing. The initial copy took 17 months to transcribe and another copy was transcribed in 1557. The book, named the Yongle Encyclopedia, is still considered one of the most marvelous human achievements in history, despite it being lost by time. A Confucian temple in Wuwei, Peoples Republic of China. ... The Yongle Encyclopedia or Yongle Dadian (永樂大典) was commissioned by the Chinese Ming Dynasty emperor Yongle in 1403. ...


Yongle's tolerance of Chinese ideas that did not agree with his own philosophies was well-known. He treated Daoism, Confucianism, and Buddhism equally (though he favored Confucianism). Strict Confucianists considered him hypocritical, but his even handed approach helped him win the support of the people and unify China. His love for Chinese culture sparked a sincere hatred for Mongolian culture. He considered it rotten and forbade the use of popular Mongolian names, habits, language, and clothing. Great lengths were taken by Yongle to eradicate Mongolian culture from China. Philosophy (from the Greek words philos and sophia meaning love of wisdom) is understood in different ways historically and by different philosophers. ... For other uses of the words tao and dao, see Dao (disambiguation). ... A Confucian temple in Wuwei, Peoples Republic of China. ... A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ... For contemporary culture after 1949, see Culture of the Peoples Republic of China. ... // (This article is referring to personal naming customs in the state of Mongolia (known prior to 1995 as the Mongolian Peoples Republic). ...


Military accomplishments

Ming China under the Yongle Emperor
Ming China under the Yongle Emperor

Mongol invaders were still causing many problems for the Ming Dynasty. Traditionally, Han Chinese dynasties rarely went on the offensive against the Mongols. But Yongle prepared to change this less-than-proud tradition. He mounted five military expeditions into Mongolia and crushed the remnants of the Yuan Dynasty that had fled north after being defeated by Emperor Hongwu. He repaired the northern defenses and forged buffer alliances to keep the Mongols at bay in order to build an army. His strategy was to force the Mongols into economic dependence on the Chinese, gather national support against them, and to launch periodic initiatives into Mongolia to cripple their offensive power. He attempted to compel Mongolia to become a Chinese tributary, with all the tribes submitting and proclaiming themselves vassals of the Ming, and wanted to contain and isolate the Mongols. Through fighting, Yongle learned to appreciate the importance of cavalry in battle and eventually began spending much of his resources to keep horses in good supply. Yongle spent his entire life fighting the Mongols. Failures and successes came and went, but it should be noted that after Yongle's second personal campaign against the Mongols, the Northern Ming Dynasty was at peace for over seven years. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 451 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (873 × 1161 pixel, file size: 819 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 451 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (873 × 1161 pixel, file size: 819 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... For other uses, see Ming. ...


Vietnam (the former Chinese province of Annam) was a significant source of difficulties during Yongle's reign. In 1406, The Yongle Emperor responded to several formal petitions from members of the (now deposed) Tran Dynasty, however on arrival to Vietnam, both the Tran prince and the accompanying Chinese ambassador were ambushed and killed. In response to this insult the Yongle Emperor sent a huge army of 500,000 south to conquer Vietnam. As the royal family were all executed by the Ho monarchs Vietnam was integrated as a province of China, just as it had been up until 939. With the Ho monarch defeated in 1407 the Chinese began a serious and sustained effort to Sinicize the population. Unfortunately for the Chinese, their efforts to make Vietnam into a normal province met with a significant resistance from the local population. Several revolts started against the Chinese rulers. In early 1418 a major revolt was begun by Le Loi, the future founder of the Le Dynasty. By the time the Yongle Emperor died in 1424 the Vietnamese rebels under Le Loi's leadership had captured nearly the entire province. By 1427 the Xuande Emperor gave up the effort started by his grandfather and formally acknowledged Vietnam's independence. Events Construction of Forbidden City begins in Beijing. ... The Trần Dynasty (陳朝 Trần Triều; or vernacularly Nhà Trần, meaning the Trần House) was a Vietnamese dynasty that ruled Vietnam (at that time known as Đại Việt) from 1225 to 1400. ... Events Vietnam became a tributary kingdom to China. ... Year 1407 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Sinicization, or less commonly Sinification, is to make things Chinese. ... Events May 19 - Capture of Paris by John, Duke of Burgundy September - Beginning of English Siege of Rouen Mircea the Old, ruler of Wallachia dies and is succeeded by Vlad I Uzurpatorul. ... Lê Lợi (1384? - 1433). ... // Lê Lợi (1382-1433), emperor Lê Thai To(1428-1433) Background and aspiration Lê Lợi came from a family of wealthy landowners. ... August 17 - Battle of Verneuil - An English force under John, Duke of Bedford defeats a larger French army under the Duke of Alençon, John Stewart, and Earl Archibald of Douglas. ... Events Lincoln College, a constituent college of the University of Oxford, is founded. ... Categories: China-related stubs | 1398 births | 1435 deaths | Ming Dynasty emperors ...


Exploration of the World

An African giraffe being led into a Ming Dynasty zoo.
An African giraffe being led into a Ming Dynasty zoo.

As part of his desire to expand Chinese influence, Emperor Yongle sponsored the massive and long term Zheng He expeditions. These were China's only major sea-going explorations of the world (although the Chinese had been sailing to Arabia, Africa, and Egypt since the Tang Dynasty, from 618-907 AD). The first expedition launched in 1405 (18 years before Henry the Navigator began Portugal's voyages of discovery). The expeditions were all under the command of China's greatest admiral, Zheng He. At least seven expeditions were launched, each bigger and more expensive than the last. Some of the boats used were apparently the largest sail-powered boats in human history (National Geographic, May 2004). Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Range map The giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) is an African even-toed ungulate mammal, the tallest of all land-living animal species. ... Giraffes in Sydneys Taronga Zoo A zoological garden, zoological park, or zoo is a facility in which animals are confined within enclosures and displayed to the public, and in which they may also be bred. ... A modern illustration of Zheng He, by an unidentified artist. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... Events End of the Sui Dynasty and beginning of the Tang Dynasty in China. ... Events Oleg leads Kievan Rus in a campaign against Constantinople Yelü Abaoji establishes Liao (Khitan) dynasty Births Deaths Categories: 907 ... Events May 29 - Ralph Neville, Earl of Westmoreland, meets Archbishop Richard Scrope of York and Earl of Norfolk Thomas Mowbray in Shipton Moor, tricks them to send their rebellious army home and then imprisons them June 8 - Archbishop Richard Scrope of York and Thomas Mowbray, Earl of Norfolk, executed in... Infante Henrique of Portugal, Duke of Viseu KG (Porto, March 4, 1394 – Sagres, November 13, 1460); pron. ... For additional context, see History of Portugal and Portuguese Empire. ... A modern illustration of Zheng He, by an unidentified artist. ...


It is possible that one of these expeditions reached America in 1421. According to Gavin Menzies, the Chinese fleet was burned upon returning to China, since Zhu Di had already passed away. Even if the American discovery isn't correct, the Zheng He expeditions were a remarkable technical and logistical achievement. It is very likely that the last expedition reached as far as Madagascar, thousands of miles from where it started. Zhu Di's successors, the Hongxi Emperor and the Xuande Emperor, felt the expeditions were harmful to the Chinese state. The Hongxi Emperor ended further expeditions and the Xuande Emperor suppressed much of the information about the Zheng He voyages. World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... Gavin Menzies Gavin Menzies (b. ... The Hongxi Emperor (August 16, 1378–May 29, 1425) was an Emperor of the Ming Dynasty in China. ... Categories: China-related stubs | 1398 births | 1435 deaths | Ming Dynasty emperors ...


Death

On April 1, 1424, Yongle launched a large campaign into the Gobi Desert to chase a nuisance army of fleeting Tartars. Yongle became frustrated at his inability to catch up with his swift opponents and fell into a deep depression and then into illness (suffered a series of minor strokes) . On August 8, 1424, the Yongle Emperor died. He was entombed in Chang-Ling (長陵), a location northwest of Beijing. The coordinate of his mausoleum is 40.301368 north, 116.243189 east. is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... August 17 - Battle of Verneuil - An English force under John, Duke of Bedford defeats a larger French army under the Duke of Alençon, John Stewart, and Earl Archibald of Douglas. ... The Gobi Desert lies in the territory of the Peoples Republic of China and the Country of Mongolia. ... Tatars or Tartars is a collective name applied to the Turkic-speaking people of Europe and Asia. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... August 17 - Battle of Verneuil - An English force under John, Duke of Bedford defeats a larger French army under the Duke of Alençon, John Stewart, and Earl Archibald of Douglas. ...


Legacy

Many have seen Yongle as in a life-long pursuit of power, prestige, and glory. He respected and worked hard to preserve Chinese culture, by designing monuments such as the Porcelain Tower of Nanjing, while undermining and cleansing Chinese society of foreign cultures. He deeply admired and wished to save his father's accomplishments and spent a lot of time proving his claim to the throne. His military accomplishments and leadership are rivaled by only a handful of people in world history. His reign was a mixed blessing for the Chinese populace. Yongle's economic, educational, and military reforms provided unprecedented benefits for the people, but his despotic style of government gave them no room to breathe. In addition, he executed many of his own generals and advisors for the sake of centralizing his power. This atrocity may also due to his suspicion of potential coup. Despite these negatives, he is considered the main architect and keeper of Chinese culture, history, and statecraft and one of the most influential rulers in Chinese history. For contemporary culture after 1949, see Culture of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Porcelain Tower of Nanjing, (Chinese: ; pinyin: ), also known as Baoensi - the Temple of Gratitude, is on the south bank of the Yangtze in Nanjing, China. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ...


He is remembered very much for his cruelty, just like his father. There was an incident that he put thousands of ladies-in-waiting to death because of one of his concubines. However, unlike his father, he entrusted power to eunuches like Zheng He, with serious consequences for subsequent Ming emperors. It is an irony that he chose the reign name "Yongle" which means "perpetual happiness". A modern illustration of Zheng He, by an unidentified artist. ...


Footnotes

  1. ^ Brown, Mick. (2004). The Dance of 17 Lives: The Incredible True Story of Tibet's 17th Karmapa, p. 34. Bloomsbury Publishing, New York and London. ISBN 1-58234-177-X.
  2. ^ Sperling, Elliot. "The 5th Karma-pa and some aspects of the relationship between Tibet and the early Ming." In: Tibetan Studies in Honour of Hugh Richardson. Edited by Michael Aris and Aung San Suu Kyi, pp. 283-284. (1979). Vikas Publishing house, New Delhi.
  3. ^ Brown, Mick. (2004). The Dance of 17 Lives: The Incredible True Story of Tibet's 17th Karmapa, pp. 33-34. Bloomsbury Publishing, New York and London. ISBN 1-58234-177-X.
  4. ^ Sperling, Elliot. "The 5th Karma-pa and some aspects of the relationship between Tibet and the early Ming." In: Tibetan Studies in Honour of Hugh Richardson. Edited by Michael Aris and Aung San Suu Kyi, p. 284. (1979). Vikas Publishing house, New Delhi.

Ming is a common personal name in China, It may also mean: Ming Dynasty, the ruling dynasty in China from 1368 to 1644 Ming class submarine, a class of diesel-electric submarines built by China Motorola MING, a smartphone released by Motorola Ming library, a C library with PHP bindings... Hugh Richardson was a powerful judge in the 19th century. ... Michael Vaillancourt Aris (March 27, 1946, Havana, Cuba – March 27, 1999, Oxford) was an academic and lecturer in Asian history at St Johns College and later at St Antonys College, Oxford. ... Aung San Suu Kyi (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ; IPA: ); born 19 June 1945 in Yangon (Rangoon), is a nonviolent pro-democracy activist and leader of the National League for Democracy in Myanmar (Burma), and a noted prisoner of conscience. ... Ming is a common personal name in China, It may also mean: Ming Dynasty, the ruling dynasty in China from 1368 to 1644 Ming class submarine, a class of diesel-electric submarines built by China Motorola MING, a smartphone released by Motorola Ming library, a C library with PHP bindings... Hugh Richardson was a powerful judge in the 19th century. ... Michael Vaillancourt Aris (March 27, 1946, Havana, Cuba – March 27, 1999, Oxford) was an academic and lecturer in Asian history at St Johns College and later at St Antonys College, Oxford. ... Aung San Suu Kyi (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ; IPA: ); born 19 June 1945 in Yangon (Rangoon), is a nonviolent pro-democracy activist and leader of the National League for Democracy in Myanmar (Burma), and a noted prisoner of conscience. ...

Sources and further reading

  • Tsai, Shih-Shan Henry, Perpetual Happiness: The Ming Emperor Yongle, University of Washington Press, ISBN 0-295-98124-5
  • Louise Levathes, When China Ruled the Seas: The Treasure Fleet of the Dragon Throne, 1405-1433, Oxford University Press, 1997, trade paperback, ISBN 0-19-511207-5
Preceded by
Jianwen Emperor
Emperor of China
(Ming Dynasty)
1402–1424
Succeeded by
Hongxi Emperor
This article contains Chinese text.
Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Chinese characters.

The Jianwen Emperor (December 5, 1377–July 13, 1402), with the personal name Zhu Yunwen, reigned as the second Emperor of the Ming dynasty. ... For the volcano in Indonesia, see Emperor of China (volcano). ... For other uses, see Ming. ... The Hongxi Emperor (August 16, 1378–May 29, 1425) was an Emperor of the Ming Dynasty in China. ... Image File history File links Zhongwen. ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quoc Ngu: Han Tu: A Chinese character or Han character (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, sometimes Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Yongle Emperor - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2023 words)
The Yongle Emperor (May 2, 1360 – August 12, 1424), born Zhu Di, was the third emperor of the Ming Dynasty of China from 1402 to 1424.
Hongwu died on June 24, 1398, and Zhu Yunwen was crowned Emperor Jianwen.
Yongle's economic, educational, and military reforms provided unprecedented benefits for the people, but his despotic style of government gave them no room to breathe.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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