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Encyclopedia > Yom Kippur War
Yom Kippur War/October War
Part of the Arab-Israeli conflict
Date October 6October 26, 1973
Location Sinai Peninsula, Golan Heights, and surrounding regions of the Middle East
Casus
belli
Israel's retention of territory taken from Egypt and Syria in Six-Day War
Result UNSCR 338: cease-fire leading to Geneva Conference.
Combatants
Flag of Israel Israel Flag of Egypt Egypt,
Flag of Syria Syria,
Flag of Iraq Iraq
Commanders
Moshe Dayan,
David Elazar,
Ariel Sharon,
Shmuel Gonen,
Benjamin Peled,
Israel Tal,
Rehavam Zeevi,
Aharon Yariv,
Yitzhak Hofi,
Rafael Eitan,
Abraham Adan,
Yanush Ben Gal
Saad El Shazly,
Ahmad Ismail Ali,
Hosni Mubarak,
Mohammed Aly Fahmy,
Anwar Sadat,
Abdel Ghani el-Gammasy,
Abdul Munim Wassel,
Abd-Al-Minaam Khaleel,
Abu Zikry,
Mustafa Tlass[1]
Strength
415,000 troops,
1,500 tanks,
3,000 armored carriers,
945 artillery units,[2]
561 airplanes,
84 helicopters,
38 Navy vessels[3]
Egypt: 800,000 troops (300,000 deployed), 2,400 tanks, 2,400 armored carriers, 1,120 artillery units,[2] 690 airplanes, 161 helicopters, 104 Navy vessels,
Syria: 150,000 troops (60,000 deployed), 1,400 tanks, 800–900 armored carriers, 600 artillery units,[2] 350 airplanes, 36 helicopters, 21 Navy vessels,
Iraq: 60,000 troops, 700 tanks, 500 armored carriers, 200 artillery units,[2] 73 airplanes,[3]
Casualties
2,656 killed
7,250 wounded
400 tanks destroyed
600 tanks damaged/returned to service
102 planes shot down[4]
8,528* – 15,000** dead
19,540* – 35,000** wounded
2,250 tanks destroyed or captured
432 planes destroyed[4]
* Western analysis
** Israeli analysis

The Yom Kippur War, Ramadan War or October War (Hebrew: מלחמת יום הכיפורים‎; transliterated: Milkhemet Yom HaKipurim or מלחמת יום כיפור, Milkhemet Yom Kipur; Arabic: حرب أكتوبر; transliterated: ħarb October or حرب تشرين, ħarb Tishrin), also known as the 1973 Arab-Israeli War and the Fourth Arab-Israeli War, was fought from October 6 to October 26, 1973, between Israel and a coalition of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria. The war began with a surprise joint attack by Egypt and Syria on the Jewish holiday of Yom Kippur. Egypt and Syria crossed the cease-fire lines in the Sinai and Golan Heights, respectively, which had been captured by Israel in 1967 during the Six-Day War.[5] Combatants Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel and the United... is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 For other uses of the word Sinai, please see: Sinai (disambiguation). ... The Golan Heights (‎ Ramat HaGolan, Arabic: Habat al-Å«lān) or Golan is a mountainous area in northeastern Israel[1] on the border of Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Casus belli is a modern Latin language expression meaning the justification for acts of war. ... Instance of retaining (e. ... Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ... The three-line United Nations Security Council Resolution 338 (S/RES/338), approved on October 22, 1973, called for a cease fire in the Yom Kipur War in accordance with a joint proposal by the United States and the Soviet Union. ... The Geneva Conference of 1973 was an attempt to negotiate a solution to the Arab-Israeli conflict as called for in UN Security Council Resolution 338 which was passed after the 1973 Arab-Israeli War. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt_1972. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Syria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iraq_(1963-1991). ... Moshe Dayan (‎, born 20 May 1915, died 16 October 1981) was an Israeli military leader and politician. ... David (Dado) Elazar (1925 - 1976), was the ninth Chief of Staff of the Israel Defense Forces, serving in that capacity from 1972 to 1974. ...   (Hebrew: , also known by his diminutive Arik אָרִיק) (born February 27, 1928) is a former Israeli politician and general. ... Shmuel Gonen Shmuel Gonen (né Gorodish; 1930-30 September 1991) was Chief of the Southern Command of the Israel Defense Forces during the Yom Kippur War. ... Benny Peled (1928 - July 13, 2002), born Benjamin Weidenfeld in Tel Aviv, Israel, was the commander of the Israeli Air Force during the Yom Kippur War and Operation Entebbe. ... Israel Tal (b. ... Rehavam Zeevi (רחבעם זאבי-גנדי) (June 20, 1926 - October 17, 2001) was an Israeli general, politician and historian who founded the right-wing nationalist Moledet party. ... Aharon Yariv (December 20, 1920 in Moscow, USSR - May 7, 1994) was a member of the Israeli Knesset and a major-general in the Israeli Defense Forces. ... Yitzhak Hofi was the director of the Mossad from 1974 to 1982. ... Rafael Eitan (Hebrew: רפאל איתן) (January 11, 1929 – November 23, 2004) was an Israeli general, former Chief of Staff of the Israeli Defence Forces and later a politician, a Knesset member, and Minister of Agriculture. ... Avraham (English transliteration: Abraham) Bren Adan was an Israeli army general who served in the military between 1947 - 1973. ... A former Israeli General, he commanded the 7th Israeli Brigade during the Yom Kippur War in 1973, he oversaw the defence of Golan Heights under Syrian attack. ... Saad El Shazly was the Egyptian chief of staff during the Yom Kippur War. ... Ahmad Ismail Ali (Arabic: أحمد إسماعيل علي) (October 14, 1917 - December 26, 1974) was the Commander-in-Chief of Egypts army and minister of war during the Yom Kippur War. ... Muhammad Hosni Said Mubarak (Arabic: محمد حسنى سيد مبارك Muḥammad ḤusnÄ« Mubārak), commonly known as Hosni Mubarak (Arabic: حسنى مبارك ḤusnÄ« Mubārak), has been the President of Egypt since 14 October 1981. ... Field Marshal Mohammed Aly Fahmy graduated from the Egyptian Air Academy in November 1939. ... Muhammad Anwar Al-Sadat (محمد أنورالسادات in Arabic) (December 25, 1918 – October 6, 1981) was an Egyptian politician and served as the third President of Egypt from September 28, 1970 until his assassination on October 6, 1981. ... Field Marshal Abdel Ghani el-Gammasy is an Egyptian military leader. ... Major General Abdul Munim Wassel was the commander of the trapped egyptian third army during the Yom Kippur War. ... General Abd-Al-Minaam Khaleel graduated from the Egyptian Military Academy in 1941. ... Vice admiral Fuad Abu Zikry was the Commander of The Egyptian Naval Force during the Yom Kippur War. ... Lt. ... Combatants Israel Syria Commanders Michael Barkai unknown Strength 5 ships¹: 3 SAAR 4 class 2 SAAR 3 class 1 torpedo boat 1 minesweeper 2 Komar-class missile boats 1 Osa-class missile boat Casualties unknown All five ships ¹although source could also be interpreted to refer to 12 ships The... Operation Nickel Grass was a strategic airlift operation conducted by the United States to deliver weapons and supplies to Israel during the Yom Kippur War. ... Combatants Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel and the United... This article describes violent events in the Old City of Jerusalem from April 4-7, 1920. ... On May 1, 1921, a scuffle began in Tel Aviv-Jaffa between rival groups of Jewish Bolsheviks, carrying Yiddish banners demanding Soviet Palestine, and Socialists parading on May Day. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine was an uprising during the British mandate by Palestinian Arabs in Palestine which lasted from 1936 to 1939. ... Combatants Palestine Jews Palestine Arabs United Kingdom The 1947-48 Palestinian Civil War lasted from 30 November 1947 to 14 May 1948. ... Combatants  Israel Haganah Irgun Lehi Palmach Foreign Volunteers Egypt, Syria, Transjordan,  Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Holy War Army, Arab Liberation Army Commanders Yaakov Dori, Yigael Yadin John Bagot Glubb, Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, Hasan Salama, Fawzi Al-Qawuqji, Ahmed Ali al-Mwawi Strength  Israel: 29,677 initially rising... Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Hakim Amer Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA[1... Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ... For other uses, see War of Attrition (disambiguation). ... Combatants Israel South Lebanon Army PLO Strength 25,000 10,000 Casualties 20 9,800 The 1978 South Lebanon conflict (code-named Operation Litani by Israel) was the name of the Israel Defense Forces 1978 invasion of Lebanon up to the Litani River. ... Combatants Israel South Lebanon Army LF (nominally neutral) PLO Syria Amal (switched sides) LCP Commanders Menachem Begin (Prime Minister) Ariel Sharon, (Ministry of Defence) Rafael Eitan, (CoS) Yasser Arafat Strength Israel: 76,000 troops 800 tanks 1,500 APCs 634 aircraft Syria: 22,000 troops 352 tanks 300 APCs 450... Combatants Hezbollah Israel South Lebanon Army Casualties 8000+ 1600+ During the 1982–2000 South Lebanon conflict Hezbollah waged a guerrilla campaign against Israeli forces occupying Southern Lebanon. ... Combatants  Israel Unified National Leadership ot the Uprising Commanders Yitzhak Shamir Yasser Arafat Casualties 160 (5 children) 1,162 (241 children) The First Intifada (1987 - 1993) (also intifada and war of the stones) was a mass Palestinian uprising against Israeli rule[1] that began in Jabalia refugee camp and quickly... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see al-Aqsa (disambiguation). ... Combatants Hezbollah Lebanon Amal[2] LCP[3] PFLP-GC[4]  Israel Commanders Hassan Nasrallah Dan Halutz Moshe Kaplinsky[11] Udi Adam Strength 600-1,000 active fighters 3,000-10,000 reservists[5] Up to 10,000 ground troops. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Hebrew uses the Hebrew alphabet with optional vowel points. ... “Arabic” redirects here. ... Due to the fact that the Arabic language has a number of phonemes that have no equivalent in English or other European languages, a number of different transliteration methods have been invented to represent certain Arabic characters, due to various conflicting goals: A desire to stay consistent with traditional usage... is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Yom Kippur (Hebrew:יוֹם כִּפּוּר ) is a Jewish holiday, known in English as the Day of Atonement. ... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 For other uses of the word Sinai, please see: Sinai (disambiguation). ... The Golan Heights (‎ Ramat HaGolan, Arabic: Habat al-Å«lān) or Golan is a mountainous area in northeastern Israel[1] on the border of Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan. ... Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ...


The Egyptians and Syrians advanced during the first 24–48 hours, after which momentum began to swing in Israel's favor. By the second week of the war, the Syrians had been pushed entirely out of the Golan Heights. In the Sinai to the south, the Israelis struck at the "seam" between two invading Egyptian armies, crossed the Suez Canal (where the old ceasefire line had been), and cut off the Egyptian Third Army just as a United Nations cease-fire came into effect. The Egyptian Army is the largest service within the Egyptian military establishment. ... For other uses, see Suez (disambiguation). ... A ceasefire is a temporary stoppage of a war or any armed conflict, where each side of the conflict agrees with the other to suspend aggressive actions. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ...


The war had far-reaching implications for many nations. The Arab World, which had been humiliated by the lopsided defeat of the Egyptian-Syrian-Jordanian alliance during the Six-Day War, felt psychologically vindicated by its string of victories early in the conflict, despite the endstate. This vindication paved the way for the peace process that followed, as well as liberalizations such as Egypt's infitah policy. The Camp David Accords, which came soon after, led to normalized relations between Egypt and Israel—the first time any Arab country had recognized the Israeli state. Egypt, which had already been drifting away from the Soviet Union, then left the Soviet sphere of influence entirely. “Arab States” redirects here. ... Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ... Infitah is an Arabic word meaning open door and refers to Egyptian President Anwar Sadat opening the door to private investment in Egypt. ... Celebrating the signing of the Camp David Accords in the White House Rose Garden: Menachem Begin (right), Jimmy Carter (center), Anwar Sadat (left) The Camp David Accords were signed by Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin on September 17, 1978, following twelve days of secret negotiations... A sphere of influence (SOI) is an area or region over which an organization or state exerts some kind of indirect cultural, economic, military or political domination. ...

Contents

Background

Casus belli

This war was part of the Arab-Israeli conflict, an ongoing dispute which has included many battles and wars since 1948. During the Six-Day War of 1967, the Israelis had captured Egypt's Sinai Peninsula all the way up to the Suez Canal, which had become the cease-fire line, and roughly half of Syria's Golan Heights. Combatants Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel and the United... Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ... For other uses, see Suez (disambiguation). ...


In the years following that war, Israel erected lines of fortification in both the Sinai and the Golan Heights. In 1971 Israel spent $500 million fortifying its positions on the Suez Canal, a chain of fortifications and gigantic earthworks known as the Bar Lev Line, named after Israeli General Chaim Bar-Lev. The Bar Lev Line (arabic: خط برليف, Hebrew: קו בר לב) was a chain of fortifications built by Israel along the eastern coast of the Suez Canal after it captured the Sinai Peninsula from Egypt during the 1967 Six-Day War. ... Chaim Kidoni Bar-Lev (November 16, 1924 - May 7, 1994) was a Jewish army officer during Israels pre-state and early statehood eras. ...


Nonetheless, according to Chaim Herzog: Chaim Herzog (‎, born Vivian Herzog, September 17, 1918 – April 17, 1997) served as the sixth President of Israel (1983–1993), following a distinguished career in both the British Army and the Israel Defense Forces (IDF). ...

On June 19, 1967, the National Unity Government of Israel voted unanimously to return the Sinai to Egypt and the Golan Heights to Syria in return for peace agreements. The Golans would have to be demilitarized and special arrangement would be negotiated for the Straits of Tiran. The government also resolved to open negotiations with King Hussein of Jordan regarding the Eastern border.[6]

The Israeli decision was to be conveyed to the Arab states by the U.S. Government. The U.S. was informed of the decision, but not that it was to transmit it. There is no evidence of receipt from Egypt or Syria, who thus apparently never received the offer. The decision was kept a closely-guarded secret within Israeli government circles and the offer was withdrawn in October, 1967.[7] is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... National Governments or National Unity Governments are broad coalition governments consisting of all parties (or all major parties) in the legislature and are often formed during times of war or national emergency. ... The Straits of Tiran The Straits of Tiran are the narrow sea passages, about 3 miles wide, formed by the Sinai and Arabian peninsulas which separates the Gulf of Aqaba from the Red Sea. ...


Egypt and Syria both desired a return of the land lost in the Six-Day War. However, the Khartoum Arab Summit issued the "three no's," resolving that there would be "no peace, no recognition and no negotiation with Israel." The Khartoum Resolution of September 1, 1967 was issued at the conclusion of a meeting between the leaders of eight Arab countries in the wake of the Six-Day War. ...


President Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt died in September 1970. He was succeeded by Anwar Sadat, who resolved to fight Israel and win back the territory lost in the Six-Day War. In 1971, Sadat, in response to an initiative by UN intermediary Gunnar Jarring, declared that if Israel committed itself to "withdrawal of its armed forces from Sinai and the Gaza Strip" and to implementation of other provisions of UN Security Council Resolution 242 as requested by Jarring, Egypt would then "be ready to enter into a peace agreement with Israel." Israel responded that it would not withdraw to the pre-June 5, 1967 lines.[8] Gamal Abdel Nasser (Arabic: - ; Masri: جمال عبد الناصر - also transliterated as Jamal Abd al-Naser, Jamal Abd an-Nasser and other variants; January 15, 1918 – September 28, 1970) was the President of Egypt from 1954 until his death in 1970. ... Muhammad Anwar Al-Sadat (محمد أنورالسادات in Arabic) (December 25, 1918 – October 6, 1981) was an Egyptian politician and served as the third President of Egypt from September 28, 1970 until his assassination on October 6, 1981. ... Gunnar Jarring (12 October 1907-29 May 2002) was a Swedish turkologist and diplomat. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 242 (S/RES/242) was adopted unanimously by the UN Security Council on November 22, 1967 in the aftermath of the Six Day War. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ...


Sadat hoped that by inflicting even a limited defeat on the Israelis, the status quo could be altered. Hafiz al-Assad, the head of Syria, had a different view. He had little interest in negotiation and felt the retaking of the Golan Heights would be a purely military option. Since the Six-Day War, Assad had launched a massive military build up and hoped to make Syria the dominant military power of the Arab states. With the aid of Egypt, Assad felt that his new army could win convincingly against the Israeli army and thus secure Syria's role in the region. Assad only saw negotiations beginning once the Golan Heights had been retaken by force, which would induce Israel to give up the West Bank and Gaza, and make other concessions. Hafez al-Assad (October 6, 1930 - June 10, 2000) was the President of Syria from 1971 to 2000. ... Not to be confused with the Spanish name Garza or the Egyptian town of Giza. ...


Sadat also had important domestic concerns in wanting war. "The three years since Sadat had taken office… were the most demoralized in Egyptian history… A desiccated economy added to the nation's despondency. War was a desperate option."[9] In his biography of Sadat, Raphael Israeli argued that Sadat felt the root of the problem was in the great shame over the Six-Day War, and before any reforms could be introduced he felt that shame had to be overcome. Egypt's economy was in shambles, but Sadat knew that the deep reforms that he felt were needed would be deeply unpopular among parts of the population. A military victory would give him the popularity he needed to make changes. A portion of the Egyptian population, most prominently university students who launched wide protests, strongly desired a war to reclaim the Sinai and was highly upset that Sadat had not launched one in his first three years in office. Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 For other uses of the word Sinai, please see: Sinai (disambiguation). ...


The other Arab states showed much more reluctance to fully commit to a new war. King Hussein of Jordan feared another major loss of territory as had occurred in the Six-Day War, during which Jordan was halved in population. Sadat was also backing the claim of the PLO to the territories (West Bank and Gaza) and in the event of a victory promised Yasser Arafat that he would be given control of them. Hussein still saw the West Bank as part of Jordan and wanted it restored to his kingdom. Moreover, during the Black September crisis of 1970 a near civil war had broken out between the PLO and the Jordanian government. In that war Syria had intervened militarily on the side of the PLO, leaving Assad and Hussein estranged from each other. Hussein I bin Talal, King of Jordan (Arabic: ‎ ; November 14, 1935 – February 7, 1999). ... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic Munazzamat al-Tahrir Filastiniyyah منظمة تحرير فلسطينية ) is a political and paramilitary organization of Palestinian Arabs dedicated to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state to consist of the... Not to be confused with the Spanish name Garza or the Egyptian town of Giza. ... Not to be confused with Yasir Arafat (cricketer). ... Combatants PLO Jordan Commanders Yasser Arafat King Hussein Casualties 7,000-8,000 killed[1] This article, Black September in Jordan, describes the events surrounding September, 1970 in Jordan. ...


Iraq and Syria also had strained relations, and the Iraqis refused to join the initial offensive. Lebanon, which shared a border with Israel, was not expected to join the Arab war effort due to its small army and already evident instability. The months before the war saw Sadat engage in a diplomatic offensive to try to win support for the war. By the fall of 1973 he claimed the backing of more than a hundred states. These were most of the countries of the Arab League, Non-Aligned Movement, and Organization of African Unity. Sadat had also worked to curry favour in Europe and had some success before the war. Britain and France had for the first time sided with the Arab powers against Israel on the United Nations Security Council. Headquarters Cairo, Egypt1 Official languages Arabic Membership 22 Arab states 2 observer states Leaders  -  Secretary General Amr Moussa (since 2001)  -  Council of the Arab League Sudan  -  Speaker of the Arab Parliament Nabih Berri Establishment  -  Alexandria Protocol March 22, 1945  Area  -  Total 13,953,041 (Western Sahara Included) = 13,687,041... Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ... Flag of the Organisation of African Unity, later also used by the African Union. ... “Security Council” redirects here. ...


Events leading up to the war

Anwar Sadat in 1972 publicly stated that Egypt was committed to going to war with Israel, and that they were prepared to "sacrifice one million Egyptian soldiers." From the end of 1972, Egypt began a concentrated effort to build up its forces, receiving MiG-21 jet fighters, SA-2, SA-3, SA-4, SA-6 and SA-7 Surface-to-air missile systems, RPG-7s, T-55 and T-62 Tanks, and especially the AT-3 Sagger anti-tank guided missile from the Soviet Union and improving its military tactics, based on Soviet battlefield doctrines. Political generals, who had in large part been responsible for the rout in 1967, were replaced with competent ones.[10] Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21 (NATO reporting name Fishbed) is a fighter aircraft, originally built by the Mikoyan and Gurevich Design Bureau in the Soviet Union. ... An S-75 missile on camoflaged launcher An S-75 missile in elevated position An North Vietnamese S-75 site An S-75 missile in transit A Fan Song radar (left) and what looks like a Low Blow to the right The SA-2 Guideline is the NATO reporting name... Two S-125 dual missile launcher trailers. ... A 2K11 TEL in transit. ... A 3M9 TEL with missiles erected. ... A soldier posing with a Strela launcher. ... An RPG-7 captured by the United States Army. ... The T-54 and T-55 tank series was the Soviet Unions front-line main battle tank from 1947 until 1962, and remains in service throughout the world to this day, especially by former client states of the Soviet Union. ... The T-62 Soviet main battle tank is a further development of the T-55. ... AT-3A Sagger missile The AT-3 Sagger is the NATO reporting name for the 9M14 Malyutka (little or tiny baby) MCLOS wire-guided anti-tank missile of the Soviet Union. ... An Anti-tank guided missile (ATGM) or weapon (ATGW) is a guided missile primarily designed to hit and destroy tanks and other armoured fighting vehicles. ... Military tactics (Greek: Taktikē, the art of organizing an army) are the collective name for methods for engaging and defeating an enemy in battle. ... Battlefield may refer to: the location of a battle, the Battlefield televised documentary series, shown on the Discovery Channel, which explores battles of World War 2, the Battlefield Vietnam televised documentary series, shown on the Military Channel, which gives detail explanations of Vietnam War, (1945-1975), battles. ...


The role of the great powers, too, was a major factor in the outcome of the two wars. The policy of the Soviet Union was one of the causes of Egypt's military weakness. President Nasser was only able to obtain the material for an anti-aircraft missile defense wall after visiting Moscow and pleading with the Kremlin leaders. He claimed that if supplies were not given, he would have to return to Egypt and tell the Egyptian people Moscow had abandoned them, and then relinquish power to one of his peers who would be able to deal with the Americans. The Americans would then have the upper hand in the region, which Moscow could not permit. For other uses, see Missile (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ...


One of Egypt's undeclared objectives of the War of Attrition was to force the Soviet Union to supply Egypt with more advanced arms and war materiel. Egypt felt the only way to convince the Soviet leaders of the deficiencies of most of the aircraft and air defense weaponry supplied to Egypt following 1967 was to put the Soviet weapons to the test against the advanced weaponry the United States supplied to Israel. For other uses, see War of Attrition (disambiguation). ... Materiel (from the French for material) is the equipment and supplies in Military and commercial supply chain management. ...


Nasser's policy following the 1967 defeat conflicted with that of the Soviet Union. The Soviets sought to avoid a new conflagration between the Arabs and Israelis so as not to be drawn into a confrontation with the United States. The reality of the situation became apparent when the superpowers met in Oslo and agreed to maintain the status quo. This was unacceptable to Egyptian leaders, and when it was discovered that the Egyptian preparations for crossing the canal were being leaked, it became imperative to expel the Russians from Egypt. In July 1972 Sadat expelled almost all of the 20,000 Soviet military advisors in the country and reoriented the country's foreign policy to be more favorable to the United States. This article is about the capital of Norway. ...


The Soviets thought little of Sadat's chances in any war. They warned that any attempt to cross the heavily fortified Suez would incur massive losses. The Soviets, who were then pursuing détente, had no interest in seeing the Middle East destabilized. In a June 1973 meeting with U.S. President Richard Nixon, Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev had proposed Israel pull back to its 1967 border. Brezhnev said that if Israel did not, "we will have difficulty keeping the military situation from flaring up"—an indication that the Soviet Union had been unable to restrain Sadat's plans.[11] Détente is a French term, meaning a relaxing or easing; the term has been used in international politics since the early 1970s. ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev (Russian: , Leonid Ilič Brežnev) December 19, 1906 [O.S. December 19, 1906] – November 10, 1982) was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (and thus de facto ruler of the USSR) from 1964 to 1982, serving in that position longer than anyone...


In an interview published in Newsweek (April 9, 1973), President Sadat again threatened war with Israel. Several times during 1973, Arab forces conducted large-scale exercises that put the Israeli military on the highest level of alert, only to be recalled a few days later. The Israeli leadership already believed that if an attack took place, the Israeli Air Force would be able to repel it. The Newsweek logo Newsweek is a weekly news magazine published in New York City and distributed throughout the United States and internationally. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... The Israeli Air Force (IAF; Hebrew: זרוע האויר והחלל, Zroa HaAvir VeHaḤalal, Air and Space Division, commonly known as חיל האוויר Hel HaAvir) is the air force of the Israel Defense Forces. ...


Almost a full year before the war, in an October 24, 1972, meeting with his Supreme Council of the Armed Forces, Sadat declared his intention to go to war with Israel even without proper Soviet support.[12] Planning was done in absolute secrecy—even the upper-echelon commanders were not told of war plans until less than a week prior to the attack, and the soldiers were not told until a few hours beforehand. The plan to attack Israel in concert with Syria was code-named Operation Badr (the Arabic word for "full moon"), after the Battle of Badr, in which Muslims under Muhammad defeated the Quraish tribe of Mecca. is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... “Arabic” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Full Moon. ... Combatants Muslims of Medina Quraish of Mecca Commanders Muhammad, Hamza, Ali Amr ibn Hishām† Strength 313 1000 Casualties 14 killed ~70 killed 40-70 captured The Battle of Badr (Arabic: ), fought March 17, 624 AD (17 Ramadan 2 AH in the Islamic calendar) in the Hejaz of western Arabia... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Quraish (Arabic: ‎ translit: ) is the Meccan tribe that the Islamic prophet Muhammad belonged to before he received the revelations of Islam. ...


Lead up to the surprise attack

The IDF's Directorate of Military Intelligence's (abbreviated as "Aman") Research Department was responsible for formulating Israel's intelligence estimate. Their assessments on the likelihood of war were based on several assumptions. First, it was assumed correctly that Syria would not go to war with Israel unless Egypt went to war as well. Second, the department learned from a high-ranking Egyptian informant (who remains confidential to this day, known only as "The Source"[13] ) that Egypt wanted to regain all of the Sinai, but would not go to war until the Soviets had supplied fighter-bombers to neutralize the Israeli Air Force, and Scud missiles to be used against Israeli cities as a deterrent against Israeli attacks on Egyptian infrastructure. Since the Soviets had not yet supplied the fighter bombers, and the Scud missiles had only arrived in Egypt in late August, and in addition it would take four months to train the Egyptian ground crews, Aman predicted war with Egypt was not imminent. This assumption about Egypt's strategic plans, known as "the concept," strongly prejudiced the department's thinking and led it to dismiss other war warnings. Aman badge Aman (אמן) is the Hebrew abbreviation for the Israel Defence Forces (IDF) Directorate of Military Intelligence (אגף המודיעין), Israels central, overarching military intelligence. ... Summary of Aman-Researchs top secret report of October 5, 1973, where it assessed the threat of war to be low. ... A ground attack aircraft is an aircraft that is designed to operate very close to the ground, supporting infantry and tanks directly in battle. ... For the comics character Scud, see Scud: The Disposable Assassin. ...


The Egyptians did much to further this misconception. Both the Israelis and the Americans felt that the expulsion of the Soviet military observers had severely reduced the effectiveness of the Egyptian army. The Egyptians ensured that there was a continual stream of false information on maintenance problems and a lack of personnel to operate the most advanced equipment. The Egyptians made repeated misleading reports about lack of spare parts that also made their way to the Israelis. Sadat had so long engaged in brinkmanship, that his frequent war threats were being ignored by the world. In May and August 1973 the Egyptian army had engaged in exercises by the border and mobilizing in response both times had cost the Israeli army some $10 million. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


For the week leading up to Yom Kippur, the Egyptians staged a week-long training exercise adjacent to the Suez Canal. Israeli intelligence, detecting large troop movements towards the canal, dismissed these movements as mere training exercises. Movements of Syrian troops towards the border were puzzling, but not a threat because, Aman believed, they would not attack without Egypt and Egypt would not attack until the Soviet weaponry arrived.


The obvious reason for choosing the Jewish holiday of Yom Kippur for staging a surprise attack on Israel was that on this specific day (unlike any other holiday) the country comes to a complete standstill. On Yom Kippur, the holiest day for Jews, not only observant, but most secular Jews fast, abstain from any use of fire, electricity, engines, communications, etc., and all road traffic comes to a standstill. Many soldiers leave military facilities for home during the holiday and Israel is most vulnerable, especially with much of its army demobilized. The war also coincided with the Muslim holiday of Ramadan, meaning that many of the Muslim soldiers were also fasting. Many others believe that the attack on Yom Kippur surprisingly helped Israel to easily recruit reserves from their homes and synagogues, because the nature of the Yom Kippur holiday meant that roads and communication would be largely open, to help organize and mobilize the military. The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... Yom Kippur (Hebrew:יוֹם כִּפּוּר ) is a Jewish holiday, known in English as the Day of Atonement. ... Fasting is primarily the act of willingly abstaining from some or all food, drink, or both, for a period of time. ... This article is about Islamic religious observances in the month of Ramadan. ...


Despite refusing to participate, King Hussein of Jordan "had met with Sadat and [Syrian President] Assad in Alexandria two weeks before. Given the mutual suspicions prevailing among the Arab leaders, it was unlikely that he had been told any specific war plans. But it was probable that Sadat and Assad had raised the prospect of war against Israel in more general terms to feel out the likelihood of Jordan joining in."[14] On the night of September 25, Hussein secretly flew to Tel Aviv to warn Israeli Prime Minister Golda Meir of an impending Syrian attack. "Are they going to war without the Egyptians, asked Mrs. Meir. The king said he didn't think so. 'I think they [Egypt] would cooperate'".[15] Surprisingly, this warning fell on deaf ears. Aman concluded that the king had not told it anything it did not already know. "Eleven warnings of war were received by Israel during September from well placed sources. But [Mossad chief] Zvi Zamir continued to insist that war was not an Arab option. Not even Hussein's warnings succeeded in stirring his doubts".[16] He would later remark that "We simply didn't feel them capable [of War]"[17] Hussein I bin Talal, King of Jordan (Arabic: ‎ ; November 14, 1935 – February 7, 1999). ... Hafez al-Assad (Arabic: ) (October 6, 1930 – June 10, 2000) was president of Syria for three decades. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Tel-Aviv was founded on empty dunes north of the existing city of Jaffa. ... Golda Meir (‎, born Golda Mabovitz, May 3, 1898 - December 8, 1978), known as Golda Meyerson from 1917-1956, was one of the founders of the State of Israel. ... For the Haganah branch responsible for coordinating Jewish immigration into the British Mandate of Palestine, see Mossad Lealiyah Bet. ... Zvi Zamir (1925) was the Director of the Mossad from 1968 to 1974. ...


Finally, Zvi Zamir personally went to Europe to meet with the Source (the high-ranking Egyptian official), at midnight on October 5/6th. At that meeting, The Source informed him that a joint Syrian-Egyptian attack on Israel was imminent. It was this warning in particular, combined with the large number of other warnings, that finally goaded the Israeli high command into action. Just hours before the attack began, orders went out for a partial call-up of the Israeli reserves.[18] Ironically, calling up the reserves proved to be easier than usual, as almost all of the troops were at synagogue or at home for the holiday. The Military Reserves are an organization that is associated with the military but is not in active duty. ... A synagogue (from ancient Greek: , transliterated synagogē, assembly; ‎ beit knesset, house of assembly; Yiddish: or Template:Lanh-he beit tefila, house of prayer, shul; Ladino: , esnoga) is a Jewish house of worship. ...


Lack of an Israeli pre-emptive attack

Upon learning of the impending attack, Prime Minister of Israel Golda Meir made the controversial decision not to launch a pre-emptive strike.
Upon learning of the impending attack, Prime Minister of Israel Golda Meir made the controversial decision not to launch a pre-emptive strike.

The Israeli strategy was, for the most part, based on the precept that if war was imminent, Israel would launch a pre-emptive strike. It was assumed that Israel's intelligence services would give, at the worst case, about 48 hours notice prior to an Arab attack. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 455 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1822 × 2400 pixel, file size: 495 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Yom Kippur War... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 455 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1822 × 2400 pixel, file size: 495 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Yom Kippur War... The Prime Minister of Israel (Hebrew: ראש הממשלה, Rosh HaMemshala, lit. ... Golda Meir (‎, born Golda Mabovitz, May 3, 1898 - December 8, 1978), known as Golda Meyerson from 1917-1956, was one of the founders of the State of Israel. ... Preemptive war (or preemptive attack) is waged in an attempt to repel or defeat a perceived imminent offensive or invasion, or to gain a strategic advantage in an impending (allegedly unavoidable) war. ...


Golda Meir, Moshe Dayan, and Israeli general David Elazar met at 8:05 a.m. the morning of Yom Kippur, 6 hours before the war was to begin. Dayan began the meeting by arguing that war was not a certainty. Elazar then presented his argument, in favor of a pre-emptive attack against Syrian airfields at noon, Syrian missiles at 3:00 p.m., and Syrian ground forces at 5:00 p.m. "When the presentations were done, the prime minister hemmed uncertainly for a few moments but then came to a clear decision. There would be no preemptive strike. Israel might be needing American assistance soon and it was imperative that it not be blamed for starting the war. 'If we strike first, we won't get help from anybody', she said."[19] European nations, under threat of an Arab oil embargo and trade boycott, had stopped supplying Israel with munitions. As a result, Israel was totally dependent on the United States to resupply its army, and was particularly sensitive to anything that might endanger that relationship. After Meir had made the decision not to strike first, a message arrived from Henry Kissinger: "Don't preempt."[20] Golda Meir (‎, born Golda Mabovitz, May 3, 1898 - December 8, 1978), known as Golda Meyerson from 1917-1956, was one of the founders of the State of Israel. ... Moshe Dayan (‎, born 20 May 1915, died 16 October 1981) was an Israeli military leader and politician. ... David (Dado) Elazar (1925 - 1976), was the ninth Chief of Staff of the Israel Defense Forces, serving in that capacity from 1972 to 1974. ... At the height of the crisis in the United States, drivers of vehicles with odd numbered license plates were allowed to purchase gasoline only on odd-numbered days of the month, while drivers with even-numbers were limited to even-numbered days. ... It has been suggested that Commerce be merged into this article or section. ... Look up Boycott in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Munition is often defined as a synonyn for ammunition. ... Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923) is a German-born American diplomat, and 1973 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. ...


Some say that in retrospect the decision was a sound one. While Operation Nickel Grass, the American airlift of supplies during the war which began October 13, did not immediately replace Israel's losses in equipment, it did allow Israel to expend what it did have more freely.[21] Had they struck first, according to Henry Kissinger, they would not have received "so much as a nail". Operation Nickel Grass was a strategic airlift operation conducted by the United States to deliver weapons and supplies to Israel during the Yom Kippur War. ... Antonov An-124 loading a container for the Dutch military A large military cargo aircraft: the Boeing C-17A Globemaster III An airlift is the organized delivery of supplies primarily via aircraft. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Combat operations

In the Sinai

The Egyptian units would not advance beyond a shallow strip for fear of losing protection of their SAM missile batteries which were situated on the West bank of the canal. In the Six-Day War, the Israeli Air Force had pummelled the defenseless Arab armies. Egypt (and Syria) had heavily fortified their side of the cease-fire lines with SAM batteries provided by the Soviet Union, against which the Israeli Air Force had no effective countermeasures. Israel, which had invested much of its defense budget building the region's strongest air force, would see its air force rendered almost useless by the presence of the SAM batteries. Akash Missile Firing French Air Force Crotale battery Bendix Rim-8 Talos surface to air missile of the US Navy A surface-to-air missile (SAM) is a missile designed to be launched from the ground to destroy aircraft. ... RNAFs F-16, firing countermeasures (flares) during a solo display at Radom Air Show 2005 A countermeasure is a system (usually for a military application) designed to prevent sensor-based weapons from acquiring and/or destroying a target. ...


Anticipating a swift Israeli armoured counterattack, the Egyptians had armed their first wave with unprecedented numbers of man-portable anti-tank weapons—Rocket propelled grenades and the more advanced Sagger guided missiles, which proved devastating to the first Israeli armoured counter-attacks. One in every three Egyptian soldiers had an anti-tank weapon. "Never before had such intensive anti-tank fire been brought to bear on the battlefield."[22] In addition, the ramp on the Egyptian side of the canal had been increased to twice the height of the Israeli ramp, giving them an excellent vantage point from which to fire down on the Israelis, as well as any approaching tanks. The scale and effectiveness of the Egyptian strategy of deploying these anti-tank weapons coupled with the Israelis' inability to disrupt their use with close air support (due to the SAM shield) greatly contributed to Israeli losses early in the war. Alternative meanings: vehicle armour, Armor (novel) A hoplite wearing a helmet, a breastplate and greaves (and nothing else). ... Anti-tank, or simply AT, refers to any method of combating military armored fighting vehicles, notably tanks. ... An RPG-7 captured by the US Army RPG, or Rocket propelled grenade is a loose term describing hand-held, shoulder-launched anti-tank weapons capable of firing an unguided rocket equipped with an explosive warhead. ... AT-3A Sagger missile The AT-3 Sagger is the NATO reporting name for the 9M14 Malyutka (little or tiny baby) MCLOS wire-guided anti-tank missile of the Soviet Union. ... Alternative meanings: vehicle armour, Armor (novel) A hoplite wearing a helmet, a breastplate and greaves (and nothing else). ... An Apache attack helicopter provides close air support to United States Army soldiers patrolling the Tigris River southeast of Baghdad, Iraq during the Iraq War. ...

The 1973 War in the Sinai, October 6–15.
The 1973 War in the Sinai, October 6–15.

The Egyptian army put great effort into finding a quick and effective way of breaching the Israeli defenses. The Israelis had built large barricades made primarily from sand. Egyptian engineers initially used explosive charges to clear the obstacles, before a junior officer proposed using high pressure water cannons. The idea was tested and found to be a sound one, and several high pressure water cannons were imported from Germany. The Egyptian forces used these water-cannons loaded with water from the Suez Canal. The water-cannons effectively blasted away the barricades. Troops then crossed the Suez Canal in small personnel-carrier boats and inflatable rafts, in what became known as The Crossing, capturing or destroying all but one of the Bar-Lev forts. In a meticulously rehearsed operation, the Egyptian forces advanced approximately 15 km into the Sinai desert with the combined forces of two army corps. The Israeli battalion garrisoning the Bar-Lev forts was vastly outnumbered, and was overwhelmed. Only one fortification, code named Budapest (the northernmost Bar-Lev fort), would remain in Israeli control through the end of the war. Download high resolution version (1000x765, 63 KB)Sinai maps, from the US Military Academy History archives (copyright US government?) Source: Department of History, U.S. Military Academy File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (1000x765, 63 KB)Sinai maps, from the US Military Academy History archives (copyright US government?) Source: Department of History, U.S. Military Academy File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Crossing is a term used in Egypt to refer to the west to east crossing of the Suez Canal by the Egyptian army at the start of the Yom Kippur War in 1973. ... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 The Sinai Peninsula (in Arabic, Shibh Jazirat Sina) is a triangle-shaped peninsula lying between the Mediterranean Sea (to the north) and Red Sea (to the south). ...


The Egyptian forces consolidated their initial positions. On October 8, Shmuel Gonen, commander of the Israeli Southern front—who had only taken the position 3 months before at the retirement of Ariel Sharon—ordered a counterattack by Gabi Amir's brigade against entrenched Egyptian forces at Hizayon, where approaching tanks could be easily destroyed by Saggers fired from the Egyptian ramp. Despite Amir's reluctance, the attack proceeded, and the result was a disaster for the Israelis. Towards nightfall, a counterattack by the Egyptians was stopped by Ariel Sharon's 143rd Armoured Division—Sharon had been reinstated as a division commander at the outset of the war. The fighting subsided, with neither side wanting to mount a large attack against the other. is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Shmuel Gonen Shmuel Gonen (né Gorodish; 1930-30 September 1991) was Chief of the Southern Command of the Israel Defense Forces during the Yom Kippur War. ...   (Hebrew: , also known by his diminutive Arik אָרִיק) (born February 27, 1928) is a former Israeli politician and general. ... In military science a brigade is a military unit that is part of a division and includes regiments (where that level exists), or (in modern armies) is composed of several battalions (typically two to four) and directly attached supporting units. ...


Following the disastrous Israeli attack on the 8th, both sides adopted defensive postures and hoped for the other side to attack.[23] Elazar replaced Gonen, who had proven to be out of his depth, with Chaim Bar-Lev, brought out of retirement. Because it was considered dangerous to morale to replace the front commander during the middle of a battle, rather than being sacked, Gonen was made chief of staff to the newly appointed Bar-Lev. Chaim Kidoni Bar-Lev (November 16, 1924 - May 7, 1994) was a Jewish army officer during Israels pre-state and early statehood eras. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

The 1973 War in the Sinai, October 15–24.
The 1973 War in the Sinai, October 15–24.

After several days of waiting, Sadat, wanting to ease pressure on the Syrians, ordered his chief generals (Saad El Shazly and Ahmad Ismail Ali chief among them) to attack. General Saad El Shazly stated in his published memoires that he strongly and vocally opposed the attack, and told president Sadat that this would be a grave strategic error. Due to this sentiment, El Shazly was practically removed from the line of command. The Egyptian forces brought across their reserves and began their counterattack on 14 October. "The attack, the most massive since the initial Egyptian assault on Yom Kippur, was a total failure, the first major Egyptian reversal of the war. Instead of concentrating forces of maneuvering, except for the wadi thrust, they had expended them in head-on attack against the waiting Israeli brigades. Egyptian losses for the day were estimated at between 150 and 250 tanks."[24] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1165x894, 169 KB) Summary Sinai maps, from the US Military Academy History archives (copyright US government?) Source: Department of History, U.S. Military Academy URL: [1] Background information: Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Yom Kippur War... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1165x894, 169 KB) Summary Sinai maps, from the US Military Academy History archives (copyright US government?) Source: Department of History, U.S. Military Academy URL: [1] Background information: Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Yom Kippur War... Saad El Shazly was the Egyptian chief of staff during the Yom Kippur War. ... Ahmad Ismail Ali (Arabic: أحمد إسماعيل علي) (October 14, 1917 - December 26, 1974) was the Commander-in-Chief of Egypts army and minister of war during the Yom Kippur War. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Wadi alMujib, Jordan A wadi (Arabic: ) is traditionally a valley. ...

Israeli bridge on the Suez Canal.

The following day, October 15, the Israelis launched Operation Abiray-Lev ("Valiant" or "Stouthearted Men")—the counterattack against the Egyptians and crossing of the Suez Canal. The attack was a tremendous change of tactics for the Israelis, who had previously relied on air and tank support—support that had been decimated by the well-prepared Egyptian forces. Instead, the Israelis used infantry to infiltrate the positions of the Egyptian SAM and anti-tank batteries, which were unable to cope as well with forces on foot. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


A division led by Major General Ariel Sharon (almost certainly the 143rd Armoured Division) attacked the Egyptian line just north of Bitter Lake, in the vicinity of Ismailiya. The Israelis struck at a weak point in the Egyptian line, the "seam" between the Egyptian Second Army in the north and the Egyptian Third Army in the south. In some of the most brutal fighting of the war in and around the Chinese Farm (an irrigation project east of the canal and north of the crossing point), the Israelis opened a hole in the Egyptian line and reached the Suez Canal. A small force crossed the canal and created a bridgehead on the other side. For over 24 hours, troops were ferried across the canal in light inflatable boats, with no armor support of their own. They were well supplied with American-made M72 LAW rockets, negating the threat of Egyptian armor. Once the anti-aircraft and anti-tank defences of the Egyptians had been neutralized, the infantry once again was able to rely on overwhelming tank and air support.   (Hebrew: , also known by his diminutive Arik אָרִיק) (born February 27, 1928) is a former Israeli politician and general. ... The Great Bitter Lake from space For other places called Bitter Lake, see Bitter Lake. ... Ismaïlia (Arabic: الإسماعيلية) is the capital of the governorate of Al Ismailiyah, and one of the newest cities in Egypt. ... Combatants Egypt Israel Commanders Chief-of-Staff Gen. ... The M72 LAW (Light Anti-Tank Weapon, also referred to as the Light Anti-Armor Weapon or LAW) is a portable one-shot 66 mm anti-tank weapon, designed in the United States by Talley Defense Systems, produced by Nammo Raufoss AS in Norway. ...


Prior to the war, fearing an Israeli crossing of the canal, no Western nation would supply the Israelis with bridging equipment. They were able to purchase and refurbish obsolete modular pontoon bridging equipment from a French WWII scrap lot. The Israelis also constructed a rather sophisticated indigenous "roller bridge" but logistical delays involving heavy congestion on the roads leading to the crossing point delayed its arrival to the canal for several days. Deploying the pontoon bridge on the night of October 16/17, Avraham "Bren" Adan's 162nd Division crossed and raced south, intent on cutting off the Egyptian Third Army before it could retreat west back into Egypt. At the same time, it sent out raiding forces to destroy Egyptian SAM missile batteries east of the canal. By October 19 the Israelis managed to construct four separate bridges just north of the Great Bitter Lake under heavy Egyptian bombardment. By the end of the war the Israelis were well within Egypt, reaching a point 101 kilometers from its capital, Cairo. For the car body style, see Ponton (automobile). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Avraham (English transliteration: Abraham) Bren Adan was an Israeli army general who served in the military between 1947 - 1973. ... The Israel Defense Forces 162nd Armor Division, also known as the Ha-Plada/Steel Formation, is a regular-service armor division in the IDF. It is subordinate to the Central Regional Command. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Nickname: Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ...


On the Golan Heights

In the Golan Heights, the Syrians attacked the Israeli defenses of two brigades and eleven artillery batteries with five divisions and 188 batteries. At the onset of the battle, 180 Israeli tanks faced off against approximately 1,300 Syrian tanks.[25] Every Israeli tank deployed on the Golan Heights was engaged during the initial attacks. Syrian commandos dropped by helicopter also took the most important Israeli stronghold at Jabal al Shaikh (Mount Hermon), which had a variety of surveillance equipment. The Golan Heights (‎ Ramat HaGolan, Arabic: Habat al-ūlān) or Golan is a mountainous area in northeastern Israel[1] on the border of Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan. ... Symbol of the Polish 1st Legions Infantry Division in NATO code A division is a large military unit or formation usually consisting of around ten to twenty thousand soldiers. ... For other uses, see Commando (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Helicopter (disambiguation). ... Mount Hermon, viewed from Mount Bental Mount Hermon Panoramic, from Manara on the Naftali heights Mount Hermon Panoramic from Nimrod (Israel) Panoramic view from the Mountain Mount Hermon (top of photo) supplies the bulk of the Jordan Rivers water Mount Hermon (; Hebrew: , Har Hermon; Arabic: ‎, Jabal el-Shaiykh, Djabl...

Golan Heights campaign
Golan Heights campaign

Fighting in the Golan Heights was given priority by the Israeli High Command. The fighting in the Sinai was sufficiently far away that Israel was not immediately threatened; should the Golan Heights fall, the Syrians could easily advance into Israel proper. Reservists were directed to the Golan as quickly as possible. They were assigned to tanks and sent to the front as soon as they arrived at army depots, without waiting for the crews they trained with to arrive, without waiting for machine guns to be installed on their tanks, and without taking the time to calibrate their tank guns (a time-consuming process known as bore-sighting). Download high resolution version (1165x894, 213 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1165x894, 213 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Imagine you are standing upright on the ground. ...


As the Egyptians had in the Sinai, the Syrians on the Golan Heights took care to stay under cover of their SAM missile batteries. Also as in the Sinai, the Syrians made use of Soviet anti-tank weapons (which, because of the uneven terrain, were not as effective as in the flat Sinai desert).


The Syrians had expected it would take at least 24 hours for Israeli reserves to reach the front lines; in fact, Israeli reserve units began reaching the battle lines only fifteen hours after the war began.


By the end of the first day of battle, the Syrians (who at the start outnumbered the Israelis in the Golan 9 to 1) had achieved moderate success. Towards the end of the day, "A Syrian tank brigade passing through the Rafid Gap turned northwest up a little-used route known as the Tapline Road, which cut diagonally across the Golan. This roadway would prove one of the main strategic hinges of the battle. It led straight from the main Syrian breakthrough points to Nafah, which was not only the location of Israeli divisional headquarters but the most important crossroads on the Heights."[26] During the night, Lieutenant Zvika Greengold, who had just arrived to the battle unattached to any unit, fought them off with his single tank until help arrived. "For the next 20 hours, Zvika Force, as he came to be known on the radio net, fought running battles with Syrian tanks—sometimes alone, sometimes as part of a larger unit, changing tanks half a dozen times as they were knocked out. He was wounded and burned but stayed in action and repeatedly showed up at critical moments from an unexpected direction to change the course of a skirmish."[26] For his actions, Zvika became a national hero in Israel. The Trans-Arabian Pipeline Company (Tapline), was founded as a joint venture between the Standard Oil company of New Jersey (now Esso), Standard Oil of California (Chevron), The Texas Company (Texaco), and Socony-Vacuum Oil Company (Mobil), however, it eventually became a fully owned subsidiary of Aramco. ... Tank commander during the 1973 Yom Kippur War. ...


During over four days of fighting, the Israeli 7th Armoured Brigade in the north (commanded by Yanush Ben Gal) managed to hold the rocky hill line defending the northern flank of their headquarters in Nafah. For some as-yet-unexplained reason, the Syrians were close to conquering Nafah, yet they stopped the advance on Nafah's fences, letting Israel assemble a defensive line. The most reasonable explanation for this is that the Syrians had calculated estimated advances, and the commanders in the field didn't want to digress from the plan. To the south, however, the Barak Armored Brigade, bereft of any natural defenses, began to take heavy casualties. Brigade Commander Colonel Shoham was killed during the second day of fighting, along with his second in command and their Operations Officer (each in a separate tank), as the Syrians desperately tried to advance towards the Sea of Galilee and Nafah. At this point, the Brigade stopped functioning as a cohesive force, although the surviving tanks and crewmen continued fighting independently. The 7th Armored Brigade (Hebrew: Hativa Sheva) is Israel’s most famous armored brigade. ... A former Israeli General, he commanded the 7th Israeli Brigade during the Yom Kippur War in 1973, he oversaw the defence of Golan Heights under Syrian attack. ... The Barak Armored Brigade is today an Israeli tank brigade and one of the regular armored brigades of the Northern Command. ... The Sea of Galilee or Lake Kinneret (Hebrew ים כנרת), is Israels largest freshwater lake. ...


The tide in the Golan began to turn as the arriving Israeli reserve forces were able to contain and, starting on 8 October, push back the Syrian offensive. The tiny Golan Heights were too small to act as an effective territorial buffer, unlike the Sinai Peninsula in the south, but it proved to be a strategic geographical stronghold and was a crucial key in preventing the Syrian army from bombarding the cities below. By Wednesday, October 10, the last Syrian unit in the Central sector had been pushed back across the Purple Line, that is, the pre-war border.[27] is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


A decision now had to be made—whether to stop at the 1967 border, or to continue into Syrian territory. Israeli High Command spent the entire October 10 debating this well into the night. Some favored disengagement, which would allow soldiers to be redeployed to the Sinai (Shmuel Gonen's defeat at Hizayon in the Sinai had happened two days earlier). Others favored continuing the attack into Syria, towards Damascus, which would knock Syria out of the war; it would also restore Israel's image as the supreme military power in the Middle East and would give them a valuable bargaining chip once the war ended. Others countered that Syria had strong defenses—antitank ditches, minefields, and strongpoints—and that it would be better to fight from defensive positions in the Golan Heights (rather than the flat terrain of Syria) in the event of another war with Syria. However, Prime Minister Meir realized the most crucial point of the whole debate—"It would take four days to shift a division to the Sinai. If the war ended during this period, the war would end with a territorial loss for Israel in the Sinai and no gain in the north—an unmitigated defeat. This was a political matter and her decision was unmitigating—to cross the purple line… The attack would be launched tomorrow, Thursday, October 11."[28] Nickname: The Seal of the Damascus Governorate Syria Syria Governorates Damascus Governorate Government  - Governor Bishr Al Sabban Area  - City 573 km²  (221. ... “Minefield” redirects here. ...


From 11 October to 14 October, the Israeli forces pushed into Syria, conquering a further twenty-square-mile box of territory in the Bashan. From there they were able to shell the outskirts of Damascus, only 40 km away, using heavy artillery. is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Bashan (meaning light soil) is a biblical place first mentioned in Genesis 14:5, where it is said that Chedorlaomer and his confederates smote the Rephaim in Ashteroth, where Og the king of Bashan had his residence. ...


"As Arab position on the battlefields deteriorated, pressure mounted on King Hussein to send his Army into action. He found a way to meet these demands without opening his kingdom to Israeli air attack. Instead of attacking Israel from their common border, he sent an expeditionary force into Syria. He let Israel know of his intentions, through US intermediaries, in the hope that it [Israel] would accept that this was not a casus belli justifying an attack into Jordan… Dayan declined to offer any such assurance, but Israel had no intention of opening another front."[29] Expeditionary Force is a generic name sometimes applied to a military force dispatched to fight in a foreign country. ... Casus belli is a modern Latin language expression meaning the justification for acts of war. ...


Iraq also sent an expeditionary force to the Golan, consisting of some 30,000 men, 500 tanks, and 700 APCs.[30] The Iraqi divisions were actually a strategic surprise for the IDF, which expected a 24-hour-plus advance intelligence of such moves. This turned into an operational surprise, as the Iraqis attacked the exposed southern flank of the advancing Israeli armor, forcing its advance units to retreat a few kilometers, in order to prevent encirclement. Armoured personnel carriers (APCs) are armoured fighting vehicles developed to transport infantry on the battlefield. ...


Combined Syrian, and Iraqi counterattacks prevented any further Israeli gains. However, they were also unable to push the Israelis back from the Bashan salient. In military terms, a salient is a battlefield feature that projects into enemy territory. ...


On 22 October, the Golani Brigade and Sayeret Matkal commandos recaptured the outpost on Mount Hermon, after sustaining very heavy casualties from entrenched Syrian snipers strategically positioned on the mountain. An attack two weeks before had cost 25 dead and 67 wounded, while this second attack cost an additional 55 dead and 79 wounded.[31] An Israeli D9 bulldozer with Israeli infantry breached a way to the peak, preventing the peak from falling into Syrian hands after the war. A paratrooper brigade took the corresponding Syrian outposts on the mountain. is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Golani Brigade חטיבת גולני (aka. ... Sayeret Matkal (Hebrew: סיירת מטכל, translation: General Staff Reconnaissance unit) is the elite special forces unit of the Israeli Defence Force (IDF). ... For other uses, see Sniper (disambiguation). ... The Caterpillar D9 is a large track-type tractor (commonly referred to as a bulldozer) with caterpillar tracks designed and manufactured by Caterpillar Tractor Company. ... An American USMC Paratrooper using a MC1-B series parachute Paratroopers are soldiers trained in parachuting and generally operate as part of an airborne force. ...


At sea

Diagram of the Battle of Latakia
Diagram of the Battle of Latakia

The Battle of Latakia, a revolutionary naval battle between the Syrians and the Israelis, took place on October 7, the second day of the war, resulting in a resounding Israeli victory that proved the potency of small, fast missile boats equipped with advanced ECM packages. This battle was the world's first battle between missile boats equipped with surface-to-surface missiles. The battle also established the Israeli Navy, long derided as the "black sheep" of the Israeli services, as a formidable and effective force in its own right. Following this and other smaller naval battles, the Syrian and Egyptian navies stayed at their Mediterranean Sea ports throughout most of the war, enabling the Mediterranean sea lanes to Israel to remain open. Image File history File links BattleLatakia_en. ... Image File history File links BattleLatakia_en. ... Combatants Israel Syria Commanders Michael Barkai unknown Strength 5 ships¹: 3 SAAR 4 class 2 SAAR 3 class 1 torpedo boat 1 minesweeper 2 Komar-class missile boats 1 Osa-class missile boat Casualties unknown All five ships ¹although source could also be interpreted to refer to 12 ships The... Combatants Israel Syria Commanders Michael Barkai unknown Strength 5 ships¹: 3 SAAR 4 class 2 SAAR 3 class 1 torpedo boat 1 minesweeper 2 Komar-class missile boats 1 Osa-class missile boat Casualties unknown All five ships ¹although source could also be interpreted to refer to 12 ships The... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Inspecting an AN/ALQ-184 Electronic Attack Pod Electronic countermeasures (ECM) are a subsection of electronic warfare which includes any sort of electrical or electronic device designed to fool radar, sonar, or other detection systems like IR (infrared) and Laser. ... Missile Boat, see Missile Boat (disambiguation) Missile boat FNS Hamina of the Finnish Navy. ... A surface-to-surface missile (SSM) is a guided projectile launched from a hand-held, vehicle mounted, trailer mounted or fixed installation or from a ship. ... The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) (Hebrew: צבא ההגנה לישראל Tsva Ha-Haganah Le-Yisrael ([Army] Force [for] the Defense of Israel), often abbreviated צהל Tsahal, alternative English spelling Tzahal, is the name of Israels armed forces... Black sheep is a derogatory colloquialism in the English language meaning an outsider or one who is different in a way which others disapprove of. ... Composite satellite image of the Mediterranean Sea. ... A sea lane is regularly used route for ocean-going vessels. ...


However, the Israeli navy was less successful in breaking the Egyptian Navy's blockade of the Red Sea for Israeli or Israel-bound shipping, thus hampering Israel's oil resupply via the port of Eilat. Israel did not possess enough missile boats in Red Sea ports to enable breaking the blockade, a fact it regretted in hindsight. Although the Egyptian Navy was the smallest branch of the military, it is large by Middle Eastern standards. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... Hebrew אילת Founded in 1951 Government City (from 1959) District South Population 55,000 (2006) Jurisdiction 80,000 dunams (80 km²) Mayor Meir Yitzhak Halevi North Beach, Eilat, from southwest. ...


Several other times during the war, the Israeli navy mounted small assault raids on Egyptian ports. Both Fast Attack Craft and Shayetet 13 naval commandos were active in these assaults. Their purpose was to destroy boats that were to be used by the Egyptians to ferry their own commandos behind Israeli lines. The overall effect of these raids on the war was relatively minor. S71 Gepard, Gepard class fast attack craft A Fast Attack Craft (FAC) (German: Schnellboot) is a small (150 to 400 tonnes), fast (up to ca. ... Shayetet 13 ( שייטת 13 ) is the Israeli naval commando elite special forces unit. ... For other uses, see Commando (disambiguation). ...


Participation by other states

Besides Egypt, Jordan, Syria, and Iraq, several other Arab nations were involved in this war, providing additional weapons and financing. The amount of support is uncertain.


Saudi Arabia and Kuwait gave financial aid and sent some token forces to join in the battle. Morocco sent three brigades to the front lines; the Palestinians sent troops as well.[32] Pakistan sent sixteen pilots. The Palestinian flag, adopted in 1948, is a widely recognized modern symbol of the Palestinian people. ...


From 1971 to 1973, Muammar al-Qaddafi of Libya sent Mirage fighters and gave Egypt around $1 billion to arm for war. Algeria sent squadrons of fighters and bombers, armored brigades, and dozens of tanks. Tunisia sent over 1,000 soldiers, who worked with Egyptian forces in the Nile delta, and Sudan sent 3,500 soldiers. Muammar Abu Minyar al-Qaddafi 1 — pronounced Gaddafi — (Arabic: معمر القذافي ) (born c. ... Former South African Air Force Mirage IIICZ The Dassault Mirage III is a supersonic fighter aircraft designed in France during the 1950s, and manufactured both in France and a number of other countries. ... NASA satellite photograph of the Nile Delta (shown in false colour) The Nile Delta (Arabic:دلتا النيل) is the delta formed in Northern Egypt where the Nile River spreads out and drains into the Mediterranean Sea. ...


Uganda radio reported that Idi Amin sent Ugandan soldiers to fight against Israel. Cuba also sent approximately 1,500 troops including tank and helicopter crews who reportedly also engaged in combat operations against the IDF.[33] Idi Amin Dada (mid-1920s[1]–16 August 2003) was an army officer and president of Uganda. ...


Weapons

The Arab armies were equipped with predominantly Soviet-made weapons while Israel's armaments were mostly Western-made. The Arab armies' T-62s were equipped with night vision equipment, which the Israeli tanks lacked, giving them an added advantage on the battlefield during the fighting that took part at night. The older IS-3 'Stalin' tank, mounting a powerful 122 mm main gun, still proved its use on the battlefield, giving long-range anti-tank support to the Egyptian Army's T55/T62 tanks.

Type Arab armies IDF
Tanks T-34/85, IS-3, T-10, T-54, T-55, T-62, and PT-76, as well as 100's of SU-100/122 (WWII vintage) Self propelled antitank guns. Super Sherman, M48 Patton, M60 Patton, Centurion, AMX 13, also about 200 of T-54, T-55 captured during the Six-Day War, and later upgraded with British 105 mm L7 gun.
APCs/IFVs BTR-40, BTR-152, BTR-50, BTR-60 APC's & BMP 1 IFV's M2/M3 Half-track, M113
Artillery 2A18, M1937 Howitzer, BM-21 M101 howitzer, M114 howitzer, M109, M110
Aircraft MiG-21, MiG-19, MiG-17, Su-7B, Tu-16, Il-28, Il-18, Il-14, An-12 A-4 Skyhawk, F-4 Phantom II, Dassault Mirage III, Dassault Mystère IV, IAI Nesher, Sud Aviation Vautour
Helicopters Mi-6, Mi-8 Super Frelon, CH-53, S-58, AB-205, MD 500 Defender
AAW SA-6 Gainful, SA-3 Goa, SA-2 Guideline, ZSU-23-4 MIM-23 Hawk, MIM-72/M48 Chaparral, M163 VADS
Small Arms Carl Gustav M/45, AK-47, RPK, RPD, DShK UZI, FN FAL, M16, FN MAG, M2 Browning

The T-34 is a Soviet medium tank first produced in 1940, at the Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant. ... The Iosef Stalin tank, named after Joseph Stalin, was a heavy tank developed by the Soviet Union during World War II. It is sometimes transliterated Iosif Stalin, from the Russian, Иосиф Сталин. The tanks in the series are also sometimes called... The T-10 was a Soviet heavy tank of the Cold War, the final development of the KV and IS tank series. ... The T-55 and T-54 main battle tanks were the Soviet Unions replacements for the World War II era T-34 tank. ... The T-54 and T-55 tank series was the Soviet Unions front-line main battle tank from 1947 until 1962, and remains in service throughout the world to this day, especially by former client states of the Soviet Union. ... The T-62 Soviet main battle tank is a further development of the T-55. ... The PT-76 is a Soviet amphibious tank which was introduced in early 1950s and soon became the standard reconnaissance tank of the Soviet Army and the other Warsaw Pact armies. ... The SU-100 was a Soviet self-propelled gun used during World War II. // History The SU-100 was developed as an improvement to the SU-85, with a more powerful gun. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into ISU-152. ... Sherman M-50 Cummins. ... The M48 Patton was one of the U.S armys principal main battle tanks of the Cold War, with models in service from the early 1950s to the 1990s. ... For other uses, see M60. ... The Centurion was the primary British Main Battle Tank of the immediate post-war era, and considered by many to be one of the best British tank designs of all time. ... The AMX-13 was a French light tank produced from 1953 to 1985. ... Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ... The Royal Ordnance L7 is the basic model of Britains most successful tank gun. ... East German BRDMs on parade during celebrations of the 40th anniversary of East Germany in 1989 Armoured personnel carriers (APCs) are light armoured fighting vehicles for the transport of infantry. ... An M2 Bradley Infantry fighting vehicle. ... The BTR-40 armored personnel carrier was developed in 1950 by a team headed by V. A. Dedkov and was produced from 1950 to 1958 at Gorkovsky Avtomobilny Zavod. ... The BTR-152 was the Soviet armored personnel carrier. ... The BTR-50 was a Soviet amphibious armoured personnel carrier based on the PT-76 tank chassis. ... The BTR-60 is the first vehicle in a series of Soviet eight-wheeled armoured personnel carriers. ... The BMP-1 is a Soviet infantry fighting vehicle which was first introduced in the early 1960s. ... The M2 Half Track Car was an armoured vehicle used by the United States during World War II. // History The half-track design had been evaluated by the US Ordance department using Citreon-Kegresse vehicles. ... The Carrier, Personnel Half-track M3 was an armoured vehicle used by the United States and its allies during World War II and the Cold War. ... The M113 is an armored personnel carrier family of vehicles in use with the US military and many other nations. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... The ML-20, was a Soviet gun-howitzer, officially designated 152,4 mm gun-howitzer model 1937. ... BM-21 battery. ... The 105 mm Howitzer M2A1(M101) was the standard medium field howitzer for the U.S. in World War II, seeing action in both European and Pacific theatres. ... The M114 howitzer is a towed 155 mm artillery piece produced by United States. ... The M109 is an American-made self-propelled 155 mm howitzer, first introduced in the early 1960s. ... The 8 inch (203 mm) Self-Propelled Howitzer M110 was the largest available self-propelled howitzer in the United States Armys inventory. ... Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21 (NATO reporting name Fishbed) is a fighter aircraft, originally built by the Mikoyan and Gurevich Design Bureau in the Soviet Union. ... The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-19 (NATO reporting name Farmer) is a third-generation Soviet, single-seater jet engined fighter aircraft. ... MiG-17 at the Central Texas Airshow, USA, May 2003. ... The Sukhoi Su-7 (NATO designation Fitter) was a swept wing, turbojet-powered fighter-bomber used by the Soviet Union and its allies. ... The Tupolev Tu-16 (NATO codename: Badger) was a twin-engine jet bomber used by the Soviet Union. ... The Ilyushin Il-28 is a jet bomber aircraft that was originally manufactured for the Soviet Air Force and was the USSRs first such aircraft to enter large-scale production. ... Two Soviet aircraft have shared the designation Ilyushin Il-18. ... The Ilyushin Il-14 (NATO reporting name Crate) was a Soviet commercial and military personnel/cargo transport aircraft that first flew in 1950. ... Antonov An-12 landing The Antonov An-12 (NATO reporting name: Cub) is a four-engined turboprop transport aircraft. ... The A-4 Skyhawk was an attack aircraft originally designed to operate from United States Navy aircraft carriers. ... “F-4” redirects here. ... The Dassault Mirage III is a supersonic fighter aircraft designed in France by Dassault Aviation during the 1950s, and manufactured both in France and a number of other countries. ... Dassault Mystère IVA No. ... The IAI Nesher is an Israeli-built military aircraft based on the French Mirage 5 Dassault had developed the Mirage 5 at the request of the Israelis. ... The Sud Aviation (SNCASO) S.O. 4050 Vautour II was a French bomber, interceptor, and attack aircraft used by the Armée de lAir (AdA). ... The Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), more commonly known as MI6 (originally Military Intelligence [section] 6), or Her Majestys Secret Service or just the Secret Service, is the British external security agency. ... Russian Mi-8 Hip The Mil Mi-8 (NATO reporting name Hip) is a large transport helicopter that can also act as a gunship. ... Super Frelon The Super Frelon was a heavy transport helicopter produced by Aérospatiale of France, now out of production. ... The Sikorsky S-65 is a heavy transport helicopter originally developed for use by the United States Marine Corps, who designated it the CH_53 Sea Stallion. ... The Sikorsky H-34 Choctaw (also known as Sikorsky S-58) was a helicopter originally designed for the US Navy for service in the ASW role. ... The Agusta-Bell 205 is a version of the Bell 205 (UH-1 Iroquois Huey) utility helicopter built under license by Elicotteri Agusta S.p. ... The Hughes H-6 is a family of light utility civilian and assault helicopters of the United States Army. ... American troops man an anti-aircraft gun near the Algerian coastline in 1943 Anti-aircraft warfare, or air defense, is any method of engaging military aircraft in combat from the ground. ... 2P25 TEL with missiles erected. ... S-125 missiles on quadruple launcher, displayed in Finnish Anti-aircraft museum (Ilmatorjuntamuseo) in Tuusula. ... V-750 missile on camouflaged launcher. ... The ZSU-23-4 Shilka is a lightly armoured, self-propelled, radar guided anti-aircraft weapon system (SPAAG). ... The Raytheon MIM-23 HAWK is an American medium range surface-to-air missile. ... A Chaparral missile launcher This article is about the missile system. ... The Vulcan Air Defense System (VADS) is a self-propelled automatic anti-aircraft gun used by the United States military. ... This article is about the submachinegun. ... Avtomat Kalashnikova model 1947 g. ... The RPK (Ruchnoy pulemyot Kalashnikova, Russian: Ручной пулемёт Калашникова) is the light machine gun that replaced the RPD in the role as squad automatic weapon for Soviet infantry. ... The RPD is a belt-fed machine gun formerly manufactured in the Soviet Union and in China. ... The DShK (ДШК, for Дегтярёва Шпагина Крупнокалиберный, Degtyarev-Shpagin Large Calibre) is a Soviet heavy anti-aircraft machine gun firing 12. ... The Uzi is a compact, boxy, light-weight submachine gun. ... The Fusil Automatique Leger, or Light Automatic Rifle (LAR). ... M16 (more formally United States Rifle, Caliber 5. ... The FN MAG (or MAG-58) is a machine gun manufactured by Fabrique Nationale (FN), Belgium. ... It has been suggested that K6 HMG be merged into this article or section. ...

The cease-fire and immediate aftermath

Egypt's trapped Third Army

When the cease fire came into effect, Israel had lost territory on the east side of the Suez Canal to Egypt (shown in red) but gained territory west of the canal and in the Golan Heights (shown in green).
When the cease fire came into effect, Israel had lost territory on the east side of the Suez Canal to Egypt (shown in red) but gained territory west of the canal and in the Golan Heights (shown in green).

The Security Council of the United Nations passed (14-0) Resolution 338 calling for a cease-fire, largely negotiated between the U.S. and Soviet Union, on October 22. It called upon "all parties to the present fighting" to "terminate all military activity immediately." It came into effect 12 hours later at 6:52 p.m. Israeli time.[34] Because it went into effect after darkness, it was impossible for satellite surveillance to determine where the front lines were when the fighting was supposed to stop.[35] Prior to the ceasefire taking effect, U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger had told Israeli Prime Minister Golda Meir, "You won't get violent protests from Washington if something happens during the night, while I'm flying. Nothing can happen in Washington until noon tomorrow."[36] Virtually giving Israel a green light to violate the cease-fire. Image File history File links Yom_Kippur_War_map. ... Image File history File links Yom_Kippur_War_map. ... The three-line United Nations Security Council Resolution 338 (S/RES/338), approved on October 22, 1973, called for a cease fire in the Yom Kipur War in accordance with a joint proposal by the United States and the Soviet Union. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Satellite (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Surveillance (disambiguation). ...


When the cease-fire began, the Israeli forces were just a few hundred meters short of their goal—the last road linking Cairo and Suez. During the night, David Elazar requested permission to resume the drive south, and Moshe Dayan approved.[37] The Israeli troops finished the drive south, captured the road, and trapped the Egyptian Third Army east of the Suez Canal. Nickname: Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ... Northermost part of Gulf of Suez with town Suez on map of 1856. ...


During the afternoon, two messages from Brezhnev to Nixon were sent through the hotline. Brezhnev demanded that "the most decisive measures be taken without delay" by Moscow and Washington to stop the "flagrant" Israeli violations. Again, Brezhnev urged new action at the Security Council. Brezhnev's language—"why this treachery was allowed by Israel is more obvious to you"—clearly suggested that he suspected that Washington was behind Israel's military moves. Through the CIA back-channel the Egyptians also got in touch with the White House expressing their worries, with Sadat for the first time directly asking Nixon to "intervene effectively even if that necessitates the use of force." Sadat spoke of U.S.–Soviet "guarantees" of the cease-fire which was more likely based on Soviet interpretations than on Kissinger's understanding of the Moscow talks. Replying the same day, Nixon told Sadat that Washington had only "guaranteed" efforts to reach a settlement, but that he had directed Kissinger to "make urgent representations" to Israel to comply with the cease-fire.[38]


The morning of 24 October, Anatoly Dobrynin read to Kissinger an angry letter from Brezhnev arguing that the Israelis were again defying the Security Council by "fiercely attacking … the Egyptian port of Adabei" and fighting Egyptian forces on the Suez Canal's east bank. Expressing confidence in Nixon's power to "influence Israel" and put an end to "provocative behavior," Brezhnev asked for information on U.S. steps to secure Tel Aviv's "strict and immediate compliance" with the UN. Adding to the pressure was a private message from Sadat, followed by a public statement, calling for U.S. and Soviet troops or observers to help implement the cease-fire.[39] Anatoly Dobrynin was Soviet Ambassador to the United States, serving from 1962 to 1986 and most notably during the Cuban Missile Crisis; he was appointed by Nikita Khrushchev. ...


Nuclear alert

In the meantime, Brezhnev sent Nixon a letter in the middle of the night of October 23–24. In that letter, Brezhnev proposed that American and Soviet contingents be dispatched to ensure both sides honor the cease-fire. He also threatened that "I will say it straight that if you find it impossible to act jointly with us in this matter, we should be faced with the necessity urgently to consider taking appropriate steps unilaterally. We cannot allow arbitrariness on the part of Israel."[40] In short, the Soviets were threatening to intervene in the war on Egypt's side. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


The Soviets placed seven airborne divisions on alert and airlift was marshalled to transport them to the Middle East. An airborne command post was set up in the southern Soviet Union. Several air force units were also alerted. "Reports also indicated that at least one of the divisions and a squadron of transport planes had been moved from the Soviet Union to an airbase in Yugoslavia".[41] The Soviets also deployed seven amphibious warfare craft with some 40,000 naval infantry in the Mediterranean.


The message arrived after Nixon had gone to bed. Kissinger immediately called a meeting of senior officials, including Defense Secretary James Schlesinger, CIA Director William Colby, and White House Chief of Staff Alexander Haig. The Watergate scandal had reached its apex, and Nixon was so agitated and discomposed that they decided to handle the matter without him: The United States Secretary of Defense (SECDEF) is the head of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), concerned with the armed services and military matters. ... James Rodney Schlesinger (born 15 February 1929) was United States Secretary of Defense from 1973 to 1974 under presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford. ... Director of the Central Intelligence Agency (D/CIA) serves as the head of the Central Intelligence Agency, which is part of the United States Intelligence Community. ... William Egan Colby (January 4, 1920 – April 27, 1996) became Director of Central Intelligence on September 4, 1973, after James R. Schlesinger. ... Joshua B. Bolten, the current White House Chief of Staff. ... For other persons named Alexander Haig, see Alexander Haig (disambiguation). ... “Watergate” redirects here. ...

"When Kissinger asked Haig whether [Nixon] should be wakened, the White House chief of staff replied firmly 'No.' Haig clearly shared Kissinger's feelings that Nixon was in no shape to make weighty decisions."[42]

The meeting produced a conciliatory response, which was sent (in Nixon's name) to Brezhnev. At the same time, it was decided to increase the Defense Condition (DEFCON) from four to three. Lastly, they approved a message to Sadat (again, in Nixon's name) asking him to drop his request for Soviet assistance, and threatening that if the Soviets were to intervene, so would the United States.[43] Defense Condition is a measure of the activation and readiness level of the United States armed forces. ...


The Soviets quickly detected the increased American defense condition, and were astonished and bewildered at the response. "Who could have imagined the Americans would be so easily frightened," said Nikolai Podgorny. "It is not reasonable to become engaged in a war with the United States because of Egypt and Syria," said Premier Alexei Kosygin, while KGB chief Yuri Andropov added that "We shall not unleash the Third World War."[44] In the end, the Soviets reconciled themselves to an Arab defeat. The letter from the American cabinet arrived during the meeting. Brezhnev decided that the Americans were too nervous, and that the best course of action would be to wait to reply.[45] The next morning, the Egyptians agreed to the American suggestion, and dropped their request for assistance from the Soviets, bringing the crisis to an end. Nikolay Viktorovich Podgorny (Никола́й Ви́кторович Подго́рный) (February 18, 1903–January 12, 1983) was a politician and President of the USSR from 1965 to 1977. ... Aleksey Nikolayevich Kosygin (Алексе́й Никола́евич Косы́гин) (1904 - December 18, 1980) was a politician and administrator in the Soviet Union. ... Andropov, then the LKSM KFSSR First Secretary, speaks at the May 9, 1945, victory celebrations Yuri Vladimirovich Andropov (Russian: , Jurij Vladimirovič Andropov) (June 15 [O.S. June 2] 1914 – February 9, 1984) was a Soviet politician and General Secretary of the CPSU from November 12, 1982 until his death just... A nuclear holocaust is often associated with World War III For other uses, see World War III (disambiguation). ...


Northern front de-escalation

On the northern front, the Syrians had been preparing for a massive counter-attack, scheduled for October 23. In addition to Syria's five divisions, Iraq had supplied two, and there were smaller complements of troops from other Arab countries, including Jordan. The Soviets had replaced most of the losses Syria's tank forces had suffered during the first weeks of the war. is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Symbol of the Polish 1st Legions Infantry Division in NATO code A division is a large military unit or formation usually consisting of around ten to twenty thousand soldiers. ...


However, the day before the offensive was to begin, the United Nations imposed its cease-fire (following the acquiescence of both Israel and Egypt). "The acceptance by Egypt of the cease-fire on Monday [October 22] created a major dilemma for Assad. The cease-fire did not bind him, but its implications could not be ignored. Some on the Syrian General Staff favored going ahead with the attack, arguing that if it did so Egypt would feel obliged to continue fighting as well… Others, however, argued that continuation of the war would legitimize Israel's efforts to destroy the Egyptian Third Army. In that case, Egypt would not come to Syria's assistance when Israel turned its full might northward, destroying Syria's infrastructure and perhaps attacking Damascus"[46] Nickname: The Seal of the Damascus Governorate Syria Syria Governorates Damascus Governorate Government  - Governor Bishr Al Sabban Area  - City 573 km²  (221. ...


Ultimately, Assad decided to call off the offensive, and on October 23, Syria announced it had accepted the cease-fire, and the Iraqi government ordered its forces home. is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Post-cease-fire negotiations

On October 24, the UNSC passed Resolution 339, serving as a renewed call for all parties to adhere to the cease fire terms established in Resolution 338. Organized fighting on all fronts ended by October 26. The cease-fire did not end the sporadic clashes along the cease-fire lines, nor did it dissipate military tensions. Egypt's Third Army, cut off and without any means of resupply, was effectively a hostage to the Israelis. is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 339 (S/RES/339) was adopted on 23 October 1973 in order to bring a cease fire in the Yom Kippur War where Resolution 338 two days before had failed after Israeli forces broke the terms of the cease fire and made substantial military gains. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Israel received Kissinger's threat to support a UN withdrawal resolution, but before they could respond, Egyptian national security advisor Hafez Ismail sent Kissinger a stunning message—Egypt was willing to enter into direct talks with the Israelis, provided that the Israelis agree to allow nonmilitary supplies to reach their army and agree to a complete cease-fire.


The talks took place on October 28, between Israeli Major General Aharon Yariv and Egyptian Major General Muhammad al-Ghani al-Gamasy. Ultimately, Kissinger brought the proposal to Sadat, who agreed almost without debate. United Nations checkpoints were brought in to replace Israeli checkpoints, nonmilitary supplies were allowed to pass, and prisoners-of-war were to be exchanged. A summit in Geneva followed, and ultimately, an armistice agreement was worked out. On January 18, Israel signed a pullback agreement to the east side of the canal, and the last of their troops withdrew from the west side of the canal on March 5, 1974.[47] is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Aharon Yariv (December 20, 1920 in Moscow, USSR - May 7, 1994) was a member of the Israeli Knesset and a major-general in the Israeli Defense Forces. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... Geneva (pronunciation //; French: Genève //, German:   //, Italian: Ginevra //, Romansh: Genevra) is the second most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich), and is the most populous city of Romandy (the French-speaking part of Switzerland). ... A white flag is traditionally used to represent a truce. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the day. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ...


On the Syrian front, Shuttle diplomacy by Henry Kissinger eventually produced a disengagement agreement on May 31, 1974, based on exchange of prisoners-of-war, Israeli withdrawal to the Purple Line and the establishment of a UN buffer zone. The agreement ended the skirmishes and exchanges of artillery fire that had occurred frequently along the Israeli-Syrian cease-fire line. The UN Disengagement and Observer Force (UNDOF) was established as a peacekeeping force in the Golan. In diplomacy and international relations, shuttle diplomacy is the use of a third party to serve as an intermediary or mediator between two parties who do not talk directly. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... United Nations Disengagement Observer Force UNDOF was established by the United Nations by the Agreement on Disengagement between Israeli and Syrian Forces on the Golan Heights signed on May 31, 1974. ...


Long-term effects of the war

The peace discussion at the end of the war was the first time that Arab and Israeli officials met for direct public discussions since the aftermath of the 1948 war.


On a tactical level, the end of the war saw Israel with territorial gains in the Golan heights and the encirclement of the Egyptian third army. Some believe the cease fire prevented Israel from landing its harshest blow, as a USMC report asserts: "They were now in position to threaten the rear administrative and supply areas of the entire Egyptian Army. Largely due to the efforts of the Soviet Union, which was fearful of the possibility of a serious Egyptian defeat, the U.N. Security Council imposed a cease-fire effective 22 October."[48] The Golan Heights (‎ Ramat HaGolan, Arabic: Habat al-ūlān) or Golan is a mountainous area in northeastern Israel[1] on the border of Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan. ... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States military responsible for providing power projection from the sea,[1] utilizing the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces. ...


The report also argues that the Arab side succeeded in surprising Israeli and worldwide intelligence agencies both strategically and tactically: "From a purely military point of view, the first and most important Arab success was the strategic and tactical surprise achieved. While this was aided to no small degree by mistakes made by Israeli Intelligence and the political and military leadership in Israel, the bulk of the credit must go to the highly sophisticated deception plan mounted by the Egyptians. They succeeded in convincing the Israeli Command that the intensive military activity to the west of the Canal during the summer and autumn of 1973 was nothing more than a series of training operations and maneuvers. This deception must be marked as one of the outstanding plans of deception mounted in the course of military history. The plan was successful not only as far as Israeli intelligence was concerned, but also with world-wide intelligence agencies."


For the Arab states (and Egypt in particular), the psychological trauma of their defeat in the Six-Day War had been healed. In many ways, it allowed them to negotiate with the Israelis as equals. However, given that the war had started about as well as the Arab leaders could have wanted, at the end they had made only limited territorial gains in the Sinai front, while Israel gained more territory on the Golan Heights than it held before the war; also given the fact that Israel managed to gain a foothold on African soil west of the canal, the war helped convince many in the Arab World that Israel could not be defeated militarily, thereby strengthening peace movements. The war effectively ended the old Arab ambition of destroying Israel by force.[49] A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


The war had a stunning effect on the population in Israel. Following their victory in the Six-Day War, the Israeli military had become complacent. The shock and sudden defeats that occurred at the beginning of the war sent a terrible psychological blow to the Israelis, who had thought they had military supremacy in the region.[50] However, in time, they began to realize what an astounding, almost unprecedented, turnaround they had achieved: "Reeling from a surprise attack on two fronts with the bulk of its army still unmobilized, and confronted by staggering new battlefield realities, Israel's situation was one that could readily bring strong nations to their knees. Yet, within days, it had regained its footing and within less than two weeks it was threatening both enemy capitals, an achievement having few historical parallels."[51] In Israel, however, the casualty rate was high. Per capita, Israel suffered three times as many casualties in 3 weeks of fighting as the United States did during almost a decade of fighting in Vietnam.[52] Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000...


In response to U.S. support of Israel, the Arab members of OPEC, led by Saudi Arabia, decided to reduce oil production by 5% per month on October 17. On October 19, President Nixon authorized a major allocation of arms supplies and $2.2 billion in appropriations for Israel. In response, Saudi Arabia declared an embargo against the United States, later joined by other oil exporters and extended against the Netherlands and other states, causing the 1973 energy crisis.[53] Not to be confused with APEC. OPEC Logo The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is an international cartel[1][2] made up of Iraq, Indonesia, Iran, Kuwait, Libya, Angola, Algeria, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Venezuela. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... (Redirected from 1973 energy crisis) United States, drivers of vehicles with odd numbered license plates were allowed to purchase gasoline only on odd-numbered days of the month, while drivers with even-numbers were limited to even-numbered days. ...


The initial success greatly increased Sadat's popularity, giving him much firmer control of the Egyptian state and the opportunity to initiate many of the reforms he felt were necessary. In later years this would fade, and in the destructive anti-government food riot of 1977 in Cairo had the slogan "Hero of the crossing, where is our breakfast?" ("يا بطل العبور، فين الفطور؟", "Yā batl al-`abūr, fēn al-futūr?"). Teamsters, armed with pipes, riot in a clash with riot police in the Minneapolis Teamsters Strike of 1934. ... Nickname: Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ...


Fallout in Israel

A protest against the Israeli government started four months after the war ended. It was led by Motti Ashkenazi, commander of Budapest, the northernmost of the Bar-Lev forts and the only one during the war not to be captured by the Egyptians.[54] Anger against the Israeli government (and Dayan in particular) was high. Shimon Agranat, President of the Israeli Supreme Court, was asked to lead an inquiry, the Agranat Commission, into the events leading up to the war and the setbacks of the first few days.[55] Motti Ashkenazi, a 33-year-old reserve captain in the Israel Defense Forces (IDF), helped spark the movement that led to the resignations of Prime Minister Golda Meir and Defense Minister Moshe Dayan. ... Shimon Agranat (1906 - 1992) was the President of the Supreme Court of Israel from 1965 until 1976. ... The Supreme Court is at the head of the court system in the State of Israel. ... A detective is an officer of the police who performs criminal or administrative investigations, in some police departments, the lowest rank among such investigators (above the lowest rank of officers and below sergeants), a civilian licensed to investigate information not readily available in public records (a private investigator, also called... The Agranat Commission was an official Commission of Inquiry appointed by the Israeli government to investigate the circumstances leading to the outbreak of the Yom Kippur War. ...


The Agranat Commission published its preliminary findings on April 2, 1974. Six people were held particularly responsible for Israel's failings: is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ...

  • IDF Chief of Staff David Elazar was recommended for dismissal, after the Commission found he bore "personal responsibility for the assessment of the situation and the preparedness of the IDF."
  • Intelligence Chief, Aluf Eli Zeira, and his deputy, head of Research, Brigadier-General Aryeh Shalev, were recommended for dismissal.
  • Lt. Colonel Bandman, head of the Aman desk for Egypt, and Lt. Colonel Gedelia, chief of intelligence for the Southern Command, were recommended for transfer away from intelligence duties.
  • Shmuel Gonen, commander of the Southern front, was recommended by the initial report to be relieved of active duty.[56] He was forced to leave the army after the publication of the Commission's final report, on January 30, 1975, which found that "he failed to fulfill his duties adequately, and bears much of the responsibility for the dangerous situation in which our troops were caught."[57]

Rather than quieting public discontent, the report—which "had stressed that it was judging the ministers' responsibility for security failings, not their parliamentary responsibility, which fell outside its mandate"—inflamed it. Although it had cleared Meir and Dayan of all responsibility, public calls for their resignation (especially Dayan's) became more vociferous.[58] Insignia of the Rav Aluf The Ramatkal (Hebrew: רמטכל, abbr. ... David (Dado) Elazar (1925 - 1976), was the ninth Chief of Staff of the Israel Defense Forces, serving in that capacity from 1972 to 1974. ... Aluf is the term used for general in the Israeli Defence Forces. ... Major General Eli Zeira was director of Aman, Israels military intelligence, during the 1973 Yom Kippur War. ... Brigadier General (sometimes known as a one-star general from the United States insignia) is the lowest rank of general officer in some countries, usually ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... Shmuel Gonen Shmuel Gonen (né Gorodish; 1930-30 September 1991) was Chief of the Southern Command of the Israel Defense Forces during the Yom Kippur War. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Finally, on April 11, 1974, Golda Meir resigned. Her cabinet followed suit, including Dayan, who had previously offered to resign twice and was turned down both times by Meir. Yitzhak Rabin, who had spent most of the war as an advisor to Elazar in an unofficial capacity,[59] became head of the new Government, which was seated in June. is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... For other persons named Rabin, see Rabin (disambiguation). ...


In 1999, the issue was revisited by Israel's political leadership, and in order to correct the shortcomings of the war from being repeated, the Israeli National Security Council was created to help in better coordinating between the different security and intelligence bodies, and between these and the political branch. The Israeli National Security Council (Hebrew: המועצה לביטחון לאומי) is a council established by the Prime Ministers Office in 1999 during the prime ministership of Binyamin Netanyahu in the framework of drawing lessons from the Yom Kipur War. ... The Israeli Security Forces are several organizations collectively responsible for Israels security. ... The Israeli Intelligence Community (Hebrew: קהילת המודיעין הישראלית) is the designation given to the complex of organizations responsible for intelligence collection, dissemination, and research for the State of Israel. ...


Camp David Accords

Rabin's government was hamstrung by a pair of scandals, and he was forced to step down in 1977. The right-wing Likud party, under the prime ministership of Menachem Begin, won the elections that followed. This marked a historic change in the Israeli political landscape as for the first time since Israel's founding, a coalition not led by the Labour party was in control of the government. Celebrating the signing of the Camp David Accords in the White House Rose Garden: Menachem Begin (right), Jimmy Carter (center), Anwar Sadat (left) The Camp David Accords were signed by Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin on September 17, 1978, following twelve days of secret negotiations... “Right wing” redirects here. ... Likud (Hebrew: ליכוד, literally means consolidation) is a centre-right political party in Israel. ...   (‎, August 16, 1913 – March 9, 1992) was a Polish-Jewish head of the Zionist underground group the Irgun, Nobel Peace Prize laureate and the first Likud Prime Minister of Israel. ... Labour or Labor, (Hebrew: העבודה, ha-`Avōdāh) is a political party in Israel. ...


Sadat, who had entered the war in order to recover the Sinai, grew frustrated at the slow pace of the peace process. In a 1977 interview with CBS News' Walter Cronkite, Sadat admitted under pointed questioning that he was open to a more constructive dialog for peace, including a state visit. This seemed to open the floodgates, as in a later interview with the same reporter, the normally hard-line Begin - perhaps not wishing to be compared unfavorably to Sadat - said he too would be amenable to better relations and offered his invitation for such a visit. Thus in November of that year, Sadat took the unprecedented step of visiting Israel, becoming the first Arab leader to do so, and so implicitly recognized Israel. Diplomatic recognition is a political act by which one state acknowledges an act or status of another state or government, thereby according it legitimacy and expressing its intent to bring into force the domestic and international legal consequences of recognition. ...


The act jump-started the peace process. United States President Jimmy Carter invited both Sadat and Begin to a summit at Camp David to negotiate a final peace. The talks took place from September 5–17, 1978. Ultimately, the talks succeeded, and Israel and Egypt signed the Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty in 1979. Israel withdrew its troops and settlers from the Sinai, in exchange for normal relations with Egypt and a lasting peace. For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... The West Wing, see NSF Thurmont (The West Wing). ... The Israel-Egypt peace treaty (Arabic: معاهدة السلام المصرية الإسرائيلية; transliterated: Muahadat as-Salam al-Masriyah al-Israyliyah) (Hebrew: הסכם שלום ישראל-מצרים; transliterated: Heskem Shalom Yisrael-Mizraim) was signed in Washington, DC, United States, on March 26, 1979, following the Camp David Accords (1978). ...


Many in the Arab community were outraged at Egypt's peace with Israel. Egypt was expelled from the Arab League. Until then, Egypt had been "at the helm of the Arab world."[60] Headquarters Cairo, Egypt1 Official languages Arabic Membership 22 Arab states 2 observer states Leaders  -  Secretary General Amr Moussa (since 2001)  -  Council of the Arab League Sudan  -  Speaker of the Arab Parliament Nabih Berri Establishment  -  Alexandria Protocol March 22, 1945  Area  -  Total 13,953,041 (Western Sahara Included) = 13,687,041...


Anwar Sadat was assassinated two years later, on October 6, 1981, while attending a parade marking the eighth anniversary of the start of the war, by army members who were outraged at his negotiations with Israel. Muhammad Anwar Al-Sadat (محمد أنورالسادات in Arabic) (December 25, 1918 – October 6, 1981) was an Egyptian politician and served as the third President of Egypt from September 28, 1970 until his assassination on October 6, 1981. ... is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ...


Commemorations

Yom Kippur is the holiest day for Jews. Apart from the usual ceremonies of the holiday and the fasting, in Israel Yom Kippur also commemorates the war of 1973. This is very apparent in the Israeli media.


October 6 is a national holiday in Egypt called Armed Forces Day. It is a national holiday in Syria as well.[61] is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In commemoration of the war, many places in Egypt were named after the October 6 date and Ramadan 10, its equivalent in the Islamic calendar. The examples of these commemorations are the famous 6th of October Bridge كوبري السادس من اكتوبر and the known cities 6th of October city and 10th of Ramadan city. is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ramadan or Ramadhan (Arabic: ) is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar. ... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري; at-taqwÄ«m al-hijrÄ«; Persian: تقویم هجري قمری ‎ taqwÄ«m-e hejri-ye qamari; also called the Hijri calendar) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate...


Notes

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ a b c d The number reflects artillery units of caliber 100 mm and up
  3. ^ a b (Russian) Yom Kippur War at sem40.ru
  4. ^ a b Rabinovich, 496–497
  5. ^ During the Autumn of 2003, following the declassification of key Aman documents, the newspaper Yedioth Ahronoth released a series of controversial articles [2] which revealed that key Israeli figures were aware of considerable danger that an attack was likely, including Golda Meir and Moshe Dayan, but had decided not to act. The two journalists leading the investigation, Ronen Bergman and Gil Meltzer, later went on to publish Yom Kippur War, Real Time: The Updated Edition, Yediot Ahronoth/Hemed Books, 2004. ISBN 965-511-597-6
  6. ^ Herzog, Chaim (1989) Heroes of Israel. Boston: Little, Brown. ISBN 0-316-35901-7 p.253
  7. ^ Shlaim, Avi (2001). The Iron Wall: Israel and the Arab World. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-32112-6, p.254.
  8. ^ "The Jarring initiative and the response," Israel's Foreign Relations, Selected Documents, vols. 1–2, 1947–1974 (accessed June 9, 2005).
  9. ^ Rabinovich, 13.
  10. ^ Heikal, 22
  11. ^ Rabinovich, 39.
  12. ^ Rabinovich, 25.
  13. ^ It is widely suspect that The Source was Ashraf Marwan, the son-in-law of the late Egyptian president Gamel Abdel Nasser. Marwan died under suspicious circumstances in June, 2007.
  14. ^ Rabinovich, 51.
  15. ^ Rabinovich, 50.
  16. ^ Rabinovich, 57.
  17. ^ Rabinovich, 57.
  18. ^ Doron Geller, "Israeli Intelligence and the Yom Kippur War of 1973," "JUICE", The Department for Jewish Zionist Education, The Jewish Agency for Israel (accessed November 27, 2005).
  19. ^ Rabinovich, 89.
  20. ^ Sachar, Howard M. A History of Israel from the Rise of Zionism to Our Time. Alfred A. Knopf, 2007, p. 755.
  21. ^ Rabinovich, 491.
  22. ^ Rabinovich, 108.
  23. ^ Rabinovich, 353.
  24. ^ Rabinovich, 355.
  25. ^ Peter Caddick-Adams "Golan Heights, battles of" The Oxford Companion to Military History. Ed. Richard Holmes. Oxford University Press, 2001.
  26. ^ a b "Shattered Heights: Part 1," Jerusalem Post, September 25, 1998 (accessed June 9, 2005).
  27. ^ Rabinovich, 302
  28. ^ Rabinovich, 304
  29. ^ Rabinovich, 433
  30. ^ Rabinovich, 314
  31. ^ Rabinovich, 450
  32. ^ Rabinovich, 464
  33. ^ Cuba: Between Reform and Revolution, Louis Perez, pg 377–379
  34. ^ Rabinovich, 452
  35. ^ Rabinovich, 458
  36. ^ 22 October Memorandum of Conversation between Meir and Kissinger
  37. ^ Rabinovich, 463
  38. ^ American National Security Archive, Doc61A/61B
  39. ^ American National Security Archive, Doc65
  40. ^ Rabinovich, 479
  41. ^ Effects-Based Operations: the Yom Kippur War Case StudyPDF (479 KiB)
  42. ^ Rabinovich, 480
  43. ^ Rabinovich, 480
  44. ^ Rabinovich, 484
  45. ^ Rabinovich, 485
  46. ^ Rabinovich, 464–465
  47. ^ Rabinovich, 493
  48. ^ The 1973 Arab Israeli war http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/report/1989/PSJ.htm
  49. ^ The Middle East: a glossary of terms Tuesday May 15, 2001 Guardian Unlimited
  50. ^ Rabinovich, 497–498
  51. ^ Rabinovich, 498
  52. ^ Rabinovich, 498
  53. ^ Charles D. Smith, Palestine and the Arab-Israeli Conflict, New York: Bedford, 2006, p. 329.
  54. ^ Rabinovich, 499
  55. ^ Rabinovich, 501
  56. ^ Rabinovich, 502
  57. ^ Findings of the Agranat Commission, The Jewish Agency for Israel, see "January 30" on linked page (accessed June 9, 2005).
  58. ^ Rabinovich, 502
  59. ^ Rabinovich, 237
  60. ^ Karsh, 86
  61. ^ Syria Country Commercial Guide FY 2004 (09/05/2003) Strategis.gc.ca. Accessed 2007-06-07.

Yedioth Ahronoth (Hebrew: ידיעות אחרונות, meaning latest news) is a major daily Israeli newspaper, written in Hebrew. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Bibliography

  • Bregman, Ahron (2002). Israel's Wars: A History Since 1947. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-28716-2
  • Fundamental Surprise: Intelligence in Crisis by Zvi Lanir. Hakibbutz Hameuchad, Tel-Aviv, 1983. (In Hebrew). ISBN 96502004, OCLC 65842089, OCLC 12420401.
  • In Search of Identity: An Autobiography by Anwar Sadat.
  • Man of Defiance: A Political Biography of Anwar Sadat by Raphael Israeli.
  • Syria and Israel: From War to Peacemaking by Moshe Maòz.
  • The Yom Kippur War: The Epic Encounter That Transformed the Middle East by Abraham Rabinovich. ISBN 0-8052-4176-0
  • The Iran-Iraq War, 1980–1988 by Efraim Karsh. ISBN 1-84176-371-3
  • Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs — The Jarring initiative and the response
  • The War of Atonement: The Inside Story of the Yom Kippur War by Chaim Herzog 1975, new ed. 2006 ISBN 978-1853675690
  • Jewish Education Dept., JAFI, Israeli Intelligence and the Yom Kippur War of 1973
  • Jerusalem Post's — Yom Kippur War: Shattered Heights
  • Jewish Agency for Israel's Timeline of Israeli history
  • Why Economic Sanctions Do Not Work by Robert A. Pape
  • The Road to Ramadan by Mohamed Heikal. ISBN 0-8129-0567-9
  • Inside the Kremlin During the Yom Kippur War by Victor Israelyan, 1995 ISBN 0-271-01489-X, ISBN 0-271-01737-6
  • Put an end to Israeli aggression, an article printed in the Pravda newspaper on October 12, 1973 (translation at CNN)

The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Abraham Rabinovich is a historian and journalist who has published several books on recent Jewish history. ... Chaim Herzog (‎, born Vivian Herzog, September 17, 1918 – April 17, 1997) served as the sixth President of Israel (1983–1993), following a distinguished career in both the British Army and the Israel Defense Forces (IDF). ... Pravda (Russian: , The Truth) was a leading newspaper of the Soviet Union and an official organ of the Central Committee of the Communist Party between 1912 and 1991. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ...

External links

The National Security Archive is a 501(c)(3) non-profit research and archival institution located within The George Washington University in Washington, D.C. Founded in 1985 by Thomas Blanton, it archives and publishes declassified U.S. government files concerning selected topics of American foreign policy. ... Time (whose trademark is capitalized TIME) is a weekly American newsmagazine, similar to Newsweek and U.S. News & World Report. ... Image File history File links LinkFA-star. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Yom Kippur War (611 words)
War fought between Israel on one side, and Egypt and Syria on the other, backed by Iraq and Jordan and supported economically by Saudi Arabia.
The names of this conflict stems from the important Jewish festival of Yom Kippur, and the Muslim month of Ramadan, in which the annual fast of Sawm is performed.
The goal of the war was to win back lost Arab territory from preceding wars, first in 1947-49, then 1956 and especially in the last, the Six-Day War of 1967.
Yom Kippur War - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (8686 words)
The war began on the day of Yom Kippur with a surprise joint attack by Egypt and Syria crossing the cease-fire lines in the Sinai and Golan Heights, respectively, which had been captured by Israel in 1967 during the Six-Day War.
In commemoration of the war, many places in Egypt were named after the October 6 date and Ramadan 10, its equivalent in the Islamic calendar (6th of October city and 10th of Ramadan city).
The Yom Kippur War: The Epic Encounter That Transformed the Middle East by Abraham Rabinovich.
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