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Encyclopedia > Yoga
Statue of Shiva performing Yogic meditation
Statue of Shiva performing Yogic meditation

Yoga (Sanskrit: योग Yog, IPA[joːgə]) is a group of ancient spiritual practices designed for the purpose of cultivating a steady mind. It originated in India[1] possibly as early as 3300 BCE. A practitioner of Yoga is called a Yogi or Yogini. Ardha Padmasana, or Half Lotus is an intermediate seated posture Padmasana or Lotus pose is a more advanced seated posture Asana, Sanskrit for sitting posture (asanam is sitting or ass / aste is he sits), is a body position, typically associated with the practice of Yoga, intended primarily to restore and... Yoga (Devanagari: योग) is a group of ancient spiritual practices originating in India. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (768x1024, 106 KB) Summary This image has been (or is hereby) released into the public domain by its creator, Deepak gupta. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (768x1024, 106 KB) Summary This image has been (or is hereby) released into the public domain by its creator, Deepak gupta. ... For other uses, see Shiva (disambiguation). ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... (34th century BC - 33rd century BC - 32nd century BC - other centuries) (5th millennium BC - 4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC) Events Unification of the first Ancient Egyptian state, marking the beginning of the Ancient Egyptian civilization. ... A sculpture of a Hindu yogi in the Birla Mandir, Delhi A yogi (Sanskrit feminine: yogini) is a term for a male who practices various forms of the path of Yoga, maintaining a steadfast mind, the process of transcending the lower self. ... A 10th century sculpture of a yogini from the Smithsonian Institute A yogini (Sanskrit) is the female origin of a practicing male yogi: having a steadfast mind cultivated by the disciplined pursuit of transcendance through Yoga. ...


Yoga has been defined as "technologies or disciplines of asceticism and meditation which are thought to lead to spiritual experiences and a profound understanding or insight into the nature of existence."[2] Outside India, yoga is mostly associated with the practice of asanas (postures) of Hatha Yoga or as a form of exercise. Ascetic redirects here. ... For other senses of this word, see Meditation (disambiguation). ... A drawing of a girl in lotus pose Students taking a yoga class A woman in the Lotus position A yoga instructor performing an asana Asana is a Sanskrit word that literally means a seat but in the practise of yoga refers to a pose or posture. ... Hatha yoga (Sanskrit हठयोग ), also called Hatha Vidya (हठविद्या), is a particular system of Yoga introduced by Yogi Swatmarama, a sage of 15th century India, and compiler of the Hatha Yoga Pradipika. ... A western style hatha yoga class. ...


Many Hindu texts discuss aspects of yoga, including the Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita, the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, the Hatha Yoga Pradipika, and the Shiva Samhita.[1][3] Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Upanishads (उपनिषद्, Upanişad) are part of the Hindu Shruti scriptures which primarily discuss meditation and philosophy and are seen as religious instructions by most schools of Hinduism. ... Bhagavad Gīta भगवद्गीता, composed ca the fifth - second centuries BC, is part of the epic poem Mahabharata, located in the Bhisma-Parva chapters 23–40. ... This is an article about the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. ... The most fundamental text of Hatha Yoga is the Hatha Yoga Pradipika, a Sanskrit classic written by Swami Swatamarama, a disciple of Swami Goraknath. ... Shiva Samhita (also Siva Samhita) is a Sanskrit text on yoga, written by an unknown author[1]. The text is addressed by the Hindu god Shiva to his consort Parvati (Shiva Samhita means Shivas Compendium). It is one of three major surviving classical treatises on hatha yoga, the other...


Major branches of yoga include: Hatha Yoga, Karma Yoga, Jnana Yoga, Bhakti Yoga, and Raja Yoga.[4] [5] [6] Raja Yoga, established by the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, and known simply as yoga in the context of Hindu philosophy, is one of the six orthodox (āstika) schools of thought. Hatha yoga (Sanskrit हठयोग ), also called Hatha Vidya (हठविद्या), is a particular system of Yoga introduced by Yogi Swatmarama, a sage of 15th century India, and compiler of the Hatha Yoga Pradipika. ... Karma yoga (Sanskrit: कर्म योग), (also known as Buddhi Yoga) or the discipline of action is based on the teachings of the Bhagavad Gita, a sacred Sanskrit scripture of Hinduism. ... Jnana yoga is one of the four basic paths in yoga (jnana, [[Bhakti yoga|bhakti, raja and karma. ... Bhakti yoga is the Hindu term for the spiritual practice of fostering of loving devotion to God, called bhakti. ... Raja Yoga (lit. ... This is an article about the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. ... Hindu philosophy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Category: ...


The Sanskrit term yoga has many meanings.[7] It is derived from the Sanskrit root yuj, "to control", "to yoke", or "to unite".[8] Common meanings include "joining" or "uniting", and related ideas such as "union" and "conjunction".[9] Another conceptual definition is that of "mode, manner, means"[10] or "expedient, means in general".[11] Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ...

Contents

History of Yoga

Indus Valley seals

A seal from the Indus Valley Civilization, showing a figure in meditation posture.

Several seals discovered at Indus Valley Civilization (c. 3300–1700 BC) sites depict figures in a yoga- or meditation-like posture, "a form of ritual discipline, suggesting a precursor of yoga." [12] Archaeologist Gregory Possehl points to 16 specific "yogi glyptics"[13] in the corpus of Mature Harappan artifacts as pointing to Harappan devotion to "ritual discipline and concentration." These images show that the yoga pose "may have been used by deities and humans alike."[14] Image File history File links This work is copyrighted. ... Image File history File links This work is copyrighted. ... Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro. ... Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro. ... Gregory Possehl is a Professor of Anthropology at the University of Pennsylvania. ...


The most widely known of these images was named the "Pashupati seal"[15] by its discoverer, John Marshall, who believed that it represented a "proto-Shiva" figure.[16] Many modern authorities discount the idea that this "Pashupati" (Lord of Animals, Sanskrit paśupati)[17] represents a Shiva or Rudra figure.[18][19] Gavin Flood characterizes the Shiva or Rudra view as "speculative", and goes on to say that it is not clear from the 'Pashupati' seal that the figure is seated in a yoga posture, or that the shape is intended to represent a human figure.[20][21] Authorities who support the idea that the 'Pashupati' figure shows a figure in a yoga or meditation posture include Archaeologist Jonathan Mark Kenoyer, current Co-director of the Harappa Archaeological Research Project in Pakistan[22][23] and Indologist Heinrich Zimmer.[24] Pashupati(Sanskrit: lord of animals) is a god associated with animals and nature. ... John Hubert Marshall was an English archaeologist, excavator of the prehistoric city of Taxila in the Himalayas, in todays Pakistan, and of other sites throughout India. ... Jonathan Mark Kenoyer is an archaeologist and professor of Anthropology at the University of Wisconsin Madison. ... Heinrich Zimmer Heinrich Zimmer (b. ...


Literary sources

See also: History of Yoga

Ascetic practices (tapas) are referenced in the Brāhmaṇas (900 BCE and 500 BCE),[25] early commentaries on the vedas. In the Upanishads, an early reference to meditation is made in Brihadaranyaka Upanishad,[26] one of the earliest Upanishads (approx. 900 BCE). The main textual sources for the evolving concept of Yoga are the middle Upanishads, (ca. 400 BCE), the Mahabharata (5th c. BCE) including the Bhagavad Gita (ca. 200 BCE), the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali (200 BCE-300 CE) and Narada Bhakti Sutra[27]. History of Yoga. ... It has been suggested that Tapasya be merged into this article or section. ... The Brahmana (Sanskrit ब्राह्मण) are part of the Hindu Shruti; They are composed in Vedic Sanskrit, and the period of their composition is sometimes referred to as the Brahmanic period or age (approximately between 900 BC and 500 BC). ... The Upanishad is believed to be one of the older, primary (mukhya) Upanishads. ... The Upanishads (उपनिषद्, Upanişad) are part of the Hindu Shruti scriptures which primarily discuss meditation and philosophy and are seen as religious instructions by most schools of Hinduism. ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... Bhagavad Gīta भगवद्गीता, composed ca the fifth - second centuries BC, is part of the epic poem Mahabharata, located in the Bhisma-Parva chapters 23–40. ... This is an article about the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. ...


Bhagavad Gita

Main article: Bhagavad Gita

The Bhagavad Gita ('Song of the Lord'), uses the term yoga extensively in a variety of senses. Of many possible meanings given to the term in the Gita, most emphasis is given to these three:[28] Bhagavad Gīta भगवद्गीता, composed ca the fifth - second centuries BC, is part of the epic poem Mahabharata, located in the Bhisma-Parva chapters 23–40. ...

The influential commentator Madhusudana Sarasvati (b. circa 1490) divided the Gita's eighteen chapters into three sections, each of six chapters. According to his method of division the first six chapters deal with Karma yoga, the middle six deal with Bhakti yoga, and the last six deal with Jnana (knowledge).[29] This interpretation has been adopted by some later commentators and rejected by others. Karma yoga (Sanskrit: कर्म योग), (also known as Buddhi Yoga) or the discipline of action is based on the teachings of the Bhagavad Gita, a sacred Sanskrit scripture of Hinduism. ... Bhakti yoga is the Hindu term for the spiritual practice of fostering of loving devotion to God, called bhakti. ... Jnana yoga is one of the four basic paths in yoga (jnana, [[Bhakti yoga|bhakti, raja and karma. ... Madhusūdana Sarasvatī (c. ...


Yoga Sutras of Patanjali

In Indian philosophy, Yoga is the name of one of the six orthodox philosophical schools.[30][31] The Yoga philosophical system is closely allied with the Samkhya school.[32] The Yoga school as expounded by Patanjali accepts the Samkhya psychology and metaphysics, but is more theistic than the Samkhya, as evidenced by the addition of a divine entity to the Samkhya's twenty-five elements of reality.[33][34] The parallels between Yoga and Samkhya were so close that Max Müller says that "the two philosophies were in popular parlance distinguished from each other as Samkhya with and Samkhya without a Lord...."[35] The intimate relationship between Samkhya and Yoga is explained by Heinrich Zimmer: Raja Yoga (lit. ... This is an article about the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. ... The term Indian philosophy may refer to any of several traditions of philosophical thought, including: Hindu philosophy Buddhist philosophy Jain philosophy Sikh philosophy Carvaka atheist philosophy Lokayata materialist philosophy Tantric religious philosophy Bhakti religious philosophy Sufi religious philosophy Ahmadi religious philosophy Political and military philosophy such as that of Chanakya... AstikA is a brewery making a blond pilsner with an alcohol content of 5% ABV in the cito of Haskovo, in Southern Bulgaria. ... Samkhya, also Sankhya, (Sanskrit: सांख्य, IAST: Sāṃkhya - Enumeration) is one of the six schools of classical Indian philosophy. ... Max Müller as a young man Friedrich Max Müller (December 6, 1823 – October 28, 1900), more commonly known as Max Müller, was a German philologist and Orientalist, one of the founders of Indian studies, who virtually created the discipline of comparative religion. ... Heinrich Zimmer Heinrich Zimmer (b. ...

These two are regarded in India as twins, the two aspects of a single discipline. Sāṅkhya provides a basic theoretical exposition of human nature, enumerating and defining its elements, analyzing their manner of co-operation in a state of bondage (bandha), and describing their state of disentanglement or separation in release (mokṣa), while Yoga treats specifically of the dynamics of the process for the disentanglement, and outlines practical techniques for the gaining of release, or 'isolation-integration' (kaivalya).[36]

The sage Patanjali is regarded as the founder of the formal Yoga philosophy.[37] The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali are ascribed to Patanjali, who, as Max Müller explains, may have been "the author or representative of the Yoga-philosophy without being necessarily the author of the Sutras."[38] Indologist Axel Michaels is dismissive of claims that the work was written by Patanjali, characterizing it instead as a collection of fragments and traditions of texts stemming from the second or third century.[39] Gavin Flood cites a wider period of uncertainty for the composition, between 100 BCE and 500 CE.[40] This is an article about the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. ...


Patanjali's yoga is known as Raja yoga, which is a system for control of the mind.[41] Patanjali defines the word "yoga" in his second sutra, which is the definitional sutra for his entire work: Raja Yoga (lit. ...

योग: चित्त-वृत्ति निरोध:
( yogaś citta-vṛtti-nirodhaḥ )

- Yoga Sutras 1.2

This terse definition hinges on the meaning of three Sanskrit terms. I. K. Taimni translates it as "Yoga is the inhibition (nirodhaḥ) of the modifications (vṛtti) of the mind (citta)".[42] Swami Vivekananda translates the sutra as "Yoga is restraining the mind-stuff (Citta) from taking various forms (Vrittis)."[43] Gavin Flood translates the sutra as "yoga is the cessation of mental fluctuations".[44] Swami Vivekananda (Sanskrit: , Svāmi Vivekānanda) (January 12, 1863 – July 4, 1902), whose pre-monastic name was Narendranath Dutta (Bengali: , Nôrendrônath Dôt-tô), was one of the most famous and influential spiritual leaders of the philosophies of Vedanta and Yoga. ...

A sculpture of a Hindu yogi in the Birla Mandir, Delhi
A sculpture of a Hindu yogi in the Birla Mandir, Delhi

Patanjali's writing also became the basis for a system referred to it as "Ashtanga Yoga" ("Eight-Limbed Yoga"). This eight-limbed concept derived from the 29th Sutra of the 2nd book became a feature of Raja yoga, and is a core characteristic of practically every Raja yoga variation taught today.[1]The Eight Limbs of yoga practice are: Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1944x2592, 1708 KB) Description: Yogi in Birla Mandir Source: photo taken by User:Deepak Date: 26th December 2006 Permission: User:Deepak released it on 27th December 2005 under CC-BY-SA-2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1944x2592, 1708 KB) Description: Yogi in Birla Mandir Source: photo taken by User:Deepak Date: 26th December 2006 Permission: User:Deepak released it on 27th December 2005 under CC-BY-SA-2. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... The Birla Mandir is one of the most famous Vaishnavite temples in India. ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ...

(1) Yama (The five "abstentions"): nonviolence, truth, non-covetousness, chastity, and abstain from attachment to possessions.
(2) Niyama (The five "observances"): purity, contentment, austerities, study, and surrender to god
(3) Asana: Literally means "seat", and in Patanjali's Sutras refers to seated positions used for meditation. Later, with the rise of Hatha yoga, asana came to refer to all the "postures"
(4) Pranayama ("Lengthening Prāna"): Prāna, life force, or vital energy, particularly, the breath, "āyāma", to lengthen or extend
(5) Pratyahara ("Abstraction"): Withdrawal of the sense organs from external objects.
(6) Dharana ("Concentration"): Fixing the attention on a single object
(7) Dhyana ("Meditation"): Intense contemplation of the nature of the object of meditation
(8) Samadhi ("Liberation"): merging consciousness with the object of meditation

They are sometimes divided into the lower and the upper four limbs, the lower ones being parallel to the lower limbs of Hatha Yoga, while the upper ones being specific for the Raja yoga. The upper three limbs practiced simultaneously constitute the Samyama. Ten Traditional Yamas or Codes of Conduct The Yamas are codified as the restraints in numerous scriptures including the Shandilya and Varuha Upanishads, Hatha Yoga Pradipika by Gorakshanatha, the Tirumantiram of Tirumular and the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. ... The Niyamas are codified as the observances in numerous scriptures including the Shandilya and Varuha Upanishads, Hatha Yoga Pradipika by Gorakshanatha, the Tirumantiram of Tirumular and the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. ... This article is about the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Ardha Padmasana, or Half Lotus is an intermediate seated posture Padmasana or Lotus pose is a more advanced seated posture Asana, Sanskrit for sitting posture (asanam is sitting or ass / aste is he sits), is a body position, typically associated with the practice of Yoga, intended primarily to restore and... Pranayama (Sanskrit: ) is a Sanskrit word often translated as control of the life force (prana). ... Pratyahara is the fifth among the Eight steps of Patanjalis Ashtanga Yoga. ... Dharana (Pronounced Dhaaranaa, with a voiced, aspirated dh) is the sixth of the eight steps of Patanjalis Ashtanga Yoga. ... Dhyāna is a term in Sanskrit which refers to a type or aspect of meditation. ... Samadhi (Sanskrit, lit. ... Hatha yoga (Sanskrit हठयोग ), also called Hatha Vidya (हठविद्या), is a particular system of Yoga introduced by Yogi Swatmarama, a sage of 15th century India, and compiler of the Hatha Yoga Pradipika. ... Raja Yoga (lit. ... Combined simultaneous practice of Dharana, Dhyana & Samadhi. ...


It details every aspect of the meditative process, and the preparation for it. The book is available in as many as 40 English translations, both in-print and on-line.[2][3][4][5][6][7][8] [9]


Hatha Yoga Pradipika

Main article: Hatha yoga

Hatha Yoga is a particular system of Yoga described by Yogi Swatmarama, a yogic sage of the 15th century in India, and compiler of the Hatha Yoga Pradipika. Hatha Yoga is a development of — but also differs substantially from — the Raja Yoga of Patanjali, in that it focuses on shatkarma, the purification of the physical as leading to the purification of the mind (ha), and prana, or vital energy (tha).[45][46] In contrast, the Raja Yoga posited by Patanjali begins with a purification of the mind (yamas) and spirit (niyamas), then comes to the body via asana (body postures) and pranayama (breath). Hatha yoga contains substantial tantric influence,[47][48] and marks the first point at which chakras and kundalini were introduced into the yogic canon. Compared to the seated asanas of Patanjali's Raja yoga which were seen largely as a means of preparing for meditation, it also marks the development of asanas as full body 'postures' in the modern sense.[49] Hatha yoga (Sanskrit हठयोग ), also called Hatha Vidya (हठविद्या), is a particular system of Yoga introduced by Yogi Swatmarama, a sage of 15th century India, and compiler of the Hatha Yoga Pradipika. ... Yogi Swatmarama was a 15th and 16th century yogic sage in India. ... The most fundamental text of Hatha Yoga is the Hatha Yoga Pradipika, a Sanskrit classic written by Swami Swatamarama, a disciple of Swami Goraknath. ... Raja Yoga (lit. ... Shatkarma is a Sanskrit word that refers to the Yogic practices involving purificaton of the body. ... Prana (, IAST: ) is a Sanskrit word meaning breath and refers to a vital, life-sustaining force of living beings and vital energy in natural processes of the universe. ... Ardha Padmasana, or Half Lotus is an intermediate seated posture Padmasana or Lotus pose is a more advanced seated posture Asana, Sanskrit for sitting posture (asanam is sitting or ass / aste is he sits), is a body position, typically associated with the practice of Yoga, intended primarily to restore and... Pranayama (Sanskrit: ) is a Sanskrit word often translated as control of the life force (prana). ... This article is an overview of Tantra and an in-depth look at the Tantra of Hinduism. ... In Hinduism and its spiritual systems of yoga and in some related eastern cultures, as well as in some segments of the New Age movement, a chakra (from the Sanskrit word चक्र meaning wheel, circle) is thought to be an energy node in the human body. ... Kundalini ( ) is a Sanskrit word meaning either coiled up or coiling like a snake. ...


Hatha Yoga in its many modern variations is the style that most people actually associate with the word "Yoga" today.[50] Because its emphasis is on the body through asana and pranayama practice, many western students are satisfied with the physical health and vitality it develops and are not interested in the other six limbs of the complete Hatha yoga teaching, or with the even older Raja Yoga tradition it is based on.


Yoga in other traditions

Yoga and Buddhism

Main article: Yoga and Buddhism

Yoga is intimately connected to the religious beliefs and practices of the Indian religions.[51] The influence of Yoga is also visible in Buddhism, which is distinguished by its austerities, spiritual exercises, and trance states.[52][53] It has been suggested that Buddha as an Avatar of Vishnu be merged into this article or section. ... Statue of Jain God Bahubali in Shravanabelagola, Karnataka attracts thousands of devotees. ... Buddhism is a variety of teachings, sometimes described as a religion[1] or way of life that attempts to identify the causes of human suffering and offer various ways that are claimed to end, or ease suffering. ...


Yogacara Buddhism

Yogacara (Sanskrit: "Practice of Yoga [Union]"[54] ), also spelled yogāchāra, is a school of philosophy and psychology that developed in India during the 4th to 5th centuries. Yogācāra (Sanskrit: yoga practice), also spelled yogāchāra, is an influential school of philosophy and psychology that developed in Indian Mahayana Buddhism starting sometime in the fourth to fifth centuries C.E., also commonly known as consciousness-only or mind-only (Sanskrit: cittamātra) (although scholars increasingly...


Yogacara received the name as it provided a yoga, a framework for engaging in the practices that lead to the path of the bodhisattva.[55] The Yogacara sect teaches yoga in order to reach enlightenment.[56] Lands Bhutan â€¢ China â€¢ Korea Japan â€¢ Tibet â€¢ Vietnam Taiwan â€¢ Mongolia Doctrine Bodhisattva â€¢ Bodhicitta Karuna â€¢ Prajna Sunyata â€¢ Buddha Nature Trikaya â€¢ Eternal Buddha Scriptures Prajnaparamita Sutra Avatamsaka Sutra Lotus Sutra Nirvana Sutra VimalakÄ«rti Sutra Lankavatara Sutra History 4th Buddhist Council Silk Road â€¢ Nagarjuna Asanga â€¢ Vasubandhu Bodhidharma      A statue of a Bodhisattva, Akasagarbha. ...


Ch`an (Zen) Buddhism

Zen (the name of which derives from the Sanskrit "dhyana" via the Chinese "ch'an"[57]) is a form of Mahayana Buddhism. The Mahayana school of Buddhism is noted for its proximity with Yoga.[53] In the west, Zen is often set alongside Yoga; the two schools of meditation display obvious family resemblances.[58] This phenomenon merits special attention since the Zen Buddhist school of meditation has some of its roots in yogic practices.[59] Certain essential elements of Yoga are important both for Buddhism in general and for Zen in particular.[1] Relief image of the bodhisattva Guan Yin from Mt. ...


Tibetan Buddhism

Yoga is central to Tibetan Buddhism. In the Nyingma tradition, practitioners progress to increasingly profound levels of yoga, starting with Mahā yoga, continuing to Anu yoga and ultimately undertaking the highest practice, Ati yoga. In the Sarma traditions, the Anuttara yoga class is equivalent. Other tantra yoga practices include a system of 108 bodily postures practiced with breath and heart rhythm. Timing in movement exercises is known as Trul khor or union of moon and sun (channel) prajna energies. The body postures of Tibetan ancient yogis are depicted on the walls of the Dalai Lama's summer temple of Lukhang. A semi-popular account of Tibetan Yoga by Chang (1993) refers to Dumo, the generation of heat in one's own body, as being "the very foundation of the whole of Tibetan Yoga" (Chang, 1993, p7). Chang also claims that Tibetan Yoga involves reconciliation of apparent polarities, such as prana and mind, relating this to theoretical implications of tantrism. Tibetan Buddhism[1] is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet and the Himalayan regions, which include northern Nepal, Bhutan, India (Arunachal Pradesh, Ladakh and Sikkim), Mongolia, Russia (Kalmykia, Buryatia and Tuva) and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ... Guru Rinpoche - Padmasambhava statue - near Kullu, India The Nyingma tradition is the oldest of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism (the other three being the Kagyu, Sakya and Gelug). ... Mahayoga (Skt. ... Anuyoga (Skt. ... This article refers to the primordial state as considered in Tibetan Buddhism and Bon. ... Sarma is a common surname used by people in India, particulary from the North-Eastern States in the country and also in the southern states. ... Anuttara Yoga Tantra (Highest Yoga Tantra or Highest Union Continuity) is the highest of four or six levels (depending on school) of Buddhist tantra, characterized by the symbolic use of sexual and wrathful energy to effect transformation and attain enlightenment. ... Trul khor (lit. ... Lukhang is the name of a secret temple of Dalai Lamas. ... Prana (, IAST: ) is a Sanskrit word meaning breath and refers to a vital, life-sustaining force of living beings and vital energy in natural processes of the universe. ... Tantra (Sanskrit: loom), tantric yoga or tantrism is any of several esoteric traditions rooted in Hindu and Buddhist philosophy. ...


Yoga and Tantra

Main article: Tantra

Tantrism is a practice that is supposed to alter the relation of its practitioners to the ordinary social, religious, and logical reality in which they live. Through Tantric practice an individual perceives reality as maya, illusion, and the individual achieves liberation from it.[60] This article is an overview of Tantra and an in-depth look at the Tantra of Hinduism. ... Tantric can refer to: Tantric yoga, also known as tantra The Louisville, KY hard rock band Tantric This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Maya (illusion) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


This particular path to salvation among the several offered by Hinduism, links Tantrism to those practices of Indian religions, such as yoga, meditation, and social renunciation, which are based on temporary or permanent withdrawal from social relationships and modes.[60] Statue of Jain God Bahubali in Shravanabelagola, Karnataka attracts thousands of devotees. ... Nekkhamma (Renunciation) is one of the ten paramis or perfections that a bodhisattva must develop in order to become a Buddha. ...


During tantric practices and studies, the student is instructed further in meditation technique, particularly chakra meditation. This is often in a limited form in comparison with the way this kind of meditation is known and used by Tantric practitioners and yogis elsewhere, but is more elaborate than the initiate's previous meditation. It is considered to be a kind of Kundalini Yoga for the purpose of moving the Goddess into the chakra located in the "heart," for meditation and worship.[61] For the Naruto jutsu, see Chakra (Naruto). ... Kundalini yoga is a physical and meditative discipline, comprising a set of simple techniques that uses the mind, senses and body to create a communication between mind and body. Kundalini yoga focuses on psycho-spiritual growth and the bodys potential for maturation, giving special consideration to the role of...


Goal of Yoga

There are numerous opinions on what the goal of Yoga may be. Goals can range from improving health and fitness, to reaching Moksha. For other uses, see Moksha (disambiguation). ...


However, the most common opinion on the goal of yoga, is to reach enlightment. The work of asanas, kriyas and mudras are all tools on the path to enlightment. A drawing of a girl in lotus pose Students taking a yoga class A woman in the Lotus position A yoga instructor performing an asana Asana is a Sanskrit word that literally means a seat but in the practise of yoga refers to a pose or posture. ... A kriya (from the Sanskrit, deed, operation, effort) is a technique or practice within a yoga discipline, or more generally any practice with the goal of attaining higher knowledge. ... Contents // Categories: Stub ...


Within the monist schools of Advaita Vedanta and Shaivism this perfection takes the form of Moksha, which is liberation from all worldly suffering and the cycle of birth and death (Samsara) at which point there is a realisation of identity with the Supreme Brahman. For the bhakti schools of Vaishnavism, bhakti or service to Svayam bhagavan itself is the ultimate goal of the yoga process,[27] wherein perfection culminates in an eternal relationship with Vishnu, Rama or Krsna, depending on the affiliation.[62] For other uses, see Monist (disambiguation). ... Advaita Vedanta (IAST ; Sanskrit ; IPA ) is a sub-school of the Vedānta (literally, end or the goal of the Vedas, Sanskrit) school of Hindu philosophy. ... This article is about the religion Shaivism. ... For other uses, see Moksha (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Samsara (disambiguation). ... Brahman (nominative ) is a concept of Hinduism. ... Bhakti (Devanāgarī: भक्ति) is a word of Sanskrit origin meaning devotion and also the path of devotion itself, as in Bhakti-Yoga. ... Vaishnavism is one of the principal traditions of Hinduism, and is distinguished from other schools by its primary worship of Vishnu (and his associated avatars) as the Supreme God. ... For other meanings, see Vishnu (disambiguation). ... This article is about the incarnation of Vishnu. ... This article is about Krishna, the eighth avatar of Vishnu. ...

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Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Bhakti yoga is the Hindu term for the spiritual practice of fostering of loving devotion to God, called bhakti. ... Karma yoga (Sanskrit: कर्म योग), (also known as Buddhi Yoga) or the discipline of action is based on the teachings of the Bhagavad Gita, a sacred Sanskrit scripture of Hinduism. ... Jnana yoga is one of the four basic paths in yoga (jnana, [[Bhakti yoga|bhakti, raja and karma. ... Raja Yoga (lit. ... Agni Yoga, also called the Teaching of Living Ethics or (in Russian) the Живая этика (Zhivaya etika), is an esoteric teaching founded by the Russian painter Nicholas Roerich (Nikolai Konstantinovitch Rerikh) and his highly adept empathic wife, Helena Roerich (Elena Ivanovna Rerikh). ... Instructors adjust postures at an Anahata Yoga class Anahata Yoga is a meditative hatha yoga developed by Ana Costa. ... Ashtanga Vinyasa Yoga is a system of yoga that has its origins in the ancient Yoga Korunta manuscript, compiled by the sage Vamana Rishi. ... It is important to differentiate between classical vajrayana, or Tibetan Buddhist, dream yoga and the non-sectarian, psychospiritual, and contemporary discipline of Dream Yoga. ... Hatha yoga (Sanskrit हठयोग ), also called Hatha Vidya (हठविद्या), is a particular system of Yoga introduced by Yogi Swatmarama, a sage of 15th century India, and compiler of the Hatha Yoga Pradipika. ... Integral yoga or purna yoga (Sanskrit for full or complete yoga) refers in Sri Aurobindos teachings to the union of all the parts of ones being with the Divine, and the transmutation of all of their jarring elements into a harmonious state of higher divine consciousness and existence. ... Kriya Yoga is described by its practitioners as the ancient Yoga system revived in modern times by Mahavatar Babaji through his disciple Lahiri Mahasaya, c 1861, and brought into widespread public awareness through Paramhansa Yoganandas book Autobiography of a Yogi. ... Kundalini yoga is a physical and meditative discipline, comprising a set of simple techniques that uses the mind, senses and body to create a communication between mind and body. Kundalini yoga focuses on psycho-spiritual growth and the bodys potential for maturation, giving special consideration to the role of... Bharata natyam dance Natya Yoga, popularly known as Dance Yoga, the all-inclusive spiritual path of action, is a combination of mainly Bhakti Yoga and Karma Yoga with many elements of Hatha Yoga and Raja Yoga. ... The six yogas of Naropa describe a set of advanced Tibetan Buddhist tantric meditation practices compiled in and around the time of the Indian monk and mystic Naropa (1016-1100 C.E.), and conveyed to his student Marpa the translator. ... Tumo (also spelled Tummo, or Tum-mo ) is a Tibetan term for a type of contemplative practice that causes an intense sensation of body heat to arise. ... Surat Shabd Yoga or Surat Shabda Yoga is a form of spiritual practice that is followed in the Sant Mat and many other related spiritual traditions. ... Viniyoga is a word originally used to distinguish the yoga style of T. K. V. Desikachar (in the lineage of T. Krishnamacharya). ... Tsa lung[1] Trul khor (lit. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Bhagavad Gīta भगवद्गीता, composed ca the fifth - second centuries BC, is part of the epic poem Mahabharata, located in the Bhisma-Parva chapters 23–40. ... This is an article about the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. ... The most fundamental text of Hatha Yoga is the Hatha Yoga Pradipika, a Sanskrit classic written by Swami Swatamarama, a disciple of Swami Goraknath. ... Gheranda Samhita (Sanskrit for Gherandas Collection) is one of the three classic texts of Hatha Yoga (the other two being the Hatha Yoga Pradapika and the Shiva Samhita). ... Shiva Samhita (also Siva Samhita) is a Sanskrit text on yoga, written by an unknown author[1]. The text is addressed by the Hindu god Shiva to his consort Parvati (Shiva Samhita means Shivas Compendium). It is one of three major surviving classical treatises on hatha yoga, the other... Ten Traditional Yamas or Codes of Conduct The Yamas are codified as the restraints in numerous scriptures including the Shandilya and Varuha Upanishads, Hatha Yoga Pradipika by Gorakshanatha, the Tirumantiram of Tirumular and the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. ... The Niyamas are codified as the observances in numerous scriptures including the Shandilya and Varuha Upanishads, Hatha Yoga Pradipika by Gorakshanatha, the Tirumantiram of Tirumular and the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. ... Ardha Padmasana, or Half Lotus is an intermediate seated posture Padmasana or Lotus pose is a more advanced seated posture Asana, Sanskrit for sitting posture (asanam is sitting or ass / aste is he sits), is a body position, typically associated with the practice of Yoga, intended primarily to restore and... Pranayama (Sanskrit: ) is a Sanskrit word often translated as control of the life force (prana). ... Pratyahara is the fifth among the Eight steps of Patanjalis Ashtanga Yoga. ... Dharana (Pronounced Dhaaranaa, with a voiced, aspirated dh) is the sixth of the eight steps of Patanjalis Ashtanga Yoga. ... According to the Hindu Yoga Sutra dhyana is one of the eight methods of Yoga, (the other seven methods are Yama, Niyama, Asana, Pranayama, Pratyahara, Dharana, and Samadhi). ... Samadhi (Sanskrit, lit. ... This is a list of yoga schools and their teachers in alphabetical order with a focus on Hatha yoga. ... This is a list of common postures (also called asanas) used in Hatha Yoga. ... Ayurveda (Devanagari: ) or Ayurvedic medicine is an ancient system of health care that is native to the Indian subcontinent. ... For the Naruto jutsu, see Chakra (Naruto). ... For other uses, see Mantra (disambiguation). ... This article is an overview of Tantra and an in-depth look at the Tantra of Hinduism. ... For other uses, see Vedanta (disambiguation). ... Ancient symbolic representation of the Yogic Nadi model Nadis (Sanskrit: channel or vein)(Tamil: psychic nerve) are the channels through which, in traditional Indian medicine and spiritual science, the energies of the subtle body are said to flow. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Zen Buddhism: A History (India and China) By Heinrich Dumoulin, James W. Heisig, Paul F. Knitter (page 13)
  2. ^ Note: Definition given by Gavin Flood, Academic Director of the Oxford Centre for Hindu Studies ochs.org.uk, Flood (1996), p. 94.
  3. ^ Qigong: Essence of the Healing Dance - Page 268 by Garri Garripoli
  4. ^ Pandit Usharbudh Arya (1985). The philosophy of hatha yoga. Himalayan Institute Press; 2nd ed.
  5. ^ Sri Swami Rama (2008) The royal path: Practical lessons on yoga. Himalayan Institute Press; New Ed edition.
  6. ^ Swami Prabhavananda (Translator), Christopher Isherwood (Translator), Patanjali (Author). (1996). Vedanta Press; How to know god: The yoga aphorisms of Patanjali. New Ed edition.
  7. ^ For a list of 38 meanings of the word "yoga" see: Apte, p. 788.
  8. ^ For "yoga" as derived from the Sanskrit root "yuj" with meanings of "to control", "to yoke, or "to unite" see: Flood (1996), p. 94.
  9. ^ For meaning 1. joining, uniting, and 2., union, junction, combination see: Apte, p. 788.
  10. ^ For "mode, manner, means", see: Apte, p. 788, definition 5.
  11. ^ For "expedient, means in general", see: Apte, p. 788, definition 13.
  12. ^ archaeologist Gregory Possehl (2003), p. 144
  13. ^ Possehl (2003), p. 145
  14. ^ Possehl (2003), p. 144
  15. ^ Marshall, Sir John, Mohenjo Daro and the Indus Civilization, London 1931
  16. ^ Flood (1996), pp. 28-29.
  17. ^ For translation of paśupati as "Lord of Animals" see: Michaels, p. 312.
  18. ^ Keay, p. 14.
  19. ^ Possehl (2003), p. 143
  20. ^ Flood (1996), pp. 28-29.
  21. ^ Flood (2003), pp. 204-205.
  22. ^ Kenoyer describes the figure as "seated in yogic position" with "the heels...pressed together under the groin." Around the Indus in 90 Slides by Jonathan Mark Kenoyer
  23. ^ Around the Indus in 90 Slides copyright information
  24. ^ Zimmer describes the figure as "seated like a yogi." Zimmer, Heinrich, Myths and Symbols in Indian Art and Civilization. Princeton University Press; New Ed edition (May 1, 1972). ISBN 978-0691017785
  25. ^ Flood, p. 94.
  26. ^ Flood, p. 94.
  27. ^ a b c Narada Bhakti Sutra: The Secrets of Transcendental Love, comm. by A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada,Satsvarupa Dasa Goswami ISBN 0892132736 Text 18 "Mukti, or liberation... is also not the ultimate goal... devotional service [bhakti] surpasses all other forms of liberation."
  28. ^ Flood, p. 96.
  29. ^ Gambhirananda, p. 16.
  30. ^ For an overview of the six orthodox schools, with detail on the grouping of schools, see: Radhakrishnan and Moore, "Contents", and pp. 453-487.
  31. ^ For a brief overview of the Yoga school of philosophy see: Chatterjee and Datta, p. 43.
  32. ^ For close connection between Yoga philosophy and Samkhya, see: Chatterjee and Datta, p. 43.
  33. ^ For Yoga acceptance of Samkhya concepts, but with addition of a category for God, see: Radhakrishnan and Moore, p. 453.
  34. ^ For Yoga as accepting the 25 principles of Samkhya with the addition of God, see: Chatterjee and Datta, p. 43.
  35. ^ Müller (1899), Chapter 7, "Yoga Philosophy", p. 104.
  36. ^ Zimmer (1951), p. 280.
  37. ^ For Patanjali as the founder of the philosophical system called Yoga see: Chatterjee and Datta, p. 42.
  38. ^ Müeller (1899), Chapter 7, "Yoga Philosophy", pp. 97-98.
  39. ^ For the Yoga Sutras as a collection dating to second or third century, see: Michaels, p. 267.
  40. ^ For dating between 100 BCE and 500 CE see: Flood (1996), page 96.
  41. ^ For "raja yoga" as a system for control of the mind and connection to Patanjali's Yoga Sutras as a key work, see: Flood (1996), pp. 96-98.
  42. ^ For text and word-by-word translation as "Yoga is the inhibition of the modifications of the mind" see: Taimni, p. 6.
  43. ^ Vivekanada, p. 115.
  44. ^ For "yoga is the cessation of mental fluctuations" see: Flood (1996), p. 96.
  45. ^ Living Yoga: Creating a Life Practice - Page 42 by Christy Turlington (page 42)
  46. ^ Guiding Yoga's Light: Yoga Lessons for Yoga Teachers - Page 10 by Nancy Gerstein
  47. ^ Mindfulness Yoga: The Awakened Union of Breath Body & Mind - Page 6 by Frank Jude Boccio
  48. ^ Yoga: The Indian Tradition By Ian Whicher, David Carpenter (page 8)
  49. ^ Hatha Yoga: Its Context, Theory and Practice By Mikel Burley (page 16)
  50. ^ Feuerstein, Georg. (1996). The Shambhala Guide to Yoga. Boston & London: Shambhala Publications, Inc.
  51. ^ The Yoga Tradition: its history, literature, philosophy and practice By Georg Feuerstein. ISBN 8120819233. pg 111
  52. ^ "Yoga," Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2007 © 1997-2007 Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Exact Quote : "The strong influence of Yoga can also be seen in Buddhism, which is notable for its austerities, spiritual exercises, and trance states."
  53. ^ a b Zen Buddhism: A History (India and China) By Heinrich Dumoulin, James W. Heisig, Paul F. Knitter (page 22)
  54. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica Article: Yogacara
  55. ^ Dan Lusthaus. Buddhist Phenomenology: A Philosophical Investigation of Yogacara Buddhism and the Ch'eng Wei-shih Lun. Published 2002 (Routledge). ISBN 0700711864. pg 533
  56. ^ Simple Tibetan Buddhism: A Guide to Tantric Living By C. Alexander Simpkins, Annellen M. Simpkins. Published 2001. Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 0804831998
  57. ^ The Buddhist Tradition in India, China, and Japan. Edited by William Theodore de Bary. Pgs. 207-208.ISBN 0-394-71696-5 - "The Meditation school, called Ch'an in Chinese from the Sanskrit dhyāna, is best known in the West by the Japanese pronunciation Zen"
  58. ^ Zen Buddhism: A History (India and China) By Heinrich Dumoulin, James W. Heisig, Paul F. Knitter (Page xviii)
  59. ^ Zen Buddhism: A History (India and China) By Heinrich Dumoulin, James W. Heisig, Paul F. Knitter (page 13). Translated by James W. Heisig, Paul F. Knitter. Contributor John McRae. Published 2005 World Wisdom. 387 pages. ISBN 0941532895 [Exact quote: "This phenomenon merits special attention since yogic roots are to be found in the Zen Buddhist school of meditation."]
  60. ^ a b Title: Mesocosm: Hinduism and the Organization of a Traditional Newar City in Nepal. Author: Robert I. Levy. Published: University of California Press, 1991. pp 313
  61. ^ Title: Mesocosm: Hinduism and the Organization of a Traditional Newar City in Nepal. Author: Robert I. Levy. Published: University of California Press, 1991. pp 317
  62. ^ Brittanica Concise "Characterized by an emphasis on bhakti, its goal is to escape from the cycle of birth and death in order to enjoy the presence of Vishnu."

Gregory Possehl is a Professor of Anthropology at the University of Pennsylvania. ... A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada (September 1, 1896–November 14, 1977) was the founder of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness (popularly known as the Hare Krishnas). Born as Abhay Charan De, in Kolkata, West Bengal, India. ... Satsvarupa dasa Goswami is a disciple of A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, who founded the International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON), better known in the west as the Hare Krishna movement. ... World Wisdom is an independent publishing company established in 1980 in Bloomington, Indiana. ...

References

  • Apte, Vaman Shivram (1965). The Practical Sanskrit Dictionary. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. ISBN 81-208-0567-4.  (fourth revised & enlarged edition).
  • Chang, G.C.C. (1993). Tibetan Yoga. New Jersey: Carol Publishing Group. ISBN 0-8065-1453-1
  • Chatterjee, Satischandra; Datta, Dhirendramohan (1984). An Introduction to Indian Philosophy, Eighth Reprint Edition, Calcutta: University of Calcutta. 
    • Donatelle, Rebecca J. Health: The Basics. 6th ed. San Francisco: Pearson Education, Inc. 2005.
  • Feuerstein, Georg. The Shambhala Guide to Yoga. 1st ed. Boston & London: Shambhala Publications 1996.
  • Flood, Gavin (1996). An Introduction to Hinduism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-43878-0. 
  • Gambhirananda, Swami (1998). Madhusudana Sarasvati Bhagavad_Gita: With the annotation Gūḍhārtha Dīpikā. Calcutta: Advaita Ashrama Publication Department. ISBN 81-7505-194-9. 
  • Harinanda, Swami. Yoga and The Portal. Jai Dee Marketing. ISBN 0978142950. 
  • Jacobsen, Knut A. (Editor); Larson, Gerald James (Editor) (2005). Theory And Practice of Yoga: Essays in Honour of Gerald James Larson. Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 9004147578.  (Studies in the History of Religions, 110)
  • Keay, John (2000). India: A History. New York: Grove Press. ISBN 0-8021-3797-0. 
  • Michaels, Axel (2004). Hinduism: Past and Present. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-08953-1. 
  • Mittra, Dharma Sri. Asanas: 608 Yoga Poses. 1st ed. California: New World Library 2003.
  • Müeller, Max (1899). Six Systems of Indian Philosophy; Samkhya and Yoga, Naya and Vaiseshika. Calcutta: Susil Gupta (India) Ltd.. ISBN 0-7661-4296-5.  Reprint edition; Originally published under the title of The Six Systems of Indian Philosophy.
  • Possehl, Gregory (2003). The Indus Civilization: A Contemporary Perspective. AltaMira Press. ISBN 978-0759101722. 
  • Radhakrishnan, S.; Moore, CA (1967). A Sourcebook in Indian Philosophy. Princeton. ISBN 0-691-01958-4. 
  • Saraswati, swami satyananda. November 2002 (12th edition). "Asana Pranayama Mudra Bandha" ISBN 81-86336-14-1
  • Taimni, I. K. (1961). The Science of Yoga. Adyar, India: The Theosophical Publishing House. ISBN 81-7059-212-7. 
  • Usharabudh, Arya Pandit. Philosophy of Hatha Yoga. 2nd ed. Pennsylvania: Himalayan Institute Press 1977, 1985.
  • Vivekananda, Swami (1994). Raja Yoga. Calcutta: Advaita Ashrama Publication Department. ISBN 81-85301-16-6.  21st reprint edition.
  • Zimmer, Heinrich (1951). Philosophies of India. New York, New York: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-01758-1.  Bollingen Series XXVI; Edited by Joseph Cambell.

Sri Dharma Mittra is a Yoga teacher, and a student of Sri Swami Kailashananda Maharaj. ... Max Müller as a young man Friedrich Max Müller (December 6, 1823 – October 28, 1900), more commonly known as Max Müller, was a German philologist and Orientalist, one of the founders of Indian studies, who virtually created the discipline of comparative religion. ... Gregory Possehl is a Professor of Anthropology at the University of Pennsylvania. ... Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan ,Tamil:(சர்வேபள்ளி ராதாகிருஷ்ணன்), (September 5, 1888 – April 17, 1975), was a philosopher and statesman. ... Swami Vivekananda (Sanskrit: , Svāmi Vivekānanda) (January 12, 1863 – July 4, 1902), whose pre-monastic name was Narendranath Dutta (Bengali: , Nôrendrônath Dôt-tô), was one of the most famous and influential spiritual leaders of the philosophies of Vedanta and Yoga. ... Heinrich Zimmer Heinrich Zimmer (b. ...

External links

The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ... The term Indian philosophy may refer to any of several traditions of philosophical thought, including: Hindu philosophy Buddhist philosophy Jain philosophy Sikh philosophy Carvaka atheist philosophy Lokayata materialist philosophy Tantric religious philosophy Bhakti religious philosophy Sufi religious philosophy Ahmadi religious philosophy Political and military philosophy such as that of Chanakya... The development of logic in India dates back to the analysis of inference by Aksapada Gautama, founder of the Nyaya school of Hindu philosophy, probably in the first or second centuries BCE, and so stands as one of the three original traditions of logic, alongside the Greek and Chinese traditions. ... Hindu idealism is a precursor of western idealism and the philosophical opposite of materialism. ... // In Hinduism the Vedic pantheon comprises clans of anthropomorphic deities as well as deified natural phenomena. ... Atheism (Sanskrit: , lit. ... Hindu philosophy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Samkhya, also Sankhya, (Sanskrit: सांख्य, IAST: Sāṃkhya - Enumeration) is one of the six schools of classical Indian philosophy. ... (Sanskrit ni-āyá, literally recursion, used in the sense of syllogism, inference)) is the name given to one of the six orthodox or astika schools of Hindu philosophy—specifically the school of logic. ... Vaisheshika, also Vaisesika, (Sanskrit: वैशॆषिक)is one of the six Hindu schools of philosophy (orthodox Vedic systems) of India. ... Raja Yoga (lit. ... The main objective of the Purva (earlier) Mimamsa school was to establish the authority of the Vedas. ... For other uses, see Vedanta (disambiguation). ... Advaita Vedanta (IAST ; Sanskrit ; IPA ) is a sub-school of the Vedānta (literally, end or the goal of the Vedas, Sanskrit) school of Hindu philosophy. ... VishishtAdvaita Vedanta (IAST ;Sanskrit: विशिष्टाद्वैत)) is a sub-school of the Vedānta (literally, end or the goal of the Vedas, Sanskrit) school of Hindu philosophy, the other major sub-schools of Vedānta being Advaita and Dvaita. ... Dvaita (Devanagari:द्बैत, Kannada:ದ್ವೈತ) (also known as Tattvavada and Bheda-vada), a school of Vedanta (the most widespread Hindu philosophy) founded by Madhvacharya, stresses a strict distinction between God (Vishnu) and the individual living beings (jivas). ... Nastika is a Sanskrit term meaning: It is the antonym of astika, or one who asserts. ... (or Cārvāka Hindi चारवाक) is a system of Indian philosophy that assumed various forms of philosophical skepticism and religious indifference. ... The holiest Jain symbol is the right facing swastika, or svastika, shown above. ... Anekantavada is a basic principle of Jainism dealing with the fact that reality may be percieved diferently from different points of views. ... Syādvāda (Syadvada) is the Doctrine of Postulation of Jainism. ... Buddhist Teachings deals extensively with problems in metaphysics, phenomenology, ethics, and epistemology. ... Śūnyatā, शून्यता (Sanskrit), Suññatā (Pāli), stong pa nyid (Tibetan), Kuu, 空 (Japanese) qoÉ£usun (Mongolian), generally translated into English as Emptiness or Voidness, is a concept of central importance in the teaching of the Buddha, as a direct realization of Sunyata is required to achieve liberation from the cycle of... Madhyamaka (Also known as Åšunyavada) is a Buddhist Mahayāna tradition popularized by Nāgārjuna and AÅ›vaghoá¹£a. ... Yogācāra (Sanskrit: yoga practice), also spelled yogāchāra, is an influential school of philosophy and psychology that developed in Indian Mahayana Buddhism starting sometime in the fourth to fifth centuries C.E., also commonly known as consciousness-only or mind-only (Sanskrit: cittamātra) (although scholars increasingly... The Sautrāntika school of Buddhism split from the Sarvāstivādins sometime between 50 BCE and c. ... The Svatantrika Madhyamaka school of Buddhism is a form of Madhyamaka in which reasoning is used to establish that phenomena (dharmas) have no self-nature, and further arguments to establish that the true nature of all phenomena is emptiness. ...

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