FACTOID # 4: Just 1% of the houses in Nevada were built before 1939.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Yiddish language
Yiddish
ייִדיש yidish 
Pronunciation: /ˈjidiʃ/
Spoken in: United States, United Kingdom, Lithuania, Russia, Israel, Ukraine, Moldova, Belarus, Belgium, Argentina, Germany, Switzerland, Sweden, Canada, Poland, Australia and elsewhere.
Total speakers: 3 million[1]
Language family: Indo-European
 Germanic
  West Germanic
   High German
    Yiddish 
Writing system: uses a Hebrew-based alphabet 
Official status
Official language in: Jewish Autonomous Oblast in Russia (de jure only); officially recognized minority language in Sweden, the Netherlands and Moldova
Regulated by: no formal bodies;
YIVO de facto
Language codes
ISO 639-1: yi
ISO 639-2: yid
ISO 639-3: variously:
yid – Yiddish (generic)
ydd – Eastern Yiddish
yih – Western Yiddish

Yiddish (ייִדיש yidish or אידיש idish, literally: "Jewish") is a non-territorial Germanic language, spoken throughout the world and written with the Hebrew alphabet. It originated in the Ashkenazi culture that developed from about the 10th century in the Rhineland, and then spread to central and eastern Europe, and eventually to other continents. In the earliest surviving references to it, the language is called לשון ־ אַשכּנז (loshn-ashkenaz = "language of Ashkenaz") and טײַטש (taytsh, a variant of tiutsch, the contemporary name for the language otherwise spoken in the region of origin, now called Middle High German; compare the modern New High German or Deutsch). In common usage, the language is called מאַמע־לשון (mame-loshn, literally "mother tongue"), distinguishing it from biblical Hebrew and Aramaic which are collectively termed לשון־קודש (loshn-koydesh, "holy tongue"). The term Yiddish did not become the most frequently used designation in the literature of the language until the 18th century. For a significant portion of its history it was the primary spoken language of the Ashkenazi Jews and once spanned a broad dialect continuum from "Western Yiddish" to three major groups within "Eastern Yiddish". Eastern and Western Yiddish are most markedly distinguished by the extensive inclusion of words of Slavic origin in the Eastern dialects. While Western Yiddish has few remaining speakers, Eastern dialects remain in wide use. Yiddish is written and spoken as a living language in many Orthodox Jewish communities around the world. It is most notably used as a first language in most Hasidic communities, where it is the first language learned in childhood and used in home, schooling and many social settings. A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... The West Germanic languages constitute the largest branch of the Germanic family of languages and include languages such as German, English and Frisian, as well as Dutch and Afrikaans. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Writing systems of the world today. ... // Orthography Description and development The Yiddish language is written with the 22-letter Hebrew alphabet. ... , Capital Birobidzhan Area - total - % water Ranked 61st - 36,000 km² - no data Population - Total - Density Ranked 80th - est. ... Look up De jure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain... YIVO, (Yiddish: ייִוואָ), founded in 1925 as the Yidisher Visnshaftlekher Institut (Yiddish: ייִדישער װיסנשאַפֿטלעכער אינסטיטוט), or Yiddish Scientific Institute, is the most authoritative source for orthography, lexicography, and other studies related to the Yiddish language. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... The Germanic languages are a group of related languages constituting a branch of the Indo-European (IE) language family. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Language(s) Yiddish, Hebrew, Russian, English Religion(s) Judaism Related ethnic groups Sephardi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, and other Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (Standard Hebrew: sing. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... The Rhineland (Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany. ... Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Eastern Europe is a concept that lacks one precise definition. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Middle High German (MHG, German Mittelhochdeutsch) is the term used for the period in the history of the German language between 1050 and 1350. ... New High German (NHG) is the term used for the most recent period in the history of the German language. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Aramaic is a group of Semitic languages with a 3,000-year history. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Language(s) Yiddish, Hebrew, Russian, English Religion(s) Judaism Related ethnic groups Sephardi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, and other Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (Standard Hebrew: sing. ... A dialect continuum is a range of dialects spoken across a large geographical area, differing only slightly between areas that are geographically close, and gradually decreasing in mutual intelligibility as the distances become greater. ... Western Yiddish is a dialect of Yiddish spoken by hardly any people at all, predominantly Ashkenazic Jews. ... // Yiddish has two main branches: Western and Eastern. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος) is a variant, or variety, of a language spoken in a certain geographical area. ... Western Yiddish is a dialect of Yiddish spoken by hardly any people at all, predominantly Ashkenazic Jews. ... Orthodox Judaism is the formulation of Judaism that adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonised in the Talmudic texts (Oral Torah) and as subsequently developed and applied by the later authorities known as the Gaonim, Rishonim, and Acharonim. ... This article is about the Hasidic movement originating in Poland and Russia. ...


The general history and status of the Yiddish language are discussed below, with further detail provided in a series of separate articles on:

Yiddish is also used in the adjectival sense to designate attributes of Ashkenazic culture (for example, Yiddish cooking and Yiddish music). // Regional variation Yiddish has two main branches: Western and Eastern. ... Yiddish morphology is the morphology of the Yiddish language. ... // Orthography Description and development The Yiddish language is written with the 22-letter Hebrew alphabet. ... There is significant phonological variation among the various dialects of the Yiddish language. ... See also & External Links Hechsher Kashrut Kosher foods Seder Shtetl: Kitchen English to Yiddish Dictionary Wikibooks Cookbook has more about this subject: Kosher Categories: Stub | Jewish foods | Cuisine ... Klezmer (from Yiddish כּלי־זמיר, etymologically from Hebrew kli zemer כלי זמר, musical instrument) is a musical tradition which parallels Hasidic and Ashkenazic Judaism. ...

Contents

History

The Ashkenazic culture that took root in 10th-century Central Europe derived its name from Ashkenaz (Genesis 10:3), the medieval Hebrew name for the territory centered on what is now designated as Germany. Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Ashkenazi (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי, Standard Hebrew Aškanazi, Tiberian Hebrew ʾAškănāzî) Jews or Ashkenazic Jews, also called Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִים, Standard Hebrew Aškanazim, Tiberian Hebrew ʾAškănāzîm), are Jews who are descendants of Jews from Germany, Poland, Austria and Eastern Europe. ... For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ...


Its geographic extent did not coincide with the German Christian principalities, and Ashkenaz included Northern France. It also bordered on the area inhabited by the Sephardim, or Spanish Jews, which ranged into southern France. Later, the Ashkenazic culture would spread into Eastern Europe as well. For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... In the strictest sense, a Sephardi (ספרדי, Standard Hebrew Səfardi, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardî; plural Sephardim: ספרדים, Standard Hebrew Səfardim, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardîm) is a Jew original to the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal: ספרד, Standard Hebrew Səfárad, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄áraḏ / Səp̄āraḏ), or whose ancestors were among the Jews expelled from... Eastern Europe is a concept that lacks one precise definition. ...


Nothing is known about the vernacular of the earliest Jews in Germany, but several theories have been put forward. It is generally accepted that it was likely to have contained elements from other languages of the Near East and Europe absorbed through dispersion. Look up Vernacular in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Since many settlers came via France and Italy, it is also likely that the Romance-based Jewish languages of those regions were represented. Traces remain in the contemporary Yiddish vocabulary, for example, בענטשן (bentshn, to bless), from the Latin benedicere, and the personal name Anshl, cognate to Angel, Angelo. Western Yiddish includes additional words of Latin derivation (but still very few), for example orn (to pray), cf. Latin 'orare'.

Liuboml, near Kovel, Volhynia, around 1900. A bilingual German/Yiddish sign reads "Volks-Küche/Folks-kikh" (People's Kitchen).

The first language of European Jews may have been Aramaic (Katz 2004), the vernacular of the Jews in Roman era Palestine, and ancient and early medieval Mesopotamia. The widespread use of Aramaic among the large non-Jewish Syrian trading population of the Roman provinces, including those in Europe, would have reinforced the use of Aramaic among Jews engaged in trade. Image File history File links According to User:Magister, this picture is shtetl Lyuboml(Liuboml) near Kovel, Volhynia, around 1900. ... Image File history File links According to User:Magister, this picture is shtetl Lyuboml(Liuboml) near Kovel, Volhynia, around 1900. ... Liuboml (Ukrainian: , translit. ... Coat of Arms, circa 1993 Kovel (In Ukrainian and in Russian: Ковель, in Polish: Kowel) is a town now situated in western Ukraine in the Volyn oblast. ... Volhynia (Ukrainian: , Polish: , Russian: ; also called Volynia) comprises the historic region in western Ukraine located between the rivers Prypiat and Western Bug -- to the north of Galicia and of Podolia. ... Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... A 2003 satellite image of the region. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ...


In Roman times, many of the Jews living in Rome and southern Italy appear to have been Greek-speakers, and this is reflected in some Ashkenazi personal names (e.g. Kalonymus). Much work needs to be done though, to fully analyze the contributions of those languages to Yiddish.


Members of the young Ashkenazi community would have encountered the myriad dialects from which standard German was destined to emerge many centuries later. They would soon have been speaking their own versions of these German dialects, mixed with linguistic elements that they themselves brought into the region. These dialects would have adapted to the needs of the burgeoning Ashkenazi culture and may, as characterizes many such developments, have included the deliberate cultivation of linguistic differences to assert cultural autonomy. The term minority rights embodies two separate concepts: first, normal individual rights as applied to members of racial, ethnic, class, religious or sexual minorities, and second, collective rights accorded to minority groups. ...


The Ashkenazi community also had its own geography, with a pattern of relationships among settlements that was somewhat independent of its non-Jewish neighbors. This led to the consolidation of Yiddish dialects, the borders of which did not coincide with the borders of German dialects.


Written evidence

The oldest surviving literary document in Yiddish is a blessing in a Hebrew prayer book from 1272 (described extensively in Frakes 2004 and Baumgarten/Frakes 2005):

Yiddish גוּט טַק אִים בְּטַגְֿא שְ וַיר דִּיש מַחֲזֹור אִין בֵּיתֿ הַכְּנֶסֶתֿ טְרַגְֿא
Transliterated gut tak im betage se vaer dis makhazor in beis hakneses terage
Translated may a good day come to him who carries this prayer book into the synagogue.

This brief rhyme is decoratively embedded in a purely Hebrew text (a reproduction of which is in Katz 2004). Nonetheless, it indicates that the Yiddish of that day was a more or less regular Middle High German into which Hebrew words — makhazor (prayer book for the High Holy Days) and beis hakneses (synagogue) — had been included. The pointing appears as though it might have been added by a second scribe, in which case it may need to be dated separately. The mahzor (machzor in Hebrew, pl. ... This article refers to the Jewish holidays. ... The synagogue Scolanova Trani in Italy. ... In Hebrew orthography, Niqqud or Nikkud (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; dots) is the system of diacritical signs used to represent vowels or distinguish between alternative pronunciations of letters in the Hebrew alphabet. ...


Over the course of the 14th and 15th centuries, songs and poems in Yiddish, and also macaronic pieces in Hebrew and German, began to appear. These were collected in the late 15th century by Menahem ben Naphtali Oldendorf. During the same period, a tradition seems to have emerged of the Jewish community adapting its own versions of German secular literature. The earliest Yiddish epic poem of this sort is the Dukus Horant which survives in the famous Cambridge Codex T.-S.10.K.22. This 14th-century manuscript was discovered in the geniza of a Cairo synagogue in 1896, and also contains a collection of narrative poems on themes from the Hebrew Bible and the Haggadah. This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Macaronic refers to text spoken or written using a mixture of languages. ... Dukus Horant is a 14th-century narrative poem in Judeo-German (Proto-Yiddish). ... The Cairo Geniza is an accumulation of Jewish manuscripts written from about 870 to as late as 1880 CE, that were found in the geniza of the synagogue of Fustat (Old Cairo), Egypt (built 882), the Busatin cemetery east of Old Cairo, and a number of old documents that were... This article is about the term Hebrew Bible. For the Jewish scriptures see Tanakh. ... Haggadah for Passover, 14th century Haggadah in Hebrew means Telling. ...


Apart from the obvious use of Hebrew words for specifically Jewish artifacts, it is very difficult to determine how much 15th-century written Yiddish differed from the German of that period. This is highly dependent on the phonetic properties that the alphabet is assumed to have had, particularly the vowels. There is a rough consensus that by this period, Yiddish would have sounded distinctive to the average German ear even when restricted to the Germanic component of its vocabulary.


Printing

The advent of the printing press resulted in an increase in the amount of material produced and surviving from the 16th century and onwards. One particularly popular work was Elia Levita's Bovo-Bukh, composed 1507–1508 and printed in at least forty editions beginning in 1541. Levita, the earliest named Yiddish author, may also have written Pariz un Viene (Paris and Vienna). Another Yiddish retelling of a chivalric romance, Vidvilt (often referred to as "Widuwilt" by Germanizing scholars), presumably also dates from the 15th century, although the manuscripts are from the 16th. It is also known as Kinig Artus Hof, an adaptation of the Middle High German romance Wigalois by Wirnt von Gravenberg. Another significant writer is Avroham ben Schemuel Pikartei who published a paraphrase on the Book of Job in 1557. The printing press is a mechanical device for printing many copies of a text on rectangular sheets of paper. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Elia Levita (1469–1549), also known as Eliahu Bakhur (Eliahu the Bachelor) was the author of the Bovo-Bukh (written in 1507–1508), the most popular chivalric romance in the Yiddish language, which, according to Sol Liptzin, is generally regarded as the most outstanding poetic work in Old Yiddish. [Liptzin... The Bovo-Bukh (Bovo book; a. ... Events The first official translation of the entire Bible in Swedish February 12 - Pedro de Valdivia founds Santiago de Chile. ... The Book of Job (איוב) is one of the books of the Hebrew Bible. ... Events Spain is effectively bankrupt. ...


Women in the Ashkenazi community were traditionally not literate in Hebrew, but did read and write Yiddish. A body of literature therefore developed for which women were a primary audience. This included secular works such as the Bovo-Bukh and religious writing specifically for women, such as the Tseno Ureno and the Tkhines. One of the best known early woman authors was Glückel of Hameln, whose memoirs are still in print. The Tseno Ureno, sometimes called the Womens Bible, was a 1616 Yiddish-language prose work whose structure parallels the weekly portions of the Pentateuch and Haftorahs used in Jewish worship services. ... Tkhines were Yiddish-language prayer booklets, intended mainly for use by Jewish women who, unlike the men of the time, typically could not read Hebrew. ... Glückel of Hameln (also spelled Gluckel or Gluckl of Hamelin) (1647, Hamburg - September 17, 1727, Metz) was a Jewish businesswoman and diarist, whose account of her life provides scholars with an intimate picture of Jewish life in Germany in the late-seventeenth-early eighteenth century. ...

A page from the Shemot Devarim, a Yiddish-Hebrew-Latin-German dictionary and thesaurus, published by Elia Levita in 1542
A page from the Shemot Devarim, a Yiddish-Hebrew-Latin-German dictionary and thesaurus, published by Elia Levita in 1542

The segmentation of the Yiddish readership, between women who read mame-loshn but not loshn-koydesh, and men who read both, was significant enough that distinctive typefaces were used for each. The name commonly given to the semicursive form used exclusively for Yiddish was ווײַבערטײַטש (vaybertaytsh = "women's taytsh"; shown in the heading and fourth column in the adjacent illustration), with square Hebrew letters (shown in the third column) being reserved for text in that language and Aramaic. This distinction was retained in general typographic practice through to the early 19th century, with Yiddish books being set in vaybertaytsh (also termed מאַשייט Masheyt). Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (432x622, 132 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Yiddish language Elia Levita ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (432x622, 132 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Yiddish language Elia Levita ... Events War resumes between Francis I of France and Emperor Charles V. This time Henry VIII of England is allied to the Emperor, while James V of Scotland and Sultan Suleiman I are allied to the French. ... “Font” redirects here. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...


An additional distinctive semicursive typeface was, and still is, used for rabbinical commentary on religious texts when Hebrew and Yiddish both appear on the same page. This is commonly termed Rashi script from the name of the most renowned early author whose commentary is usually printed using this script. (Rashi is also the typeface normally used when the Sefardi counterpart to Yiddish, Ladino, is printed in Hebrew script.) Rashi (1040-1105) (Artists imagination) Rashi רשי is a Hebrew acronym for רבי שלמה יצחקי (Rabbi Shlomo Yitzhaqi), (February 22, 1040 – July 17, 1105), a rabbi in France, famed as the author of the first comprehensive commentaries on the Talmud and Tanakh. ... Not to be confused with Ladin. ...


Secularization

The Western Yiddish dialect began to decline in the 18th century, as The Enlightenment and the Haskalah led to the German view that Yiddish was a corrupt dialect. Owing to both assimilation to German and the incipient creation of Modern Hebrew, Western Yiddish only survived as a language of "intimate family circles or of closely knit trade groups" (Liptzin 1972). Farther east, where Jews were denied such emancipation, Yiddish was the cohesive force in a secular culture based on, and termed, ייִדישקייט (yidishkeyt = "Jewishness"). (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... ... Haskalah (Hebrew: השכלה; enlightenment, education from sekhel intellect, mind ), the Jewish Enlightenment, was a movement among European Jews in the late 18th century that advocated adopting enlightenment values, pressing for better integration into European society, and increasing education in secular studies, Hebrew, and Jewish history. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ... Yiddishkeit (Yidishkayt in standard transcription) literally means Judaism or Jewishness in the Yiddish language. ...


The period of the late 19th and early 20th century is widely considered the Golden Age of secular Yiddish literature. This coincides with the development of Modern Hebrew as a spoken and literary language, from which some words were also absorbed into Yiddish. The three authors generally regarded as the founders of the modern Yiddish literary genre were born in the 19th century, but their work and significance continued to grow into the 20th. The first was Sholem Yankev Abramovitch, writing as Mendele Mocher Sforim. The second was Sholem Rabinovitsh, widely known as Sholem Aleichem, whose stories about טבֿיה דער מילכיקער (tevye der milkhiker = Tevye the Dairyman) inspired the Broadway musical and film Fiddler on the Roof. The third was Isaac Leib Peretz. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... Categories: People stubs | Jewish history-related stubs | Yiddish writers | Russian Jews ... This article is about the writer. ... Tevye is the protagonist of several of Sholom Aleichems stories, originally written in Yiddish and first published in 1894, most famously the fictional memoir Tevye and his Daughters, about a pious Jewish milkman in Tzarist Russia, and the troubles he has with his daughters (Tevye has six daughters — in... For the film, see Fiddler on the Roof (film). ... Isaac Leib Peretz (May 18, 1852–1915), a. ...


The 20th century

In the early 20th century, Yiddish was emerging as a major Eastern European language. Its rich literature was more widely published than ever, Yiddish theater and Yiddish film were booming, and it even achieved status as one of the official languages of the Belorussian and the short-lived Galician SSR. Educational autonomy for Jews in several countries (notably Poland) after World War I led to an increase in formal Yiddish-language education, more uniform orthography, and to the 1925 founding of the Yiddish Scientific Institute, later YIVO Institute for Jewish Research. Yiddish emerged as the national language of a large Jewish community in Eastern Europe that rejected Zionism and sought to obtain Jewish cultural autonomy in Europe. It also contended with Modern Hebrew as a literary language among Zionists. Yiddish theatre consists of plays written and performed primarily by Jews in Yiddish, the language of the Eastern European Ashkenazaic Jewish community. ... The National Center for Jewish Film, located at Brandeis University in Waltham, Massachusetts is dedicated to preserving the Jewish heritage, through its collection of over 12,000 reels of film. ... State motto: Пралетарыі ўсіх краін, яднайцеся! Belarusian: Workers of the world, unite! Official language None. ... Galician Soviet Socialist Republic (Galician SSR) existed from July 8, 1920 to September 21, 1920 during the Polish-Soviet War within the area of the South-Western front of the Red Army. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... YIVO, (Yiddish: ייִוואָ), founded in 1925 as the Yidisher Visnshaftlekher Institut (Yiddish: ייִדישער װיסנשאַפֿטלעכער אינסטיטוט), or Yiddish Scientific Institute, is the most authoritative source for orthography, lexicography, and other studies related to the Yiddish language. ... This article is about Zionism as a movement, not the History of Israel. ...


On the eve of World War II, there were between 11 and 13 million Yiddish speakers (Jacobs 2005). The Holocaust, however, led to a dramatic, sudden decline in the use of Yiddish, as the extensive Jewish communities, both secular and religious, that used Yiddish in their day-to-day life were largely destroyed. Although millions of Yiddish speakers survived the war (including nearly all Yiddish speakers in the Americas), further assimilation in countries such as the United States and the Soviet Union, along with the strictly monolingual stance of the Zionist movement, led to a decline in the use of Eastern Yiddish similar to the earlier decline in Western Yiddish. However, the number of speakers within the widely dispersed Orthodox (mainly Hasidic) communities has recently increased. Although used in various countries, Yiddish has attained official recognition as a minority language only in Moldova, The Netherlands and Sweden. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... “Shoah” redirects here. ... A bilingual poster in Romanian and Hungarian promoting a film about Jewish settlement in Palestine, 1930s. ... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain...


Reports of the number of current Yiddish speakers vary significantly. Ethnologue estimates that in 2005 there were three million speakers of Eastern Yiddish,[1] of which over one-third lived in the United States. In contrast, the Modern Language Association reports fewer than 200,000 in the United States.[2] Western Yiddish, which had "several tens of thousands of speakers" on the eve of the Holocaust, is reported by Ethnologue to have had an "ethnic population" of slightly below 50,000 in 2000.[3] Intermediate estimates are also given, for example, of a worldwide Yiddish-speaking population of about two million in 1996 in a report by the Council of Europe.[4] Further demographic information about the recent status of what is treated as an Eastern-Western dialect continuum is provided in the YIVO Language and Cultural Atlas of Ashkenazic Jewry (LCAAJ). Numbers of native speakers from the latest available national censuses and other estimates are as follows: Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with Bibles in their native language. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, Fifth Edition The Modern Language Association of America (MLA) is the principal professional association in the United States for scholars of literature and literary criticism. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Anthem Ode to Joy (orchestral)  ten founding members joined subsequently observer at the Parliamentary Assembly observer at the Committee of Ministers  official candidate Seat Strasbourg, France Membership 47 European states 5 observers (Council) 3 observers (Assembly) Leaders  -  Secretary General Terry Davis  -  President of the Parliamentary Assembly Rene van der Linden... Demographics refers to selected population characteristics as used in government, marketing or opinion research, or the demographic profiles used in such research. ... A dialect continuum is a range of dialects spoken across a large geographical area, differing only slightly between areas that are geographically close, and gradually decreasing in mutual intelligibility as the distances become greater. ... Quotation marks, also called quotes or inverted commas, are punctuation marks used in pairs to set off speech, a quotation, or a phrase. ...

  • Russia: 29,998, or 13% of the total Jewish population (2002)
  • Moldova: 17,000, or 26% of the total Jewish population (1989)
  • Ukraine: 3,213, or 3.1% of the total Jewish population (2001)
  • Belarus: 1,979, or 7.1% of the total Jewish population (1999)
  • Canada: 19,295, or 5.5% of the total Jewish population (2001)
  • Romania: 951, or 16.4% of the total Jewish population
  • Latvia: 825, or 7.9% of the total Jewish population
  • Lithuania: 570, or 14.2% of the total Jewish population
  • Estonia: 124, or 5.8% of the total Jewish population

There has been frequent debate about the extent of the linguistic independence of Yiddish from the languages that it absorbed. Some commentary dismisses Yiddish as mere jargon, although that precise term, in Yiddish, is also used as a colloquial designation for the language (without a pejorative connotation). There has been periodic assertion that Yiddish is a German dialect and, even when recognized as an autonomous language, it has sometimes been referred to as Judeo-German. A widely-cited summary of attitudes in the 1930s was published by Max Weinreich, quoting a remark by an auditor of one of his lectures: אַ שפּראַך איז אַ דיאַלעקט מיט אַן אַרמיי און פֿלאָט (a shprakh iz a dialekt mit an armey un flot — "A language is a dialect with an army and navy", facsimile excerpt at [2], discussed in detail in a separate article). More recently, Prof. Paul Wexler, of Tel Aviv University in Israel, has proposed that Eastern Yiddish should be classified as a Slavic language, formed by the relexification of Judeo-Slavic dialects by Judeo-German. For the glossary of hacker slang, see Jargon File. ... The 1930s were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known as the [[. In East Asia, the rise of militarism occurred. ... Max Weinreich (1893/94 Goldingen(Kuldiga), Courland (Latvia) - 1969 New York) was a Yiddish linguist. ... A language is a dialect with an army and navy is one of the most frequently used aphorisms in the discussion of the distinction between dialect and language. ... Relexification is a term from linguistics used in pidgin and creole studies for the mechanism by which one language changes its lexicon to that of another language. ...


Yiddish changed significantly during the 20th century. Michael Wex writes, "As increasing numbers of Yiddish speakers moved from the Slavic-speaking East to Western Europe and the Americas in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, they were so quick to jettison Slavic vocabulary that the most prominent Yiddish writers of the time — the founders of modern Yiddish literature, who were still living in Slavic-speaking countries — revised the printed editions of their oeuvres to eliminate obsolete and 'unnecessary' Slavisms."[5] The vocabulary used in Israel absorbed many Modern Hebrew words, and there was a similar increase in the English component of Yiddish in the United States and, to a lesser extent, the United Kingdom. This has resulted in some difficulties in communication between Yiddish speakers from Israel and those from other countries.


Israel

The national language of Israel is Modern Hebrew. The rejection of Yiddish as an alternative reflected the conflict between religious and secular forces. Many in the larger, secular group wanted a new national language to foster a cohesive identity, while traditionally religious Jews desired that Hebrew be respected as a holy language reserved for prayer and religious study. In the early twentieth century, Zionist immigrants in Palestine tried to eradicate the use of Yiddish amongst their own population, and make its use socially unacceptable. The Modern Hebrew language is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family. ... A bilingual poster in Romanian and Hungarian promoting a film about Jewish settlement in Palestine, 1930s. ... A 2003 satellite image of the region. ...


This conflict also reflected the opposing views among secular Jews worldwide, one side seeing Hebrew (and Zionism) and the other Yiddish (and Internationalism) as the means of defining emerging Jewish nationalism. Finally, the large post-1948 influx of Sephardic (including Mizrachi) Jewish refugees (to whom Yiddish was entirely foreign, but who already were familiar with Hebrew) effectively made Hebrew the only practical option for a state language. Still, state authorities in the young Israel of the 1950s went to the extent of using censorship laws inherited from British rule in order to prohibit or extremely limit Yiddish theater in Israel.[6][not in citation given] This article is about Zionism as a movement, not the History of Israel. ... Internationalism is a political movement which advocates a greater economic and political cooperation between nations for the benefit of all. ... Language(s) Hebrew, Ladino, Judæo-Portuguese, Catalanic, Shuadit, local languages Religion(s) Judaism Related ethnic groups Ashkenazi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, other Jewish ethnic divisions, Arabs, Spaniards, Portuguese. ... Languages Hebrew, Dzhidi, Judæo-Arabic, Gruzinic, Bukhori, Judeo-Berber, Juhuri and Judæo-Aramaic Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Ashkenazi Jews, Sephardi Jews, other Jewish ethnic divisions and Arabs. ...


In religious circles, it is the Ashkenazi Haredi Jews, particularly the Hasidic Jews and the mitnagdim of the Lithuanian yeshiva world, who continue to teach, speak and use Yiddish, making it a language used regularly by hundreds of thousands of Haredi Jews today. The largest of these centers are in Bnei Brak and Jerusalem. Haredi or chareidi Judaism is the most theologically conservative form of Orthodox Judaism. ... This article is about the Hasidic movement originating in Poland and Russia. ... Mitnagdim or misnagdim is a Hebrew word (מתנגדים) meaning opponents; this term was used to refer to European religious Jews who opposed Hasidic Judaism. ... This article is about the Jewish male educational system. ... Mentioned as one of the cities in the portion of the Tribe of Dan (Yehoshua 19:45), Bnei Brak is famous in the Talmud (Sanhedrin 32b) as the seat of Rabbi Akivas court, and in the Pesach Haggada as the site of the all-night Pesach Seder of Rabbi... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ...


There is a growing revival of interest in Yiddish culture among secular Israelis, with Yiddish theater now flourishing (usually with simultaneous translation to Hebrew and Russian) and young people are taking university courses in Yiddish, some achieving considerable fluency (albeit with an accent that would seem very strange to native speakers).[7] Secular Jewish culture embraces several related phenomena; above all, it is the culture of secular communities of Jewish people, but it can also include the cultural contributions of individuals who identify as secular Jews, or even those of religious Jews working in cultural areas not generally considered to be connected... Yiddish theatre consists of plays written and performed primarily by Jews in Yiddish, the language of the Eastern European Ashkenazaic Jewish community. ...


Former Soviet Union

In the Soviet Union during the 1920s, Yiddish was promoted as the language of the Jewish proletariat. It was one of the official languages of the Byelorussian SSR, as well as several agricultural districts of the Ukrainian SSR. A public educational system entirely based on the Yiddish language was established and comprised kindergartens, schools, and higher educational institutions (technical schools, rabfaks and other university departments). At the same time, Hebrew was considered a bourgeois language and its use was generally discouraged. The vast majority of the Yiddish-language cultural institutions were closed in the late 1930s along with cultural institutions of other ethnic minorities lacking administrative entities of their own. After the Second World War, growing anti-Semitic tendencies in Soviet politics drove Yiddish from most spheres; the last Yiddish-language schools, theaters and publications were closed by the end of 1940s. Yet it continued to be widely used as a spoken medium for decades in the areas with compact Jewish population (primarily in Moldova, Ukraine, and to a lesser extent Belarus). The 1920s is sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually when speaking about the United States. ... The proletariat (from Latin proles, offspring) is a term used to identify a lower social class; a member of such a class is proletarian. ... State motto: Belarusian: Пралетарыі ўсіх краін, яднайцеся! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Minsk Official language Belarusian, Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until January 1, 1919 December 30, 1922 August 25, 1991 Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 6th in the USSR 207,600 km² negligible Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 5th in the USSR... State motto: Ukrainian: Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Kiev Official language Ukrainian and Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until December 25, 1917 December 30, 1922 August 24, 1991 Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 3rd in the USSR 603,700 km² negligible Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 2nd in the... A photograph of a «Rabfak» school. ... Bourgeois at the end of the thirteenth century. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ...


In the former Soviet states, presently active Yiddish authors include Yoysef Burg (Chernivtsi, b. 1912), Zisye Veytsman (Samara, b. 1946), and Aleksander Beyderman (b. 1949, Odessa, see German-language Wikipedia article). Publication of an earlier Yiddish periodical (דער פֿרײַנד), was resumed in 2004 with דער נײַער פֿרײַנד (der nayer fraynd; lit. "The New Friend", St. Petersburg). Map of Ukraine (blue) with Chernivtsi highlighted (red). ... This article is about about the city in Russia. ... The ODESSA, which stands for the German phrase Organisation der ehemaligen SS-Angehörigen, which phrase in turn translates as “Organization of Former Members of the SS,” is the name commonly given to an international Nazi network alleged to have been set up towards the end of World War II... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland...


Jewish Autonomous Oblast of Russia

The Jewish Autonomous Oblast in the Russian Federation, where Yiddish is an official language.
The Jewish Autonomous Oblast in the Russian Federation, where Yiddish is an official language.
Birobidzhan's train terminal square
Birobidzhan's train terminal square
Main articles: Jewish Autonomous Oblast, Birobidzhan, and Jews and Judaism in the Jewish Autonomous Oblast‎

The Jewish Autonomous Oblast was formed in 1934 in the Russian Far East, with its capital city in Birobidzhan and Yiddish as its official language. The intention was for the Soviet Jewish population to settle there. Jewish cultural life was revived in Birobidzhan much earlier than elsewhere in the Soviet Union. Yiddish theaters began opening in the 1970s. The newspaper דער ביראָבידזשאנער שטערן (der birobidzhaner shtern; lit: "The Birobidzhan Star") includes a Yiddish section. The First Birobidzhan International Summer Program for Yiddish Language and Culture was launched in 2007. [3]. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... , Capital Birobidzhan Area - total - % water Ranked 61st - 36,000 km² - no data Population - Total - Density Ranked 80th - est. ... Birobidzhan (ru: Биробиджа́н, yi: ביראָבידזשאן) is the capital of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast in Russia; the name is sometimes also used to refer to the entire oblast. ... Far Eastern Federal District (highlighted in red) Russian Far East (Russian: ; IPA: ) is a term that refers to the Russian part of the Far East, i. ... The Birobidzhaner Shtern (Yiddish:  ;Russian: ) is a newspaper published in both Yiddish and Russian in the Jewish Autonomous Oblast of Russia. ...


Moldova

Yiddish, along with Hebrew, is an officially recognized minority language in Moldova for the purposes of the Jewish community. In the capital city of Chişinău, there is a Yiddish language radio program ייִדיש לעבן (yidish lebn; lit. "Jewish Life"), a television program אויף דער ייִדישער גאַס (oyf der yidisher gas; lit. "On the Jewish Street") and the newspaperאונדזער קול (undzer kol; lit. "Our Voice").[8] There are 17,000 Yiddish speakers in Moldova. Location of ChiÅŸinău in Moldova Coordinates: , Country Founded 1436 Government  - Mayor Dorin Chirtoacă, since 2007 Area  - City 120 km² (46. ...


Sweden

Banner from the first issue of the Jidische Folkschtime (Yiddish People's Voice), published in Stockholm, 12 January 1917
Banner from the first issue of the Jidische Folkschtime (Yiddish People's Voice), published in Stockholm, 12 January 1917

In June 1999, the Swedish Parliament enacted legislation giving Yiddish legal status[9] as one of the country's official minority languages (entering into effect in April 2000). The rights thereby conferred are not detailed, but additional legislation was enacted in June 2006 establishing a new governmental agency, The Swedish National Language Council, the mandate of which instructs it to, "collect, preserve, scientifically research, and spread material about the national minority languages", naming them all explicitly, including Yiddish. When announcing this action, the government made an additional statement about "simultaneously commencing completely new initiatives for ... Yiddish [and the other minority languages]". Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 497 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,209 × 1,371 pixels, file size: 235 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I digitally photographed this image from a newspaper published in Sweden in 1917 for which no copyright is in effect. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 497 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,209 × 1,371 pixels, file size: 235 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I digitally photographed this image from a newspaper published in Sweden in 1917 for which no copyright is in effect. ... is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... In 1999 the Minority Language Committee of Sweden formally declared five minority languages of Sweden: Sami language, Romani, Finnish, Yiddish, and Meänkieli (Tornedal). ...


The Swedish government publishes documents in Yiddish, of which the most recent details the national action plan for human rights.[10] An earlier one provides general information about national minority language policies.[11]


On 6 September 2007, it became possible to register Internet domains with Yiddish names in the national top-level domain .SE.[12] is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... .se is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Sweden. ...


United States

Yiddish distribution in the United States.      More than 100,000 speakers      More than 10,000 speakers      More than 5,000 speakers      More than 1,000 speakers      Fewer than 1,000 speakers
Yiddish distribution in the United States.      More than 100,000 speakers      More than 10,000 speakers      More than 5,000 speakers      More than 1,000 speakers      Fewer than 1,000 speakers

In the United States, the Yiddish language bonded Jews from many countries. פֿאָרווערטס (forverts - Yiddish Forward) was one of seven Yiddish daily newspapers in New York City, and other Yiddish newspapers served as a forum for Jews of all European backgrounds. The Yiddish Forward still appears weekly and is available in an online edition.[13] It remains in wide distribution, together with דער אַלגעמיינער זשורנאַל (der algemeyner zhurnal - Algemeiner Journal; algemeyner = general) which is also published weekly and appears online.[14] The widest-circulation Yiddish newspapers are probably the two prominent Satmar weekly issues דער בּלאַט (Der Blatt; blat = newspaper) and דער איד (Der Yid). Several additional newspapers and magazines are in regular production, such as the monthly publications דער שטערן (Der Shtern; shtern = star) and דער בליק (Der Blick; blik = view). (The romanized titles cited in this paragraph are in the form given on the masthead of each publication and may be at some variance both with the literal Yiddish title and the transliteration rules otherwise applied in this article.) One large center of Yiddish linguistics in Kiryas Joel, New York. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Forward is a Jewish-American newspaper published in New York. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Satmar is the largest Hasidic group in existence today. ... Der Blatt (Yiddish: ) is a weekly Yiddish newspaper published in New York by Satmar Hasidim. ... Der Yid (Yiddish: ) is a Yiddish language weekly newspaper. ... // Orthography Description and development The Yiddish language is written with the 22-letter Hebrew alphabet. ... Kiryas Joel (sometimes also pronounced as Kiryas Yoel or Kiryat Joel or KJ) (Hebrew: Town of Joel) is a village located in Orange County, New York, United States. ...


Interest in klezmer music provided another bonding mechanism. Thriving Yiddish theater in New York City and, to a lesser extent, elsewhere kept the language vital. Many "Yiddishisms," like "Italianisms" and "Spanishisms," continued to enter spoken New York City English, often used by Jews and non-Jews alike unaware of the linguistic origin of the phrases (described extensively by Leo Rosten in The Joys of Yiddish). However, native Yiddish speakers tended not to pass the language on to their children, who assimilated and spoke English. Klezmer (from Yiddish כּלי־זמיר, etymologically from Hebrew kli zemer כלי זמר, musical instrument) is a musical tradition which parallels Hasidic and Ashkenazic Judaism. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... The New York dialect of the English language is spoken by most European Americans who were raised in New York City and much of its metropolitan area including the lower Hudson Valley, western Long Island, and in northeastern New Jersey. ... Leo Calvin Rosten (April 11, 1908–February 19, 1997) was born on 11 April 1908 in Lodz, Russian Empire (now Poland) and died on 19 February 1997 in New York. ... The Joys of Yiddish is a lexicon of common words and phrases in the Yiddish language, primarily focusing on those words that had become known to speakers of American English due to the influence of American Jews. ...


In 1978, the Polish-born Yiddish author Isaac Bashevis Singer, a resident of the United States, received the Nobel Prize in literature. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... René-François-Armand Prudhomme (1839–1907), a French poet and essayist, was the first person to win the Nobel Prize in Literature, in 1901, in special recognition of his poetic composition, which gives evidence of lofty idealism, artistic perfection and a rare combination of the qualities of both heart...


Most of the Jewish immigrants to the New York metropolitan area during the years of Ellis Island considered Yiddish their native language. For example, Isaac Asimov states in his autobiography, In Memory Yet Green, that Yiddish was his first and sole spoken language and remained so for about two years after he emigrated to the United States as a small child. By contrast, Asimov's younger siblings, born in the United States, never developed any degree of fluency in Yiddish. Also the famous Polish-American architect Daniel Libeskind, designer of the reconstruction of Ground Zero in New York considers Yiddish his mother-tongue. For the island in Australia, see Ellis Island, Queensland. ... Isaac Asimov (January 2?, 1920?[1] – April 6, 1992), pronounced , originally Исаак Озимов but now transcribed into Russian as Айзек Азимов [1], was a Russian-born American author and professor of biochemistry, a highly successful writer, best known for his works of science fiction and for his popular science books. ... In Memory Yet Green is the first volume of Isaac Asimovs two volume autobiography. ... Daniel Libeskind in front of his extension to the Denver Art Museum. ... Ground zero is the exact location on the ground where any explosion occurs. ... This article is about the state. ...


Present speaker population

In the 2000 census, 178,945 people in the United States reported speaking Yiddish at home. Of these speakers, 113,515 lived in New York (63.43% of American Yiddish speakers), 18,220 in Florida (10.18%), 9,145 in New Jersey (5.11%), and 8,950 in California (5.00%). The remaining states with speaker populations larger than 1,000 are Pennsylvania (5,445), Ohio (1,925), Michigan (1,945), Massachusetts (2,380), Maryland (2,125), Illinois (3,510), Connecticut (1,710), and Arizona (1,055). The population is largely elderly: 72,885 of the speakers were older than 65, 66,815 were between 18 and 64, and only 39,245 were age 17 or lower.[15] In the six years since the 2000 census, the 2006 American Community Survey reflected an estimated 15 percent decline of people speaking Yiddish at home in the U.S. to 152,515.[16] 2000 US Census logo The Twenty-Second United States Census, known as Census 2000 and conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13. ... This article is about the state. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Demonym Connecticuter or Connecticutian[2] Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[3] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[4] Area  Ranked 48th in the US  - Total 5,543[5] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... 2000 US Census logo The Twenty-Second United States Census, known as Census 2000 and conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...


United Kingdom

There are well over 30,000 Yiddish speakers in the United Kingdom, and several thousand children now have Yiddish as a first language. The largest group of Yiddish speakers in Britain reside in the Stamford Hill district of North London, but there are sizeable communities in Golders Green, Manchester and Gateshead.[17] The Yiddish readership in the UK is mainly reliant upon imported material from the United States and Israel for newspapers, magazines and other periodicals. However, the London-based weekly Jewish Tribune, has a small section in Yiddish called אידישע טריבונע Idishe Tribune. Stamford Hill is a place in the north of the London Borough of Hackney, near the border with Haringey. ... , Golders Green is an area in the London Borough of Barnet in London, England. ... This article is about the City of Manchester in England. ... This article is about Gateshead, England. ... The Jewish Tribune is a privately owned Jewish Orthodox weekly newspaper based in Stamford Hill, London. ...


Religious communities

The major exception to the decline of spoken Yiddish can be found in Haredi communities all over the world. In some of the more closely-knit such communities Yiddish is spoken as a home and schooling language, especially in Hasidic, litvish or yeshivish communities such as Brooklyn's Borough Park, Williamsburg and Crown Heights, and in Monsey, Kiryas Joel, and New Square. (Over 88% of the population of Kiryas Joel is reported to speak Yiddish at home.[18]) ; Also in New Jersey Yiddish is widely spoken mostly in Lakewood but also in smaller yeshivishe towns with yeshivos such as Passaic and more... Yiddish is also widely spoken in the Antwerp Jewish community and in Haredi communities such as the ones in London, Manchester and Montreal. Among most Ashkenazi Haredim, Hebrew is generally reserved for prayer, while Yiddish is used for religious studies as well as a home and business language. In Israel, however, Haredim commonly speak Modern Hebrew, with the notable exception of many Hasidic communities. Nevertheless, the vast majority of Haredim who use Modern Hebrew also understand Yiddish. Many send their children to schools in which the primary language of instruction is Yiddish. Members of movements such as Satmar Hasidism, who view the commonplace use of Hebrew as a form of Zionism, use Yiddish almost exclusively. Haredi or chareidi Judaism is the most theologically conservative form of Orthodox Judaism. ... This article is about the Hasidic movement originating in Poland and Russia. ... Lithuanian Jews, (In Yiddish known as Litvish or Litvaks) are Ashkenazi Jews who have their origins in historic Lithuania. ... This article is about the New York City borough, or Kings County, New York. ... Borough Park street covered with snow. ... Williamsburg is a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Brooklyn, bordering Greenpoint, Bed-Stuy, and Bushwick. ... Crown Heights is a neighborhood in Brooklyn in New York City. ... Monsey is a hamlet (and also a census-designated place) located in Rockland County, New York. ... Kiryas Joel (New York) Kiryas Joel (or Kiryas Yoel or Kiryat Joel or KJ) (Hebrew: קרית יואל, Town of Joel) is a village within the Town of Monroe in Orange County, New York, United States. ... New Square (Hebrew: שיכון סקווירא) is an all-Hasidic village in the Town of Ramapo in Rockland County, New York. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Lakewood is a census-designated place located in Ocean County, New Jersey. ... A yeshiva (Hebrew, pl. ... Passaic is a city located in Passaic County, New Jersey. ... Hollandse Synagogue in Antwerp The Jewish community of Antwerp consists of around 18,000 Orthodox Jews, concentrated in the area next to the diamond district. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the City of Manchester in England. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... Satmar (or Satmar Hasidism or Satmarer Hasidism) (חסידות סאטמאר) is a Hasidic community which originated from mostly Hungarian Hasidic Jews who fled Europe after World War II, founded and led by the late Grand Rebbe Yoel Teitelbaum (1887-1979), who was the official rabbi of the town of Szatmárnémeti (now... This article is about Zionism as a movement, not the History of Israel. ...


Hundreds of thousands of young children have been, and are still, taught to translate the texts of the Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy into the Yiddish language. This process is called טײַטשן (taytshn) — "translating" . Most Ashkenazi yeshivas' highest level lectures in Talmud and Halakha are delivered in Yiddish by the rosh yeshivas as well as ethical talks of mussar. Hasidic rebbes generally use only Yiddish to converse with their followers and to deliver their various Torah talks, classes, and lectures. The linguistic style and vocabulary of Yiddish have influenced the manner in which many Orthodox Jews who attend yeshivas speak English. This usage is distinctive enough that it has been dubbed "Yeshivish". Genesis redirects here. ... This article is about the second book in the Torah. ... Leviticus is the third book of the Hebrew Bible, also the third book in the Torah (five books of Moses). ... The Book of Numbers is the fourth of the books of the Pentateuch, called in the Hebrew ba-midbar במדבר, i. ... Deuteronomy (Greek deuteronomium, second, from to deuteronomium touto, this second law, pronounced ) is the fifth book of the Torah of the Hebrew bible and the Old Testament. ... This article is about the Jewish male educational system. ... Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה ; alternate transliterations include Halocho and Halacha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law, as well as customs and traditions. ... Rosh yeshiva (Hebrew: ראש ישיבה) (pl. ... Mussar movement refers to an Jewish ethics educational and cultural movement (a Jewish Moralist Movement) that developed in 19th century Orthodox Eastern Europe, particularly among the Lithuanian Jews. ... For the tanna, see Judah HaNasi. ... Orthodox Judaism is the formulation of Judaism that adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonised in the Talmudic texts (Oral Torah) and as subsequently developed and applied by the later authorities known as the Gaonim, Rishonim, and Acharonim. ... Yeshivish is an adjective/adverb used to describe the societal, cultural and linguistic norms and mannerisms of those who attend a yeshiva. ...


While Hebrew remains the language of Jewish prayer, the Hasidim have mixed considerable Yiddish into their Hebrew, and are also responsible for a significant secondary religious literature written in Yiddish. For example, the tales about the Baal Shem Tov were written largely in Yiddish. In addition, some Hassidic prayers, such as the Got fun Avrohom, were composed and are recited in Yiddish. Jewish services are the prayers recited as part of observance of Judaism. ... This article incorporates text from the public domain 1901-1906 Jewish Encyclopedia Israel ben Eliezer Rabbi Israel (Yisroel) ben Eliezer (about 1700 Okopy Świętej Tr jcy - May 22, 1760 Międzyborz) was a Jewish Orthodox mystical rabbi who is better known to most religious Jews as the Baal Shem Tov, or... God of Abraham (in Yiddish: Gott fun Avrohom) is a traditional Hasidic Jewish prayer recited in Yiddish before the Havdalah service after the conclusion of the Sabbath. ...


See also

This is a list of English language words of Yiddish language origin, many of which have entered the language by way of American English or Cockney. ... Poets who wrote or write much of their poetry in the Yiddish language. ... The National Yiddish Book Center in the United States of America is a cultural institution dedicated to the preservation of books and documents in the Yiddish language. ... The Yiddish Renaissance was a cultural and artistic movement which began among Jews in Eastern Europe during the latter part of the 19th Century. ... Poster for an 1898 production of The Yiddish King Lear starring Jacob Adler. ... Yiddish literature encompasses all belles lettres written in Yiddish, the language of Ashkenazic Jewry which is related to Middle High German. ... Yinglish words are neologisms created by speakers of Yiddish in English-speaking countries, sometimes to describe things that were uncommon in the old country. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b Yiddish, Eastern, on Ethnologue. Accessed online 17 October 2006.
  2. ^ Most spoken languages in the United States, Modern Language Association. Accessed online 17 October 2006.
  3. ^ Yiddish, Western, on Ethnologue. Accessed online 17 October 2006.
  4. ^ Emanuelis Zingeris, Yiddish culture, Council of Europe Committee on Culture and Education Doc. 7489, 12 February 1996. Accessed online 17 October 2006.
  5. ^ Wex, Michael (2005). Born to Kvetch: Yiddish Language and Culture in All Its Moods. St. Martin's Press, 29. 
  6. ^ Crossing Jerusalem and negotiating issues of censorship and self-censorship - Jewish Theater News
  7. ^ Yiddish Studies Thrives at Columbia After More than Fifty Years - Colombia News
  8. ^ [1], Jewish Virtual History Tour, Moldova. Accessed online 3 July 2007.
  9. ^ (Swedish) Regeringens proposition 1998/99:143 Nationella minoriteter i Sverige, 10 June 1999. Accessed online 17 October 2006.
  10. ^ (Yiddish) אַ נאַציאָנאַלער האַנדלונגס־פּלאַן פאַר די מענטשלעכע רעכט A National Action Plan for Human Rights 2006-2009. Accessed online 4 December 2006.
  11. ^ (Yiddish) נאַציאַנאַלע מינאָריטעטן און מינאָריטעט־שפּראַכן National Minorities and Minority Languages. Accessed online 4 December 2006.
  12. ^ IDG: Jiddischdomänen är här
  13. ^ (Yiddish) פֿאָרווערטס: The Forward online.
  14. ^ (Yiddish) דער אַלגעמיינער זשורנאַל: Algemeiner Journal online
  15. ^ Language by State: Yiddish, MLA Language Map Data Center, based on U.S. Census data. Accessed online 25 December 2006.
  16. ^ http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/DTTable?_bm=y&-ds_name=ACS_2006_EST_G00_&-_geoSkip=0&-CONTEXT=dt&-mt_name=ACS_2006_EST_G2000_C16001&-redoLog=false&-_skip=0&-geo_id=01000US&-_showChild=Y&-format=&-_lang=en&-_toggle=ACS_2006_EST_G2000_C16001
  17. ^ Times on Yiddish in the UK
  18. ^ MLA Data Center Results: Kiryas Joel, New York, Modern Language Association. Accessed online 17 October 2006.

Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with Bibles in their native language. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with Bibles in their native language. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Michael Wex (born 1954 in Lethbridge, Alberta) is a Canadian novelist, playwright, lecturer, performer, and author of books on language and literature. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Forward is a Jewish-American newspaper published in New York. ... The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, Fifth Edition The Modern Language Association of America (MLA) is the principal professional association in the United States for scholars of literature and literary criticism. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Baumgarten, Jean (transl. and ed. Jerold C. Frakes), Introduction to Old Yiddish Literature, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2005, ISBN 0-19-927633-1.
  • Birnbaum, Solomon, Yiddish - A Survey and a Grammar, Toronto, 1979
  • Dunphy, Graeme, "The New Jewish Vernacular", in: Max Reinhart, Camden House History of German Literature vol 4: Early Modern German Literature 1350-1700, 2007, ISBN 10:1-57113-247-3, 74-9.
  • Fishman, David E., The Rise of Modern Yiddish Culture, University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh, 2005, ISBN 0-8229-4272-0.
  • Fishman, Joshua A. (ed.), Never Say Die: A Thousand Years of Yiddish in Jewish Life and Letters, Mouton Publishers, The Hague, 1981, ISBN 90-279-7978-2 (in Yiddish and English).
  • Frakes, Jerold C., Early Yiddish Texts 1100-1750, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2004, ISBN 0-19-926614-X.
  • Herzog, Marvin, et.al. ed., YIVO, The Language and Culture Atlas of Ashkenazic Jewry, 3 vols., Max Niemeyer Verlag, Tübingen, 1992-2000, ISBN 3-484-73013-7.
  • Jacobs, Neil G. Yiddish: a Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2005, ISBN 0-521-77215-X.
  • Katz, Dovid, Words on Fire: The Unfinished Story of Yiddish, Basic Books, New York, 2004, ISBN 0-465-03728-3. Second augmented (paperback) edition with added footnotes and bibliography, Basic Books, New York 2007, ISBN 0-4365-03730-5.
  • Kriwaczek, Paul, Yiddish Civilization: The Rise and Fall of a Forgotten Nation, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London, 2005, ISBN 0-297-82941-6.
  • Lansky, Aaron, Outwitting History: How a Young Man Rescued a Million Books and Saved a Vanishing Civilisation, Algonquin Books, Chapel Hill, 2004, ISBN 1-56512-429-4.
  • Liptzin, Sol, A History of Yiddish Literature, Jonathan David Publishers, Middle Village, NY, 1972, ISBN 0-8246-0124-6.
  • Rosten, Leo, Joys of Yiddish, Pocket, 2000, ISBN 0-7434-0651-2
  • Shandler, Jeffrey, Adventures in Yiddishland: Postvernacular Language and Culture, University of California Press, Berkeley, 2006, ISBN 0-520-24416-8.
  • Weinreich, Uriel. College Yiddish: an Introduction to the Yiddish language and to Jewish Life and Culture, 6th revised ed., YIVO Institute for Jewish Research, New York, 1999, ISBN 0-914512-26-9 (in Yiddish and English).
  • Weinstein, Miriam, Yiddish: A Nation of Words, Ballantine Books, New York, 2001, ISBN 0-345-44730-1.
  • Wex, Michael, Born to Kvetch: Yiddish Language and Culture in All Its Moods, St. Martin's Press, New York, 2005, ISBN 0-312-30741-1.
  • Wexler, Paul, Two-Tiered Relexification in Yiddish: Jews, Sorbs, Khazars, and the Kiev-Polessian Dialect, Berlin, New York, Mouton de Gruyter, 2002, ISBN 3-11-017258-5.
  • Katz, Hirshe-Dovid, 1992. Code of Yiddish spelling ratified in 1992 by the programmes in Yiddish language and literature at Bar Ilan University, Oxford University Tel Aviv University, Vilnius University. Oxford: Oksforder Yidish Press in cooperation with the Oxford Centre for Postgraduate Hebrew Studies. (כלל–תקנות פון יידישן אויסלייג. 1992. אקספארד: אקספארדער צענטער פאר העכערע העברעאישע שטודיעס) ISBN 1-897744-01-3

Solomon Birnbaum, also Salomon, Solomon A[scher] Birnbaum or Solomon Ascher, 24. ... Professor Joshua Aaron Fishman is an American social scientist and linguist at Stanford University. ... Leo Calvin Rosten (April 11, 1908–February 19, 1997) was born on 11 April 1908 in Lodz, Russian Empire (now Poland) and died on 19 February 1997 in New York. ... Uriel Weinreich (1926, Vilnius – 1967) was a world famous linguist. ... Michael Wex (born 1954 in Lethbridge, Alberta) is a Canadian novelist, playwright, lecturer, performer, and author of books on language and literature. ...

Further reading

Periodicals

External links

Wikipedia
Yiddish language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Wikibooks
Wikibooks has a book on the topic of
Wikibooks
Wikibooks has a book on the topic of

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1058x1058, 477 KB) aa Wikipedia logo, version 1058px square, no text Wikipedia logo by Nohat (concept by Paullusmagnus); compare Wikipedia File links The following pages link to this file: Arabic language Talk:Anarcho-capitalism Talk:Algorithm Talk:Anno Domini Talk:The... Wikipedia (IPA: , or ( ) is a multilingual, web-based, free content encyclopedia project, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... The Jewish Encyclopedia was an encyclopedia originally published between 1901 and 1906 by Funk and Wagnalls. ...

Audio resources

  • Di Velt fun Yidish: Audio Stories
  • Yiddish Radio Project, "dedicated to rescuing every surviving recording from the golden age of Yiddish radio". The many RealAudio files all use RealAudio's multimedia capability to provide written English-language translation.
  • The Yiddish Voice
  • The Australian radio station SBS offers a program in Yiddish: SBS Yiddish Radio Program
  • yiddish audio and video click on the following web page: http://www.youtube.com/albertdiner
RealAudio is a proprietary audio format developed by RealNetworks. ... The Jewish languages are a set of languages that developed in various Jewish communities, in Europe, southern and south-western Asia, and northern Africa. ... The Afro-Asiatic languages constitute a language family (Languages of Africa) with about 375 languages (SIL estimate) and more than 300 million speakers spread throughout North Africa, East Africa, West Africa, Central Africa, and Southwest Asia (including some 200 million speakers of Arabic). ... Hebrew language most commonly refers to Modern Hebrew; in historical contexts, it commonly refers to the Biblical Hebrew language. ... Categories: Language stubs | Judaism-related stubs | Canaanite languages | Hebrew language ... The Mishnaic Hebrew language or Rabbinic Hebrew language is the ancient descendant of Biblical Hebrew as preserved by the Jews after the Babylonian captivity, and definitively recorded by Jewish sages in writing the Mishnah and other contemporary documents. ... Medieval Hebrew has many features that distinguish it from older forms. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Ashkenazi Hebrew is the pronunciation system for Biblical and Mishnaic Hebrew favored for liturgical use by Ashkenazi Jewish practice. ... The Sephardi Hebrew language is an offshoot of Biblical Hebrew favored for liturgical use by Sephardi Jewish practice. ... The Mizrahi Hebrew language or Oriental hebrew language refers to any one of the dialects of Biblical Hebrew used liturgical by Mizrahi Jews, that is, Jews living in Arab countries or further east, and typically speaking Arabic, Persian, Hindi, Chinese, or other languages of the Middle East and Asia. ... The Yemenite Hebrew language or Temani Hebrew language is a descendant of Biblical Hebrew traditionally used by Yemenite Jews. ... Tiberian Hebrew is an oral tradition of pronunciation for ancient forms of Hebrew, especially the Hebrew of the Tanakh, that was given written form by masoretic scholars in the Jewish community at Tiberias in the early Middle Ages, beginning in the 8th century. ... The Samaritan Hebrew language is a descendant of Biblical Hebrew as pronounced and written by the Samaritans. ... Judæo-Aramaic is a collective term used to describe several Hebrew-influenced Aramaic and Neo-Aramaic languages. ... Aramaic is a group of Semitic languages with a 3,000-year history. ... Biblical Aramaic is the form of the Aramaic language that is used in the books of Daniel, Ezra and a few other places in the Hebrew Bible. ... Targum is used by the Jews of northern Iraq and Kurdistan to refer to a variety of Aramaic dialects spoken by them till recent times. ... Talmudic Aramaic literally refers to the Aramaic language as found in the Talmud. ... Barzani Jewish Neo-Aramaic is a modern Jewish Aramaic language, often called Neo-Aramaic or Judeo-Aramaic. ... Hulaulá is a modern Jewish Aramaic language, often called Neo-Aramaic or Judeo-Aramaic. ... Lishana Deni is a modern Jewish Aramaic language, often called Neo-Aramaic or Judeo-Aramaic. ... Lishán Didán is a modern Jewish Aramaic language, often called Neo-Aramaic or Judeo-Aramaic. ... Lishanid Noshan is a modern Jewish Aramaic language, often called Neo-Aramaic or Judeo-Aramaic. ... Samaritan Aramaic, or Samaritan, is the dialect of Aramaic used by the Samaritans in their sacred and scholarly literature. ... The Judeo-Arabic languages are a collection of Arabic dialects spoken by Jews living or formerly living in Arabic-speaking countries; the term also refers to more or less classical Arabic written in the Hebrew script, particularly in the Middle Ages. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Baghdad Arabic Jewish is the Arabic dialect spoken by the Jews of Baghdad and other towns of Southern Iraq. ... // Widely used in the Jewish community during its long history there, the Moroccan dialect of Judeo-Arabic has many influences from languages other than Arabic, including Spanish (due to the close proximity of Spain), Haketia or Moroccan Judeo-Spanish, due to the influx of Sephardic refugees from Spain after the... Yemenite Jews (תֵּימָנִי, Standard Hebrew Temani, Tiberian Hebrew Têmānî; plural תֵּימָנִים, Standard Hebrew Temanim, Tiberian Hebrew Têmānîm) are those Jews who live, or whose recent ancestors lived, in Yemen (תֵּימָן far south, Standard Hebrew Teman, Tiberian Hebrew Têmān), on the southern tip of the Arabian peninsula. ... The Cushitic languages are a subgroup of the Afro-Asiatic languages, named after the Biblical figure Cush by analogy with Semitic. ... KAYLA IS A FUCKING LOSER! ... Qwara, or Qwareña (called Falashan in some older sources), is an Agaw language spoken by the Beta Israel (Ethiopian Jews) of the Qwara area, closely related to Kemant. ... The Berber languages (or Tamazight) are a group of closely related languages mainly spoken in Morocco and Algeria. ... Judeo-Berber is a collective term given to the Hebrew-influenced Berber varieties spoken by some North Africans Jews, mainly in Morocco (where Tachelhit was the main factor. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... // Regional variation Yiddish has two main branches: Western and Eastern. ... Klezmer-loshn (Yiddish: Musicians Tongue) is an extinct dialect of Yiddish. ... Jewish English languages are varieties of English that include significant amounts of vocabulary and syntax taken from Yiddish, and both classical and modern Hebrew. ... Yeshivish is an adjective/adverb used to describe the societal, cultural and linguistic norms and mannerisms of those who attend a yeshiva. ... Yinglish words are neologisms created by speakers of Yiddish in English-speaking countries, sometimes to describe things that were uncommon in the old country. ... Judeo-Romance languages are those languages derived from Romance languages, spoken by the various Jewish communities, and altered to such an extent to gain recognition as languages in their own right, joining the great number of other Jewish languages. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family that comprises all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... Catalanic, also called Qatalanit (קאטאלנית) or the more scholarly Judæo-Catalan, may have been a Jewish language, formerly spoken by the Jewish communities of northeastern Spain, especially in Catalonia and the Balearic Islands. ... Judeo-Italian is a term referring to Italo-Romance linguistic varieties used between the 10th and the 20th centuries in Rome and in central and northern Italy. ... Not to be confused with Ladin. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Tetauni (Tetuani) is a dialect of Judaeo-Spanish, a Romance language that was spoken in the city of Oran in Algeria. ... Judeo-Latin, or La‘az is the Jewish language of the many scattered Jewish communities of the former Roman Empire, but especially by the Jewish communities of the Italian Peninsula and Transalpine Gaul. ... Shuadit, also spelled Chouhadite, Chouhadit, Chouadite, Chouadit, and Shuhadit is the extinct Jewish language of southern France, also known as Judæo-Provençal, Judéo-Comtadin, Hébraïco-Comtadin. ... Zarphatic or Judæo-French (Zarphatic: Tsarfatit) is an extinct Jewish language, formerly spoken among the Jewish communities of northern France and in parts of what is now west-central Germany, in such cities as Mainz, Frankfurt-am-Main, and Aachen. ... Judeo-Portuguese is the extinct Jewish language of the Jews of Portugal. ... Judeo-Aragonese was a Judeo-Romance language (Jewish language derived from Romance Aragonese language), spoken in north central Iberia from the around the mid-700s until about the time of the expulsion from Spain, when it either merged with the various Judeo-Spanish dialects, or fell out of use in... The Judæo-Persian languages include a number of related languages spoken throughout the formerly extensive realm of the Persian Empire, sometimes including all the Jewish Indo-Iranian languages: Dzhidi (Judæo-Persian) Bukhori (Judæo-Bukharic) Judæo-Golpaygani Judæo-Yazdi Judæo-Kermani Judæo-Shirazi Jud... The Indo-Iranian language group constitutes the easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European family of languages. ... Bukhori, also known as Bukharic or Bukharan, is an Indo-Iranian language. ... Juhuri, Juwri or Judæo-Tat is the traditional language of the Juhurim or Mountain Jews of the eastern Caucasus Mountains, especially Dagestan. ... Dzhidi, or Judæo-Persian, is the Jewish language spoken by the Jews living in Iran. ... Judæo-Hamedani is the Indo-Iranian Jewish language of the Jewish community living in Hamadan, in western Iran. ... Judeo-Shirazi is a dialect form of the Persian language. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Judæo-Golpaygani was the Iranian Jewish language of the Jewish community living in Golpaygan, in western Isfahan, western Iran. ... Yevanic, otherwise known as Yevanika, Romaniote and Judeo-Greek, was the language of the Romaniotes, the group of Greek Jews whose existence in Greece is documented since the 4th century BCE. Its linguistic lineage stems from Attic Greek and the Hellenistic Koine (Κοινή Ελληνική) and includes Hebrew elements as well. ... Greek ( IPA: or simply IPA: — Hellenic) has a documented history of 3,500 years, the longest of any single natural language in the Indo-European language family. ... Knaanic (also called Canaanic, Leshon Knaan or Judeo-Slavic) was a West Slavic language, formerly spoken in the Czech lands, now the Czech Republic. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... Judeo-Marathi is a Jewish language spoken by the Bene Israel, a Jewish ethnic group of India. ... The Indo-Aryan languages (within the context of Indo-European studies also Indic[1]) are a branch of the Indo-European language family. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... Krymchak is the Crimean Tatar language dialect spoken by the Krymchaks - Rabbanite Jews of the Crimea. ... The Karaim language is a Turkic language with Hebrew influences, in a similar manner to Yiddish or Ladino. ... For other uses, see Dravidian (disambiguation). ... Judeo-Malayalam is the traditional language spoken by the Cochin Jews (also called Malabar Jews), from Kerala, in southern India, spoken today by about 8,000 people in Israel and by probably fewer than 100 in India. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Germanic philology is the study of the Germanic languages particularly from a comparative or historical perspective. ... The Germanic languages are a group of related languages constituting a branch of the Indo-European (IE) language family. ... The East Germanic languages are a group of extinct Indo-European languages in the Germanic family. ... The West Germanic languages constitute the largest branch of the Germanic family of languages and include languages such as German, English and Frisian, as well as Dutch and Afrikaans. ... The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the East Germanic languages. ... Northwest Germanic is a proposed grouping of the Germanic dialects. ... Also referred to as Ingaevones, North Sea Germans (Ingwäonen, Nordsee-Germanen in German). ... The Anglic languages (also called Anglian languages) are one of the two branches of Anglo-Frisian languages, itself a branch of West Germanic. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Gothic is an extinct Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon[1], Old English: ) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Middle English is the name given by historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of 1066 and the mid-to-late 15th century, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process aided by the... Old Dutch (Also Old West Low Franconian) is a branch of Old Low Franconian spoken and written during the early middle ages (c. ... Linguistically speaking, Middle Dutch is no more than a collective name for closely related languages or dialects which were spoken and written between about 1150 and 1500 in the present-day Dutch-speaking region. ... Old Saxon, also known as Old Low German, is a Germanic language. ... The Middle Low German language is an ancestor of the modern Low German language, and was spoken from about 1100 to 1500. ... The (Late Old High) German speaking area of the Holy Roman Empire around 950. ... Middle High German (MHG, German Mittelhochdeutsch) is the term used for the period in the history of the German language between 1050 and 1350. ... Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). ... Lombardic or Langobardic is the extinct language of the Lombards (Langobardi), the Germanic speaking settlers in Italy in the 6th century. ... Norn is an extinct North Germanic language that was spoken on the Shetland Islands and Orkney Islands, off the coast of Scotland. ... Crimean Gothic was a dialect of Gothic that was spoken by the Crimean Goths in some isolated locations in the Crimea (now Ukraine) perhaps until as late as the 18th century. ... The approximate extent of Old Norse and related languages in the early 10th century:   Old West Norse dialect   Old East Norse dialect   Old Gutnish dialect   Crimean Gothic   Other Germanic languages with which Old Norse still retained some mutual intelligibility Old Gutnish was the dialect of Old Norse that was spoken... Vandalic was a Germanic language probably closely related to the Gothic language. ... Old Frisian was the West Germanic language spoken between the 8th and 16th centuries by the people who, from their ancient homes in North Germany and Denmark, had settled in the area between the Rhine and Elbe on the European North Sea coast in the 4th and 5th centuries. ... Proto-Norse, Proto-Nordic, Ancient Nordic or Proto-North Germanic was an Indo-European language spoken in Scandinavia that is thought to have evolved from Proto-Germanic between the 1st century BC and the 2nd century, and was spoken until ca 800, when it evolved into the Old Norse language. ... Look up Appendix:Afrikaans and Dutch Swadesh lists in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... This article is about the Frisian languages, as spoken in the north of the Netherlands and Germany. ... This article is about the Anglic language of Scotland. ... Grimms law (also known as the First Germanic Sound Shift) is a set of statements describing the inherited Proto-Indo-European (PIE) stops as they developed in Proto-Germanic (PGmc, the common ancestor of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European family) in the 1st millennium BC. It establishes... It has been suggested that Grammatischer Wechsel be merged into this article or section. ... Holtzmanns Law is a Proto-Germanic sound law originally noticed by Adolf Holtzmann in 1838. ... The Germanic substrate hypothesis is a hypothesis that some have ventured that attempts to explain the distinctiveness of the Germanic languages within the Indo-European language family. ... High German subdivides into Upper German (green) and Central German (blue), and is distinguished from Low German (yellow). ... A-mutation is a metaphonic process, supposed to have taken place in late Proto-Germanic (i. ... In linguistics, umlaut (from German um- around/the other way + Laut sound) is a process whereby a vowel is pronounced more like a vowel or semivowel in a following syllable. ... In linguistics, the Germanic spirant law, sometimes referred to by the German term Primärberührung, is a specific historical instance of assimilation which occurred at an early stage in the history of the Germanic languages and is regarded by some as being early enough to fall into the same... In historical linguistics, the Ingvaeonic nasal spirant law (also called the Anglo-Frisian or North Sea Germanic nasal spirant law) is a description of a philological development in some dialects of West Germanic, which is attested in Old English, Old Frisian, and Old Saxon. ... The Great Vowel Shift was a major change in the pronunciation of the English language that took place in the south of England between 1200 and 1600. ... The Germanic language family is one of the language groups which resulted from the breakup of Proto-Indo-European (PIE). ... In the Germanic languages, strong verbs are those which mark their past tenses by means of ablaut. ... In Germanic languages, weak verbs are by far the largest group of verbs, which are therefore often regarded as the norm, though historically they are not the oldest or most original group. ... The preterite-present verbs are a small group of anomalous verbs in the Germanic languages. ... In historical linguistics, the German term Grammatischer Wechsel (grammatical alternation) refers to the effects of Verners law when viewed synchronically within the paradigm of a Germanic verb. ... In linguistics, the term ablaut designates a system of vowel gradation (i. ... English is a West Germanic language that originated from the Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Britain by Germanic settlers and Roman auxiliary troops from various parts of what is now northwest Germany and the Northern Netherlands. ... Within each section, changes are in approximate chronological order. ... Speakers of Northumbrian Old English settled in south eastern Scotland in the 7th century, at which time Celtic Brythonic was spoken in the south of Scotland to a little way north of the Firth of Forth and the Firth of Clyde, and Pictish was spoken further north: almost nothing is... The history of German as separate from common West Germanic begins in the Early Middle Ages with the High German consonant shift. ... The history of the Dutch language as separate from common West Germanic begins in the 6th century AD with the High German consonant shift and growing social and political power of the Franks. ... This is the approximate extent of Old Norse and related languages in the early 10th century. ... A page from the Landnámabók The history of the Icelandic language is rooted in the settlement of Iceland and was influenced by Norwegian and Old Norse. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Yiddish Language - MSN Encarta (770 words)
Yiddish was the international language of Jews from Central and Eastern Europe until the middle of the 20th century.
Detailed history of the language The language was born sometime around the 10th century (c.1100) when Jews from northern France and northern Italy settled in the Rhineland.
Yiddish is a highly plastic and assimilative language, rich in idioms, and possessing remarkable freshness, pithiness, and pungency.
Yiddish language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3503 words)
The Western Yiddish dialect began to decline in the 18th century, as The Enlightenment and the Haskalah led to the German view that Yiddish was a corrupt form of their language.
Yiddish emerged as the national language of a large Jewish community in Eastern Europe that rejected Zionism and sought to obtain Jewish cultural autonomy in Europe.
Yiddish is also widely spoken in smaller Haredi communities in such the ones as London, Antwerp and Montreal.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m