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Encyclopedia > Yogurt
Yoghurt
Yoghurt

Yoghurt or yogurt, less commonly yoghourt or yogourt, is a dairy product produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. Any sort of milk may be used to make yoghurt, but modern production is dominated by cow's milk. It is the fermentation of milk sugar (lactose) into lactic acid that gives yoghurt its gel-like texture and characteristic tang. Image File history File links Yoghurt photography person : MASA photography day : February, 2005 photography place : home of MASA File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Yoghurt photography person : MASA photography day : February, 2005 photography place : home of MASA File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Dairy products are generally defined as foodstuffs produced from milk. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria is also the fictional name of a warring nation under Benzino Napaloni as dictator, in the 1940 film The Great Dictator... In its strictest sense, fermentation (formerly called zymnosis) is the energy-yielding anaerobic metabolic breakdown of a nutrient molecule, such as glucose, without net oxidation. ... A glass of cows milk Milk most often means the nutrient fluid produced by the mammary glands of female mammals. ... Look up Cow in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Cow may refer to: Female dairy cattle, other bovines, or other large mammals including elephants and whales. ... A sugar is a carbohydrate which is sweet to taste. ... Lactose is the sugar making up around 2-8% of the solids in milk. ... Lactic acid (α-hydroxypropionic acid) is a chemical compound that plays a role in several biochemical processes. ... A gel is an apparently solid, jellylike material formed from a colloidal solution. ... Texture is the properties held and sensations caused by the external surface of objects received through the sense of touch. ...

Contents


History

Yoghurt is traditionally believed to be an invention of the Turks of Central Asia, although there is evidence of cultured milk products in other cultures 4500 years ago. The earliest yoghurts were probably spontaneously fermented, perhaps by wild bacteria residing inside goatskin bags used for transportation. Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... (4th millennium BC – 3rd millennium BC – 2nd millennium BC – other millennia) Events Syria: Foundation of the city of Mari (29th century BC ) Iraq: Creation of the Kingdom of Elam Germination of the Bristlecone pine tree Methuselah about 2700 BC, the oldest known tree still living now Dynasty of Lagash in... Species See Species and subspecies A goat is an animal in the genus Capra, which consists of nine species: the Ibex, the West Caucasian Tur, the East Caucasian Tur, the Markhor, and the Wild Goat. ...


The word derives from the Turkish yoğurt (pronounced [jɔˈurt]) deriving from the verb yoğurmak, which means "to blend", a reference to how yoghurt is made. The letter ğ is silent between back vowels in Modern Turkish, but was formerly pronounced as a voiced velar fricative [ɣ]. English pronunciation varies in different regions according to the local accent but common pronunciations include /ˈjɒgət/ and /ˈjoʊgɚt/. The International Phonetic Alphabet. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... A back vowel is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ...


Yoghurt remained primarily a food of India, Central Asia, the Levant region of the Middle East, South Eastern Europe and Central Europe until the 1900s, when a Russian biologist named Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov theorized that heavy consumption of yoghurt was responsible for the unusually long lifespans of the Bulgar people. Believing lactobacillus to be essential for good health, Mechnikov worked to popularize yoghurt as a foodstuff throughout Europe. It fell to a Spanish entrepreneur named Isaac Carasso to industrialise the production of yoghurt. In 1919 he started a commercial yoghurt plant in Barcelona, naming the business Danone after his son — the group trades as Dannon in the US. Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... The Levant or Sham (Arabic root word related to the term Semite) is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in Southwest Asia south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea in the west, and the north Arabian Desert and Mesopotamia to the east. ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... Historical lands and provinces in Central Europe Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Events and Trends Technology Lawrence Hargrave makes the first stable wing design for a heavier-than-air aircraft Orville and Wilbur Wright make the first documented flight in a powered heavier-than-air aircraft Mass production of automobile Wide popularity of home phonograph Panama Canal is built by the United... Main articles: Life All organisms (viruses not included) consist of cells, which in turn, are based on a common carbon-based biochemistry. ... Categories: Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine winners | Microbiologists | People stubs ... Bulgars (also Bolgars or proto-Bulgarians) a people of Central Asia, probably originally Pamirian, whose branches became Slavicized and perhaps Turkic over time. ... Entrepreneur is an import from the same French word. ... 1919 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Barcelona within Barcelonès Population (2003) 1,582,738 Area 1004 Km2 Population density (2001) 15,764/Km2 Barcelona is the capital city of Catalonia, an autonomous community in northeastern Spain, and Spains second-largest city (after Madrid). ... Groupe Danone SA is an international food products company with its central headquarters in France, specializing in dairy products, especially famous for its yoghurt. ...


Yoghurt with added fruit marmalade was invented (and patented) in 1933 in dairy Radlicka Mlekarna in Prague. The original intention of this combination was to protect yoghurt better against decay. Marmalade is a sweet conserve made from fruit, sugar, and (usually) a gelling agent. ... 1933 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Prague (Czech: Praha, German: Prag) is the capital and largest city of the Czech Republic. ...


Yoghurt was first commercially produced and sold in the United States in 1929 by Armenian immigrants, Rose and Sarkis Colombosian, whose family business later became Colombo Yogurt.


Contents

Yoghurt making involves the introduction of specific "friendly" bacteria into preferably unpasteurised, unhomogenised milk (to maintain the healthy balance of bacteria and enzymes of milk in its unprocessed state) under very carefully controlled temperature and environmental conditions. The bacteria ingest the natural milk sugars and release lactic acid as a waste product; the increased acidity, in turn, causes the milk proteins to tangle into a solid mass, (curd, denature). The increased acidity (pH=4-5) also prevents the proliferation of other potentially pathogenic bacteria. Generally a culture includes two or more different bacteria for more complete fermentation, most commonly Streptococcus salivarius and thermophilus, and Lactobacillus genus members, such as L. acidophilus, bulgaricus and bifidus. Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Curd is a dairy product obtained by curdling (coagulating) milk with rennet or an edible acidic substance such as lemon juice or vinegar and then draining off the liquid portion (called whey). ... Denaturation is a structural change in biomolecules such as nucleic acids and proteins, usually caused by heat, acids, bases, detergents, or certain chemicals such as urea. ... Species S. faecalis S. pneumoniae S. pyogenes S. suis S. viridans Streptococcus is a genus of spherical, Gram-positive bacteria of the phylum Firmicutes. ... Streptococcus salivarius is used in yoghurt manufacturing. ... Species L. acidophilus L. bulgaricus L. plantarum L.reuteri etc. ... See genus (mathematics) for the use of the term in mathematics. ... Binomial name Lactobacillus acidophilus Lactobacillus acidophilus is one of several bacteria in the genus Lactobacillus. ... Lactobacillus bulgaricus (LBB) is one of several bacteria used for the production of yoghurt (yogurt). ...


If the yoghurt is not heated to kill the bacteria after fermentation it is sold as containing "live active culture" (or just as "live" in some countries), which some believe to be nutritionally superior. In Spain, the yoghurt producers were divided among those who wanted to reserve the name yogur for live yoghurt and those who wanted to include pasteurised yoghurt under that label (mostly the Pascual Hermanos group). Pasteurised yoghurt has a shelf life of months and does not require refrigeration. Both sides submitted scientific studies claiming differences or their lack between both varieties. Eventually the Spanish government allowed the label yogur pasteurizado instead of the former postre lácteo ("dairy dessert"). Shelf-life is the length of time that corresponds to a tolerable loss in quality of a processed food. ... Refrigeration (from the Latin frigus, frost) is generally the cooling of a body by the transfer of a portion of its heat away from it. ...


Because live yoghurt culture contains enzymes that break down lactose, some individuals who are otherwise lactose intolerant find that they can enjoy yoghurt without ill effects. Nutritionally, yoghurt is rich in protein as well as several B vitamins and essential minerals, and it is as low or high in fat as the milk it is made from. A ribbon diagram showing the tertiary structure of neuraminidase. ... Vitamin B is a complex of several vitamins. ... This article is about minerals in the geologic sense; for nutrient minerals see dietary mineral; for the band see Mineral (band). ... Fat is one of the three main classes of food and, at approximately 38 kJ (9 kilocalories) per gram, as compared to sugar with 17 kJ (4 kcal) per gram or ethanol with 29 kJ (7 kcal) per gram, the most concentrated form of metabolic energy available to humans. ...


Presentation

Bulgarian yoghurt is popular for its specific taste, aroma, and quality and is commonly consumed plain. The qualities are specific to the particular culture strains used in Bulgaria, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus bacteria. Bulgarian yoghurt producers are taking steps to legally protect the trademark of Bulgarian yoghurt on the European market and distinguish it from other product types that do not contain live bacteria. Lactobacillus bulgaricus (LBB) is one of several bacteria used for the production of yoghurt (yogurt). ...


Bulgarian yoghurt is often strained by hanging in a cloth for a few hours to reduce water content. The resulting yoghurt is creamier, richer and milder in taste because of increased fat content. Hanging overnight is sometimes employed to make a concentrated yoghurt similar to cream cheese. Yoghurt is also used for preparation of Bulgarian milk salad (also known as Greek tzatziki sauce). Commercial versions of strained yoghurt are also made. Milk salad consists of lettuce and yogurt. ... Tzatziki (τζατζίκι; also transcribed jajiki) is a Turkish and Greek meze, or appetizer, also used as a sauce or dip. ...


Yoghurt is often sold sweetened and flavoured, or with added fruit on the bottom (often referred to as fruit bottom, to offset its natural sourness. If the fruit is already stirred into the yoghurt, it is sometimes referred to as Swiss-style. Fruit stall in Barcelona, Spain. ... Fruit bottom (or fruit at the bottom) often refers to packaged yoghurt with a layer of fruit at the bottom. ...


Greek "full" yoghurt is made from milk that has been blended with cream to a fat content of exactly ten percent. Standard (5%), low-fat (2%) and non-fat (0%) versions are also made. It is often served with honey or fruit preserves as a dessert. The Greek traditional tzatziki sauce, used on a gyros sandwich, is made from yoghurt, cucumber, and garlic. This article is about cream, the food item. ... Fat is one of the three main classes of food and, at approximately 38 kJ (9 kilocalories) per gram, as compared to sugar with 17 kJ (4 kcal) per gram or ethanol with 29 kJ (7 kcal) per gram, the most concentrated form of metabolic energy available to humans. ... Honey honey comb A capped frame of honeycomb Honey is a sweet and viscous fluid produced by bees and other insects from the nectar of flowers. ... Greek Gyros Gyros or gyro (IPA [] from Greek γύρος turning, a calque of Turkish döner) is a rotisserie meat, or by extension the pita sandwich it is usually found in. ...


Lassi is a yoghurt-based beverage, originally from India where two basic varieties are known: salty and sweet. Salty lassi is usually flavoured with ground-roasted cumin and chile peppers; the sweet variety with rosewater and/or lemon, mango, or other fruit juice. A lassi-like, salty drink called Ayran is also quite popular in Turkey and Bulgaria. It is made by mixing yoghurt with water and adding salt. The same drink is known as tan in Armenia. For a place in Kefallinia in Greece, see Lassi, Greece Lassi is a traditional Indian beverage made by blending yoghurt with water, salt, and spices until frothy, and enjoyed chilled as a hot-weather refreshment. ... Cumin (Cuminum cyminum) is a plant and a spice with a distinctive aroma, popular in Mexican, North African, and Indian cuisine. ... The chile pepper, chili pepper or chilli pepper is the fruit of the plant Capsicum from the nightshade family, Solanaceae. ... Rosewater is the hydrosol portion of the distillate of rose petals. ... Binomial name Citrus × limon Lemons are the citrus fruit from the tree Citrus × limon, a hybrid of cultivated origin. ... Species Mangifera altissima Mangifera caesia Mangifera camptosperma Mangifera casturi Mangifera foetida Mangifera indica Mangifera kemanga Mangifera longipes Mangifera macrocarpa Mangifera odorata Mangifera pajang Mangifera pentandra Mangifera persiciformis Mangifera siamensis The mango (Mangifera spp. ... Ayran is a popular drink in the Middle East (Laban Ayran), Turkey and Bulgaria, made up of a yogurt and water mixture. ...


A cold soup called tarator is popular in summertime Bulgaria. It is made from Ayran, cucumbers, garlic and nuts. Tarator is a cold soup popular summertime in Bulgaria. ... Ayran is a popular drink in the Middle East (Laban Ayran), Turkey and Bulgaria, made up of a yogurt and water mixture. ...


Kefir is a fermented milk drink originating in the Caucasus. Some American dairies have offered a drink called "kefir" for many years (though lacking the carbonation and alcohol, and coming in fruit flavours), but began appearing (as of 2002) with names like "drinkable yoghurt" and "yoghurt smoothie". Kefir(derived from keyif which means pleasure in Turkish) (alternately kephir, kewra, talai, mudu kekiya, matsoun, matsoni, waterkefir, milkkefir) is a fermented milk drink originating in the Caucasus. ... The Caucasus , a region boardering Asia Minor, is located between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea which includes the Caucasus mountains and surrounding lowlands. ... 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Home-made yoghurt

Home-made yoghurt is consumed by many people throughout the world, and is the norm in countries where yoghurt has an important place in traditional cuisine, such as Bulgaria, Turkey, and India. Yoghurt can be made at home using a small amount of store-bought plain live active culture yoghurt as the starter culture. One very simple recipe starts with a litre of low-fat milk, but requires some means to incubate the fermenting yoghurt at a constant 43°C (109°F) for several hours. Yoghurt-making machines are available for this purpose. As with all fermentation processes, cleanliness is very important.

  • Bring the milk to 85°C (185°F) over a stove and keep it there for two minutes, to kill any undesirable microbes.
  • Pour the re-pasteurised milk into a tall, sterile container and allow to cool to 43°C (110°F)
  • Mix in 120ml of the warmed yoghurt and cover tightly.
  • After about six hours of incubation at precisely 43°C (110°F); the entire mixture will have become a very plain but edible yoghurt with a loose consistency.
    • If a precise means of temperature control is not available, put the culture in a warm place such as on top of a water heater or in a gas oven with just the pilot flame burning. An electric oven with the light on may work nicely, depending on the bulb size. The further below 43°C (110°F) the temperature, the longer it will take for the yoghurt to solidify; you can tell it is done when it no longer moves if you tilt the jar.

See also

Fruit bottom (or fruit at the bottom) often refers to packaged yoghurt with a layer of fruit at the bottom. ... Ayran is a popular drink in the Middle East (Laban Ayran), Turkey and Bulgaria, made up of a yogurt and water mixture. ... Cheese is a solid food made from the curdled milk of various animals—most commonly cows but sometimes goats, sheep, reindeer, and water buffalo. ... Kefir(derived from keyif which means pleasure in Turkish) (alternately kephir, kewra, talai, mudu kekiya, matsoun, matsoni, waterkefir, milkkefir) is a fermented milk drink originating in the Caucasus. ... A container of Yoplait Yoplait is a General Mills owned brand of pre-stirred yogurt in a variety of fruit-based flavors that comes in a nearly cylindrical container sealed with an aluminum foil top. ... Yogurt cheese is a bland cheese made from the liquid whey extracted from yogurt. ... Traditional Bulgarian food Sour milk (yoghurt) Tarator (cold soup) Shopska salad Moussaka Kyopolou Pita Bread Banitsa Mish-Mash Shkembe chorba (Shkembe soup) Gyuvetch Lyutika soup Lyutenitsa Panagyurski eggs Flat sausages (Soujouk, Lukanka) Sirene (White brined cheese) Kashkaval (Yellow cheese) Halva Honey Spices and Herbs Chubritza (a mixture of dried herbs... YoGo is an Australian range of dairy snacks for kids aged 5-12 years old. ...

External links

  • National Center for Home Food Preservation: Fermenting Yogurt at Home

  Results from FactBites:
 
Making Yogurt (1270 words)
Yogurt is a fermented milk product which was apparently broght to Turkey by the mongols millenia ago.
Yogurt is preserved by its acidity which inhibits the growth of putrefactive or pathogenic bacteria.
Use yogurt as part or all of the liquid in cakes, waffles, pancakes and muffins, and cut down on the amount of baking powder.
Fias Co Farm/Dairy- Yogurt recipe (2613 words)
Yogurt is the Turkish word for milk that has been curdled with a lactic starter.
Yogurt is formed by the growth of two bacterial organisms in milk; Streptococcus thermophilus* (a warmth loving bacteria) and Lactobacillus bulgaricus (a strain of bacteria from Bulgaria, where we all know they make great yogurt) which turn the milk sugars into lactic acid.
Yogurt can be made with any type of milk; goat, cow, sheep, 2%, 1%, skim, you can even make it out off 100% powdered milk or even soymilk if you want.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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