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Encyclopedia > Yoga Sutras of Patanjali

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This is an article about the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. For general information on sutras, see Sutra. For a list of Hindu sutras, see List of sutras.

The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali are an ancient, foundational text of Yoga. In Indian philosophy, Yoga is the name of one of the six orthodox philosophical schools.[1][2] Though brief, the Yoga Sutras are an enormously influential work on yoga philosophy and practice, just as relevant today as when first composed. SÅ«tra (sex) (Sanskrit) or Sutta (Pāli) literally means a rope or thread that holds things together, and more metaphorically refers to an aphorism (or line, rule, formula), or a collection of such aphorisms in the form of a manual. ... Below is a list of sutras organized alphabetically under the broad categories of Hinduism and Buddhism. ... Patañjali, is the compiler of the Yoga Sutra, a major work containing aphorisms on the practical and philosophical wisdom regarding practice of Raja yoga. ... For other uses such as Yoga postures, see Yoga (disambiguation) Statue of Shiva performing Yogic meditation Yoga (Sanskrit: योग Yoga, IPA: ) is a group of ancient spiritual practices originating in India. ... The term Indian philosophy may refer to any of several traditions of philosophical thought, including: Hindu philosophy Buddhist philosophy Jain philosophy Sikh philosophy Carvaka atheist philosophy Lokayata materialist philosophy Tantric religious philosophy Bhakti religious philosophy Sufi religious philosophy Ahmadi religious philosophy Political and military philosophy such as that of Chanakya... AstikA is a brewery making a blond pilsner with an alcohol content of 5% ABV in the cito of Haskovo, in Southern Bulgaria. ...


The Sanskrit word yoga, as used in the work, refers to a state of mind where thoughts and feelings are suspended or held in check (Sanskrit nirodha), and sutra means "thread". This is a reference to the thread of a Japa mala (Hindu prayer beads), upon which the aphorisms that make up the work are strung like beads. The title is sometimes rendered in English as the Yoga Aphorisms. Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... For other uses such as Yoga postures, see Yoga (disambiguation) Statue of Shiva performing Yogic meditation Yoga (Sanskrit: योग Yoga, IPA: ) is a group of ancient spiritual practices originating in India. ... Sūtra (sex) (Sanskrit) or Sutta (Pāli) literally means a rope or thread that holds things together, and more metaphorically refers to an aphorism (or line, rule, formula), or a collection of such aphorisms in the form of a manual. ... A japa mala or mala is a set of prayer beads popular in India and Tibet, often with 108 beads in number. ...

Contents

Authorship and dating

The Sutras are ascribed to Patanjali, who, may have been, as Max Müller explains, "the author or representative of the Yoga-philosophy without being necessarily the author of the Sutras."[3] Radhakrishnan and Moore attribute the text to Patanjali, dating it as 2nd century BCE.[4] Scholars such as S.N. Dasgupta[5], claim this is the same Patanjali who authored the Mahabhasya, a treatise on Sanskrit grammar[6]. Max Müller as a young man Friedrich Max Müller (December 6, 1823 – October 28, 1900), more commonly known as Max Müller, was a German philologist and Orientalist, one of the founders of Indian studies, who virtually created the discipline of comparative religion. ... Surendranath Dasgupta (Bengali: ) (1887–1952) was a scholar of Sanskrit and philosophy. ... The Mahābhāshya (great commentary), attributed to Patañjali, is a commentary on the celebrated Ashtadhyayi of Panini is one of the three most famous works in Sanskrit grammar, dating to ca. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... For the rules of the English language, see English grammar. ...


Indologist Axel Michaels is dismissive of claims that the work was written by Patanjali, characterizing it instead as a collection of fragments and traditions of texts stemming from the second or third century.[7] Gavin Flood cites a wider period of uncertainty for the composition, between 100 BCE and 500 CE.[8] A contemporary scholar with a focus on Tibetan Buddhism, Robert Thurman writes that Patanjali was influenced by the success of the Buddhist monastic system to formulate his own matrix for the version of thought he considered orthodox.[9] Tibetan Buddhism[1] is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet and the Himalayan regions, which include northern Nepal, Bhutan, India (Arunachal Pradesh, Ladakh and Sikkim), Mongolia, Russia (Kalmykia, Buryatia and Tuva) and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Buddhism is a variety of teachings, sometimes described as a religion[1] or way of life that attempts to identify the causes of human suffering and offer various ways that are claimed to end, or ease suffering. ...


Philosophical roots and influences

The Sutras are built on a foundation of Samkhya philosophy. The division into the Eight Limbs (Sanskrit Ashtanga) of Yoga is reminiscent of Buddha's Noble Eightfold Path; inclusion of Brahmaviharas (Yoga Sutra 1:33) also shows Buddhism's influence on parts of the Sutras. [10]. Samkhya, also Sankhya, (Sanskrit: सांख्य, IAST: Sāṃkhya - Enumeration) is one of the six schools of classical Indian philosophy. ... Eightfold Path redirects here. ... Brahmaviharā (Pali and Sanskrit) can be translated as Sublime Attitudes or Abodes of God. ... Buddhism is a variety of teachings, sometimes described as a religion[1] or way of life that attempts to identify the causes of human suffering and offer various ways that are claimed to end, or ease suffering. ...


In the Yoga Sutras, Patanjali prescribes adherence to eight "limbs" or steps (the sum of which constitute "Ashtanga Yoga", the title of the second chapter) to quiet one's mind and achieve kaivalya. The Yoga Sutras form the theoretical and philosophical basis of Raja Yoga, and are considered to be the most organized and complete definition of that discipline. Patañjali, is the compiler of the Yoga Sutra, a major work containing aphorisms on the practical and philosophical wisdom regarding practice of Raja yoga. ... For the system of yoga taught by Sri K. Pattabhi Jois, see Ashtanga Vinyasa Yoga. ... Kaivalya, which is the ultimate goal of yoga, means solitariness or detachment. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Raja Yoga (lit. ...


The Sutras not only provide yoga with a thorough and consistent philosophical basis, they also clarify many important esoteric concepts which are common to all traditions of Indian thought, such as karma. Etymology Esoteric is an adjective originating during Hellenic Greece under the domain of the Roman Empire; it comes from the Greek esôterikos, from esôtero, the comparative form of esô: within. It is a word meaning anything that is inner and occult, a latinate word meaning hidden (from which... For other uses, see Karma (disambiguation). ...


Usage

Although Patanjali's work does not cover the many types of Yogic practices that have become prevalent, its succinct form and availability caused it to be pressed into service by a variety of schools of Yogic thought.[11]


The Sutras, with commentaries, have been published by a number of successful teachers of Yoga, as well as by academicians seeking to clarify issues of textual variation; there are also other versions from a variety of sources available on the internet. The many versions display a wide variation, particularly in translation. The text has not been submitted in its entirety to any rigorous textual analysis, and the contextual meaning of many of the Sanskrit words and phrases remains a matter of some dispute. [12]


Text

Patanjali divided his Yoga Sutras into 4 chapters or books (Sanskrit pada), containing in all 196 aphorisms, divided as follows:

  • Samadhi Pada (51 sutras)
Samadhi refers to a blissful state where the yogi is absorbed into the One. The author describes yoga and then the nature and the means to attaining samadhi. This chapter contains the famous definitional verse: "Yogaś citta-vritti-nirodhaḥ" ("Yoga is the restraint of mental modifications"[13]).
  • Sadhana Pada (55 sutras)
Sadhana is the Sanskrit word for "practice" or "discipline". Here the author outlines two forms of Yoga: Kriya Yoga (Action Yoga) and Ashtanga Yoga (Eightfold or Eightlimbed Yoga).
Kriya yoga, sometimes called Karma Yoga, is also expounded in Chapter 3 of the Bhagavad Gita, where Arjuna is encouraged by Krishna to act without attachment to the results or fruit of action and activity. It is the yoga of selfless action and service.
Ashtanga Yoga describes the eight limbs that together constitute Raja Yoga.
  • Vibhuti Pada (56 sutras)
Vibhuti is the Sanskrit word for "power" or "manifestation". Supra-normal powers are acquired by the practice of yoga. The temptation of these powers should be avoided and the attention should be fixed only on liberation.
  • Kaivalya Pada (34 sutras)
Kaivalya literally means "isolation", but as used in the Sutras stands for emancipation, liberation and used interchangeably with moksha (liberation), which is the goal of Yoga. The Kaivalya Pada describes the nature of liberation and the reality of the transcendental self.

Samadhi (Sanskrit, lit. ... A Sadhana is a ritualistic meditation practice from Hindu and Buddhist spiritual traditions which is followed in order to achieve a form of spiritual purification or enlightenment. ... Kriya Yoga is described by its practitioners as the ancient Yoga system revived in modern times by Mahavatar Babaji through his disciple Lahiri Mahasaya, c 1861, and brought into widespread public awareness through Paramhansa Yoganandas book Autobiography of a Yogi. ... For the system of yoga taught by Sri K. Pattabhi Jois, see Ashtanga Vinyasa Yoga. ... Karma yoga (Sanskrit: कर्म योग), (also known as Buddhi Yoga) or the discipline of action is based on the teachings of the Bhagavad Gita, a sacred Sanskrit scripture of Hinduism. ... Bhagavad Gīta भगवद्गीता, composed ca the fifth - second centuries BC, is part of the epic poem Mahabharata, located in the Bhisma-Parva chapters 23–40. ... For other uses, please see Arjun. ... This article is about the Hindu deity. ... Kaivalya, which is the ultimate goal of yoga, means solitariness or detachment. ... For other uses, see Moksha (disambiguation). ...

The eight limbs (asthanga) of Raja Yoga

The eight "limbs" or steps prescribed in the second pada of the Yoga Sutras are: Yama, Niyama, Asana, Pranayama, Pratyahara, Dharana, Dhyana and Samadhi.


Ashtanga yoga consists of the following steps: The first five are called external aids to Yoga (bahiranga sadhana)

  • Yama refers to the five abstentions. These are the same as the five vows of Jainism.
  • Ahimsa: non-violence, inflicting no injury or harm to others or even to one's ownself, it goes as far as nonviolence in thought, word and deed.
  • Satya: truth in word & thought.
  • Asteya: non-covetousness,, to the extent that one should not even desire something that is not his own.
  • Brahmacharya: abstain from sexual intercourse; celibacy in case of unmarried people and monogamy in case of married people. Even this to the extent that one should not possess any unholy thoughts towards any other man or woman except one's own spouse. It's common to associate Brahmacharya with celibacy.
  • Aparigraha: non-possessiveness
  • Niyama refers to the five observances
  • Shaucha: cleanliness of body & mind.
  • Santosha: satisfaction; satisfied with what one has..
  • Tapas: austerity and associated observances for body discipline & thereby mental control.
  • Svadhyaya: study of the Vedic scriptures to know about God and the soul, which leads to introspection on a greater awakening to the soul and God within,
  • Ishvarapranidhana: surrender to (or worship of) God.
  • Asana: Discipline of the body: rules and postures to keep it disease-free and for preserving vital energy. Correct postures are a physical aid to meditation, for they control the limbs and nervous system and prevent them from producing disturbances.
  • Pranayama: control of breath. Beneficial to health, steadies the body and is highly conductive to the concentration of the mind.
  • Pratyahara: withdrawal of senses from their external objects.

The last three levels are called internal aids to Yoga (antaranga sadhana) Ten Traditional Yamas or Codes of Conduct The Yamas are codified as the restraints in numerous scriptures including the Shandilya and Varuha Upanishads, Hatha Yoga Pradipika by Gorakshanatha, the Tirumantiram of Tirumular and the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. ... Ahimsa (Devanagari: ; IAST ) is a Sanskrit term meaning non-violence (literally: the avoidance of violence - himsa). ... Satya is a true badman. ... Asteya is a Sanskrit word meaning avoidance of stealing or non-stealing. In Jainism, it is one of the five vows that all sravakas and shravikas as well as sadhus and sadhvis must take. ... Brahmacharya (pronounced /brʌmatʃərɪə/) is a Sanskrit word. ... Aparigraha is the Jain concept of non-possessiveness. ... The Niyamas are codified as the observances in numerous scriptures including the Shandilya and Varuha Upanishads, Hatha Yoga Pradipika by Gorakshanatha, the Tirumantiram of Tirumular and the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. ... Shaucha (शौच), purity, is one of the Niyamas of Yoga or Hinduism. ... Santosha (सन्तोष), contentment, is one of the niyamas of Yoga. ... It has been suggested that Tapasya be merged into this article or section. ... In Hinduism, Svadhyaya is the incorporation of the message of the Bhagavad Gita in ones life. ... Ishvarapranidhana represents surrender to the divinity within the individual in Hinduism and Yoga. ... Ardha Padmasana, or Half Lotus is an intermediate seated posture Padmasana or Lotus pose is a more advanced seated posture Asana, Sanskrit for sitting posture (asanam is sitting or ass / aste is he sits), is a body position, typically associated with the practice of Yoga, intended primarily to restore and... Pranayama (Sanskrit: ) is a Sanskrit word often translated as control of the life force (prana). ... Pratyahara is the fifth among the Eight steps of Patanjalis Ashtanga Yoga. ...

  • Dharana: concentration of the citta upon a physical object, such as a flame of a lamp, the mid point of the eyebrows, or the image of a deity.
  • Dhyana: steadfast meditation. Undisturbed flow of thought around the object of meditation (pratyayaikatanata). The act of meditation and the object of meditation remain distinct and separate.
  • Samadhi: oneness with the object of meditation. There is no distinction between act of meditation and the object of meditation. Samadhi is of two kinds:
    • Samprajnata Samadhi conscious samadhi. The mind remains concentrated (ekagra) on the object of meditation, therefore the consciousness of the object of meditation persists. Mental modifications arise only in respect of this object of meditation.
      This state is of four kinds:
      • Savitarka: the Citta is concentrated upon a gross object of meditation such as a flame of a lamp, the tip of the nose, or the image of a deity.
      • Savichara: the Citta is concentrated upon a subtle object of meditation , such as the tanmatras
      • Sananda: the Citta is concentrated upon a still subtler object of meditation, like the senses.
      • Sasmita: the Citta is concentrated upon the ego-substance with which the self is generally identified.
    • Asamprajnata Samadhi supraconscious. The citta and the object of meditation are fused together. The consciousness of the object of meditation is transcended. All mental modifications are checked (niruddha), although latent impressions may continue.

Dharana (Pronounced Dhaaranaa, with a voiced, aspirated dh) is the sixth of the eight steps of Patanjalis Ashtanga Yoga. ... Dhyāna is a term in Sanskrit which refers to a type or aspect of meditation. ... Samadhi (Sanskrit, lit. ...

See also

Abhyasa, in Hinduism, is spiritual practice which is regular and constant practice over a long period of time. ... Pranava yoga is a name given to the classical method of meditation outlined in the Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita, and the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. ...

Notes

  1. ^ For an overview of the six orthodox schools, with detail on the grouping of schools, see: Radhakrishnan and Moore, "Contents", and pp. 453-487.
  2. ^ For a brief overview of the Yoga school of philosophy see: Chatterjee and Datta, p. 43.
  3. ^ Müeller (1899), Chapter 7, "Yoga Philosophy", pp. 97-98.
  4. ^ For attribution to Patanjali and dating of 2nd c. BCE see: Radhakrishnan and Moore, p. 453.
  5. ^ Dasgupta, Surendranath. Yoga-As Philosophy and Religion Port Washington: Kennikat Press, 1924
  6. ^ For the philosophical nature of Sanskrit grammarian thought see: Lata, Bidyut (editor); Panini to Patanjali: A Grammatical March. New Delhi, 2004.
  7. ^ For the Yoga Sutras as a collection dating to second or third century, see: Michaels, p. 267.
  8. ^ For dating between 100 BCE and 500 CE see: Flood (1996), page 96.
  9. ^ Robert Thurman, "The Central Philosophy of Tibet. Princeton University Press, 1984, page 34.
  10. ^ For works on the Buddhist influence on the Yoga Sutras: Eliade, M. Le Yoga, Immortalité et Liberté, Payot, 1954. and Miller Stoler, Barbara. Yoga Discipline of Freedom. The Yoga Sutra attributed to Patanjali. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995
  11. ^ For an overview of the scope of earlier commentaries: Complete Commentary by Sankara on the Yoga Sutras ISBN: 0-7103-0277-0
  12. ^ Christopher Key Chapple; Reading Patanjali without Vyasa: A Critique of Four Yoga Sutra Passages, Journal of the American Academy of Religion, Vol. 62, No. 1 (Spring, 1994), pp. 85-105
  13. ^ Radhakrishnan and Moore, p.454

References

  • Chatterjee, Satischandra; Datta, Dhirendramohan (1984). An Introduction to Indian Philosophy, Eighth Reprint Edition, Calcutta: University of Calcutta. 
  • Flood, Gavin (1996). An Introduction to Hinduism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-43878-0. 
  • Michaels, Axel (2004). Hinduism: Past and Present. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-08953-1. 
  • Müeller, Max (1899). Six Systems of Indian Philosophy; Samkhya and Yoga, Naya and Vaiseshika. Calcutta: Susil Gupta (India) Ltd.. ISBN 0-7661-4296-5.  Reprint edition; Originally published under the title of The Six Systems of Indian Philosophy.
  • Patanjali. 1989. (Feuerstein, G. trans). The Yoga-Sutra of Patañjali: A New Translation and Commentary. Inner Traditions.
  • Radhakrishnan, S.; Moore, C. A. (1957). A Source Book in Indian Philosophy. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-01958-4.  Princeton paperback 12th printing, 1989.
  • Tubb, Gary A. & Boose, Emery R. (2007), Scholastic Sanskrit: A Manual for Students, New York, New York: Columbia University Press, ISBN 978-0-9753734-7-7 
  • Sharma, Chandradhar (1987). An Critical Survey of Indian Philosophy. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 81-208-0365-5. 

Max Müller as a young man Friedrich Max Müller (December 6, 1823 – October 28, 1900), more commonly known as Max Müller, was a German philologist and Orientalist, one of the founders of Indian studies, who virtually created the discipline of comparative religion. ... Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan (September 5, 1888 - April 17, 1975) is best known as the man who introduced the thinking of western idealist philosophers into Indian thought. ...

Further reading

  • Iyengar, B. K. S. (1993). Light on the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. 
  • Master E.K., The Yoga of Patanjali Kulapathi Book Trust ISBN 81-85943-05-2
Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... For other uses such as Yoga postures, see Yoga (disambiguation) Statue of Shiva performing Yogic meditation Yoga (Sanskrit: योग Yoga, IPA: ) is a group of ancient spiritual practices originating in India. ... Bhakti yoga is the Hindu term for the spiritual practice of fostering of loving devotion to God, called bhakti. ... Karma yoga (Sanskrit: कर्म योग), (also known as Buddhi Yoga) or the discipline of action is based on the teachings of the Bhagavad Gita, a sacred Sanskrit scripture of Hinduism. ... Jnana yoga is one of the four basic paths in yoga (jnana, [[Bhakti yoga|bhakti, raja and karma. ... Raja Yoga (lit. ... Agni Yoga, also called the Teaching of Living Ethics or (in Russian) the Живая этика (Zhivaya etika), is an esoteric teaching founded by the Russian painter Nicholas Roerich (Nikolai Konstantinovitch Rerikh) and his highly adept empathic wife, Helena Roerich (Elena Ivanovna Rerikh). ... Instructors adjust postures at an Anahata Yoga class Anahata Yoga is a meditative hatha yoga developed by Ana Costa. ... Anusara Yoga is a modern school of yoga started by John Friend in 1997; it is a popular hatha yoga style with a Tantric philosophy. ... Ashtanga Vinyasa Yoga is a system of yoga that has its origins in the ancient Yoga Korunta manuscript, compiled by the sage Vamana Rishi. ... Bikram Yoga, also known as Hot Yoga, is a style of yoga developed by Bikram Choudhury and a Los Angeles, California based company[1]. Bikram Yoga is ideally practiced in a room heated to 105°F (40. ... It is important to differentiate between classical vajrayana, or Tibetan Buddhist, dream yoga and the non-sectarian, psychospiritual, and contemporary discipline of Dream Yoga. ... Hatha yoga (Sanskrit हठयोग ), also called Hatha Vidya (हठविद्या), is a particular system of Yoga introduced by Yogi Swatmarama, a sage of 15th century India, and compiler of the Hatha Yoga Pradipika. ... Integral yoga or purna yoga (Sanskrit for full or complete yoga) refers in Sri Aurobindos teachings to the union of all the parts of ones being with the Divine, and the transmutation of all of their jarring elements into a harmonious state of higher divine consciousness and existence. ... Yoga is not a religion, yoga is the science of religions B.K.S. Iyengar (Light on Yoga) Iyengar Yoga, created by B.K.S. Iyengar, is a form of yoga known for its use of props, such as belts and blocks, as aids in performing asanas (postures). ... Kripalu is a health and yoga center located in Lenox, Massachusetts. ... Kriya Yoga is described by its practitioners as the ancient Yoga system revived in modern times by Mahavatar Babaji through his disciple Lahiri Mahasaya, c 1861, and brought into widespread public awareness through Paramhansa Yoganandas book Autobiography of a Yogi. ... Kundalini yoga is a physical and meditative discipline, comprising a set of simple techniques that uses the mind, senses and body to create a communication between mind and body. Kundalini yoga focuses on psycho-spiritual growth and the bodys potential for maturation, giving special consideration to the role of... Bharata natyam dance Natya Yoga, popularly known as Dance Yoga, the all-inclusive spiritual path of action, is a combination of mainly Bhakti Yoga and Karma Yoga with many elements of Hatha Yoga and Raja Yoga. ... For the meditative practice, see Sahaja Yoga meditation. ... Satyananda Yoga is a school of yoga founded by Swami Satyananda. ... Sivananda Yoga is a non-proprietary form of hatha yoga. ... The six yogas of Naropa describe a set of advanced Tibetan Buddhist tantric meditation practices compiled in and around the time of the Indian monk and mystic Naropa (1016-1100 C.E.), and conveyed to his student Marpa the translator. ... Tumo (also spelled Tummo, or Tum-mo ) is a Tibetan term for a type of contemplative practice that causes an intense sensation of body heat to arise. ... Surat Shabd Yoga or Surat Shabda Yoga is a form of spiritual practice that is followed in the Sant Mat and many other related spiritual traditions. ... Viniyoga is a word originally used to distinguish the yoga style of T. K. V. Desikachar (in the lineage of T. Krishnamacharya). ... Tsa lung[1] Trul khor (lit. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Bhagavad Gīta भगवद्गीता, composed ca the fifth - second centuries BC, is part of the epic poem Mahabharata, located in the Bhisma-Parva chapters 23–40. ... The most fundamental text of Hatha Yoga is the Hatha Yoga Pradipika, a Sanskrit classic written by Swami Swatamarama, a disciple of Swami Goraknath. ... Gheranda Samhita (Sanskrit for Gherandas Collection) is one of the three classic texts of Hatha Yoga (the other two being the Hatha Yoga Pradapika and the Shiva Samhita). ... Shiva Samhita (also Siva Samhita) is a Sanskrit text on yoga, written by an unknown author[1]. The text is addressed by the Hindu god Shiva to his consort Parvati (Shiva Samhita means Shivas Compendium). It is one of three major surviving classical treatises on hatha yoga, the other... Ten Traditional Yamas or Codes of Conduct The Yamas are codified as the restraints in numerous scriptures including the Shandilya and Varuha Upanishads, Hatha Yoga Pradipika by Gorakshanatha, the Tirumantiram of Tirumular and the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. ... The Niyamas are codified as the observances in numerous scriptures including the Shandilya and Varuha Upanishads, Hatha Yoga Pradipika by Gorakshanatha, the Tirumantiram of Tirumular and the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. ... Ardha Padmasana, or Half Lotus is an intermediate seated posture Padmasana or Lotus pose is a more advanced seated posture Asana, Sanskrit for sitting posture (asanam is sitting or ass / aste is he sits), is a body position, typically associated with the practice of Yoga, intended primarily to restore and... Pranayama (Sanskrit: ) is a Sanskrit word often translated as control of the life force (prana). ... Pratyahara is the fifth among the Eight steps of Patanjalis Ashtanga Yoga. ... Dharana (Pronounced Dhaaranaa, with a voiced, aspirated dh) is the sixth of the eight steps of Patanjalis Ashtanga Yoga. ... According to the Hindu Yoga Sutra dhyana is one of the eight methods of Yoga, (the other seven methods are Yama, Niyama, Asana, Pranayama, Pratyahara, Dharana, and Samadhi). ... Samadhi (Sanskrit, lit. ... This is a list of yoga schools and their teachers in alphabetical order with a focus on Hatha yoga. ... This is a list of common postures (also called asanas) used in Hatha Yoga. ... Ayurveda (Devanagari: ) or Ayurvedic medicine is an ancient system of health care that is native to the Indian subcontinent. ... For the Naruto jutsu, see Chakra (Naruto). ... For other uses, see Mantra (disambiguation). ... This article is an overview of Tantra and an in-depth look at the Tantra of Hinduism. ... For other uses, see Vedanta (disambiguation). ... Ancient symbolic representation of the Yogic Nadi model Nadis (Sanskrit: channel or vein)(Tamil: psychic nerve) are the channels through which, in traditional Indian medicine and spiritual science, the energies of the subtle body are said to flow. ... The term Indian philosophy may refer to any of several traditions of philosophical thought, including: Hindu philosophy Buddhist philosophy Jain philosophy Sikh philosophy Carvaka atheist philosophy Lokayata materialist philosophy Tantric religious philosophy Bhakti religious philosophy Sufi religious philosophy Ahmadi religious philosophy Political and military philosophy such as that of Chanakya... The development of logic in India dates back to the analysis of inference by Aksapada Gautama, founder of the Nyaya school of Hindu philosophy, probably in the first or second centuries BCE, and so stands as one of the three original traditions of logic, alongside the Greek and Chinese traditions. ... Hindu idealism is a precursor of western idealism and the philosophical opposite of materialism. ... // In Hinduism the Vedic pantheon comprises clans of anthropomorphic deities as well as deified natural phenomena. ... Atheism (Sanskrit: , lit. ... Hindu philosophy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Samkhya, also Sankhya, (Sanskrit: सांख्य, IAST: Sāṃkhya - Enumeration) is one of the six schools of classical Indian philosophy. ... (Sanskrit ni-āyá, literally recursion, used in the sense of syllogism, inference)) is the name given to one of the six orthodox or astika schools of Hindu philosophy—specifically the school of logic. ... Vaisheshika, also Vaisesika, (Sanskrit: वैशॆषिक)is one of the six Hindu schools of philosophy (orthodox Vedic systems) of India. ... Raja Yoga (lit. ... The main objective of the Purva (earlier) Mimamsa school was to establish the authority of the Vedas. ... For other uses, see Vedanta (disambiguation). ... Advaita Vedanta (IAST ; Sanskrit ; IPA ) is a sub-school of the Vedānta (literally, end or the goal of the Vedas, Sanskrit) school of Hindu philosophy. ... VishishtAdvaita Vedanta (IAST ;Sanskrit: विशिष्टाद्वैत)) is a sub-school of the Vedānta (literally, end or the goal of the Vedas, Sanskrit) school of Hindu philosophy, the other major sub-schools of Vedānta being Advaita and Dvaita. ... Dvaita (Devanagari:द्बैत, Kannada:ದ್ವೈತ) (also known as Tattvavada and Bheda-vada), a school of Vedanta (the most widespread Hindu philosophy) founded by Madhvacharya, stresses a strict distinction between God (Vishnu) and the individual living beings (jivas). ... Nastika is a Sanskrit term meaning: It is the antonym of astika, or one who asserts. ... (or Cārvāka Hindi चारवाक) is a system of Indian philosophy that assumed various forms of philosophical skepticism and religious indifference. ... The holiest Jain symbol is the right facing swastika, or svastika, shown above. ... Anekantavada is a basic principle of Jainism dealing with the fact that reality may be percieved diferently from different points of views. ... Syādvāda (Syadvada) is the Doctrine of Postulation of Jainism. ... Buddhist Teachings deals extensively with problems in metaphysics, phenomenology, ethics, and epistemology. ... Śūnyatā, शून्यता (Sanskrit), Suññatā (Pāli), stong pa nyid (Tibetan), Kuu, 空 (Japanese) qoÉ£usun (Mongolian), generally translated into English as Emptiness or Voidness, is a concept of central importance in the teaching of the Buddha, as a direct realization of Sunyata is required to achieve liberation from the cycle of... Madhyamaka (Also known as Åšunyavada) is a Buddhist Mahayāna tradition popularized by Nāgārjuna and AÅ›vaghoá¹£a. ... Yogācāra (Sanskrit: yoga practice), also spelled yogāchāra, is an influential school of philosophy and psychology that developed in Indian Mahayana Buddhism starting sometime in the fourth to fifth centuries C.E., also commonly known as consciousness-only or mind-only (Sanskrit: cittamātra) (although scholars increasingly... The Sautrāntika school of Buddhism split from the Sarvāstivādins sometime between 50 BCE and c. ... The Svatantrika Madhyamaka school of Buddhism is a form of Madhyamaka in which reasoning is used to establish that phenomena (dharmas) have no self-nature, and further arguments to establish that the true nature of all phenomena is emptiness. ...

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Yoga Sutras of Patanjali Learn sanskrit free mp3 for each yoga sutra by Mark Giubarelli (124 words)
Patanjali was a great sage that lived thousands of years ago.
The yoga Sutras he wrote seem to have transcended time remaining one of the most influential spiritual writings in Yoga.
Patanjali's Yoga Sutras are divided into 4 chapters of divine spiritual wisdom.
Yoga Sutras | Ashtanga Yoga | Patanjali Yoga Sutras | Pranayama and Asana (807 words)
The yoga sutras are considered to be a collection of yogic thoughts that is largely raja yogic in nature.
In yoga sutras, Patanjali suggests eight steps that are the basic principles of yoga practice to calm one's mind and unite with the infinite.
The last one of the yoga sutras is Samadhi or total absorption, is the capability of becoming one with the true self and unites into the object of concentration.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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